Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Cited by 6
Cambridge University Press
Online publication date:
November 2017
Print publication year:
Online ISBN:

Book description

Sumit K. Mandal uncovers the hybridity and transregional connections underlying modern Asian identities. By considering Arabs in the Malay world under European rule, Becoming Arab explores how a long history of inter-Asian interaction was altered by nineteenth-century racial categorisation and control. Mandal traces the transformation of Arabs from familiar and multi-faceted creole personages of Malay courts into alienated figures defined by economic and political function. The racialisation constrained but did not eliminate the fluid character of Arabness. Creole Arabs responded to the constraints by initiating transregional links with the Ottoman Empire and establishing modern social organisations, schools, and a press. Contentions emerged between organisations respectively based on Prophetic descent and egalitarianism, advancing empowering but conflicting representations of a modern Arab and Islamic identity. Mandal unsettles finite understandings of race and identity by demonstrating not only the incremental development of a modern identity, but the contested state of its birth.


Winner, 2020 Harry J. Benda Award, Association for Asian Studies


'Mandal makes an important and original contribution to our understanding of Arabs and Arabness in the Malay world, as well as to the history of colonial and postcolonial Indonesia. His lucid and accessible style makes Becoming Arab a pleasure to read. This ground breaking work will provoke various conversations that will further enrich our knowledge of the topic.'

Ronit Ricci - Hebrew University, Israel

'Becoming Arab presents rich, engaging and original material on Arabs in the Malay world and makes a powerful case for deeper exploration of creole and transnational histories; it makes an important contribution to Southeast Asian history and colonial history, to the study of contemporary identity, ethnicity, and race, to understandings of the salience of race and ethnicity in the making and maintenance of modern nation states.'

Iza Hussin - University of Cambridge

‘It is always a delight when a path-breaking doctoral dissertation is finally published, and Sumit Mandal’s thesis, completed in 1994 at Columbia University, falls squarely into this category. Many scholars working on the Hadhrami diaspora, which spread from southern Arabia all around the Indian Ocean, have referred to this legendary text, and it is a real pleasure to see it in print at last. The book is replete with fascinating biographical sketches, and there are valuable tables detailing the economic activities of Hadhrami Arabs on Java … Cambridge University Press is to be congratulated for at last making this painstaking scholarly research available to a wider public.'

William Gervase Clarence-Smith Source: South East Asia Research

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Save to Kindle
  • Save to Dropbox
  • Save to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.




Much of the research for this book is drawn from the collections of the former Ministry of the Colonies and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs located in the National Archives (NA) of the Netherlands in The Hague. All references to the categories of colonial reports, Mr. (Mailrapport) and Vb. (Verbaal), pertain to sources from the former collection. For instance, a 904-page report by Fokko Fokkens is titled ‘Onderzoek naar den Economischen Toestand der Vreemde Oosterlingen op Java en Madoera en voorstellen tot verbetering’ and identified as Mr. 887/1894, which is a missive filed in Vb. 17 Apr. 1896, no. 27. References to documents from the archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs are organised by the title and date of the document, the subject, and the dossier in which it is located. All my references from this collection fall under the subject Pan-Islamitische Woelingen (Pan-Islamic Agitation).

A significant number of other documents used in this book are found in the collections of the Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde (KITLV – Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies) and entrusted to the Universiteitsbibliotheek Leiden (Leiden University Library). I consulted the collections of J. D. van Herwerden (1806–79) and the following officials of the Bureau of Native and Arab Affairs in Batavia: G. A. J. Hazeu, R. A. Kern, and E. Gobée. Citations from here are organised by their title and date followed by the name of the collection and number of the document.

The Malay and Arabic periodicals, as well as other publications that I have cited, are located at the Perpustakaan Nasional Indonesia (National Library of Indonesia) in Jakarta. Periodicals and official publications are listed below when they have been cited frequently.

Contemporary Periodicals

Al-Bashir: Orgaan kaoem moeslimin dan lain-lain bangsa (Al-Bashīr: Jarida takhdimu al-‘Arab wa al-‘Arabiyya wa al-milla taṣaddaru fī al-shahr maratayn). 1914–15.
Oetoesan Hindia: Soerat kabar dan advertentie. 1914.
Oetoesan Islam. 1918.
Pertimbangan. 1916–17.
Tjermin Islam. 1915–16.

Official Publications

Koloniaal Verslag, Verslag van bestuur en staat van Nederlandsch-Indië, Surinam en Curaçao. The Hague, 1848–1925.
Regeerings Alamanak van Nederlandsch-Indië. Weltevreden, 1803–1920. (Before 1884 it was called Almanak en naamregister voor Nederlandsch-Indië.)
Staatsblad van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden. 1854.
Staatsblad van Nederlandsch-Indië. 1863.
Volkstelling 1930. ‘Deel VII: Chineezen en Andere Vreemde Oosterlingen in Nederlandsch-Indië’. Batavia: Departement van Economische Zaken, 1935.

Unpublished Academic Exercises

Dhakidae, Daniel. ‘Solomon’s Ring or Muhammad’s Religion’. Unpublished paper, Cornell University, Ithaca, 1985.
Haikal, Husain. ‘Indonesia-Arab dalam Pergerakan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (1900–1942)’. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Universitas Indonesia, 1987.
Loh, Jacqui Chee Harn. ‘The Arab Population of Singapore, 1819–1959’. Unpublished MA thesis, University of Singapore, Singapore, 1963.

Published Works

‘A Review of Le Hadhramout et les colonies Arabes dans l’Archipel indien by L. W. C. van den Berg’, Indische Gids, vol. 9, no. 2 (1887), pp. 1771–81.
Abdullah, , Adnan. ‘Malaysian Education Road Show Concluded’. Yemen Observer, 23 August 2003.
Abushouk, Ahmed Ibrahim. ‘Al-Manār and the Hadhrami Elite in the Malay-Indonesian World: Challenge and Response’. In Abushouk, Ahmed Ibrahim and Ibrahim, Hassan Ahmed, eds., The Hadhrami Diaspora in Southeast Asia: Identity Maintenance or Assimilation? Leiden: Brill, 2009.
Abushouk, Ahmed Ibrahim, and Ibrahim, Hassan Ahmed, eds., The Hadhrami Diaspora in Southeast Asia: Identity Maintenance or Assimilation? Leiden: Brill, 2009.
Ahmat, Adam. The Vernacular Press and the Emergence of Modern Indonesian Consciousness (1855–1913). Ithaca: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 1995.
bin Abdoullah Kadri, Ahmed Kiamil. Idris Bek el Homra. Satoe tjerita jang benar dari Tanah Soetji dalam tahoen 1886. Batavia: P. Lorck en Co., 1892.
Alatas, Syed Farid. ‘Hadhramaut and the Hadhrami Diaspora: Problems in Theoretical History’. In Freitag, U. and Clarence-Smith, W. G., eds., Hadrami Traders, Scholars and Statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s–1960s. Leiden: Brill, 1997, pp. 1934.
Algadri, Hamid. C. Snouck Hurgronje: Politik Belanda terhadap Islam dan Keturunan Arab. Jakarta: Sinar Harapan, 1984.
Algadri, Hamid. Islam dan keturunan Arab dalam pemberontakan melawan Belanda. Bandung: Mizan, 1996.
Abdoellah, Ali bin. Gedicht van Ali bin Abdoellah ter eere van de troonsbestiging van Koningin Wilhelmina. Batavia: Said Oesman [Sayyid Oesman], 1898.
Ali Haji ibn Ahmad, Raja. The Precious Gift (Tuhfat al-Nafis). Translated and annotated by Viginia Matheson and Barbara Watson Andaya. East Asian Historical Monographs. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1982.
Alkatiri, Zeffry J. Catatan seorang pejalan dari Hadrami. Jakarta: Komunitas Bambu, 2004.
Alkatiri, Zeffry J. Dari Batavia sampai Jakarta, 1619–1999: Peristiwa sejarah dan kebudayaan Betawi-Jakarta dalam sajak. Magelang: IndonesiaTera, 2001.
Alsagoff, Syed Imran. ‘Antara pendatang dan penumpang’. 8 September 2008.
Alsagoff, Syed Mohsen. The Alsagoff Family in Malaysia: A. H. 1240 (A. D. 1824) to A. H. 1382 (A. D. 1962). Singapore: by the author, 1963.
Amoroso, Donna J. Traditionalism and the Ascendancy of the Malay Ruling Class in Colonial Malaya. Petaling Jaya: Strategic Information and Research Development Centre; Singapore: NUS Press, 2014.
Andaya, Barbara W.From Rum to Tokyo: The Search for Anti-Colonial Allies by the Rulers of Riau, 1899–1914’. Indonesia, no. 24 (Oct. 1977), pp. 126–42.
Andaya, Barbara W., and Matheson, Virginia. ‘Islamic Thought and Malay Tradition: The Writings of Raja Ali Haji of Riau (ca. 1809–ca. 1870)’. In Marr, David and Reid, Anthony, eds., Perceptions of the Past in Southeast Asia. AAAS Southeast Asia Publications Series no. 4. Singapore: Heinemann Educational Books (Asia), 1980, pp. 108–28.
Andaya, Leonard. Leaves of the Same Tree: Trade and Ethnicity in the Straits of Melaka. Hawai’i: University of Hawai’i Press, 2008.
Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism. Revised edition. London: Verso, 1991. (First published in 1983.)
Anwar, Rosihan. ‘In Memoriam: Hamid Algadri Perintis Kemerdekaan’. Kompas, 26 January 1998. In Apakabar Database of the Ohio University Libraries.
Arabische Scholen’. De Indische Gids, vol. 30, no. 2 (1908), pp. 1251–2.
Azra, Azyumardi. The Origins of Islamic Reformism in Southeast Asia: Networks of Malay-Indonesian and Middle Eastern ‘Ulamā’ in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Crows Nest, New South Wales: Allen and Unwin, 2004.
Badjenid, A. H. ‘Nothing Wrong to Be What We Really Are’. New Straits Times, 29 October 1993.
Bagarib, O. ‘Group Has Never Faced Identity Crisis’. New Straits Times, 11 November 1993.
Bamualim, Chaider S.Islamic Militancy and Resentment against Hadhramis in Post-Suharto Indonesia: A Case Study of Habib Rizieq Syihab and His Islamic Defenders Front’. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, vol. 31, no. 2 (2011), pp. 267–81.
Banton, Michael. The International Politics of Race. Cambridge: Polity, 1998.
Barker, Joshua. ‘Beyond Bandung: Developmental Nationalism and (Multi)cultural Nationalism in Indonesia’. Third World Quarterly, vol. 29, no. 3 (2008), pp. 521–40.
Bastin, John. Raffles’ Ideas on the Land Rent System in Java and the Mackenzie Land Tenure Commission. Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, vol. 14. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1954.
Bastin, John, and Brommer, Bea. Nineteenth Century Prints and Illustrated Books of Indonesia with Particular Reference to the Print Collection of the Tropenmuseum Amsterdam: A Descriptive Bibliography. Utrecht: Spectrum, 1979.
Bayly, Christopher A.Representing Copts and Muhammadans: Empire, Nation, and Community in Egypt and India, 1880–1914’. In Fawaz, Leila T., Bayly, Christopher A., and Ilbert, Robert, eds., Modernity and Culture: From the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002, pp. 158–203.
Bayly, Susan. ‘Racial Readings of Empire: Britain, France, and Colonial Modernity in the Mediterranean and Asia’. In Fawaz, Leila T., Bayly, Christopher A., and Ilbert, Robert, eds., Modernity and Culture: From the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002, pp. 285313.
Beech, H. ‘A Call to Prayer’. Time Magazine, 22 February 2007.,9171,1592576,00.html.
Benda, Harry J.Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje and the Foundations of Dutch Islamic Policy in Indonesia’. In Suddard, Adrienne, ed., Continuity and Change in Southeast Asia: Collected Journal Articles of Harry J. Benda, Southeast Asia Studies Monograph Series, no. 18. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972, pp. 83–92. (Reprint from Journal of Modern History, vol. 30, no. 4 (1958), pp. 338–47).
Berg, L. W. C. van den. Hadthramùt and the Arab Colonies in the Indian Archipelago. Translation by C. W. H. Sealy of the Introduction and First Part, and extracts from the Second Part of the 1886 publication in French (Bombay: Government Central Press, 1887).
Berg, L. W. C. van den Le Hadhramout et les colonies arabes dans l’Archipel indien. Batavia: Imprimérie du Gouvernement, 1886. (Reprinted in Westmead, Farnborough, Hampshire by Gregg International Publishers, 1969.)
Berg, L. W. C. van denOver de devotie der Naqsjibendijah in den Indischen Archipel’. Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, vol. 28 (1883), pp. 158–75.
Berg, L. W. C. van den Bescheiden betreffende de vereeninging ‘Sarekat Islam’. Batavia: Landsdrukkerij, 1913.
Bluhm, Jutta E.A Preliminary Statement on the Dialogue Established Between the Reform Magazine al-Manār and the Malayo-Indonesian World’. Indonesia Circle, no. 32 (Nov. 1983), pp. 3542.
Boland, B. J., and Farjon, I.. Islam in Indonesia: A Bibliographical Survey 1600–1942, with Post-1945 Addenda. Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, Bibliographical Series 14. Dordrecht, Holland: Foris Publications, 1983.
Boomgaard, Peter. ‘Buitenzorg in 1805: The Role of Money and Credit in a Colonial Frontier Society’. Modern Asian Studies, vol. 20, no. 1 (1986), pp. 3359.
Bose, Sugata. A Hundred Horizons: The Indian Ocean in the Age of Global Empire. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2006.
Bousquet, G. H. A French View of the Netherlands Indies. Translated by Philip E. Lilienthal. London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1940.
Broeze, Frank J. A.The Merchant Fleet of Java 1820–1850’. Archipel, Numéro Spécial: Commerce et Navires dans les Mers du Sud, vol. 18 (1979), pp. 251–69.
Bubalo, A., and Fealy, G.. ‘Why the West Should Come to the Islamist Party’. The Australian, 29 March 2005.
Buckley, Charles B. An Anecdotal History of Old Times in Singapore. 2 vols. Singapore: Fraser and Neave, 1902.
Bujra, Abdalla S.Political Conflict and Stratification in Hadramaut’. Middle Eastern Studies, vol. 3, no. 4 (July 1967), pp. 357–8.
Bujra, Abdalla S. The Politics of Stratification: A Study of Political Change in a South Arabian Town. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971.
Bunnell, Tim. ‘Post-Maritime Transnationalization: Malay Seafarers in Liverpool’. Global Networks, vol. 7, no. 4 (2007), pp. 412–29.
Buno, Heslinga, A.Said Oethman’. Weekblad voor Indië, vol. 10, no. 47 (8 Mar. 1914), pp. 1123–5.
Caldwell, J. A. M.Indonesian Export and Production from the Decline of the Culture System to the First World War’. In Cowan, C. D., ed., The Economic Development of Southeast Asia: Studies in Economic History and Political Economy. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1964, pp. 72101.
Carey, Peter. ‘Aspects of Javanese History in the Nineteenth Century’. In Aveling, Harry, ed., The Development of Indonesian Society: From the Coming of Islam to the Present Day. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1980, pp. 45105. (Eight pages of illustrations follow the article.)
Cheah, Boon Kheng. Malaysia: The Making of a Nation. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2002.
Choong, Kwee Kim. ‘PM Meets Relatives from China’. The Star, 22 December 2003.
Claver, Alexander. Dutch Commerce and Chinese Merchants in Java: Colonial Relationships in Trade and Finance, 1800–1942. Leiden: Brill, 2014.
Crawfurd, John. History of the Indian Archipelago, Containing an Account of the Manners, Arts, Languages, Religions, Institutions, and Commerce of its Inhabitants. Vol. 2. Edinburgh: Archibald Constable and Co., 1820.
Das Gupta, Ashin. ‘A Note on the Shipowning Merchants of Surat, c. 1700’. In Lombard, Denys and Aubin, Jean, eds., Marchands et Homme d’Affaires Asiatiques dans l’Océan Indien et la Mer de Chine, 13e–20e Siècles. Paris: École des Hautes Études en Science Sociales, 1988, pp. 109–15.
Dikötter, Frank. ‘Introduction’. In Dikötter, Frank, ed., The Construction of Racial Identities in China and Japan. London: C. Hurst and Co., 1997, pp. 111.
Drakard, Jane. A Malay Frontier: Unity and Duality in a Sumatran Kingdom. Ithaca: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 1990.
Du Perron, E.Het Spook van de Arabier’. In Zuidinga, Robert-Henk, ed., Indisch Letterland: Verhalen uit Twee Eeuwen Nederlands-Indische Literatuur. Amsterdam: Sijthoff, 1988, pp. 2944. (First published in 1987.)
Dumarçay, Jacques, and Chambert-Loir, Henri. ‘Le Langgar Tinggi de Pekojan, Jakarta’. Archipel, L’Islam en Indonésie II, vol. 30, no. 1 (1985), pp. 4756.
Eggink, E. J. ‘Na 25 jaar’: Beknopt Gedenkshrift ter gelegenheid van het 25-jarig bestaan der Gemeente Batavia. Batavia: N. V. Indonesische Drukkerij en Translaatbureau, 1930.
Encyclopaedie van Nederlandsch-Indië. 4 vols. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1905.
Eriksen, T. H. Tu dimunn pu vini kreol: The Mauritian Creole and the Concept of Creolization. Oxford: Transnational Communities Programme, 1999. (This is a publication in a working paper series.)
Fitzpatrick, S. ‘Bridging the Gap’. The Australian, 12 December 2008.,25197,24787059-28737,00.html.
Freitag, U., and Clarence-Smith, W. G., eds. Hadrami Traders, Scholars and Statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s–1960s. Leiden: Brill, 1997.
Friedman, J. Cultural Identity and Global Process. London: Sage, 1994.
Furnivall, J. S. Netherlands India: A Study of Plural Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1944. (First published in 1939.)
Gavin, R. J. Aden Under British Rule, 1839–1967. London: Hurst, 1975.
Gilsenan, Michael. ‘Out of the Hadhramaut’. London Review of Books, vol. 25, no. 6 (2003), pp. 711.
Gladney, Dru C.Introduction: Making and Marking Majorities’. In Gladney, Dru C., ed., Making Majorities: Constituting the Nation in Japan, Korea, China, Malaysia, Fiji, Turkey, and the United States. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998, pp. 19.
Glassman, Jonathan. ‘Slower Than a Massacre: The Multiple Sources of Racial Thought in Colonial Africa’. The American Historical Review, vol. 109, no. 3 (2004), pp. 720–54.
Hall, Kenneth R. Maritime Trade and State Development in Early Southeast Asia. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 1985.
Hardouin, E. Java’s Bewoners in hun Eigenaardig Karakter en Kleederdracht. Illustrated by E. Hardouin, written by Ritter, W. L. and with a foreword by Perelaer, M. T. H.. Leiden: A. W. Sijthoff, 1872. (First published in 1855 under the title Java. Tooneelen uit het leven, karakterschetsen en kleederdragten van Java’s bewoners with a foreword by Lange, H. M..)
Harper, Tim. ‘Empire, Diaspora and the Languages of Globalism, 1850–1914’. In Hopkins, A. G., ed., Globalization in World History. London: Pimlico, 2002, pp. 141–66.
Harper, Tim. ‘Globalism and the Pursuit of Authenticity: The Making of a Diasporic Public Sphere in Singapore’. Sojourn, vol. 12, no. 2 (1997), pp. 261–92.
Harper, Tim, and Amrith, Sunil, ‘Introduction’. In Harper, Tim and Amrith, Sunil, eds., Sites of Asian Interaction: Ideas, Networks and Mobility. Delhi: Cambridge University Press, 2014, pp. 19.
Harsaputra, Indra. ‘People of Yemeni Origin Play Full Role in Indonesia’s Development’. The Jakarta Post, 29 July 2005.
Hefner, Robert W.Introduction: Multiculturalism and Citizenship in Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia’. In Hefner, Robert W., ed., The Politics of Multiculturalism: Pluralism and Citizenship in Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia. Hawai’i: University of Hawai’i Press, 2001, pp. 1–58.
Heuken, Adolf. Mesjid-mesjid Tua di Jakarta. Jakarta: Yayasan Cipta Loka Karya, 2003.
Hirschman, Charles. ‘The Making of Race in Colonial Malaya: Political Economy and Racial Ideology’. Sociological Forum, vol. 1, no. 2 (Spring 1986), pp. 330–61.
Hirschman, Charles. ‘The Meaning and Measurement of Ethnicity in Malaysia: An Analysis of Census Classifications’. Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 46, no. 3 (August 1987), pp. 555–82.
Hizam, Adnan. ‘Educational Exhibition Opens in Sana’a’. Yemen Observer, 1 May 2006.
Ho, E.Before Parochialization: Diasporic Arabs Cast in Creole Waters’. In de Jonge, Huub and Kaptein, Nico, eds., Transcending Borders: Arabs, Politics, Trade and Islam in Southeast Asia. Leiden: KITLV Press, 2002, pp. 1135.
Ho, E.Le don précieux de la généalogie’, in Bonte, P., Conte, É., and Dresch, P., eds., Émirs et presidents. Figures de la parenté et du politique dans le monde arabe. Paris: CNRS editions, 2001, pp. 79110.
Ho, E.Empire through Diasporic Eyes: The View from the Other Boat’. Comparative Study of Society and History, vol. 46, no. 2 (2004), pp. 210–46.
Ho, E. The Graves of Tarim: Genealogy and Mobility across the Indian Ocean. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006.
Hoffman, John. ‘A Foreign Investment: Indies Malay to 1901’. Indonesia, no. 27 (Apr. 1979), pp. 6592.
Hollander, Joannes Jacobus de. Aardrijksbeschrijving van Nederlandsch Oost-Indië: Vooral ten Gebruike bij het Middelbaar Onderwijs. Amsterdam: Seyffardt’s Boekhandel, 1868.
Hollander, Joannes Jacobus de. Handleiding bij de Beoefening der Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch Oost-Indië. 4 vols. Historische leercursus ten gebruike der Koninklijke Militaire Akademie. Breda: Nys, 1861–4.
Hollander, Joannes Jacobus de. Handleiding bij de Beoefening der Maleische Taal- en Letterkunde. 2 vols. Sixth edition edited by R. van Eck. Voor rekening van de Koninklijke Militaire Academie. Breda: Broese en Co., 1893.
Hooker, M. B.The Translation of Islam into South-East Asia’. In Hooker, M. B., ed., Islam in Southeast Asia. Leiden: Brill, 1983, pp. 122.
Hourani, Albert. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age, 1798–1939. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. (Reissued with a new preface. First published in 1962.)
Immink, A. J. Atoeran Hoekoem atas anak negeri Tjina dan bangsa Arab dan lain-lain sebageinja di tanah Hindia-Nederland. Batavia: Yap Goan Ho, 1889.
Immink, A. J. Boekoe peratoeran pas djalan teramat bergoena boewat orang Tjina, Arab, Kling dan laen-laen bangsa asing jang dipersamakan pada orang anak negeri, comp. Redactie Hoekoem Hindia. Batavia: Tjiong Eng Lok, 1899.
Al-Iṣlāḥ wa al-Irshād’. Al-Irshād, vol. 1, no. 27 (23 Dec. 1920).
Jonge, Huub de. ‘Abdul Rahman Baswedan and the Emancipation of the Hadramis in Indonesia’. Asian Journal of Social Science, vol. 32, no. 3 (2004), pp. 373400.
Jonge, Huub de. ‘Discord and Solidarity among the Arabs in the Netherlands East Indies, 1900–1942’. Indonesia, vol. 55 (1993), pp. 7390.
Jonge, Huub de, and Kaptein, Nico, eds. Transcending Borders: Arabs, Politics, Trade and Islam in Southeast Asia. Leiden: KITLV Press, 2002.
Kahin, George McTurnan. Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1952. (Published under the auspices of the International Secretariat of the Institute of Pacific Relations and the Cornell University Southeast Asia Program.)
Kahn, Joel S. Other Malays: Nationalism and Cosmopolitanism in the Modern Malay World. Singapore: NUS Press, 2006.
Kaptein, NicoAn Arab Printer in Surabaya in 1853’. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, vol. 149, no. 2 (1993), pp. 356–62.
Kaptein, NicoThe Conflicts about the Income of an Arab Shrine: The Perkara Luar Batang in Batavia’. In de Jonge, Huub and Kaptein, Nico, eds., Transcending Borders: Arabs, Politics, Trade and Islam in Southeast Asia. Leiden: KITLV Press, 2002, pp. 185201.
Kaptein, Nico Islam, Colonialism and the Modern Age in the Netherlands East Indies: A Biography of Sayyid ‘Uthman (1822–1914). Leiden: Brill, 2014.
Karam, J ohn Tofik. ‘Crossing the Americas: The U. S. War on Terror and Arab Cross-Border Mobilizations in a South American Frontier Region’. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, vol. 31, no. 2 (2011), pp. 251–66.
Karim, J. A. ‘Singapore Arabs: Some Are Malays’. New Straits Times, 21 October 1993.
Kartodirdjo, Sartono. Protest Movements in Rural Java: A Study of Agrarian Unrest in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries. London: Oxford University Press, 1976.
‘Kelompok Islam Keras Bukan Teroris’. Rakyat Merdeka, 13 October 2002.
Knörr, Jacqueline. Creole Identity in Postcolonial Indonesia. Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2014.
Koolhof, Sirtjo. ‘Een Vergeten Pionier: Mr. S. Keyzer (1823–1868)’. Jambatan: Tijdschrift voor de Geschiedenis van Indonesië, vol. 9, no. 2 (1991), pp. 5569.
The Koran Interpreted. Translated by A. J. Arberry. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983.
Kostiner, Joseph. ‘The Impact of the Hadrami Emigrants in the East Indies on Islamic Modernism and Social Change in the Hadramawt during the 20th Century’. In Israeli, R. and Johns, A. H., eds., Islam in Asia. 2 vols. Vol. 2: Southeast and East Asia. Jerusalem: Hebrew University Press, 1984, pp. 206–37.
Krieken, G. S. van. Snouck Hurgronje en het Panislamisme. Oosters Genootschap in Nederland, no. 14. Leiden: Brill, 1985.
Krishnan, Sanjay. Reading the Global: Troubling Perspectives on Britain’s Empire in Asia. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.
Kroef, Justus M. van der. ‘The Arabs in Indonesia’. Middle East Journal, vol. 7, no. 3 (1953), pp. 300–23.
Laffan, Michael F. Islamic Nationhood and Colonial Indonesia: The Umma Below the Winds. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.
Lee, Edwin. The British as Rulers: Governing Multiracial Singapore, 1867–1914. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 1991.
Lewis, Bernard. The Emergence of Modern Turkey. Second edition. London: Oxford University Press, 1968.
Lombard, Denys. ‘L’horizon insulinindien et son importance pour une comprehension globale de l’Islam’. Archipel, L’Islam en Indonésie I, vol. 29, no. 1 (1985), pp. 3552.
Mahmud, Yunus. Sejarah Pendidikan Islam di Indonesia. Second edition. Jakarta: Mutiara, 1979.
Maier, Hendrik M. J. Fragments of Reading: The Malay Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa. Alblasserdam: Offsetdrukkerij Kanters, B. V., 1985.
Maier, Hendrik M. J. We Are Playing Relatives: A Survey of Malay Writing. Leiden: KITLV Press, 2004.
Mamdani, Mahmood. Good Muslim, Bad Muslim: Islam, the USA, and the Global War against Terror. New York: Pantheon, 2004.
Mandal, Sumit K.Strangers Who Are Not Foreign: Pramoedya’s Disturbing Language on the Chinese in Indonesia’. In Toer, Pramoedya Ananta, The Chinese in Indonesia. Translated by Max Lane. Singapore: Select Books, 2008, pp. 3554.
Mandal, Sumit K.Transethnic Solidarities, Racialisation, and Social Equality’. In Terence Gomez, E., ed., The State of Malaysia: Ethnicity, Equity and Reform. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004, pp. 4978.
Manickam, Sandra Khor. ‘Common Ground: Race and the Colonial Universe in British Malaya’. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, vol. 40, no. 3 (2009), pp. 593612.
Mansvelt, W. M. F. Geschiedenis van de Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij, 1824–1924. Vol. 2. Haarlem: Joh. Enschedé en Zonen, 1924.
Marle, A. van. ‘De Groep der Europeanen in Nederlands-Indië, Iets over Onstaan en Groei’. Indonesië, vol. 5, no. 2 (Sept. 1951), pp. 97121; no. 4 (Jan. 1952), pp. 314–41; no. 6 (Apr. 1952), pp. 481507.
Marsden, William. The History of Sumatra. Reprint of third edition of 1811 with an introduction by John Bastin, Oxford in Asia Historical Reprints. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1966. (First published in 1783.)
Martin, B. G.Arab Migrations to East Africa in Medieval Times’. International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 7, no. 3 (1974), pp. 367–90.
Mastenbroek, W. E. van. De Historische Ontwikkeling van de Staatsrechtelijke Indeeling der Bevolking van Nederlandsch-Indië. Wageningen: H. Veenman en Zonen, 1934.
Maxwell, Robyn. Textiles of Southeast Asia: Tradition, Trade and Transformation. Melbourne, Oxford, Auckland, and New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
Milner, Anthony.Islam and the Muslim State’. In Hooker, M. B., ed., Islam in Southeast Asia. Leiden: Brill, 1983, pp. 2349.
Mobini-Kesheh, Natalie, The Malays. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008.
‘Min Jawa fī 24 Rajab al-Aṣab sana 1317’. Al-Manār, vol. 2, no. 43 (1900), p. 683.
Mobini-Kesheh, Natalie. ‘The Arab Periodicals of the Netherlands East Indies, 1914–1942’, Bijdragen to de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, vol. 152, no. 2 (1996), pp. 236–56.
Mobini-Kesheh, Natalie, The Hadrami Awakening: Community and Identity in the Netherlands East Indies, 1900–1942 (Ithaca: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 1999).
Morley, J. A. E.The Arabs and the Eastern Trade’. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. 22, no. l (1949), pp. 143–76.
Naipaul, V. S. Beyond Belief: Islamic Excursions among the Converted Peoples. London: Abacus, 1999. (First published in London by Little, Brown and Company, 1998.)
Niemann, George Karel. Inleiding tot de kennis van den Islam, ook met betrekking tot den Indischen Archipel. Rotterdam: M. Wijt en Zonen, 1861.
Noer, Deliar. The Modernist Muslim Movement in Indonesia, 1900–1942. Singapore and Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1973.
Noor, Farish A. ‘Revisiting the Spin of Malaysia and Indonesia as “Moderate” Muslim States’. Malaysian Insider, 3 November 2009.
Noor, Farish A. ‘Why I Ain’t No “Moderate” Muslim’. Malaysiakini, 3 August 2004.
Ochsenwald, William. ‘Ironic Origins: Arab Nationalism in the Hijaz, 1882–1914’. In Khalidi, Rashid, Anderson, Lisa, Muslih, Muhammad, and Simon, Reeva, eds., The Origins of Arab Nationalism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1991, pp. 189203.
Shaeik Ahmad, Omar Farouk. ‘The Arabs in Penang’. Malaysia in History, vol. 21, no. 2 (Dec. 1978), pp. 116.
Onghokham, . ‘The Inscrutable and the Paranoid: An Investigation into the Sources of the Brotodiningrat Affair’. In McVey, Ruth T., ed., Southeast Asian Transitions: Approaches through Local History. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1978, pp. 112–57.
Patai, Raphael. The Arab Mind. Long Island City: Hatherleigh Press, 2002. (First published in New York by Charles Scribners and Sons, 1973.)
Patji, Abdul Rahman. ‘Asimilasi Golongan Etnis Arab: Suatu Studi Lapangan di Kelurahan Ampel, Surabaya’. In Bambang Pranowo, M., Tangdililing, A. B., Karsid, Ravik, Patji, Abdul Rahman, and Burhanuddin, , Steriotip Etnik, Asimilasi, Integrasi Sosial. Jakarta: PT Pustaka Grafika Kita, for Yayasan Ilmu Ilmu Sosial, 1988, pp. 171–219.
‘Peluang rakyat ketahui salasilah diraja’. Berita Harian, 29 April 2002, p. 14.
Piepers, Marinus Cornelis. ‘Gelijkstelling van Vreemde Oosterlingen met Europeanen; mémoire sur le droit civil, pénal et fiscal auquel sont soumis les Sujets Ottomans résidant aux Indes Orientales Néerlandaises; notes sur la pratique de la religion mahométane aux Indes Orientales Néerlandaises’. Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch-Indië, vol. 2 (1898), pp. 789820.
Pijnappel, J.Over de kennis, die de Arabieren voor de komst der Portugeezen van den Indischen Archipel bezaten’. Bijdragen tot Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indië, vol. 19, no. 1 (1872), pp. 135–58.
Pijnappel, J.Over het Arabisch-Maleische alphabet’. Bijdragen tot Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indië, vol. 7, no. 1 (1860), pp. 229–42.
Pijper, G. F. Studiën over de Geschiedenis van de Islam in Indonesia, 1900–1950. Leiden: Brill, 1977.
Pinto, Paolo. ‘Arab Ethnicity and Diaspora Islam: A Comparative Approach to Processes of Identity Formation and Religious Codification in the Muslim Communities of Brazil’. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, vol. 31, no. 2 (2011), pp. 312–30.
Toer, Pramoedya Ananta. Anak Semua Bangsa. Melaka: Wira Karya, 1982.
Toer, Pramoedya Ananta. Sang Pemula. Jakarta: Hasta Mitra, 1985.
Toer, Pramoedya Ananta. Tempo Doeloe: Antologi Sastra Pra-Indonesia. Jakarta: Hasta Mitra, 1982.
Toer, Pramoedya Ananta. This Earth of Mankind. Translated by Max Lane. New York: Penguin Books, 1996.
Purushotham, Nirmala Srirekam. Negotiating Language, Constructing Race: Disciplining Difference in Singapore. Contributions to the Sociology of Language 79. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1998.
Qānūn Jami‘ıyyat al-Iṣlāḥ wa al-Irshād al-‘Arabiyya: Al-Asāsī wa al-Dākhilī (Statuten dari Perkoeompoelan ‘Djamyat Alislahwalersjat Al Arabia’ di Batavia). Surabaya: Maṭba’at al-Islāmīyya (Islam-Drukkerij), ah 1337 (1919).
Raffles, Thomas Stamford. The History of Java. Vol. 1. Oxford in Asia Hardback Reprints. Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1988. (First published in 1817.)
ibn Ahmad, Raja Ali Haji. The Precious Gift (Tuhfat al-Nafis). Translated and annotated by Viginia Matheson and Barbara Watson Andaya. East Asian Historical Monographs. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1982.
Reid, Anthony. ‘Nineteenth Century Pan-Islam in Indonesia and Malaysia’. Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 26, no. 2 (Feb. 1967), pp. 267–83.
Ricci, Ronit. Islam Translated: Literature, Conversion, and the Arabic Cosmopolis of South and Southeast Asia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011.
Roff, William R. Bibliography of Malay and Arabic Periodicals Published in the Straits Settlements and Peninsular Malaya States: 1876–1941. London Oriental Bibliographies, vol. 3. London: Oxford University Press, 1972.
Roff, William R.Islam Obscured? Some Reflections on Studies of Islam and Society in Southeast Asia’. Archipel, L’Islam en Indonésie I, vol. 29, no. 1 (1985), pp. 734.
Roff, William R. The Origins of Malay Nationalism. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1967.
Roff, William R. Studies on Islam and Society in Southeast Asia. Singapore: NUS Press, 2009.
Rush, James R. Opium to Java: Revenue Farming and Chinese Enterprise in Colonial Indonesia, 1860–1910. Asia East by South series. Ithaca: Cornell University Press for the Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 1990.
Said, Edward W. Culture and Imperialism. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.
Said, Edward W. Orientalism. New York: Vintage Books, 1979. (First published in 1978.)
Said, Saadiah. ‘Kegiatan Keluarga Alsagoff dalam Ekonomi Negeri Johor, 1878–1906’. Jebat, vols. 7–8 (1977–9), pp. 5267.
Salim, Hadji Agoes, Djedjak Langkah Hadji A. Salim: Pilihan Karangan Utjapan dan Pendapat Beliau dari Dulu sampai Sekarang (Jakarta: Tintamas, 1954).
Salmon-Lombard, Claudine. ‘Un Chinois à Jakarta (1729–1736)’. Bulletin de l’École française d’Extrême-Orient, vol. 59 (1972), pp. 279318.
Schrieke, Bertram J. O. Pergolakan Agama di Sumatra Barat: Sebuah Sumbangan Bibliografi. Jakarta: Bhratara, 1973. (Translated by Soegardo Poerbakawatja from the original Dutch publication ‘Bijdrage tot de bibliografie van de huidige godsdienstige beweging ter Sumatra’s Westkust’, dedicated to Dr G. A. J. Hazeu on his departure from the Netherlands Indies in Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, vol. 59 (1919–21), pp. 249325).
Schrieke, Bertram J. O.De Strijd onder de Arabieren in Pers en Literatuur’. Notulen van de Algemeene en Directievergaderingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, vol. 58 (1920), app. 6, pp. 189240.
‘Search for Cultural Roots Prods Singapore Arabs to Visit Yemen’. New Straits Times, 27 March 1996.
Serjeant, Robert B.The Hadrami Network’. In Lombard, Denys and Aubin, Jean, eds., Marchands et Homme d’Affaires Asiatiques dans l’Océan Indien et la Mer de Chine, 13e–20e Siècles. Paris: École des Hautes Études en Science Sociales, 1988, pp. 147–54.
Serjeant, Robert B. The Saiyids: An Inaugural Lecture Delivered on 5 June 1956. London: University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies, 1957.
Serjeant, Robert B.South Arabia’. In van Niewenhuijze, C. A. O., ed., Commoners, Climbers and Notables. Leiden: Brill, 1977, pp. 226–47.
Shihab, Alwi. Djakarta Tempo Doeloe.
Shiraishi, Takashi. An Age in Motion: Popular Radicalism in Java, 1912–1926. Asia East by South series. Ithaca: Cornell University Press for the Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 1990.
Shiraishi, Takashi. ‘Anti-Sinicism in Java’s New Order’. In Chirot, Daniel and Reid, Anthony, eds., Essential Outsiders: Chinese and Jews in the Modern Transformation of Southeast Asia and Central Europe. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1997, pp. 187207.
Silva, Rina De, and Dermawan, Audrey. ‘Search for Roots Continues Relentlessly 500 Years On’. New Straits Times, 9 October 2007.
Sipress, A. ‘Indonesia’s Radical Arabs Raise Suspicions of Moderate Countrymen’. The Washington Post, 9 January 2003.
Skinner, G. William. ‘Creolized Chinese Societies in Southeast Asia’. In Reid, Anthony, ed., Sojourners and Settlers: Histories of Southeast Asia and the Chinese in Honour of Jennifer Cushman (St. Leonards, New South Wales: Allen and Unwin, 1996), pp. 5193.
Slama, Martin. ‘Indonesian Hadhramis and the Hadhramaut: An Old Diaspora and Its New Connections’. Antropologi Indonesia, vol. 29, no. 2 (2005), pp. 107–13.
Slama, Martin. ‘Islam Pribumi: Der Islam der Einheimischen, seine “Arabisierung” und arabische Diasporagemeinschaften in Indonesien’. ASEAS – Österreichische Zeitschrift für Südostasienwissenschaften/Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies, vol. 1, no. 1 (2008), pp. 417.
Snouck Hurgronje, C. Ambtelijke adviezen van C. Snouck Hurgronje, 1889–1936. Vol. 2. Edited by Gobée, E. and Adriaanse, C.. Rijks Geschiedkundige Publicatiën, Kleine Serie 34. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1959.
Snouck Hurgronje, C.Een arabische bondgenoot der Nederlandsch-Indische regeering’. Verspreide Geschriften van C. Snouck Hurgronje. Vol. 4, pt. 1. Bibliography and registers compiled by A. J. Wensinck. Bonn and Leipzig: Kurt Schroeder; Leiden: Brill, 1924, pp. 6985. (First published in 1886.)
Snouck Hurgronje, C. Mekka in the Latter Part of the 19th Century. Translated by J. M. Monahan. Leiden: Brill, 1931. (First published in German in 1888–9.)
Snouck Hurgronje, C.Sajjid Oethman’s gids voor de priesterraden’. Verspreide Geschriften van C. Snouck Hurgronje. vol. 4, pt. 1. Bibliography and registers compiled by A. J. Wensinck. Bonn and Leipzig: Kurt Schroeder; Leiden: Brill, 1924, pp. 283303. (First published in 1894.)
Snouck Hurgronje, C.Twee populaire dwalingen, verbeterd door Dr. C. Snouk Hurgronje’. Bijdragen tot Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indië, vol. 35, no. 3 (1886), pp. 356–77.
Snouck Hurgronje, C.Vier Geschenken van Sajjid ‘Oethman bin Abdoellah bin ‘Aqil bin Jahja ‘Alawi beschreven’. Notulen van de Algemeene en Directievergaderingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, vol. 30 (1892), app. 14, pp. 105–6.
Sohib, Ben. The Da Peci Code. Jakarta: Ufuk Press, 2006.
Sohib, Ben. Rosid dan Delia. Jakarta: Ufuk Press, 2008.
Steenbrink, Karel A. Preface to van den Berg, L. W. C., Hadramaut dan Koloni Arab di Nusantara. Translated by Rahayu Hidayat. Seri Indonesia Netherlands Cooperation in Islamic Studies (INIS), vol. 3. Jakarta: INIS, 1989, pp. xixxv.
Steenbrink, Karel A.Priests, Popes and Penghulus: A Review of Dutch Names for Indonesian Muslim Leaders’. In Schutte, Gerrit and Sutherland, Heather, eds., Papers of the Dutch-Indonesian Historical Conference held at Lage Vuursche, The Netherlands, 23–27 June 1980. Leiden and Jakarta: Bureau of Indonesian Studies, 1982, pp. 8597.
Stephens, B. ‘The Arab Invasion: Indonesia’s Radicalized Muslims Aren’t Homegrown’. The Wall Street Journal, 17 April 2007.
Stoler, Ann. ‘Making Empire Respectable: The Politics of Race and Sexual Morality in 20th-Century Colonial Cultures’. In Breman, Jan, ed., Imperial Monkey Business: Racial Supremacy in Social Darwinist Theory and Colonial Practice. Centre for Asian Studies Amsterdam monograph series no. 3. Amsterdam: VU University Press, 1990, pp. 35–70.
Stoler, Ann. ‘Rethinking Colonial Categories: European Communities and the Boundaries of Rule. Comparative Studies in Society and History, vol. 13, no. 1 (1989), pp. 134–61.
Stoler, Ann. The Suma Oriental of Tomé Pires: An account of the East, from the Red Sea to Japan, Written in Malacca and India in 1512–1515, and The Book of Francisco Rodrigues: Rutter of a Voyage in the Red Sea, Nautical Rules, Almanack and Maps, Written and Drawn in the East before 1525. Translated and edited by Cortesão, Armando. 2 vols. The Hakluyt Society, second series, nos. 89–90. London: Hakluyt Society, 1944.
Suminto, H. Aqib. Politik Islam Hindia Belanda: Het Kantoor voor Indlandsche Zaken. Jakarta: Lembaga Penelitian, Pendidikan dan Penerangan Ekonomi dan Sosial, 1985.
Tagliacozzo, Eric, ed. Southeast Asia and the Middle East: Islam, Movement, and the Longue Durée. Singapore: NUS Press, 2009.
Tagore, Rabindranath, Dutta, Krishna, and Robinson, Andrew, Selected Letters of Rabindranath Tagore. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Taylor, Jean Gelman. The Social World of Batavia: European and Eurasian in Dutch Asia. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1983.
Teitelbaum, Joshua. The Rise and Fall of the Hashimite Kingdom of Arabia. London: C. Hurst and Co., 2001.
Teitelbaum, Joshua. ‘“Taking Back” the Caliphate: Sharīf Ḥusayn Ibn ʿAlī, Mustafa Kemal and the Ottoman Caliphate’. Die Welt des Islams, vol. 40, no. 3 (Nov. 2000), pp. 412–24.
Termorshuizen, Gerard. P. A. Daum: Journalist en romancier van tempo doeloe. Amsterdam: Nijgh en Van Ditmar, 1988.
The Siauw Giap. ‘Group Conflict in a Plural Society’. Revue du Sud-Est Asatique, no. 1 (1966), pp. 131; no. 2 (1966), pp. 185217.
The Siauw Giap. ‘Socio-Economic Role of the Chinese in Indonesia, 1820–1940’. In Maddison, Angus and Prince, , eds., Economic Growth in Indonesia, 1820–1940. Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, vol. 137. Dordrecht, Holland and Providence, Rhode Island: Foris Publications, 1989.
Tichelman, F., ed. Socialisme in Indonesië: De Indische Sociaal-Democratische Vereeniging, 1897–1917. Bronnenpublikatie. Vol. 1: 1897–1917. Dordrecht, Holland and Cinnaminson, New Jersey: Foris Publication, 1985.
Tirtaamidjaja, N., Marzuki, Jazir, and Anderson, Benedict. Batik: Pola dan Tjorak – Pattern and Motif. Jakarta: Djambatan, 1966.
Vatikiotis, M. ‘Recovering Islam’s Roots’. Far Eastern Economic Review, 11 December 2003.
Vergadering Moeslimin Jang Terbesar’. Sinar Islam, vol. 2, no. 10 (7 Mar. 1918), pp. 1–2.
Veth, P. J. Een Blik op den Indischen Archipel. Overgedrukt uit de Bijdragen tot Bevordering van de kennis en den bloie der Maatschappij: Tot Nut van’t Algemeen. Amsterdam, 1849.
Veth, P. J. Borneo’s Wester-afdeeling, geographisch, statistisch, historisch, voorafgegaan door eene algemeene schets des ganschen eilands. Vol. 1. Zaltbommel: Joh. Noman en Zoon, 1854.
Vickers, Adrian. ‘“Malay Identity”: Modernity, Invented Tradition and Forms of Knowledge’. In Barnard, Timothy P., ed., Contesting Malayness: Malay Identity Across Borders. Singapore: NUS Press, 2004, 2555.
Vuldy, Chantal. ‘La communauté arabe de Pekalongan’. Archipel, L’Islam en Indonésie II, vol. 30, no. 1 (1985), pp. 95119.
Wall, V. I. van de. ‘Sjeich Said bin Abdullah Baädilla: Een arabier van Beteekenis in de Groote Oost’. Nederlandsch-Indië Oud en Nieuw, vol. 15 (1930–1), pp. 347–52.
Williams, Lea E. Overseas Chinese Nationalism: The Genesis of the Pan-Chinese Movement in Indonesia, 1900–1916. Glencoe, Illinois: The Free Press, 1960.
Winichakul, Thongchai, ‘Writing at the Margins: Southeast Asian Historians and Postnational Histories in Southeast Asia’. In Ahmad, Abu Talib and Ee, Tan Liok, eds., New Terrains in Southeast Asian History. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2003, pp. 3–29.
Wink, André. ‘“Al-Hind”: India and Indonesia in the Islamic World Economy, c. 700–1800 ad’. Itinerario, Special Issue: The Ancien Regime in India and Indonesia, vol. 12, no. 1 (1988), pp. 3372.
Winstedt, R. O.The Hadramaut Saiyids of Perak and Siak’. Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. 79 (Sept. 1918), pp. 4954.
Wolters, O. W. The Fall of Śrīvijaya in Malay History. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1970.
Zaini-Lajoubert, Monique, ed. Abdullah bin Muhammad al-Misri. Naskah dan Dokumen Nusantara/Textes et Documents Nousantariens, no. 6. Bandung: Angkasa and École française d’Extrême-Orient, 1987.
Zaini-Lajoubert, Monique, ed. Karya Lengkap Abdullah bin Muhammad al-Misri. Jakarta: École française d’Extrême-Orient and Komunitas Bambu, 2008.
Zakaria, F. Future of Freedom: Illiberal Democracy at Home and Abroad. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 2003.
Zolberg, Aristide R.The Formation of New States as a Refugee-Generating Process’. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 467 (May 1983), pp. 2438.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.