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    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Boianovsky, Mauro 2018. 2017 HES PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: ECONOMISTS AND THEIR TRAVELS, OR THE TIME WHEN JFK SENT DOUGLASS NORTH ON A MISSION TO BRAZIL. Journal of the History of Economic Thought, Vol. 40, Issue. 02, p. 149.

    Stäheli, Urs 2017. Traveling by Lists: Navigational Knowledge and Tourism. Zeitschrift für Literaturwissenschaft und Linguistik, Vol. 47, Issue. 3, p. 361.

    Buck, Claire 2015. Conceiving Strangeness in British First World War Writing. p. 45.

    Agazarian, Dory 2015. Victorian Roads to Rome: Historical Travel in the Wake of the Grand Tour. Nineteenth-Century Contexts, Vol. 37, Issue. 5, p. 391.

    Mathieson, Charlotte 2015. Mobility in the Victorian Novel. p. 87.

    Castro, Luis 2015. Mito y realidad en las crónicas de la Guerra de la Independencia (1808-1814): las memorias del seminarista inglés Robert Brindle. Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, Vol. 92, Issue. 1, p. 25.

    Falcus, Sarah and Sako, Katsura 2014. ‘I Must Learn to Grow Old before I Die’: Women, Ageing and Travels to Italy. Women: A Cultural Review, Vol. 25, Issue. 2, p. 194.

    Montgomery, Maureen E. 2010. The American Bourgeoisie. p. 27.

    Shellam, Tiffany 2010. Transnational Lives. p. 121.

    Afinoguénova, Eugenia 2010. Art Education, Class, and Gender in a Foreign Art Gallery: Nineteenth‐Century Cultural Travelers and the Prado Museum in Madrid. Nineteenth-Century Contexts, Vol. 32, Issue. 1, p. 47.

    2009. Resort Destinations. p. 279.

    Paden, Roger 2009. Historical Paradigms for Ecotourism. Environment, Space, Place, Vol. 1, Issue. 1, p. 139.

  • Print publication year: 2002
  • Online publication date: May 2006

2 - The Grand Tour and after (1660-1840)

from Part 1 - Surveys

Itineraries and expectations

Travel is everywhere in eighteenth-century British literature. The fictional literature of the age 'is full of travelling heroes enmeshed in journey-plots', and 'almost every author of consequence' - among them Daniel Defoe, Joseph Addison, Henry Fielding, Tobias Smollett, Samuel Johnson, James Boswell, Laurence Sterne, Mary Wollstonecraft - 'produced one overt travel book'. To these must be added the 'numerous essayistic and philosophic performances' that were cast in the form of imaginary travelogues, such as Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels(1726), Johnson's Rasselas (1759), and Oliver Goldsmith's Citizen of the World (1762). Writers seemed to be travelling, in reality or in their imaginations, just about everywhere. Paul Fussell speculates that travel's pervasive appeal may have owed something to the high degree of acceptance which philosophical empiricism had gained in Britain by the end of the seventeenth century. John Locke’s Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) became a sort of bible for those who espoused a ‘blank slate’ conception of human consciousness and held that all knowledge is produced from the ‘impressions’ drawn in through our five senses. If knowledge is rooted in experience and nowhere else, travel instantly gains in importance and desirability. Following the great Renaissance age of colonial exploration and expansion, an articulated, systematic empiricism made travelling about the world and seeing the new and different ‘something like an obligation for the person conscientious about developing the mind and accumulating knowledge’. Merely reading about conditions elsewhere was not enough. Those who could travel, should – though of course precious few actually could.

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The Cambridge Companion to Travel Writing
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