Skip to main content
The Cambridge History of Africa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 5
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    2013. European Colonialism since 1700. p. 161.

    Bozhilova, Diana and Hashimoto, Tom 2010. EU–Russia energy negotiations: a choice between rational self-interest and collective action. European Security, Vol. 19, Issue. 4, p. 627.

    BUELENS, FRANS and MARYSSE, STEFAAN 2009. Returns on investments during the colonial era: the case of the Belgian Congo1. The Economic History Review, Vol. 62, Issue. , p. 135.

    Leopold, Mark 2005. 'WHY ARE WE CURSED?': WRITING HISTORY AND MAKING PEACE IN NORTH WEST UGANDA. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, Vol. 11, Issue. 2, p. 211.

    2001. Publications of Shula Marks: A Preliminary Bibliography. Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol. 27, Issue. 3, p. 655.


Book description

Volume VI of The Cambridge History of Africa covers the period 1870–1905, when the European powers (Britain, France, Germany, Portugal and Italy) divided the continent into colonial territories and vied with each other for control over vast tracts of land and valuable mineral resources. At the same time, it was a period during which much of Africa still had a history of its own. Colonial governments were very weak and could exist only by playing a large part both in opening up the continent to outside influences and in building larger political unities. The volume begins with a survey of the whole of Africa on the eve of the paper partition, and continues with nine regional surveys of events as they occured on the ground. Only in northern and southern Africa did these develop into classical colonial forms, with basis of outright conquest. Elsewhere, compromises emerged and most Africans were able to pursue the politics of survival. Partition was a process, not an event. The process was essentially one of modernisation in the face of outside challenge.


‘Volume six … shows that Africans continued to make their own history even during the troubled years between 1870 and 1905 when much of the continent fell under colonial domination … [It] attempts to be a history of Africa between 1870 and 1905 and not just a history of colonialism.’

Source: The Times Literary Supplement

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
  • 1 - Africa on the Eve of Partition
    pp 10-95
  • View abstract
    This chapter reviews the state of the Africa on the eve of partition, roughly over the decade of the 1870s. The situation of Egypt and the Maghrib countries and their response to European influence and interference, and to modernisation in general, varied considerably at the beginning of the period. In the remarkably uniform ecological zones of West Africa the patterns of economic production and trade on the one hand, and political development on the other, had by the 1870s undergone a century or more of rapid change. South of the equator farming populations only started to build up their numbers within the Iron Age. In the 186os the boundaries of the Portuguese colony of Angola were receding and its economy was passing through a deep recession. Widespread ideological and cultural changes had taken place as a result of African experiences of the Muslim Near East and Christian Europe.
  • 2 - The European Partition of Africa: Origins and Dynamics
    pp 96-158
  • View abstract
    In 1879 the French launched in the Senegal hinterland the first deliberate European attempt to create a large territorial empire in tropical Africa. Until the 1870s, 'Africa as a whole' had been a purely geographical concept, of no practical relevance to the European politicians and merchants concerned with the continent. Advances or acquisitions in Africa undertaken primarily to secure a diplomatic advantage in Europe are not however quite unknown. The most striking is the Anglo-Egyptian advance into the Sudan in March 1896. For the French, the one redeeming feature of British informal empire was its purely de facto existence, devoid of legal warrant and therefore instantly vulnerable should the power-balance ever tilt in favour of France. Until the mid-1890s the European scramble had surprisingly little effect upon Anglo-Afrikaner rivalries in South Africa. After the collapse of the Anglo-Congolese Agreement, Rosebery attempted to negotiate an upper Nile settlement directly with Paris.
  • 3 - North Africa
    pp 159-207
  • View abstract
    When the Second Empire succumbed to the Prussian onslaught the French had already been established in North Africa for forty years. The fall of the Second Empire was greeted with joy by the French in Algeria. The naturalisation of Algerian-born Jews, the setting up of assize juries and the extension of the area under civilian rule were proclaimed one after another. The conquest of Algeria caused a rapprochement between France and Tunisia, and increased the latter's separation from the Porte. The 1896 agreements gave the Italians in Tunisia the means to create a state within a state. In the closing years of the nineteenth century, Morocco was the only country in Africa, apart from Ethiopia, to preserve its independence. The disaggregation of the Moroccan empire made it an easy prey for the foreigner. In France, as in Algeria, it awakened long-standing ambitions aimed at the southern Sahara.
  • 4 - Western Africa, 1870–1886
    pp 208-256
  • View abstract
    Indigenous African history, which still dominated most of the arena, moved at a slower rhythm than the history of the colonial advance. This chapter discusses the zone of acculturation, stretching around the coast from Senegambia to the Bay of Biafra. The cautious policies imposed from London had lost for the British the priority which was theirs as a result of the powerful colony of Sierra Leone at the southern end of the Rivières du Sud. To the east of the Bagoe and the Bandama, the Senufo, who spoke the most westerly of the Voltaic languages, were solid villagers with a truly stateless tradition. It explains the immediate hinterland which, from the upper Niger to the Volta, was open to influences from both the coast and the Sudan. The chapter focusses on the great belt of the Sudan itself, from the Senegal to Wadai, where events still seemed to move at the traditional pace.
  • 5 - Western Africa, 1886–1905
    pp 257-297
  • View abstract
    In the immediate aftermath the European siege lines were strengthened, but the scale of the impending threat to African independence was still not generally predictable. Around 1890, relations between Europe and West Africa changed their character. Modern breach-loading rifles reached West African markets during the 1870s. The British began to recognise that economic inducements and diplomatic suasion might no longer suffice to protect their interests against European intrusion or African assertiveness. Once the French, British and Germans had acquired their new empires, they had to find methods of governing them. By 1905 most colonies could feel optimistic about the prospects for increasing the type of commercial exchanges already established between African agriculturists and the capitalist world. The northern Nigerian system of 'indirect rule' was a response to local circumstances before it became the basis of colonial dogma. The immediate impact of the conquest upon the lives of ordinary Africans varied enormously.
  • A - French Congo and Gabon 1886–1905
    pp 298-315
  • View abstract
    In 1885 the European opening up of Gabon and Congo had only just begun. The intervention of metropolitan France in the archaic and brutal form of the régime concessionnaire copied from the Leopoldian model, soon resulted in the upsetting of the fragile pre-colonial balance. Social and political disintegration took place rapidly following the operations of the conquest, and the rapid proliferation of European commercial enterprises had disrupted the main traditional trade routes. The idea of an economic conquest based on the opening up of great penetration routes with the aim of 'linking the mouth of the Congo to Upper Egypt across Africa' went back to Brazza. Given the dreadful state of the finances of the colony, the apparent success of the Leopoldian system after 1896 made the decision inevitable. The military expeditions to Chad swallowed the entire budget. The development of the colony demanded a considerable investment in men and in capital and every kind of infrastructure.
  • B - King Leopold's Congo, 1886–1908
    pp 315-358
  • View abstract
    The Congo Independent State, under the personal government of King Leopold, lasted from 1885 to 1908. In the first years of existence of the Congo State, when only a tiny part of the territory of the state was occupied, Leopold tried to extend his frontiers in all directions. In the early years the prosperity of the administration depended on the relations between the administrator and the local African authorities, including the balance of physical power. Districts in turn were sub-divided into posts, of which there were 183 by 1900. The grass roots organisation was provided by the 1891 decree on chiefs. These were appointed by the administration as an area came under occupation. At first the growth of the Congo State was accompanied by the development of traditional commercial companies. The Congo State was anxious to promote agriculture, but its economic policies in effect prevented this.
  • 7 - Southern Africa, 1867–1886
    pp 359-421
  • View abstract
    In 1870, the political economy of Southern Africa was characterised by tremendous regional diversity. The discovery and subsequent mining of diamonds and gold in southern Africa in the 1870s and 1880s was not fortuitous. Africans in southern Africa had prospected for and exploited the gold, copper and iron of the sub-continent since the first millennium AD By the mid-nineteenth century, European explorers were aware that minerals existed in abundance in the Transvaal and adjacent territories. A major justification for confederation and the annexation of the Transvaal had been the danger of a black-white confrontation in South Africa. Both Cetshwayo and Lobengula, king of the Ndebele kingdom north of the Limpopo, feared that Christianity and its new mores would undermine their authority. For people south of the Zambezi, and to some extent even for the Lozi to the north-west, the crucial issue in these years was increasingly what strategy to adopt towards the intruders from the south.
  • 8 - Southern and Central Africa, 1886–1910
    pp 422-492
  • View abstract
    Within a decade of the official proclamation of the fields, the economy of southern Africa had been transformed and its political direction sharply changed. Already in 1886, it was well known that gold was to be found in the Transvaal. The Limpopo constituted no barrier to the flood of concession seekers, and the years between 1889 and 1895 saw the dramatic annexation of all the African territories up to the Congo in what has been termed 'a gigantic speculation in mining futures. The BSA Company appointed its own deputy administrator in Northern Rhodesia, as its territory north of the Zambezi came to be called. By the 1900s, for Africans all over the sub-continent forced to seek work, the great magnet was the Witwatersrand. All over southern Africa, the imposition of colonial rule meant the imposition of taxation to raise much-needed revenue for administration and to force people out to work.
  • A - Angola and Mozambique, 1870–1905
    pp 493-521
  • View abstract
    The inception of the scramble for Africa obliged Portugal to act on what had been an established ideal for many centuries. Whereas their contemporaries in other European countries had eschewed the acquisition of territory, many Portuguese had envisaged the ultimate conquest and consolidation of the territories in the hinterland of their coastal settlements in Angola and Mozambique. The restructuring of African societies mirrored the economic transformation which Angola had undergone during the nineteenth century. The Berlin Conference had resolved the issue of the Congo mouth, but failed to delimit frontiers between Leopold's Independent State and Angola. The aggressive spirit which emerged from the defeat of Gungunyana was largely responsible for a Portuguese attempt to bring northern Mozambique under control. Events in Mozambique after the financial crisis followed a course similar to that in Angola. The advent of colonial rule in Mozambique did not produce many changes in the colonial social structure.
  • B - Madagascar and France, 1870–1905
    pp 521-538
  • View abstract
    With his power henceforth firmly established, Rainilaiarivony, the Prime Minister and consort of Queen Ranavalona II, could govern the country without too many worries, and was able to turn his attention to reforms. The various European colonial powers had begun the process of dividing up Asia and Africa between them, and in this game of chess, Madagascar was merely a minor pawn. Rainilaiarivony had avoided the term 'protectorate', but the French had the firm intention of imposing one in practice. The minister for the Colonies, André Lebon, called in General Gallieni who, first in the Sudan and then in Tonkin, had acquired a well-earned reputation for his skill in colonial pacification. Gallieni was always prepared to alter his own ideas if he found that they were inadequate or out of date, and his second tour of duty was marked by a number of changes.
  • 10 - East Africa 1870–1905
    pp 539-591
  • View abstract
    East Africa in 1870 is best defined as the economic hinterland of the commercial entrepôt of Zanzibar. Through the activities of the Swahili commercial system, East Africa during the early and mid-1870s became a more internally integrated and geographically specific region of the world than it had been before. The commercial system had roots in localised and regional trade. For decades, caravans had been organised and porters recruited on behalf of European travellers, whose comings and goings provided the East African economy with a veritable tourist industry. The active conquest of East Africa took place between 1888 and 1900 through sporadic and sustained military campaigns best called colonial wars. When turning to the ecological crisis as a context of militarism, it must be noted that natural disaster is a constant theme in the history of East Africa from 1870 to 1905.
  • 11 - The Nile Basin and the Eastern Horn, 1870–1908
    pp 592-679
  • View abstract
    In the earlier years of Ismā'īl's reign, when the khedive was attempting to reduce his dependence upon his Ottoman suzerain, Egyptians had been appointed as province governors. Muhammad Tawfīq had no alternative but to release and reinstate 'Urābī and his colleagues and to dismiss 'Uthmān Rifqī. The French occupation of Tunis in May 1881 seemed to some officers to foreshadow a British occupation of Egypt. During 1882 there had been Mahdist risings on the west bank of the White Nile and in the Gezira region between the White and Blue Niles. The revolutionary phase of the Mahdiyya ended with the Mahdi's death in June 1885. The Anglo-Egyptian advance of March 1896 was perhaps less of a surprise to the Khalifa 'Abdallāhi than it was to Cromer. In sharp contrast to Shoa, remote from foreign interference, Yohannes's base in Tigre was an exposed salient of the Ethiopian polity. Northern Somalia seems to have prospered under Egyptian administration.
  • 12 - The European Scramble and Conquest in African History
    pp 680-766
  • View abstract
    African history has been too much dominated by blanket terms, generalisations which prompt comparisons rather than contrasts. African authorities lost the race for power and, as they did so, became increasingly divided. Europeans accumulated power, but were not much less divided over how to convert it into authority. In the mid-1880s the first scramble for Africa took up a number of threads of African history. Western Africa was divided between two contrasted frontiers of trade and belief. The savanna states of the Sudan, recently revolutionised by Islam, were orientated to internal trade and the northern outlets over the Sahara. An examination of these frontiers of change can help to illuminate the wide variety of the African experience of colonial conquest. Robinson and Gallagher's earlier explanation was continental in scale and attracted attention because they took changes in Europe and in Africa equally seriously. The mass of Africans were still more unwilling to play their part in the scheme of reconstruction.
  • Bibliographical Essays
    pp 767-823
  • View abstract
    This bibliography presents a list of titles that help the reader to understand the economic and social history of Africa. African resistance was less the polar opposite of collaboration than the other end of a broad spectrum of strategies adopted by Africans for coping with Europeans. G. N. Sanderson attempts a comprehensive analysis of international competition in the upper Nile basin from its origins in the later 1880s to the Anglo-French settlement of March 1899. The coastal origins of the West African scramble, and its subsequent development and extension down to 1889, have been lucidly set out by J. D. Hargreaves. Historical writings concerning North Africa are mainly the work of French historians, as might be expected. The historiography of Portuguese-speaking Africa is generally poor in comparison to that of other parts of the continent, but this particular period is better documented than any other.
Ọlọruntimẹhin, B. O. The Segu Tukulor empire. Ibadan, 1972.
‘Abd, al-Rahmān al-Rāfi'ī Al-thawra al-'urābīya wa’ l-ihtilāl al-injilīzī(The 'Urābī revolution and the English occupation). Cairo, 1949.
‘Abd, al-Rahmān al-Rāfi'ī Misr wa’ l-Sūdān fi awā' il 'ahd al-ihtilāl (Egypt and the Sudan at the beginning of the occupation era). Cairo, 1942.
‘Abd, al-Sabūr Marzūq Thā’ir min al-Sumāl: al-Mullā Muhammad' Abdallāh Hasan (A Somali revolutionary: the Mullah, M. A. H.). Cairo, 1964.
‘Abdallāh, 'Ali Ibrahīm Al-Sir' bayn al-Mahdi wa' l-'ulamā’ (The Disputation between the Mahdi and the ‘Ulamā’). Khartoum, 1968.
Abdel, Rahman el Nasri ('Abd al-Rahmān al-Nasrī), A bibliography of the Sudan, 1938–1958. London, 1962.
Abel, A. Les musulmans noirs du Maniema. Brussels, 1960.
Abraham, A. Mende government and politics under colonial rule. Freetown, 1978.
Abraham, A. Topics in Sierra Leone history; a counter-colonial interpretation. Freetown, 1976.
Abrams, L. and Miller, D. J.Who were the French Colonialists? A reassessment of the Parti Colonial’, Hist. J., 1976, 19, 3, 685–725.
Abrams, L. and Miller, D. J.The French colonialists?Hist. J., 1976, 19, 3.
Abu-Lughod, I.The transformation of the Egyptian élite: prelude to the 'Urābī Revolt’, Middle Eastern J., 1967, 21, 3, 325–44.
Abu-Lughod, IbrahimThe transformation of the Egyptian élite: prelude to the 'Urābī revolt’, Middle East J., 1967, 12, 325–44.
Abubakar, Sa'ad The Lamibe of Fombina; a political history of Adamawa, 1809–1903. Zaria, 1977.
Adam, A. Casablanca: Essai sur les transformations de la société marocaine, 2 vols. Paris, 1968.
Adams, C. C. Islam and modernism in Egypt. London, 1933.
Adamu, Mahdi The Hausa factor in West African history. Zaria, 1978.
Adelẹyẹ, R. A. Power and diplomacy in northern Nigeria, 1804–1906. London, 1971.
Adeleye, R. A.Rabih b. Fadlallah and the diplomacy of European imperial invasion in the central Sudan, 1893–1902’, J. Hist. Soc. Nigeria, 1970, 5, 3, 399–418.
Adeleye, R. A. power and diplomacy London, 1971.
Aderibigbe, A. A. B.The Ijebu expedition, 1892’, in Historians in tropical Africa. Salisbury (Harare), 1962.
Afigbo, A. E. The warrant chiefs: Indirect rule in south-eastern Nigeria, 1891–1929. London, 1972.
Agbodeka, F. African politics and British policy in the Gold Coast, 1868–1900. London, 1971.
Agbodeka, F. African politics London, 1971.
Ageron, C. R.Gambetta et la reprise de l'expansion coloniale’, Revue française d'histoire d'outremer, 1972, 59, 165–204.
Ageron, C. R. Les Algeriens musulmans, et la France 1871–1919. Paris, 1968.
Ageron, R.Jules Ferry et la question algérienne en 1892’, Revue d'hist. mod. et contemp., 1961, 127–46.
Ageron, R.La France a-t-elle eu une politique kabyle?Revue historique, 1960, 311–52.
Ageron, R. Histoire de l' Algérie contemporaine, II (1871–1954). Paris, 1979.
Ageron, R. Les Alge'riens musulmans Paris, 1968.
Ahmad, ‘Uthmān Ibrāhīm 'Some aspects of the ideology of the Mahdiya’, Sudan Notes and Records, 1979, 60, 28–37.
Ahmed, J. M. (Jamāl Muhammad Ahmad), The intellectual origins of Egyptian Nationalism. London, 1960; reprinted, 1968.
Ajayi, J. F. A. and Austen, R. A.Hopkins on Economic Imperialism in West Africa’, Econ. Hist. Review, 1972, 2nd series, 25, 303–6.
Ajayi, J. F. A. and Smith, R. S. Yoruba warfare in the nineteenth century. Cambridge, 1964.
Ajayi, J. F. A. Christian missions in Nigeria 1841–1891: the making of a new élite. London, 1965.
Ajayi, J. F. A. Christian missions London, 1965.
Ajayi, J. F. A. and Crowder, M., (eds.), History of West Africa, II. London, 1974.
Akindele, A. and Aguessy, C. Contribution à l' étude de l'histoire de l' ancien royaume de Porto Novo (Memoires de l'I.F.A.N.), Dakar, 1953.
Akintoye, S. A. Revolution and power politics in Yorubaland 1840–1893. London, 1971.
al-Naqar, 'U. The pilgrimage tradition in West Africa. Khartoum, 1972.
al-Rāfi'ī, ‘Abd al-Rahmān Mu⋅⃛afā Kāmil. Cairo, 1950.
Al-Sayyid, Afaf Lutfi Egypt and Cromer. London, 1968.
Alagoa, E. J.Nineteenth century revolutions in the Eastern States and Calabar’, 1971, J. Hist. Soc. Nig., 5, 4, 565–74.
Albertini, E., Marçais, G. and Yver, G. L'Afrique du Nord dans l'histoire. Paris, 1939.
Alexandre, V. Origem do colonialismo português moderno, 1822–1891, Portugal no séeculo xix, ed. Pereira, M. Halpern, vol. III. Lisbon, 1979.
Allen, B. M. Gordon and the Sudan. London, 1931.
Almeida, P. Ramos Históoria do colonialismo português em Africa, 3 vols. Lisbon, 1978–9.
Alpers, E. A. Ivory and slaves in East Central Africa. London, 1975.
Alpers, E. A. The East African slave trade. Nairobi, 1967.
Alpers, E. Ivory and slaves London, 1975.
Amery, L. C. M. S. (ed.), The Times history of the war in South Africa 1899–1902, 7 vols. London, 1900–1909.
Amin, Samir (ed.), Modern migrations in Western Africa. Oxford, 1974.
Ammar, H. (Hāmid 'Ammār), Growing up in an Egyptian village. London, 1954.
Amselle, J.-L. Les Négociants de la Savane. Histoire et organisation sociale des Kooroko (Mali). Paris, 1977.
Andrade, A. Freire Relatórios sobre Moçambique, 4 vols. Lourenço Marques, 1907.
Andrew, C. M. and Kanya-Forstner, A. S. France overseas: the Great War and the climax of French imperial expansion. London, 1981.
Andrew, C. M., Grupp, P. and Kanya-Forstner, A. S.Le mouvement colonial français et ses principales personnalités, 1890–1914’, Revue française d'histoire d'outremer, 1975, 62, 640–73.
Andrew, C. M., and Kanya-Forstner, A. S.The French “Colonial Party ”; its composition, aims and influence, 1885–1914’, Hist. J., 1971, 14, 1, 99–128.
Andrew, C. M.French business and the French colonialists’, Hist. J., 1976, 19, 4, 981–1000.
Andrew, C. M.Gabriel Hanotaux, the Colonial Party and the Fashoda strategy’, J. Imp. C'wealth Hist., 1974, 3, 1, 55–104. Also in Penrose, E. F. (ed.), European imperialism….
Andrew, C. M.The Groupe Colonial in the French Chamber of Deputies, 1892–1932’, Hist. J., 1974, 17, 4, 837–66.
Andrew, C. M.The French colonialist movement during the Third Republic; the unofficial mind of imperialism’, Transactions Royal Hist. Soc., 5th series 26, 1976.
Andrew, C. M.The French colonialist movement during the Third Republic’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 1976, 5th series, 26, 143–66.
Andrew, C. M. Théophile Delcassé and the making of the Entente Cordiale. London, 1968.
Andrzejewski, B. W. and Lewis, I. M. Somali Poetry. Oxford, 1964.
Anene, J. C. Southern Nigeria in transition, 1885–1906. Cambridge, 1966.
Ansky, M. Les Juifs d'Algérie (1871–1943). Paris, 1950.
Anstey, R.The Congo rubber atrocities – a case study’, Afr. Hist. Studies, 1971, 4, 1, 59–76.
Anstey, R. Britain and the Congo in the nineteenth century. Oxford, 1962.
Arhin, K.Rank and class among the Asante and Fame in the nineteenth century’, Africa, 1983, 53, 1: 2–22.
Arhin, K.The economic and social significance of rubber production and exchange in the Gold and Ivory Coasts, 1880–1900’, Cahiers d' études africaine, 1980, 20, 1–2, 49–62.
Arhin, K.The structure of Greater Ashanti’, J. Afr. Hist., 1967, 8.
Arhin, K. West African leaders in Ghana in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. London, 1979.
Arhin, K. West African traders London, 1979.
Arhin, K., (ed.), The papers of George Ekem Ferguson. Leiden and Cambridge, 1974.
Armani, L. Diciotto mesi al Congo. Milan, 1907.
Arndt, E. H. D. Banking and currency development in South Africa 1812–1927. Cape Town, 1928.
Arrighi, G.Labour supplies in historical perspective: a study of the proletarianisation of the African peasantry in Rhodesia’, J. Development Studies, 1970, 6, 3.
Arrighi, G. The political economy of Rhodesia. The Hague, 1967.
Ascherson, N. The King incorporated: Leopold the Second in the age of trusts. London, 1963.
Asiwaju, A. I. Western Yorubaland under European rule, 1889–1945;. A comparative analysis of French and British colonialism. London, 1976.
Atanda, J. A. The new Oyo empire: indirect rule and change in western Nigeria, 1894–1934. London, 1973.
Atger, P. La France en Cóte d'Ivoire de 1843 à 1893. Dakar, 1962.
Atger, P. La France en Côte d'lvoire Dakar, 1962.
Atkins, R. A.The [British] Conservatives and Egypt, 1875–1880’, J. Imp. C'wealth Hist., 1974, 2, 2, 190–205.
Atmore, A. and Marks, S.The imperial factor in South Africa in the nineteenth century: towards a reassessment’, J. Imp. C'wealth Hist., 1974, 3, 1, 105–39. Also in Penrose, E. F. (ed.), European Imperialism….
Atmore, A. and Marks, S.The Imperial Factor1974, 3, 1.
Aubin [Descos], E. Le Maroc d'aujourd'hui. Paris, 1905.
Augagneur, V. Erreurs et brutalités coloniales. Paris, 1927.
Augouard, Mgr 28 années au Congo: lettres de Mgr Augouard, 2 vol. Poitiers, 1905.
Aumont-Thiéville, P. Du régime de l'indigénat en Algérie. Paris, 1906.
Austen, R. A. Northwest Tanzania under German and British rule. New Haven and London, 1968.
‘Awad, al-Hādī al-' Atā Ta' rīkh Kurdufān al-siyāsī fi’ l-Mabdiyya, 1881–1899 (Political history of Kordofan during the Mabdiyyd). Khartoum, 1973.
Awe, B.Militarism and economic development in nineteenth century Yoruba country: the Ibadan example’, J. Afr. Hist., 1973, 14, 1, 65–78.
Axelson, E. Portugal and the scramble for Africa. Johannesburg, 1967.
Axelson, E. Portugal and the scramble Johannesburg, 1967.
Ayandele, E. A.The ideological ferment in Ijebuland, 1892–1943’, African Notes (University of Ibadan), 1970, 5, 3.
Ayandele, E. A. Holy Johnson: pioneer of African nationalism, 1836–1917. London, 1970.
Ayandele, E. A. The educated élite in the Nigerian society. Ibadan, 1974.
Ayandele, E. A. The missionary impact on modern Nigeria, 1842–1914. London, 1966.
Ayandele, E. A. The missionary impact London, 1966.
Aydelotte, W. O.The first German colony and its diplomatic consequences’, Cambridge Hist. J., 1937, 5, 3, 291–313.
Aydelotte, W. O. Bismarck and British colonial policy: the problem of South West Africa. Philadelphia, 1937; reprinted Westport, Conn., 1970.
Aydelotte, W. O. Bismarck Philadelphia, 1937.
Bābikr, Badrī Ta' rīkh hayātī, 3 vols. [Khartoum], 1959–61.
Bābikr, Badrī The memoirs of Babikr Bedri; vol. 1, trans. Bedri, Yusuf and Scott, George (introd. Holt, P. M.), London, 1969; vol. 11, trans. and ed. BedriHogg, Yusuf Peter (introd. Sanderson, G. N.), London, 1980.
Baer, G.The village shaykh in modern Egypt’, Studies in Islamic history and civilisation, vol. IX. Jerusalem, 1961.
Baer, G. A history of landownership in modern Egypt, 1800–1950. London, 1962.
Baer, G. Landownership in modern Egypt London, 1962.
Baer, G. Social history Chicago, 1969.
Baer, G. Studies in the social history of modern Egypt. Chicago, 1969.
Baier, S.Trans-Saharan trade and the Sahel: Damergu, 1870–1930’, J. Afr. Hist., 1977, 18, 1, 37–60.
Baier, S. An economic history of Central Niger, Oxford, 1980.
Baier, S. Central Niger Oxford, 1980.
Balandier, G. Sociologie actuelle de l' Afrique noire [Fang et Bakongo en Afrique équatoriale]. Paris, 1963).
Ballard, C.The role of trade and hunter-traders in the political economy of Natal and Zululand, 1824–1880’, Afr. Econ. Hist., 1981, 10, 3–21.
Ballard, J. A.The Porto Novo incidents of 1923 ; politics in the colonial era’, Odu, July 1965, 2, 1.
Bamwele, Mumbanza mwaLes établissements d'enseignement public à l'époque de l'E.I.C. La colonie scolaire de Nouvelle-Anvers (1892–1913)’, Etudes d'bistoire africaine, 1976, 8, 87–129.
Banning, E. Mémoires politiques et diplomatiques. Brussels, 1927. (See also below under Stengers, J., ed.).
Bardin, P.Les débuts difficiles du protectorat tunisien (mai 1881–avril 1882)’, Revue d'bist. diplom., 1971, 1–48.
Baring, E. (Earl of Cromer), Modern Egypt, 2 vols. London, 1908.
Barnes, J. A. Politics in a changing society – the Fort Jameson Ngoni, Manchester, 1954.
Bartnicki, A. and Mantel-Niecko, J. Geschichte Äthiopiens – von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart, German trans, from the Polish, 2 vols. Berlin, DDR, 1978.
Baumgart, W. Der Imperialismus. Idee und Wirklichkeit der englischen und franzöosischen Kolonialexpansion, 1880–1914. Wiesbaden, 1975.
Baumgart, W. English translation: Imperialism: The idea and reality of British and French colonial expansion, 1880–1914. Oxford, 1982.
Bayer, T. A. England und der neue Kurs, 1890–1895. Tübingen, 1955.
Beach, D. N.“Chimurenga”: the Shona rising of 1896–97’, J. Afr. Hist., 1979, 20, 3, 395–420.
Beach, D. N.Ndebele raiders and Shona power’, J. Afr. Hist., 1974, 15, 4.
Beach, D. N.The rising in south-western Mashonaland, 1896–7’. Ph.D. London, 1971.
Beach, D. N. The Shona and Zimbabwe. London, 1980.
Beinart, W.Conflict in Qumbu: rural consciousness, ethnicity and violence in the colonial Transkei, 1880–1913’, J. Southern Afr. Studies, 1981, 8, 1.
Beinart, W.European traders and the Mpondo paramountcy, 1878–1886’, J. Afr. Hist., 1979, 20.
Beinart, W. The political economy of Pondoland 1860–1930. Cambridge, 1982.
Beinart, W. The political economy of Pondoland. Cambridge, 1982.
Bender, Gerald Angola under the Portuguese. London, 1978.
Benhabilés, C. L' Algérie française vue par un indigéne. Algiers, 1914.
Bennett, N. R. A history of the Arab state of Zanzibar. London, 1978.
Bennett, N. R. Mirambo of Tanzania 1840?–1884. New York, 1971.
Bennett, N. R. Mirambo New York, 1971.
Bennett, N. R. Studies in East African history. Boston, 1963.
Bentley, W. H. Pioneering on the Congo, 2 vols. London, 1900.
Benyon, J. A.Basutoland and the High Commission, with particular reference to the years 1868–84. The changing nature of the imperial government's “special responsibility for the territory”’. D.Phil. Oxford, 1968.
Benyon, J. A. Proconsul and paramountcy: the High Commission, British supremacy and the sub-continent 1806–1910. Pietermaritzburg, 1980.
Benyon, J.The process of political incorporation’, in Tooke, W. D. Hammond (ed.), The Bantu-speaking peoples of Southern Africa. London, 1974.
Berge, F. Le Sous-Secrétaires et les Sous-Secrétaires d'État aux Colonies. Paris, 1962.
Berger, M. Bureaucracy and society in modern Egypt. Princeton, 1957.
Berkeley, G. F. H. The campaign of Adowa and the rise of Menelik. London, 1902 (reprinted, 1955).
Bernard, A. L'Algérie. Paris, 1930. (Histoire des colonies françaises, vol. II).
Berntsen, J. L.The Maasai and their neighbors: variables of interaction’, Afr. Econ. Hist., 1976, 2, 1–11.
Berntsen, J. L. Maasai and Isloikop: ritual experts and their followers, Occasional Paper 9. Madison, 1977.
Berque, J. French North Africa: the Maghrib between two world wars. London, 1967.
Berque, J. French North Africa. London, 1967.
Berque, J. Histoire sociale d'un village égyptien au XX siècle. Paris and The Hague, 1957.
Berque, J. L'Egypte: impérialisme et révolution. Paris, 1967. English translation: Egypt, imperialism and revolution. London, 1972.
Berque, J. L'intérieur du Maghreb. Paris, 1979.
Berry, S. S. Cocoa, custom and socio-economic change in rural western Nigeria. Oxford, 1975.
Betts, R. Assimilation and association in French colonial theory (1890–1911). New York, 1961.
Bhebe, N. M. B.Christian missions in Matabeleland 1859–1923’. Ph.D. London, 1972.
Bhila, H. H. K. Trade and politics in a Shona kingdom; the Manyika and their African and Portuguese neighbours, 1575–1902. London, 1982.
Bidiss, M. D.Racial ideas and the politics of prejudice, 1850–1914’, Hist. J., 1972, 15, 3, 570–82.
Biobaku, S. O. The Egba and their neighbours, 1842–1872. Oxford, 1957.
Biobaku, S. and al-Hajj, MuhammadThe Sudanese Mahdiyya and the Niger–Chad Region’, in Lewis, I. M. (ed.), Islam in tropical Africa. London, 1966.
Birmingham, D. and Martin, P. M. History of Central Africa. London, 1983.
Birmingham, D.The copper barons of Cazengo’, J. Afr. Hist., 1978, 19, 4, 523–38.
Birmingham, D.Coffee baronsLondon, 1983.
Birmingham, D. and Martin, P. M. (eds.), Central Africa London, 1983.
Bitensky, M. F.The South African League’. M.A., Univ. of Witwatersvand, 1951.
Blainey, G.Lost causes of the Jameson Raid’, Econ. Hist. Review, 1965, 2nd series, 18, 350–66.
Blainey, G.Lost causes…1965, 2nd series, 18.
Bley, H. South West Africa under German rule 1894–1914, trans. Ridley, H.. London, 1971.
Blunt, W. S. Secret history of the English occupation of Egypt. London, 1907.
Blyden, E. W.Ethiopia stretching out her hands unto God; or, Africa's service to the world’. Discourse delivered before the American Colonization Society, May 1880, in Christianity, Islam and the Negro race. 1887; reprinted Edinburgh, 1967.
Boahen, A. A. Britain, the Sahara and the western Sudan, 1788–1861. Oxford, 1964.
Bonner, P. Kings, commoners and concessionaires: the evolution and dissolution of the 19th century Swazi state. Cambridge, 1983.
Bonner, P. Kings, commoners and concessionaires Cambridge, 1983.
Bontinck, F. and Janssen, K. L'autobiographie de Hamed ben Mohammed el Murjebi Tippo Tib (ca.1840–1905). Brussels, 1973.
Botelho, J. Teixeira História militar e politica dos Portugueses em Moçambique de 1833 aos nossos dias. 2nd edn, Lisbon, 1936.
Bouche, D. L'enseignement dans les territoires français de l' Afrique occidentale de 1817 à 1920. Mission civilisatrice ou formation d'une elite?, 2 vols. Lille, 1975.
Bouche, D. Les villages de liberié en Afrique noire française, 1887–1910. Paris and The Hague, 1968.
Boudou, A. Les Jésuites à Madagascar au XIX' siècle, 2 vols. Paris, 1942.
Bouroue-Avaro, J. a. Un peuple gabonais à l'aube de la colonisation: le bas Ogowe au XIXe Siècle. Paris, 1981.
Bouroue-Avaro, J. a Un peuple gabonais Paris, 1981.
Bouvier, J.Les intérêts financiers et la question d'Egypte 1875–1876’, in Bouvier, J. Histoire économique et histoire sociale: recherches sur le capitalisme contemporain. Geneva, 1968.
Bovill, E. W. The Golden Trade of the Moors 2nd edn, revised Hallett, R.. London, 1968.
Bozzoli, B.Marxism, feminism and South African studies’, J. Southern Afr. Studies, 1983, 9, 2, 139–71.
Bozzoli, B. The political nature of a ruling class: capital and ideology in South Africa 1890–1933. London, 1981.
Bráasio, A. Angola, Spiritana Monumenta Historica, Series Africana, 5 vols. Pittsburg and Louvain, 1966–1971.
Bradlow, E.The Cape government's rule of Basutoland’, Archives Year Book for South African History, 1968, 31, 2.
Braimah, J. A. and Goody, J. R. Salaga: the struggle for power. London, 1967.
Brenner, L.The North African trading community in the nineteenth century Central Sudan’, in McCall, D. E., and Bennett, N. R. (eds.), Aspects of West African Islam. Boston, 1971.
Brenner, L. The Shehus of Kukawa: a history of the al-Kanemi dynasty of Bornu. Oxford, 1973.
Brett, M.Modernisation in 19th century North Africa’, The Maghreb Review, 1982, 7, 1–2, Jan–April, 16–22.
Brett, M.Problems in the interpretation of the history of the Maghreb in the light of some recent publications’, J. Afr. Hist., 1972, 13, 3, 489–506.
Brett, M. (ed.), Northern Africa: Islam and modernisation. London, 1973.
Brignon, J., and Amine, A. Histoire de Maroc. Paris, 1947.
Brock, S. M.James Stewart and Lovedale: a reappraisal of missionary attitudes and African response in the eastern Cape, South Africa, 1870–1905’. Ph.D. Edinburgh, 1974.
Brockway, L. H. Science and colonial expansion: the role of the British botanic gardens. New York, 1979.
Brookes, E. H. and Webb, C. B. A history of Natal. Cape Town, 1967.
Brookes, E. H. The history of Native policy in South Africa from 1830 to the present day. Cape Town, 1924.
Brooks, G. E.Peanuts and colonialism: consequences of the commercialisation of peanuts in West Africa, 1830–70’, J. Afr. Hist., 1925, 16, 1, 29–54.
Brown, B.Muslim influence on trade and politics in the Lake Tanganyika region’, Int. J. Afr. Hist. Studies, 1971, 4.
Brown, B.Muslim Influence…1971, 4.
Brown, C. F. Ethiopian perspectives: a bibliographical guide to the history of Ethiopia. Westport, Conn./London, 1978.
Brown, L. C. The Tunisia of Ahmad Bey 1837–1855;. Princeton, 1974.
Brown, R. The Ndebele succession crisis 1868–77. Central African Historical Association, Local series 5. Salisbury, 1962.
Brown, W. T.Politics of business: relations between Zanzibar and Bagamoyo in the late nineteenth century’, Afr. Hist. Studies, 1971, 4, 3, 651–44.
Bruel, G. La France ėquatoriale africaine: le pays, les habitants, la colonisation, les pouvoirs publiques. Paris, 1935.
Brunschwig, H.Anglophobia and French African policy’, in Gifford, P. and Louis, W. R. France and Britain…. (1971).
Brunschwig, H.Bulletins historiques’ and review articles on imperialism and colonisation in Africa, Revue Historique: 1957 (no. 441); 1961 (460); 1962 (461); 1965 (475); 1966 (480); 1968 (485); 1968 (486); 1972 (501); 1973 (505); 1973 (508); 1976 (519); 1977 (524); 1980 (553); 1982 (541).
Brunschwig, H.French expansion and local reactions in Black Africa in the time of imperialism (1880–1914)’, in Wesseling, H. L. (ed.), Expansion and reaction (Leiden, 1979).
Brunschwig, H.La négotiation du traité Makoko’, Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines, 1965, 5, 5–56. Also in: Glénisson, J., Vansina, J. and Walker, A. (ed.), Brazza explorateur, les traités Makoko, 1880–1882. Paris and The Hague, 1972.
Brunschwig, H.Les origines du partage de l'Afrique Occidentale’, J. Afr. Hist., 1964, 5, 1, 121–5.
Brunschwig, H.Politique et économie dans l'Empire français d'Afrique noire, 1870–1914’, J. Afr. Hist., 1970, 11, 3, 401–7.
Brunschwig, H.Scramble et “course au clocher”’, J. Afr. Hist., 1971, 12, 1, 139–41.
Brunschwig, H. Mythes et réalités de l'impérialisme colonial français. Paris, 1960. English trans: Frerch colonisalism: myths and realities. London, 1966.
Brunschwig, H. L'avènement Paris, 1963.
Brunschwig, H. L'averement de I'Afrique noire. Paris, 1963.
Brunschwig, H. Le partage de l'Afrique noire. Paris, 1971.
Brunschwig, H. Mythes et réalités Paris, 1960. English trans: Frerch colonisalism: myths and realities. London, 1966.
Brunschwig, H. Noirs et Blancs dans l' Afrique noire française, ou comment le colonisé devient colonisateur (1870–1914). Paris, 1983.
Buder, J.The German factor in Anglo-Transvaal relations’, in Gifford, P. and Louis, W. R. Britain and Germany… (1967).
Bundy, C.The emergence and decline of a South African peasantry’, African Affairs, Oct. 1972, 71, 285.
Bundy, C. The rise and fall of the South African peasantry. London, 1979.
Burke, E. III Prelude to protectorate in Morocco Chicago and London, 1976.
Burke, G. and Richardson, P.The migration of miners’ phthisis between Cornwall and the Transvaal, 1876–1918’, J. Southern Afr. Studies, 1978, 4, 2.
Burke, E. III Prelude to Protectorate in Morocco: pre-colonial protest and resistance, 1860–1912. Chicago and London, 1976.
Burman, S. B. Chiefdom politics and alien law: Basutoland under Cape rule, 1871–1884. London, 1981.
Burman, S. B. (ed.), The justice of the Queen's government: the Cape's administration of Basutoland 1871–84. Leiden, 1976.
Burton, R. F. Two trips to Gorilla Land and the cataracts of the Congo, 2 vols. London, 1876.
Bury, J. P. T.Gambetta and overseas problems’, Eng. Hist. Review, 1967, 82, 323, 277–95.
Bustin, E. Congo-Kinshasa: Guide bibliographique. Cahiers du CEDAF, 1971, no. 3..
Bustin, E. Lunda under Belgian rule: the politics of ethnicity. Cambridge, Mass., 1975.
Butler, J.Cecil Rhodes’, Int. J. Afr. Hist. Studies, 1977, 2, 259–81.
Butler, J.Sir Alfred Milner on British policy in South Africa in 1897’, in Butler, J. (ed.), Boston University Papers on African History, vol. 1. Boston, 1964.
Butler, J. The Liberal Party and the Jameson Raid. Oxford, 1968.
Cain, P. J. and Hopkins, A. G.The political economy of British expansion overseas, 1750–1914’, Econ. Hist. Review, 1980, 2nd series, 33, 4, 463–90.
Cairns, H. A. C. Prelude to imperialism: British reactions to Central African society, 1840–1890. London, 1965.
Caltier, F. Etude sur la situation de l'Etat Indépendent du Congo. Brussels, 1906.
Cambon, H. Histoire de la Régence de Tunis. Paris, 1948.
Cambon, H. Histoire du Maroc. Paris, 1952.
Cameron, V. L. Across Africa. London, 1877.
Campbell, W. B.The South African frontier, 1865–1885’, Archives Yearbook for South African History, 1959.
Capela, J. A burguesia mercantil do Porto e as colónias, 1834–1900. Oporto, 1975.
Capela, J. O imposto de palhota e a introdução do modo de produçãdo capitalista nas colónias. Oporto, 1977.
Capela, J. O vinho para o preto. Oporto, 1973.
Capelo, H. Brito, and Ivens, R. De Angola à contra-costa. Lisbon, 1886.
Caplan, G. L.Barotseland's scramble for protection’, J. Afr. Hist., 1969, 10, 2, 277–94.
Caplan, G. L. The elites of Barotseland, 1878–1969: a political history of Zambia's western province. London, 1970.
Carol, J. Chez les Hova, au pays rouge. Paris, 1898.
Caroselli, F. S. Ferro e fuoco in Somalia. Rome, 1931.
Cartwright, A. P. Gold paved the way: the story of the Goldfields group of companies. London, 1967.
Cartwright, A. P. Golden age: the story of the industrialization of South Africa and the part played in it by the Corner House Group of Companies, 1910–67. Cape Town, 1968.
Cartwright, A. P. The first South African: the life and times of Sir Percy Fitzpatrick. Cape Town, 1971.
Carvalho, H. Dias Expedição portuguesa ao Muatiânvua, 7 vols. Lisbon, 1890–1894.
Catat, L. Voyage à Madagascar, 1889–90. Paris, 1895.
Caulk, R. A.Firearms and princely power in Ethiopia in the nineteenth century’, J. Afr. Hist., 1972, 13, 4, 609–30.
Caulk, R. A.Harär town and its neighbours in the nineteenth century’, J. Afr. Hist., 1977, 18, 3, 369–86.
Caulk, R. A.Menilek and the Ethio–Egyptian war of 1875–76: a reconstruction of source material’, Rural Africana, 1970, 11.
Caulk, R. A.Religion and state in nineteenth-century Ethiopia’, J. Ethiopian Studies, 1972, 10, 1, 23–41.
Caulk, R. A.The occupation of Harar: January 1887’, J. Ethiopian Studies, 1971, 9, 2.
Caulk, R. A.Yohannes IV, the Mahdists and the colonial partition of north-east Africa’, Transafrican J. Hist., 1971, 1, 2, 23–42.
Caulk, R. A.Harär Town1977, 18, 3.
Caulk, R. A.Johannes IV1971, 1, 2.
Caulk, R. A.Yohannes IV1971, 1, 2.
Cecil, G. Life of Robert, Marquis of Salisbury, vols, III and IV. London, 1931, 1932.
Cell, J. The highest stage of white supremacy: the origins of segregation in South Africa and the American South. Cambridge, 1982.
Cerulli, E. Somalia: scritti vari editi ed inediti, 3 vols. Rome, 1957, 1959, 1964.
Cerulli, E. Somalia Rome, 1957, 1959, 1964.
Ceulemans, P. La question arabe et le Congo (1883–1892). Brussels, 1959.
Chalon, P. Les richesses minérales de l'Algérie et de la Tunisie Paris, 1907.
Chamberlain, M. E.Clement Hill's memoranda and the British interest in East Africa’, Eng. Hist. Review, 1972, 87, 344, 533–47.
Chamberlain, M. E.The Alexandrian massacre of 11 June 1882 and the British occupation of Egypt’, Middle Eastern Studies, 1977, 13, 1, 14–39.
Chamberlain, M. E. The rise and fall of Germany's colonial empire. London, 1930.
Chanock, M. Unconsummated union: Britain, Rhodesia and South Africa, 1900–1945. Manchester, 1977.
Chapus, G. S. and Mondain, G. Un homme d'état malgache, Kainilaiarivony. Paris 1953.
Chapus, G. S. Quatre vingts années d'influence européenne en Imerina. Tananarive, 1925.
Charles, E. A. Precolonial Senegal: The Jolof Kingdom, 1800 to 1890. Boston, 1977.
Chateur, K. Insurrection et répression dans la Tunisie du XIXe siécle. La méhalla de Zarrouk. Tunis, 1978.
Chavannes, Ch. Les origines de l' AEF: le Congo français. Ma collaboration avec Brazza, 1886–1894. Nos relations jusqu' à sa mort, 1905. Paris, 1937.
Chesnel, E. Plaies d'Egypte: les Anglais dans la vallée du Nil. Paris, 1888.
Chouraqui, A. Les Juifs d'Afrique du Nord. Paris, 1959.
Churchill, W. S. The River War. London, 1899.
Churchill, Winston My African journey. London, 1908.
Clarence-Smith, W. G. and Moorsom, R.Underdevelopment and class formation in Ovamboland, 1845–1915’, J. Afr. Hist., 1975, 16, 3, 365–82.
Clarence-Smith, W. G.Slaves, commoners and landlords in Bulozi, c.1875–1906’, J. Afr. Hist., 1979, 20, 2.
Clarence-Smith, W. G.The myth of uneconomic imperialism; The Portuguese in Africa, 1836–1926’, J. Southern Afr. Studies, 1979, 5, 165–.
Clarence-Smith, W. G. Slaves, peasants and capitalists in Southern Angola, 1840–1926. Cambridge, 1979.
Clarence-Smith, W. G. Slaves, peasants and capitalists Cambridge, 1979.
Clay, G. Your friend, Lewanika: Litunga of Barotseland, 1842–1916. London, 1968.
Cline, C. A. E. D. Morel 1873–1924: the strategies of protest. Belfast, 1980.
Cobbing, J. R. D.Lobengula, Jameson and the occupation of Mashonaland’, Rhodesian History, 1973, 4, 39–56.
Cobbing, J. R. D.The absent priesthood: another look at the Rhodesian risings of 1896–7’, J. Afr. Hist., 1977, 18, 1.
Cobbing, J. R. D.The Ndebele under the Khumalos’, Ph.D. Lancaster, 1976.
Cobbing, J.The absent priesthood: another look at the Rhodesian risings of 1896–1897’, J. Afr. Hist., 1977, 18, 1, 61–84.
Coillard, F. On the threshold of Central Africa. London, 1902.
Cole, P. D. Modern and traditional élites in the politics of Lagos. Cambridge, 1975.
Collins, R. O. and Herzog, R.Early British administration in the southern Sudan’, J. Afr. Hist., 1961, 2, 1, 119–35.
Collins, R. O.Egypt and the Sudan’, in Winks, R. W. (ed.), The historiography of the British Empire–Commonwealth. Durham, N.C., 1966.
Collins, R. O.Origins of the Nile struggle: Anglo-German negotiations and the Mackinnon Agreement of 1890’ in Gifford, P., and Louis, W. R., Britain and Germany… (1967).
Collins, R. O. King Leopold, England and the Upper Nile, 1899–1909. New Haven and London, 1968.
Collins, R. O. King Leopold, England and Upper Nile New Haven and London, 1968.
Collins, R. O. Land beyond the rivers. The southern Sudan 1898–1918. New Haven and London, 1971.
Collins, R. O. Leopold, England and Upper Nile New Haven and London, 1968.
Collins, R. O. The Southern Sudan 1883–1898: a struggle for control. New Haven, 1962.
Collins, R. O. The southern Sudan New Haven, 1962.
Colson, E. The Plateau Tonga. Manchester, 1958; reprinted 1970.
Colvin, A. The making of modern Egypt. London, 1906.
Comaroff, J. L. (ed.), The Boer War diary of Sol T. Plaatje, an African at Mafeking. London, 1973.
Comyn, D. C. E. ff. Service and sport in the Sudan. London, 1911.
Conjo, Y.Le “plan Freycinèt”, 1878–1882: un aspect de la “grande dépression” économique en France’, Revue historique, 1972, 248, 503, 49–86.
Conrad, Joseph Heart of darkness. Penguin edn, Harmondsworth, 1973.
,Consolidated Goldfields, The goldfields, 1887–1937. Johannesburg, 1937.
Conti Rossini, C. Italia ed Etiopia Rome, 1935.
Conti, Rossini C. Italia ed Etiopia dal Trattato d'Uccialli alla Battaglia di Adua. Rome, 1935.
Contreiras, M. Martins A província de Angola. Lisbon, 1894.
Cookey, S. J. S. Britain and the Congo Question, 1885–1913. London, 1968.
Cookey, S. J. S. King Ja Ja of the Niger Delta. Nok, 1974.
Cooper, F.The problem of slavery in African studies’, J. Afr. Hist., 1979, 20, 1, 102–25.
Cooper, F. From slave to squatter: plantation labour and agriculture in Zanzibar and coastal Kenya, 1890 to 1925. New Haven/London, [c.1980].
Cooper, F. From slaves to squatters New Haven/London, [c.1980]..
Cooper, F. Plantation slavery on the east coast of Africa. New Haven and London, 1977.
Cooper, F. Plantation slavery on the east coast of Africa. New Haven, 1977.
Cooper, F. Plantation slavery New Haven, 1977.
Coppolani, X., and Depont, O. Les confréries religieuses musulmanes. Algiers, 1897.
Coquery-Vidrovitch, C.De la traite des ésclaves à l'exportation de l'huile de palme et des palmistes au Dahomey’, in Meillassoux, C. (ed.), Indigenous trade Paris, 1969.
Coquery-Vidrovitch, C.Le blocus de Whydah (1876–1877) et la rivalité franco-anglaise au Dahomey’, Cahiers d'études africaines, 1962, 2, 373–419. Brazza… Paris, 1969.
Coquery-Vidrovitch, C.Le blocus de WhydahParis, 1969.
Coquéry-Vidrovitch, Catherine Brazza et la prise de possession du Congo. Paris, 1969.
Coquery-Vidrovitch, Catherine Le Congo au temps des grandes compagnies concessionnaires 1898–1930. Paris/The Hague, 1972.
Cordell, D. D.Blood partnership in theory and practice: the expansion of Muslim power in Dar al-Kuti, J. J. Afr. Hist., 1979, 20, 3, 379–94.
Cordell, D. D.Eastern Libya, Wadai and the Sanusiya’, J. Afr. Hist., 1977, 18, 1, 21–36.
Cornet, R. J. Katanga: le Katanga avant les Belges. 3rd edn, Brussels, 1946.
Cornet, R. J. La bataille du rail: la construction du chemin de fer de Matadi au Stanley Pool. Brussels, 1947; 4th edn, 1958.
Cornet, R. J. Maniema: la lutte contre les Arabes esclavagistes au Congo. Brussels, 1952.
Couceiro, H. Paiva Angola, dos annos de governo. Lisbon, 1910.
Coupland, R. East Africa and its invaders. Oxford, 1938.
Coupland, R. The exploitation of East Africa, 1856–1890. London, 1939; reprinted, with Introduction by J. Simmons, London, 1968.
Coutinho, J. Azevedo Memórias de um velho marinheiro e soldado de Africa. Lisbon, 1941.
Cronwright-Schreiner, S. C. (ed.), The life and letters of Olive Schreiner, 1876–1920. London, 1924.
Crouchley, A. E. The economic development of modern Egypt. London, 1938.
Crowder, M. West Africa under colonial rule. London, 1968.
Crowder, M. (ed.), West African resistance: the military response to colonial occupation. London, 1971.
Crowder, M., (ed.), West African resistance, London, 1971.
Crowe, S. E. The Berlin West African Conference. London, 1942.
Crummey, D.Abyssinian feudalism’, Past and Present, 1980, 89, 115–38.
Crummey, D.Family and property among the Amhara nobility’, J. Afr. Hist., 1983, 24, 2, 207–20.
Crummey, D. Priests and politicians. Oxford, 1972.
Cummings, R.A note on the history of caravan porters in East Africa’, Kenya Hist. Review, 1973, 1, 2, 109–38.
Cunnison, I. (tr. and ed.), Historical traditions of the eastern Lunda, Rhodes-Livingstone Communication no. 23. Lusaka, 1962.
Curtin, P., Feierman, S., Thompson, L., and Vansina, J. African History. Boston, Toronto, London, 1978.
Curtin, P. Economic change in precolonial Africa: Senegambia in the era of the slave trade. Madison, 1975.
Curtin, P. D. (ed.), Africa and the West: intellectual responses to European culture. Madison, 1972.
Curtis, L. With Milner in South Africa. London, 1951.
Curtis, L. With Milner in South Africa. Oxford, 1951.
Dachs, A. J.Missionary imperialism – the case of Bechuanaland’, J. Afr. Hist., 1972, 13, 4, 647–58.
Dachs, A. J.Missionary imperialism – the case of Bechuanaland’, J. Afr. Hist., 1972, 13, 4.
Dachs, A. J.Rhodes's grasp for Bechuanaland, 1889–1896’, Rhodesian History, 1971, 2.
Dachs, A. J.Missionary imperialism1972, 13, 4.
Dachs, A. J., (ed.), Christianity south of the Zambezi. Salisbury, 1973.
Dachs, A. J., (ed.), The papers of John Mackenzie. Johannesburg, 1975.
Dagher, J. A. (Yūsuf As‘ad Dāghir), Al-Usūl al-' Arabīya lī’ l-dirāsāt al-Sūdānīya (Sudanese bibliography, Arabic Sources, 1875–1967). N.p. [Beirut], 1968.
Daly, M. W.The development of the Governor-Generalship of the Sudan, 1899–1934’, J. Afr. Hist., 1983, 24, 1, 77–96.
Daly, M. W. Sudan (Select annotated bibliography, World Bibliographical Series, vol. 40). Oxford/Santa Barbara, Calif., 1983.
Daly, M. W. 3rd edn, History of the Sudan from the coming of Islam to the present day. London, 1979.
Dampierre, E. Un ancien royaume Bandia du Haut-Oubangui. Paris, 1967.
D'Anthouard, and Ranchot, L'expédition de Madagascar, journaux de route. Paris, 1930.
Darcy, J. France et Angleterre: cent années de rivalité coloniale. Paris, 1903.
Darkwah, R. H. K. Menelik of Ethiopia. London, 1972.
Darkwah, R. H. K. Shewa, Menelik and the Ethiopian empire, 1813–1889. London, 1975.
Darkwah, R. H. K. Shewa, Menilek… London, 1975.
Darley, H. Slaves and ivory. London, 1926; reprinted (with a foreword by Freeman, A. G.) Northbrook, Ill., 1972.
Davenport, T. R. H. and Hunt, K. The right to the land. Cape Town, 1974.
Davenport, T. R. H. South Africa: a modern history. London, 1977.
Davenport, T. R. H. The Afrikaner Bond: the history of a South African political party, 1880–1911. Cape Town, 1966.
Davenport, T. R. H. The Afrikaner Bond Cape Town, 1966.
Davey, A. M. The British pro-Boers, 1877–1902. Cape Town, 1978.
Davies, R. H.Mining capital, the state and unskilled white workers in South Africa, 1901–1913’, J. Southern Afr. Studies, 1976, 3, 1.
Davies, R. H. Capital, State and white labour in South Africa 1900–1960. Brighton, Sussex, 1979.
Dawson, M. H.Disease and population decline of the Kikuyu of Kenya, 1890–1925’, in African Historical Demography, vol. II. Edinburgh, 1981.
Daye, P. Léopold II. Paris, 1934.
De Calonne Beaufaict, A. La pénétration de la civilisation au Congo belge. Brussels, 1912.
De Cardi, N. 'A short description of the natives of the Niger Coast Protectorate, with some account of their customs, religion, trade. App. 1 to Kingsley, Mary H. West African studies, 1st edn, London, 1899.
De Kiewiet, C. W. A history of South Africa: social and economic. Oxford, 1937.
De Kiewiet, C. W. History of South Africa Oxford, 1937.
De Kiewiet, C. W. Imperial factor Cambridge, 1937.
De Kiewiet, C. W. The imperial factor in South Africa. Cambridge, 1937.
De Kiewiet, C. W. The imperial factor Cambridge, 1937.
de Lichtervelde, L. Léopold II. Brussels, 1926.
Debrunner, H. W. A church between colonial powers: a study of the Church in Togo. London, 1965.
Delius, P. N.The Pedi polity under Sekwati and Sekhukhune’, Ph.D. London, 1980 (published as The land belongs to us, q.v.).
Delius, P. N.The Pedi polityJohannesburg and London, 1983.
Delius, P. and Trapido, S.Inboekselings and Oorlams: the creation and transformation of a servile class’, J. Southern Afr. Studies, 1982, 8, 2.
Delius, P.Abel Erasmus: power and profit in the eastern Transvaal’, research paper, Institute of Commonwealth Studies. Oxford, 1981.
Delius, P. ‘The land belongs to us’: the Pedi polity, the Boers and the British in the nineteenth century Transvaal. Johannesburg and London, 1983.
Demontés, V. L'Algérie économique, 5 vols. Algiers, 1922–30.
Demontés, V. L'Algérie agricole. Paris, 1930.
Demontés, V. L'Algérie industrielle et commerçante. Paris, 1930.
Denoon, D. J. N.Participation in the “Boer War”: People's War, People's non-war or non-People's War?’ in Ogot, B. A. (ed.), War and society in Africa, London, 1972.
Denoon, D. J. N.The Transvaal labour crisis, 1901–6’, J. Afr. Hist., 1967, 7, 3.
Denoon, D. J. N.Capital and capitalists1980, 23, 1.
Denoon, D. J. N.Capitalist influence” and the Transvaal Government during the Crown Colony period, 1900–1906’, Hist. J., 1968, 11, 2.
Denoon, D. J. N. A grand illusion: the failure of imperial policy in the Transvaal colony during the period of reconstruction, 1900–1905. London, 1973.
Denoon, D.Capital and capitalists in the Transvaal in the 1890s and 1900s’, Hist. J., 1980, 23, 1, 111–32.
Denoon, D.Participation in the “Boer War”London, 1972.
Dereine, A.Le soulèvement des Babua (1900–1901)’, Africa-Tervuren, 1964, 10, 2, 29–48.
Deschamps, H. and Chauvet, P. Gallieni pacificateur. Paris, 1949.
Deschamps, H.Quinze ans de Gabon (les débuts de l'établissement français, 1839–1853)’, Revue française d'histoire d'outre-mer, 180–181 (1963), 283–345, (1965).
Deschamps, H. Histoire de Madagascar Paris, 1961.
Deschamps, H. Histoire de Madagascar. Paris, 1961; 4th edn 1972.
Deschamps, H. Les Antaisaka. Tananarive, 1938.
Deschamps, H. Les migrations intérieures à Madagascar. Paris, 1959.
Deschamps, H. Méthodes et doctrines coloniales de la France. Paris, 1953.
Deschamps, H. Traditions orales et archives au Gabon. Contribution à l'ethno-histoire. Paris, 1962.
Désiré-Vuillemin, G.; Contribution à l'histoire de la Mauritanie. Dakar, 1962.
Despois, J. L'Afrique du Nord. Paris, 1949.
Deverdun, G. Marrakech, des origines à 1912. Rabat, 1959.
Diallo, T. Les institutions politiques au Fouta Djallon au XIXe siècle. Dakar, 1972.
Dias, J. R.Black chiefs, white traders and colonial policy near the Kwanza: Kabuku Kambilo and the Portuguese, 1873–1896’, J. Afr. Hist., 1976, 17, 2, 245–65.
Dias, J. R.Famine and disease in the history of Angola c. 1830–1930’, Afr. Hist., 1981, 22, 3, 349–78.
Dias, J. R.Famine and disease in the history of Angola, c. 1830–1930’, J. Afr. Hist., 1981, 22, 3, 349–78.
Dias, J.Black chiefs1976, 17, 2.
Dietrich, E. L.Der Mahdi Mohammed Ahmed vom Sudan nach arabischen Quellen’, Der Islam, 1925, 14, 199–288. (Partial translation of Schoucair, Naum, q.v.).
Diké, K. O. Trade and politics Oxford, 1956.
Dike, K. O. Trade and politics in the Niger Delta, 1830–1885. Oxford, 1956.
Doornbos, M. R.Images and realities of stratification in pre-Colonial Nkore’, Canadian J. Afr. Studies, 1973, 7, 3, 477–95.
Dorward, D. C.Ethnography and administration: a study of Anglo-Tiv “Working misunderstanding”’, J. Afr. Hist., 1974, 15, 3, 457–77.
Douin, G. Histoire du règone du Khédive Ismail, 4 parts. Cairo, 1936–41 (3 vols. bound as 6, Rome, 1933–4). Part III: Li'empire africain.
Douin, G. Khédive Ismail, III: L'empire africain Cairo, 1936–41.
Douin, G. Règne du Khédive Ismaïl Cairo, 1936–41.
Doutté, E., and Gautier, E. Enquête sur la dispersion de la langue berbère en Algérie. Algiers, 1913.
Doutté, E. L'lslam algérien en 1900. Algiers, 1900.
Drechsler, H.Germany and Southern Angola, 1898–1903’, Présence africaine, 1962, 42–3, 51–69.
Drechsler, H. Let us die fighting: the struggle of the Herero and Nama against German imperialism, 1884–1915. London, 1980.
Drysdale, J. The Somali Dispute. London, 1964.
Du Plessis, J. A. A history of Christian missions in South Africa. London, 1911.
Duchesne, General Rapport sur I'expédition de Madagascar. Paris, 1896.
Duffy, James A question of slavery; labour policies in Portuguese Africa and the British protest, 1850–1920. Oxford, 1967.
Duffy, James Portugal in Africa. Harmondsworth, 1962.
Duffy, James Portuguese Africa. Cambridge, Mass., 1959.
Dumett, R. E. and Schwartz, B. K. West African culture dynamics: archaeological and historical perspectives. Chicago, 1979.
Dumett, R. E.John Sarbah the elder, and African mercantile entrepreneurship in the Gold Coast in the late nineteenth century’, J. Afr. Hist., 1973, 14, 4, 653–79.
Dumett, R. E.The rubber trade of the Gold Coast and Asante in the nineteenth century’, J. Afr. Hist., 1971, 12, 1, 79–101.
Dumett, R. E.The rubber trade1971, 12, 1.
Duminy, A. H. and Guest, W. R. Fitzpatrick, South African politician: selected papers 1888–1906. Johannesburg, 1976.
Duminy, A. H.Sir Alfred Milner and the outbreak of the Anglo–Boer War’. Ph.D. Natal, 1976.
Duminy, A. H. and Ballard, C. (eds.), The Anglo–Zulu war: new perspectives. Pietermaritzburg, 1981.
Dunn, J. and Robertson, A. F. Dependence and opportunity: political change in Abafo. Cambridge, 1973.
Dunn, R. E.Bu Himāra's European connexion: the commercial relations of a Moroccan warlord’, J. Afr. Hist., 1980, 21, 2, 235–53.
Dupuy, H. Les impôts arabes en Algérie. Montpellier, 1910.
Ekundare, R. O.; An economic history of Nigeria, 1860–1960. London, 1973.
Eldridge, C. C. England's Mission: the imperial idea in the age of Gladstone and Disraeli 1868–1880. London, 1973.
Eley, G.Defining social imperialism: use and abuse of an idea’, Social Hist., 1976, 13, 265–90.
Elgood, P. G. The transit of Egypt. London, 1928.
Ellis, S.Collaboration and resistance in Madagascar 1895–1899, with special reference to the Kingdom of Imerina’. D.Phil. Oxford, 1980.
Emerson, B. Leopold II of the Belgians, King of colonialism. London, 1979.
Enes, A. Moçambique. 2nd edn, Lisbon, 1913.
Engelbrecht, S. P. Thomas François Burgers: a biography. Pretoria, 1946.
Engelenburg, F. W. General Louis Botha. London, 1929.
Erlich, H.Alula, “The son of Qubi”: a “King's Man” in northern Ethiopia’, J. Afr. Hist., 1974, 15, 2, 261–74.
Esmail, A.Towards a history of Islam in East Africa’, Kenya Hist. Reviesw, 1975, 3, 1, 147–58.
Esterhuyse, J. H. South West Africa, 1880–94: the establishment of German authority. Cape Town, 1968.
Etherington, N. A.Labour supply and the genesis of the South African Confederation in the 1870s’, J. Afr. Hist., 1979, 20, 2.
Etherington, N. A.Mission Station melting pots as a factor in th rise of South African nationalism’, Int. J. Afr. Hist. Studies, 1976, 9, 4.
Etherington, N. A. Preachers, peasants and politics in South-east Africa, 1835–80. London, 1978.
Etherington, N.Frederic Elton and the South African factor in the making of Britain's East African empire’, J. Imp. C'wealth. Hist., 1981, 9, 3, 256–74.
Etherington, N.Theories of Imperialism in Southern Africa re-visited’, African Affairs, 1982, 81, 324, 385–407.
Etherington, N.Theories of imperialism in Southern Africa revisited’, African Affairs, 1982, 81, 324, 385–407.
Etherington, N. Preachers, peasants and politics in southeast Africa, 1835–1880: African Christian communities in Natal, Pondoland and Zululand. London, 1978.
Evans-Pritchard, E. E. The Azande: history and political institutions. Oxford, 1971.
Evans-Pritchard, E. E. The Sanusi of Cyrenaica. Oxford, 1949.
Eybers, G. W. (ed.), Select constitutional documents illustrating South African history 1795–1910. London, 1918.
Faber, R. The vision and the need: late Victorian imperial Aims. London, 1956.
Fage, J. D. A history of Africa. London, 1978.
Fage, J. D. A history of West Africa: an introductory survey (4th edn of An introduction to the history of West Africa). Cambridge, 1969.
Fallers, L. A., (ed.), The King's men; leadership and status in Buganda. London, 1964.
Faure, C. and Charpy, J. Repertoire des archives. Rufisque, 1955.
Feierman, S. The Shambaa kingdom. Madison, 1974.
Feis, H. Europe: The world's banker, 1870–1914. New Haven, 1930; reprinted New York, 1965.
Ficaya, P. Le peuplement italien en Tunisie. Paris, 1931.
Fieldhouse, D. K.“Imperialism” – an historiographical revision’, Econ. Hist. Review, 1961–2, 2nd series 14, 2, 187–209.
Fieldhouse, D. K. Economics and empire. London, 1973.
Fieldhouse, D. K. The theory of capitalist imperialism. London, 1967.
Fieldhouse, D. K. Unilever overseas: the anatomy of a multinational, 1895–1965. London, 1978.
Fika, A. M. The Kano civil war and British over-rule, 1882–1940. Ibadan, 1978.
Fisher, H.The early life and pilgrimage of al-Hājj Muhammad al-Amin the Soninke (d. 1887)’, J. Afr. Hist., 1970, 11, 1, 51–69.
FitzGerald, W. W. A. Travels in the coastlands of British East Africa and the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba. London, 1898.
Fitzpatrick, J. P. The Transvaal from within. London, 1899.
Flament, F. et al., La Force Publique de sa naissance à 1914. Brussels, 1952.
Flint, J. E.The Wider Background to Partition and Colonial Occupation’, in Oliver, R. and Mathew, G. History of East Africa (1963).
Flint, J. E. Cecil Rhodes. London, 1976.
Flint, J. E. Sir George Goldie and the making of Nigeria. London, 1960.
Flint, J. E. Sir George Goldie London, 1960.
Flint, J. Cecil Rhodes. London, 1976.
Ford, J. The role of the Trypanosomiases in African ecology: a study of the tsetse-fly problem. Oxford, 1971.
Ford, J. The role of the trypanosomiases in African ecology. Oxford, 1971.
Forde, C. D. and Kaberry, P. M. (ed.), West African kingdoms in the nineteenth century. London, 1967.
Fox-Bourne, H. R. Civilization in Congoland: a story of international wrong-doing. London, 1903.
Franc, J. Le chef d'oeuvre colonial de la France, la colonisation de la Mitidja. Algiers, 1928.
Frankel, S. H. Capital investment in Africa.. London, 1938.
Frankel, S. H. Investment and the return to capital in the South African gold mining industry. Cambridge, 1967.
Fraser, M. and Jeeves, A. (eds.), All that glittered: selected correspondence of Lionel Phillips 1890–1924. Cape Town, 1977.
Frontera, A.The Taveta economy in the pre-colonial period’, Kenya Hist.Review, 1977, 5, 1, 107–14.
Fyfe, C. H. A history of Sierra Leone. Oxford, 1962.
Gabre-Sellassic, Z. Yohannes IV of Ethiopia. Oxford, 1975.
Gabre-Sellassie, Z. Yohannes IV Oxford, 1975.
Gaitskell, D. L.Female mission initiatives: black and white women in three Witwaterstand churches, 1903–1939’, Ph.D. London, 1981.
Galbraith, J. S.Cecil Rhodes and his “cosmic dreams”: a reassessment’, J. Imp. Cwealth. Hist., 1973, 1, 2, 173–89.
Galbraith, J. S.Engine without a governor: the early years of the British South Africa Company’, Rhodesian History, 1970, 1.
Galbraith, J. S.The trial of Arabi Pasha’, J. Imp. C'wealth Hist., 1979, 7, 3, 274–92.
Galbraith, J. S. Crown and Charter: the early years of the British South Africa Company. Berkeley, Calif., 1974.
Galbraith, J. S. Mackinnon and East Africa, 1878–95. Cambridge, 1972.
Gallagher, J. and Robinson, R.The imperialism of Free Trade’, Econ. Hist. Review, 1953, 2nd series, 6, 1, 1–15.
Gallieni, J. S. La pacification de Madagascar. Paris, 1900.
Gallieni, J. S. Lettres de Madagascar. Paris, 1928.
Gallieni, J. S. Madagascar de 1896 à 1905, 2 vols. Tananarive, 1905.
Gallieni, J. S. Neuf ans à Madagascar. Paris, 1908.
Gallieni, J. S. Rapport d'ensemble sur la pacification, l'organisation et la colonisation de Madagascar, 1896–9. Paris, 1899.
Gandhi, M. K. Satyagraha in South Africa. Ahmedabad, 1928.
Ganiage, J., and Deschamps, H. L'Afrique au XXe siècle (1900–1966). Paris, 1966.
Ganiage, J.La population de la Tunisie vers 1860. Essai d'évaluation d'après les registres fiscaux’, Etudes magbrébines, 1964, 115–98.
Ganiage, J.Un épisode du partage de l'Afrique: les affaires du bas Niger (1894–1898), Revue Historique, 1975, 254, 515, 149–88.
Ganiage, J.Une affaire tunisienne, l'affaire de l'Enfida”, Revue africaine, 1955, 341–78.
Ganiage, J. L'expansion colonial de la France sous la Troisème République. Paris, 1968.
Ganiage, J. L'expansion coloniale et les rivalités internationales (1871–1914), 2 vols. Paris, 1974–5.
Ganiage, J. L'expansion coloniale Paris, 1968.
Ganiage, J. La population européenne de Tunis au milieu du XIXe siècle. Tunis, 1960.
Ganiage, J. Les origines du protectorat français en Tunisie, 1861–1881. Tunis, 1959 (2nd edn 1968).
Ganiage, J. Origines du protectorat Tunis, 1959 (2nd edn 1968).
Ganiage, J. Une entreprise italienne de Tunisie au milieu du XIXe siècle. La thonaire de Sidi Daoud. Tunis, 1960.
Ganier, G.Lat Dyor et le chemin de fer de I'arachide (1876–86)’, Bulletin de l'I.F.A.N., 1965, series 8, 27, 223–81.
Gann, L. H. and Duignan, P. The rulers of Belgian Africa 1884–1914. Princeton, 1979.
Gann, L. H. A history of Northern Rhodesia, early days to 1953. London, 1964.
Gann, L. H. A history of Southern Rhodesia: early days to 1934. London, 1965.
Gann, L. H. The birth of a plural society under the British South Africa Company: Northern Rhodesia 1894–1914. Oxford, 1959.
Gann, L. H. and Duignan, P., (eds.), Colonialism in Africa 1870–1960 (Cambridge, 1969–75): I, The history and politics of colonialism, 1870–1914 (1969); II, The history and politics of colonialism, 1914–1960 (1970 – reprinted 1982); III, Profiles of change: African society and colonial rule, ed. Turner, V. (1971); IV, The economics of colonialism (1975); V, A bibliographical guide to colonialism in Africa (1973).
Garcia, L. M.Archives et tradition orale. A propos d'une enquête sur la politique du royaume de Danhomé à la fin du 19e siècle’, Cahiers d'études africaines, 1976, 16 (61–2), 189–206.
Garson, N. G.The Swaziland question and a road to the sea, 1887–95’, Archives Year Book for South African History, vol. 11, 1957.
Garvey, B.The development of the White Fathers' mission among the Bemba-speaking peoples, 1891–1964’, Ph.D. London, 1974.
Garvin, J. L. The life of Joseph Chamberlain, 3 vols. London, 1932–4.
Gaulme, F. Le pays de Cama, un ancien Etat côtier du Gabon et ses origines. Paris, 1981.
Gautier, E. F. Trois Héros. Paris, 1931.
Gbadamosi, G. O. Islam among the Yoruba London, 1979.
Gbadamosi, T. G. O. The growth of Islam among the Yoruba, 1841–1908. London, 1979.
Gelfand, M. Lakeside pioneers. Oxford, 1964.
Gellner, E. Saints of the Atlas. London, 1969.
Gertzel, C. J.Relations between African and European traders in the Niger Delta, 1880–1896’, J. Afr. Hist., 1962, 3, 2, 361–6.
Gertzel, C. J.Relations between African and European Traders in the Niger Delta’, J. Afr. Hist., 1962, 3, 2, 361–66.
Gertzel, C.Commercial organisation on the Niger coast, 1852–1891’, Historians in Tropical Africa (Leverhulme Foundation). Salisbury (Harare), 1962, 289–304.
Gessi, R. Sette anni nel Sudan Egiziano. Milan, 1891; 2nd edn, 1930.
Gessi, R. English trans., Seven years in the Soudan. London, 1892.
Geyer, F. X. Durch Sand, Sumpf und Wald: Missionsreisen in Zentral-Afrika. Freiburg im Breisgau, 1914.
Ghada, Hashem Talhami Suakin and Massawa under Egyptian rule, 1865–1885. Washington, D.C., 1979.
Ghada, Hashem Talhami Suakin and Massawa Washington, D.C., 1979.
Gheusi, Gallieni et Madagascar. Paris, 1931.
Giaccardi, A. La conquistà di Tunisi. Milan, 1940.
Gibb, H. A. R. Modern trends in Islam. Chicago, 1947.
Gifford, P. and Louis, W. R., (eds.), Britain and Germany in Africa. New Haven, 1967.
Gifford, P., and Louis, W. R. (eds.), France and Britain in Africa. New Haven, 1971.
Giglio, C. and Lodoiini, E. Guida delle Fonti per la Storia dell' Africa a Sud del Sahara esistenti in Italia, 2 vols. Zug, Switzerland, 1973, 1974.
Giglio, C. Inventario delle Fonti manuscritte relative alia Storia dell' Africa del Nord esistenti in Italia, 2 vols. Leiden, 1971, 1972.
Giglio, C. L'Italia in Africa: Etiopia–Mar Rosso, 5 vols. Rome, 1958–72. Inventario….
Giglio, C. L'Italia in Africa Rome, 1958–72.
Gilmour, T. L. The Ethiopian railway and the Powers. London, 1906.