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    Phillips, Andrew 2018. Contesting the Confucian peace: Civilization, barbarism and international hierarchy in East Asia. European Journal of International Relations, Vol. 24, Issue. 4, p. 740.

    Bang, Peter Fibiger 2011. The Roman Empire in Context. p. 322.

    Ng‐Quinn, Michael 2006. The Normative Justification of Traditional Chinese Authoritarianism. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy, Vol. 9, Issue. 3, p. 379.

  • Print publication year: 1986
  • Online publication date: March 2008

13 - The concept of sovereignty

One of the principal legacies that the Han dynasty bequeathed to its successors was the demonstration that imperial sovereignty was a respectable means of government which statesmen could serve with loyalty and with due deference to the ethical ideals on which they had been nurtured. The establishment of the Ch'in empire as the sole effective political authority that could expect to command obedience was an innovation in political practice. One of the earliest contributions to political theory to be written during the Han period is the Hsin-yii of Lu Chia. According to Lu Chia, Ch'in's failure had been due to its excessive application of punishments, its arrogance, and its extravagance. Wang Ch'ung could hardly be expected to agree that Heaven is willing to interfere in the affairs of man to the extent of specifically conferring authority to rule on a particular dynastic house.
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