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    Selbitschka, Armin 2015. Miniature tomb figurines and models in pre-imperial and early imperial China: origins, development and significance. World Archaeology, Vol. 47, Issue. 1, p. 20.

  • Print publication year: 1986
  • Online publication date: March 2008

11 - The economic and social history of Later Han

This chapter describes and analyzes major structural changes in the economy and society, such as the reorganization of agricultural production, the emergence of new forms of local organization, and the continuing evolution of the composition of the upper class in Han period. In the Later Han period, commerce and industry were not subject to as much political interference as they had been in the first century BC and during Wang Mang's reign. The evidence for the continued flourishing of interregional trade through Later Han is largely circumstantial. Land transportation in north China was probably as good during Later Han as it was in any period before modern times. Scholars approaching Han society from a variety of standpoints have perceived a major change in the organization of rural communities. Social stratification underwent gradual change during the Later Han. The Hou-Han shu describes a few cases of extremely prolonged prominence or of extremely fast social rise.
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