Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Selbitschka, Armin 2015. Miniature tomb figurines and models in pre-imperial and early imperial China: origins, development and significance. World Archaeology, Vol. 47, Issue. 1, p. 20.

    ×
  • Print publication year: 1986
  • Online publication date: March 2008

11 - The economic and social history of Later Han

Summary
This chapter describes and analyzes major structural changes in the economy and society, such as the reorganization of agricultural production, the emergence of new forms of local organization, and the continuing evolution of the composition of the upper class in Han period. In the Later Han period, commerce and industry were not subject to as much political interference as they had been in the first century BC and during Wang Mang's reign. The evidence for the continued flourishing of interregional trade through Later Han is largely circumstantial. Land transportation in north China was probably as good during Later Han as it was in any period before modern times. Scholars approaching Han society from a variety of standpoints have perceived a major change in the organization of rural communities. Social stratification underwent gradual change during the Later Han. The Hou-Han shu describes a few cases of extremely prolonged prominence or of extremely fast social rise.
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The Cambridge History of China
  • Online ISBN: 9781139054737
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521243278
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
×
Amano, Motonosuke. Chūgoku nōgyōshi kenkyū. Tokyo: Nōgyō Sōgō Kenkyūjo, 1962.
Balazs, Étienne. “Political philosophy and social crisis at the end of the Han dynasty.” In his Chinese civilization and bureaucracy: Variations on a theme, trans. Wright, H. M., ed. Wright, Arthur F.. New Haven and London: Yale Univ. Press, 1964.
Ch'ü, T'ung-tsu. Han social structure, ed. Dull, Jack L.. Seattle and London: Univ. of Washington Press, 1972.
Ch'en, Chih. Liang Han ching-chi shih-liao lun-ts'ung. Sian: Shensi Jen-min Ch'u-pan-she, 1958; rpt. 1980.
Chu, Ch'eng-chang. “Shou-hsien An-feng-t'ang Han-tai sao-kung wen-t'i ti t'an-t'ao”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1979.5.
de Crespigny, Rafe. The records of the Three Kingdoms. Australian National University Centre of Oriental Studies, Occasional Paper no. 9. Canberra: Australian National Univ. Press, 1970.
Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. The aristocratic families of early imperial China: A case study of the Po-ling Ts'ui family. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1978. [abbreviation: Aristocratic families]
Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. “Later Han stone inscriptions”. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 40 (1980).
Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. “Patron-client relations in the Later Han”. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 103: 3 (July-September. 1983).
Elvin, Mark. The pattern of the Chinese past. London: Eyre Methuen, 1973. Fa-yen.> See Yang Hsiung.
Fan, Wen-Ian. Chung-kuo t'ung-shih. Peking: Jen-min Ch'upan-she, 1965.
Fujita, Katsuhisa. “‘Shimin gatsurei’ no seikaku ni tsuite Kan dai gunken no shakaizō”. Tōhōgaku, 67 (1984).
Goi, Naohiro. “Go-Kan ōchō to gōzoku”. Iwanami Kōza Sekai rekishi. Kodai, Vol. IV: Higashi Ajia sekai no keisei, Part I. Tokyo: Iwanami shoten, 1970.
Hayashi, Minao. Kandai no bunbutsu. Kyoto: Kyōto Daigaku Jinbun Kagaku Kenkyūjo, 1976.
Hiranaka, Reiji. “T'ien-tsu or land tax and its reduction and exemption in case of natural calamities in the Han period.” 3 parts. Memoirs of the Research Department of the Tōyō Bunko, 31 (1973) ; 32 (1974). ; 33 (1975). [abbreviation: “Land tax”]
Ho, Ch'ang-ch'ün. Han T'ang chien feng-chien t'u-ti so-yu-chih hsing-shih yen-chiu. Shanghai: Jen-min Ch'u-pan-she, 1964. [abbreviation: Han T'ang t'u-ti so-yu-chih]
Ho-nan, sheng po-wu-kuan. “Ling-pao Chang-wan Han mu”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1975. 11.
Holzman, Donald. “Les débuts du système médiéval de choix et de classement des fonctionnaires: Les neuf catégories et l'lmpartial et Juste.” Mélanges publiés par l' Institut des Hautes Études Chinoises, 1 (1957).
Hsü, Heng-pin. “Kuang-tung Fo-shan shih-chiao Lan-shih Tung-Han mu fa-chüeh pao-kao”, ed. wei-yüan-hui, Kuang-tung sheng wen-wu kuan-li. Kaogu (formerly K'ao-ku t'ung-hs¨n), 1964.9.
Hulsewé, A. F. P.‘Contracts’ of the Han period.” In Il diritto in Cina, ed. Lanciotti, L.. Florence: Olschki, 1978. [abbreviation: “Contracts”]
Kan-su, sheng po-wu-kuan. “Wu-wei Mo-chü-tzu san tso Han mu fa-chüeh chien pao”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1972.12.
Karlgren, Bernhard. “The Book of documents.” Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, 22 (1950).
Lao, Kan. “Han-tai ti ku-yung chih-tu”. Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 23 (1951).
Lao, Kan. “Liang Han hu-chi yü ti-li chih kuan-hsi”. Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 5: 2 (1935).
Lao, Kan. English translation, “Population and geography in the two Han dynasties,” Chinese social history, eds. Sun, E-tu Zen and Francis, John. Washington D.C.: American Council of Learned Societies, 1956.
Lao, Kan. “Lun Han-tai chih lu-yün yü shui-yün”. Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 16 (1947).
Lee, James. “Migration and expansion in Chinese history.” In Human migration: Patterns and policies, eds. McNeill, William H. and Adams, Ruth. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1978.
Levy, Howard. “Yellow Turban religion and rebellion at the end of Han.Journal of the American Oriental Society, 76 (1956).
Li, Chien-nung. Hsien-Ch'in liang Han ching-chi shih kao. Peking: Sheng-huo, Tu-shu, Hsin-chih San-lien Shu-tien, 1957.
Liu, Chih-yüan (posthumous). “K'ao-ku ts'ai-liao so chien Han-tai ti Ssu-ch'uan nung-yeh”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1979.12..
Lo-yang, ch'ü k'ao-ku fa-chüeh-tui. Lo-yang Shao-kou Han mu. Peking: Chung-kuo K'so-hsüeh-yüan, 1959.
Loewe, Michael. Records of Han administration. 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1967. [abbreviation: Records]
Ma, Fei-pai. “Ch'in-Han ching-chi-shih tzu-liao”. Shihhuo, 2:8 (1935) ; 2: 10 (1935) : 3: 1 (1936) : 3: 2 (1936) ; 3:3 (1936) : 3:8 (1936) ; 3: 9 (1936).
Masubuchi, Tatsuo. Chūgoku kodai no shakai to kokka. Tokyo: Kōbundō, 1960.
Mather, Richard B., trans. Shih-shuo hsin-yü: A new account of tales of the world. By I-ch'ing., Liu, commentary by Chun, Liu. Translated with introduction and notes. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1976.
Needham, Joseph. The development of iron and steel technology in China. London: Newcomen Society, 1958. [abbreviation: Development of iron and steel]
Niida, Noboru. Chūgoku hōseishi kenkyū: Tochihō, torihikihō. Tokyo: Tōky¯ Daigaku Shuppan Kai, 1960.
P'an, Chi-hsing. Chung-kuo tsao-chih chi-shu shih kao. Peking: Wen-wu Ch'u-pan she, 1979.
Stein, R. A.Remarques sur les mouvements du taoisme politico-religieux au IIe siècle ap. J. C.T'oung Pao, 50 (1963). [abbreviation: “Remarques”]
Swann, Nancy Lee. Food and money in ancient China. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1950.
T'ang, Ch'ang-ju. Wei-Chin Nan-pei-ch'ao shih lun ts'ung. Peking: Sheng-huo, Tu-shu, Hsin-chih San-lien Shu-tien, 1955.
Tada, Kensuke. “Go-Kan gōzoku no nōgyō keiei”. Rekishigaku Kenkjū, 286 (1964.3).
Tada, Kensuke. “Kandai no chihō shōgyō ni tsuite”. Shichō, 92 (1965).
Utsunomiya, Kiyoyoshi. Kandai shakai keizaishi kenkyū. Tokyo: Kobund¯, 1955.
, Ying-shihHan-Chin chih chi shih chih hsin tzu-chüeh yü hsin ssu-ch'ao”. Hsin-ya hsūeh-pao, 4: 1 (August 1959).
, Ying-shih. Trade and expansion in Han China: A study in the structure of Sino-barbarian economic relations Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press, 1967. [abbreviation: Trade and expansion]
Yin, Ti-fei. “An-hui sheng Shou-hsien An-feng-t'ang fa-hsien Han-tai cha-pa kung-ch'eng i-chihWenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1960.1.
Yoshinami, Takashi. Shin Kan teikokushi kenkyū Tokyo: Miraisha, 1978.