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    Blanchard, Jean-Marc F. and Lin, Kun-Chin 2013. Contemplating Chinese Foreign Policy: Approaches to the Use of Historical Analysis. Pacific Focus, Vol. 28, Issue. 2, p. 145.

  • Print publication year: 1980
  • Online publication date: March 2008

2 - Late Ch'ing foreign relations, 1866–1905

Late Ch'ing foreign relations must be examined both in the global context of intensified imperialism and shifting power configurations among the leading Western states and Japan, and also against the background of the progressive decline of Manchu rule and the disintegration of the imperial tradition of foreign intercourse. The last three decades of the nineteenth century were a period of accelerated foreign imperialism in China. Korea, regarded by the Chinese as a valuable 'outer fence' of North China, was a leading tributary state during Ming and Ch'ing times. The Japanese minister in Peking warned Prince Ch'ing that any concession on the Russian occupation of Manchuria would lead to the partition of China. It was clear that if the Anglo-Japanese Alliance led to a Russo-Japanese understanding, China would be the loser, and if it led to a war, Chinese territory would be the battleground, and China would be at the mercy of the victor.
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