Skip to main content
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 2
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Lara, Myra Mijares, Armand Salvador B. Satumbaga, Dawn de Castro, Llenel Ramos, Jeanne and Recto, Evangeline 2017. Archaeological recognition of mortuary behavior in Callao Cave, northern Luzon, Philippines through taphonomic analysis of isolated human remains. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, Vol. 9, Issue. 6, p. 1169.

    Tupas, Ruanni and Sercombe, Peter 2014. Language, Education and Nation-building. p. 1.

  • Print publication year: 1993
  • Online publication date: March 2008

2 - Southeast Asia before History

Southeast Asia is a region of anthropological and archaeological complexity. This chapter considers the environment of the region and examines how it may have changed through time. It discusses the present-day environments, climate and vegetation, changing nature, early humans, archaeological record, and the expansion of agricultural communities of Southeast Asia. The record of human settlement in Southeast Asia extends back in time for about one million years. During that time the landscapes and climates of the region have fluctuated considerably, according to the cyclical rhythm of changes associated with the Pleistocene glaciations in temperate latitudes. Remains of early humans of the species Homo erectus have been recovered extensively in Java and China. The late prehistoric archaeological record from the islands of Southeast Asia differs markedly from that of the northern mainland. Evidence from comparative linguistics suggest that some Austronesian societies were at least lightly ranked, especially in Java where Austronesian chiefly titles to have been retained from prehistoric times.
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia
  • Online ISBN: 9781139055475
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
A., and Zide, N., ‘Proto-Munda cultural vocabulary: evidence for early agriculture’, in Jenner, P. N., et al., eds, Austroasiatic Studies, Honolulu, 1976, II.
Adelaar, K. A., Proto-Malayic, Alblasserdam, Netherlands, 1985.
Ahmad, M. T. and Zain, Z. M., eds, Rekonstruksi dan Cabang-Cabang Bahasa Melayu Induk’, Kuala Lumpur, 1988
Ambrose, W., ‘An early bronze artefact from Papua New Guinea’, Antiquity, 62 (1988).
Ammerman, A. J. and Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., The Neolithic Transition and the Genetics of Populations in Europe, Princeton, 1984.
Anderson, D., ‘A Pleistocene–early Holocene rock shelter in Peninsular Thailand’, National Geographic Research, 3 (1987).
Bailey, R. C. et al., ‘Hunting and gathering in tropical rainforest: is it possible?’, American Anthropologist, 91 (1989)
Barbier, J. P. and Newton, D., eds, Islands and ancestors; indigenous styles of Southeast Asia, New York, 1988
Bartstra, G.-J., ‘The vertebrate-bearing deposits of Kedungbrubus and Trinil, Java, Indonesia’, ibid., 62 (1983)
Bartstra, G.-J., Soegondho, S. and Wijk, A., ‘Ngandong man: age and artefacts’, Journal of Human Evolution, 17 (1988).
Bayard, D. T., Non Nok Tha: the 1968 excavations, Dunedin, 1972.
Bayard, D., The Pa Mong Archaeological Survey Programme, 1973–5, Dunedin: Otago University Department of Anthropology, 1980
Begley, V., ‘Arikamedu reconsidered’, American journal of Archaeology, 87 (1983)
Bellwood, P., ‘From Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene in Sundaland’, in Gamble, C. and Soffer, O., eds, The Late Palaeolithic Global Record, II, London, 1990.
Bellwood, P., ‘The impact of sea level changes on Pacific prehistory’, Journal of Pacific History, 22 (1987).
Bellwood, P., Man’s Conquest of the Pacific, Auckland, 1978
Bellwood, P., Archaeological Research in South-eastern Sabah, Sabah Museum Monograph 2, Kota Kinabalu, 1988.
Bellwood, P., ‘Plants, climate and people; the early horticultural prehistory of Indonesia’, in Fox, J. J., ed., Indonesia: the Making of a Culture, Canberra, 1980.
Bellwood, P., ‘Cultural and biological differentiation in Peninsular Malaysia; the last 10,000 years’, paper presented at 2nd International Conference on Malay Civilization, Kuala Lumpur, August 1989.
Bellwood, P. and Koon, P., ‘Lapita colonists leave boats unbumed! The question of Lapita links with Island Southeast Asia’, Antiquity, 63 (1989).
Bellwood, P. and Omar, M., ‘Trade patterns and political developments in Brunei and adjacent areas, AD 700–1500’, Brunei Museum journal, 4, 4 (1980).
Benedict, , Austro-Thai Language and Culture, New Haven, 1976
Benjamin, G., ‘Austroasiatic subgroupings and prehistory in the Malay Peninsula’, in Jenner, P. N., et al., eds, Austroasiatic Studies, Honolulu, 1976
Benjamin, G., ‘Ethnohistorical perspectives on Kelantan’s prehistory’, in Shuhaimi, Nik Hassan, ed., Kelantan Zaman Awal, Kota Bharu, 1987.
Bezacier, L., La Viêtnam: tie la Prehistoire à la Fin de L’Occupation Chinoise, Paris, 1972, fig. 121.
Bintarti, D. D., ‘Lewoleba, sebuah situs masa presejarah di Pulau Lembata’ in Pertemuan Ilmiah Arkeologi, ke–IV. vol. Ha, Jakarta: Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi Nasional, 1986.
Bintarti, D. D., ‘Analisis fungsional nekara perunggu dari Lamongan, Jawa Timur’, Per-temuan Ilmiah Arkeologi ke-III, Jakarta: Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi Nasional, 1985.
Blust, R. A., ‘Linguistic evidence for some early Austronesian taboos’, American Anthropologist, 83 (1981).
Brace, C. L., ‘Tooth size and Austronesian origins’, in Naylor, P., ed., Austronesian Studies, Ann Arbor, 1980.
Brauer, G., ‘The “Afro-European sapiens hypothesis”, and hominid evolution in East Asia’, in Andrews, P. and Franzen, J. L., eds., The Early Evolution of Man, Frankfurt: Senckenberg Institute, 1984.
Broecker, W. S. et al., ‘New evidence from the South China Sea for an abrupt termination of the last glacial period’, Nature, 33 (1988)
Budisampurno, S., ‘Kerangka manusia dari Bukit Kelambai Stabat, Sumatera Utara’, Pertemuan Ilmiah Arkeologi ke-III, Jakarta, 1985.
Bulbeck, D., ‘A re-evaluation of possible evolutionary processes in Southeast Asia since the Late Pleistocene’, Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, Canberra., 3 (1982).
Bulbeck, D., ‘Survey of open archaeological sites in South Sulawesi, 1986–7’, Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, Canberra., 7 (1986–7).
Cann, R. L., Stoneking, M. and Wilson, A. C., ‘Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution’, Nature, 325 (1987)
Chang, K. C., Archaeology of Ancient China, New Haven, 1986.
Chang, T. T., ‘The ethnobotany of rice in Island Southeast Asia’, Asian Perspectives, Honolulu., 26 (1988)
Chappell, J. and Shackleton, N. J., ‘Oxygen isotopes and sea level’, Nature, 324 (1986)
Ciochon, R. L. and Olsen, J. W., ‘Palaeoanthropological and archaeological research in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam’, Journal of Human Evolution, 15 (1986).
Clark, J. D. and Brandt, S. A., eds., From Hunters to Farmers, Berkeley, 1984.
Cooper, Z., ‘Archaeological explorations in the Andaman Islands’, Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, Canberra., 6 (1985).
Cuong, Nguyen Lang, ‘An early Hoabinhian skull from Vietnam’, Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, Canberra., 7 (1986–7)
Dien, A. E. et al., eds, Chinese Archaeological Abstracts, Los Angeles: University of California Institute of Archaeology, 1985, II.
Diffloth, G., ‘Austro-Asiatic languages’, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edn, Macropaedia, 2, 1974
Dove, M. R., Swidden Agriculture in Indonesia, Berlin, 1985.
Dunn, F., ‘Radiocarbon dating of the Malayan NeolithicProceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 32 (1966).
Dyen, I., ‘A Lexicostatistical Classification of the Austronesian languages’, International Journal of American Linguistics, Memoir 19, 1965.
,Earl of Cranbrook, ‘The contribution of archaeology to the zoogeography of Borneo’, Fieldiana, Zoology, 42 (1988)
Feldman, J., ed., The Eloquent Dead, Los Angeles, 1985
Fisher, A., ‘The emergence of humanness’, Mosaic, 19, 1 (1988).
Flenley, J. R., ‘Late Quaternary changes of vegetation and climate in the Malesian mountains’, Erdwissenschaftliche Forschung, 18 (1984)
Flenley, J., ‘Palynological evidence for land use changes in Southeast Asia’, ibid., 15 (1988).
Folan, W. J. and Hyde, B. H., ‘The significance of the clay rollers of the Ban Chiang culture, Thailand’, Asian Perspectives, Honolulu., 23 (1980).
Fontaine, H. and Than, Hoang Thi, ‘Nouvelle note sur le champ de jarres funeraires de Phu Hoa’, Bulletin de la Societé des Études Indochinoises, 51 (1975)
Fontaine, H., ‘A note on the Iron Age in southern Vietnam’, Journal of the Hong Kong Archaeological Society, 8 (1979).
Friedlaender, J. S., ed., The Solomon Islands Project, Oxford, 1987.
Geraghty, P., Carrington, L. and Wurm, S. A., eds, ‘The Barrier Island languages in the Austronesian family’, Focal 11: Papers from the Fourth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics, Canberra, 1986.
Gibbons, J. and Clunie, F., ‘Sea level changes and Pacific prehistory’, Journal of Pacific History, 21 (1986)
Glover, I., ‘Leang Burung 2’, Modern Quaternary Research in Southeast Asia, Rotterdam., 6 (1981).
Glover, I., Archaeology in Eastern Timor, Terra Australis II, Canberra, 1986.
Glover, I. and Presland, G., ‘Microliths in Indonesian flaked stone industries’, in Misra, V. N. and Bellwood, P., eds, Recent Advances in Indo-Pacific Prehistory, New Delhi, 1985.
Glover, I. C., Early Trade between India and South-East Asia, Hull, 1989.
Gorman, C., ‘The Hoabinhian and after’, World Archaeology, 2 (1971)
Gorman, C., ‘Hoabinhian: a pebble-tool complex with early plant associations in Southeast Asia’, Science, 163 (1969)
Groves, C., ‘Plio-Pleistocene mammals in Island Southeast Asia’, Modern Quaternary Research in Southeast Asia, Rotterdam., 9 (1985).
Ha, Le Krung, ‘First remarks on the Quaternary fossil fauna of northern Viet Nam’, Vietnamese Studies, 46 (1978)
Headland, T. N., ‘The wild yam question: how well could independent hunter-gatherers live in a tropical rain forest ecosystem?’, Human Ecology, 15 (1987)
Headland, T. N. and Reid, L. A., ‘Hunter-gatherers and their neighbours from prehistory to the present’, Current Anthropology, 30 (1989).
Headland, T., Why Foragers do not Become Farmers, University Microfilms International, 1986.
Heaney, L. R., ‘Zoogeographic evidence for Middle and Late Pleistocene land bridges to the Philippine Islands’, Modern Quaternary Research in Southeast Asia, Rotterdam., 9 (1985).
Heaney, L. R., ‘Biogeography of mammals in Southeast Asia: estimates of rates of colonization, extinction and speciation’, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 28 (1986).
Heaney, L. R., ‘Mammalian species richness on the Sunda Shelf’, Oecologia, 61 (1984).
Heng, Leang Sau, ‘A tripod pottery complex in Peninsula Malaysia’, in , I. C. and Glover, E. A., eds, Southeast Asian Archaeology 1986, Oxford, 1990
Higham, C., The Archaeology of Mainland Southeast Asia, Cambridge, UK, 1989.
Higham, C. et al., ‘Khok Phanom Di: the results of the 1984–5 season’, Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, Canberra., 7 (1986–7)
Higham, C., ‘Social organisation at Khok Phanom Di, central Thailand, 2000–1500 BC’, Arts Asiatiques, 44 (1989).
Higham, C. and Kijngam, A., Prehistoric Investigations in Northeastern Thailand, Oxford, 1984
Higham, C., ‘Prehistoric metallurgy in Southeast Asia’, in Maddin, R., ed., The Beginning of the Use of Metals and Alloys, Cambridge, Mass., 1988
Hill, A. V. S. and Serjeantson, S., eds., The Colonization of the Pacific: a Genetic Trail, Oxford, 1989.
Hill, A. and Serjeantson, S., eds, The Colonization of the Pacific: a Genetic Trail, Oxford, 1989.
Hoffman, C. L., ‘Punan foragers in the trading networks of Southeast Asia’, in Schrire, C., ed., Past and Present in Hunter Gatherer Studies, Orlando, 1984.
Hollman, D. and Spennemann, D. H. R., ‘A note on the metallurgy of Southeast Asian kettle-drums’, Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, Canberra., 6 (1985)
Hooijer, D. A., ‘The Middle Pleistocene fauna of Java’, in Kurth, G., ed., Evolution und Hominization, Stuttgart, 1968
Hooijer, D. A., ‘Facts and fiction around the fossil mammals of Java’, ibid., 62 (1983).
Hoskins, Janet, ‘So my name shall live’, Bijdragen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, ’s-Gravenhage., 142 (1986).
Huairen, Yang and Zhiren, Xie, ‘Sea level changes in east China over the past 20,000 years’, in Whyte, R. O., ed., The Evolution of the East Asian Environment, Hong Kong, 1984
Hutterer, K., Rambo, A. T. and Lovelace, G., eds, ‘In the long term; three themes in Malayan cultural ecology’, Cultural Values and Human Ecology in Southeast Asia, Ann Arbor, 1985
Hutterer, K., ‘The evolution of Philippine lowland societies’, Mankind, 9 (1974)
Johnson, R. K. and Decker, B. G., ‘Implications of the distribution of native names for cotton (Gossypium spp.) in the Indo-Pacific’, Asian Perspectives, Honolulu., 23 (1983).
Kempers, A. J. Bernet, (The Kettledrums of Southeast Asia, Rotterdam, 1988)
Kirk, R. L., ‘Human genetic diversity in south-east Asia and the western Pacific’, in Roberts, D. F. and Stefano, G. F., eds., Genetic Variation and its Maintenance, Cambridge, 1986
Leinders, J. M., Azis, F., Sondaar, P. Y. and Vos, J., ‘The age of the hominid-bearing deposits of Java’, Geologie en Mijnbouw, 64 (1985).
Leinders, J. J. M. et al., ‘The age of the hominid-bearing deposits of Java: state of the art’, Geologie en Mijnbouw, 64, (1985).
Loofs-Wissowa, H., ‘Prehistoric and photohistoric links between the Indochinese Peninsula and the Philippines’, Journal of the Hong Kong Archaeological Society, 9 (1980–1).
Luca, A. P. Santa, The Ngandong Fossil Hominids, New Haven, 1980.
Majid, Z., ‘The West Mouth, Niah, in the prehistory of Southeast Asia’, Sarawak Museum Journal, 32 (1982).
Majid, Zuraina and Tjia, H. D., ‘Kota Tampan, Perak’, Journal of the Malay/Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Singapore/Kuala Lumpur., 61, 2 (1988).
Maloney, B. K., ‘Man’s impact on the rainforest of West Malesia; the palynological record’, Journal of Biogeography, 12 (1985)
Matsu’ura, S., ‘A chronological framing for the Sangiran hominids’, Bulletin of the National Science Museum, Tokyo, Series D, 8 (1982)
McConnell, J., ‘Preliminary report on a newly found bronze drum from Bali, Indonesia’, Indonesia Circle, 40 (1986).
Meacham, W., ‘C-14 dating of pottery’, Journal of the Hong Kong Archaeological Society, 11 (1984–5)
Meacham, W., ‘On the improbability of Austronesian origins in South China’, Asian Perspectives, Honolulu., 26 (1988)
Miller, J. I., The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire, Oxford, 1969.
Moore, E., Moated Sites in Early North East Thailand, Oxford, 1988.
Musser, G., ‘The mammals of Sulawesi’, in Whitmore, T. C., ed., Biogeographical Evolution of the Malay Archipelago, Oxford, 1987.
Musser, G., ‘The Giant Rat of Flores and its Relatives East of Borneo and Bali’, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 169 (1981)
Natapintu, S., ‘Current research on ancient copper-base metallurgy in Thailand’, in Charoenwongsa, Pisit and Bronson, Bennet, eds, Prehistoric Studies: the Stone and Metal Ages in Thailand, Bangkok. 1988.
Needham, J., ‘Iron and steel technology in East and Southeast Asia’, in Wertime, T. A. and Muhly, J. D., eds, The Coming of the Age of Iron, New Haven, 1980.
Nitta, Eiji, ‘Pre-Heger I bronze drums from Yunnan’, Shiroku, 18 (1985)
Norman, J. and Mei, T.-L., ‘The Austroasiatics in ancient South China, some lexical evidence’, Monumenta Serica, 32 (1976).
Padoch, C., ‘Labor efficiency and intensity of land use in rice production: an example from Kalimantan’, Human Ecology, 13 (1985).
Penny, J., The Petchabun Piedmont Survey, University Microfilms International, 1986
Peralta, J., ‘Ancient mariners of the Philippines’, Archaeology, 33, 5 (1980).
Pfeffer, P., ‘Fauna of humid tropical Asia’, in Natural Resources of Humid Tropical Asia, Paris: Unesco, 1974.
Pigott, V. and Natapintu, S., ‘The Thailand Archaeo-metallurgy Project: 1984–7’, paper presented to Conference on Ancient Chinese and Southeast Asian Bronze Age Cultures, Kioloa, Australia, February 1988.
Pigott, V., ‘Pre-industrial mineral exploitation and metal production in Thailand’, MASCA Journal, 3 (1986)
Pigott, V., (‘Prehistoric copper production in Southeast Asia; new evidence from central Thailand’, paper presented to the Circum-Pacific Prehistory Conference, Seattle, August 1989)
Pilditch, J., ‘The typology of the Ban Na Di jewellery, Proceedings of the International Conference on Thai Studies, Canberra, 1987, II.
Pope, G., ‘Recent advances in Far Eastern Paleoanthropology’, Annual Review of Anthropology, 17 (1988).
Pope, G., ‘Evidence of Early Pleistocene hominid activity from Lampang, northern Thailand’, Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, Canberra., 6 (1985)
Puech, P. F., ‘Tooth wear, diet and the artifacts of Java Man’, Current Anthropology, 24 (1983).
Rawson, J., ed., The Chinese Bronzes of Yunnan, London, 1983.
Reid, L. A., ‘The early switch hypothesis: linguistic evidence for contact between Negritos and Austronesians’, Man and Culture in Oceania, 3 (1987).
Reid, , ‘Benedict’s Austro-Tai hypothesis; an evaluation’, Asian Perspectives, Honolulu., 26 (1988).
Rightmire, G. P., ‘Homo erectus and later Middle Pleistocene humans’, Annual Review of Anthropology, 17 (1988).
Ruhlen, M., A Guide to the World’s Languages, Stanford, 1987.
Rutnin, S., ‘Prehistory of Western Udon Thani and Udon region, northeast Thailand’, Proceedings of the International Conference on Thai Studies, Canberra, 1987, III, part 2.
Sartono, S., ‘the stratigraphy of the Sambung Mekan site in Central Java’, Modern Quaternary Research in Southeast Asia, Rotterdam., 5 (1979)
Sémah, A., ‘A preliminary report on a Sangiran pollen diagram’, ibid., 7 (1982)
Sémah, F., ‘Le peuplement ancien de Java: ébauche d’un cadre chronologique’, L’Anthropologie, 90 (1986)
Shuhaimi, Nik Hassan, ed., ‘Ethnohistorical perspectives on Kelantan’s prehistory’, Kelantan Zaman Awal, Kota Bharu, 1987.
Shuyun, Sun and Rubin, Han, ‘A preliminary study of early Chinese copper and bronze artefacts’, ibid., 9–10 (1983–5).
Smith, F. H. and Spencer, F., eds, ‘Prehistoric and modern tooth size in China’, The Origins of Modern Humans, New York, 1984.
Snow, B. E. et al., ‘Evidence of early rice cultivation in the Philippines’, Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society, 14 (1986).
Snoy, P., ed., ‘The distribution of Dongson drums: some thoughts’, Ethnologie und Geschichte, Wiesbaden, 1983.
Soejono, R. P., ‘New data on the Palaeolithic industry in Indonesia’, Congrès Internationale de Paléontologie Humaine, Pretirage Tome 2, Nice, 1982
Soejono, R. P., ‘Stone tools of Palaeolithic type from Lombok’, Man and Culture in Oceania, 3 (1987).
Soejono, R. P., ‘The significance of excavations at Gilimanuk (Bali)’, in Smith, R. B. and Watson, W., eds, Early South East Asia: Essays in Archaeology, History and Historical Geography, London and New York, 1979.
Solheim, W. G. II, ‘Reworking Southeast Asian prehistory’, Paideuma, 15 (1969).
Sorensen, P., ‘The prehistory of Thailand’, in Flon, C., ed., The World Atlas of Archaeology, London, 1985.
Sorensen, P., ‘Agricultural civilizations’, in Flon, C., ed., The World Atlas of Archaeology, London, 1985.
Sorensen, P., ‘The kettledrums from the Ongbah Cave’ in Sorensen, , ed, Archaeological Excavations in Thailand: Surface Finds and Minor Excavations, London, 1988.
Spriggs, M., ‘The dating of the Island South East Asian Neolithic’, Antiquity, 63 (1989).
Stringer, C. B. and Andrews, P., ‘Genetic and fossil evidence for the origin of modern humans’, Science, 239 (1988)
Sukendar, H., Laporan Penelitian Kepurbakalaan di Sulawesi Tengah, Jakarta: Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi Nasional, 1980.
Taha, Adi Haji, ‘The re-excavation of the rockshelter of Gua Cha, Ulu Kelantan, West Malaysia’, Federation Museums Journal, Kuala Lumpur., 30 (1985).
Tasa, G. L. et al., ‘Reflectometer reports on human pigmentation’, Current Anthropology, 26 (1985).
Taylor, K., The Birth of Vietnam, Berkeley, 1983.
Tenazas, R., ‘A progress report on the Magsuhot excavations ….‘, Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society, 2 (1974).
Thiel, B., ‘Austronesian origins and expansion; the Philippines archaeological data’, Asian Perspectives, Honolulu., 26 (1988).
Thurgood, G., ‘Benedict’s work: past and present’, in Thurgood, G., Matisoff, J. A. and Bradley, D., eds, Linguistics of the Sino-Tibetan Area: the State of the Art, Canberra 1985
Tooley, M. J. and Shennan, Ian, eds, Sea Level Changes, Oxford, 1987.
Turner, C. G. II, ‘ Teeth and prehistory in Asia’, Scientific American, February 1989.
van der Meer, N. C., Sawah Cultivation in Ancient Java, Canberra, 1979.
van Heekeren, H. R., The Stone Age of Indonesia, The Hague, 1972.
van Heekeren, H. R., The Bronze-Iron Age of Indonesia, The Hague, 1958
Van Tan, Ha, ‘The Late Pleistocene climate in Southeast Asia; new data from Vietnam’, Modern Quaternary Research in Southeast Asia, Rotterdam., 9 (1985).
Van Tan, Ha, Nouvelles recherches préhistoriques et protohistoriques au Viêt Nam’, Bulletin de l’École Française d’Extrême-Orient, Paris., 68, (1980)
Van Tan, Ha, ‘The Hoabinhian in the context of Viet Nam’, Vietnamese Studies, 46 (1978).
Vincent, B., Prehistoric Ceramics of Northeastern Thailand, Oxford, 1988.
von Dewall, M., ‘New evidence on the ancient bronze kettle-drum of South East Asia from recent Chinese finds‘ in Allchin, B., ed., South Asian Archaeology 1981, Cambridge, UK, 1984
Walker, D. and Xiangjun, Sun, ‘Vegetational and climatic changes at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition across the eastern tropics’, in The Palaeoenvironment of East Asia from the Mid-Tertiary, 1, Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong, 1988.
Walker, D., ‘Late Pleistocene-early Holocene vegetational and climatic changes in Yunnan Province, southwest China’, Journal of Biogeography, 13 (1986).
Walker, M. J. and Santoso, S., ‘Romano-Indian rouletted pottery in Indonesia’, Asian Perspectives, Honolulu., 20 (1977).
Watanabe, N. and Kadar, D., eds., Quaternary Geology of the Hominid Fossil Bearing Formations in Java, Bandung: Geological Research and Development Centre, 1985.
Wheeler, R. E. M., Ghosh, A. and Deva, K., ‘Arikamedu’, Ancient India, 2 (1946)
White, Joyce, ‘Origins of plant domestication in Southeast Asia’, in Bayard, D., ed., Southeast Asian Archaeology at the XV Pacific Science Congress, Dunedin, 1984.
White, Joyce, Ban Chiang, Philadelphia, 1982
White, P. T., ‘Laos’, National Geographic, 171, 6 (1987).
Wilen, R. N., Excavations at Non Pa Kluay, North-east Thailand, Oxford, 1989
Wisseman-Christie, J., ‘Raja and Rama: the classical state in early Java’, in Gesick, L., ed., Centers, Symbols and Hierarchies, New Haven, Yale University Southeast Asian Studies Monograph 26, 1983.
Wolpoff, , ‘Human evolution at the peripheries: the pattern at the eastern edge’, in Tobias, P. V., ed., Hominid evolution: past, present and future, New York, 1985.
Wolpoff, M., ‘Evolution in Homo erectus: the question of stasis’, Paleobiology, 10, 4 (1984).
Wolpoff, M. H., Wu, X. J. and Thome, A. G., ‘Modern Homo sapiens origins …’, in Smith, F. H. and Spencer, F., eds., The Origins of Modern Humans, New York, 1984.
Yen, D. E., ‘Hoabinhian horticulture’, in Allen, J. et al., eds, Sunda and Sahul, London, 1977
Yen, D., ‘Ban Chiang pottery and rice’, Expedition, 24 4 (1982).
Zhimin, , ‘Some problems concerning China’s early copper and bronze artefacts’, Early China, 8 (1982–3)