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  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: March 2015

Part II - Early cities and information technologies

  • Edited by Norman Yoffee, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • pp 111-226
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The Cambridge World History
  • Volume 3: Early Cities in Comparative Perspective, 4000 BCE–1200 CE
  • Edited by Norman Yoffee
  • Online ISBN: 9781139035606
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139035606
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Further readings

Algaze, Guillermo, Ancient Mesopotamia at the Dawn of Civilization: The Evolution of an Urban Landscape, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2008.
Englund, Robert K., “Texts from the Late Uruk Period,” in Pascal Attinger and Markus Wäfler (eds.), Mesopotamien: Späturuk-Zeit und Frühdynastische Zeit, Freiburg: Universitätsverlag, 1998, pp. 15–233.
Nissen, Hans J., Alt-Vorderasien, Munich: Oldenbourg, 2012.
Nissen, Hans J., The Early History of the Ancient Near East 9000–2000 BC, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1988.
Nissen, Hans J., Peter Damerow, and Robert K. Englund, Archaic Bookkeeping: Early Writing and Techniques of Economic Administration in the Ancient Near East, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1993.
Nissen, Hans J., and Peter Heine, From Mesopotamia to Iraq: A Concise History, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2009.
Roaf, Michael, Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East, Oxford: Equinox 1990.

Further readings

Archaeology of early Chinese cities
Bagley, Robert, “Shang Archaeology,” in Michael Loewe and Edward L. Shaughnessy (eds.), The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 B.C., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999, pp. 124–231.
Liu, Li, and Xingcan Chen, The Archaeology of China, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
Steinke, Kyle (ed.), Art and Archaeology of the Erligang Civilization, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2014.
Early cities in comparative perspective
Houston, Stephen D., Hector Escobedo, Mark Child, Charles Golden, and René Muñoz, “The Moral Community: Maya Settlement Transformation at Piedras Negras, Guatemala,” in Monica L. Smith (ed.), The Social Construction of Ancient Cities, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books, 2003, pp. 212–53.
Kemp, Barry, The City of Akhenaten and Nefertiti: Amarna and Its People,London: Thames & Hudson, Ltd., 2012.
Chinese writing
Bagley, Robert, “Anyang Writing and the Origin of the Chinese Writing System,” in Stephen D. Houston (ed.), The First Writing: Script Invention as History and Process, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp. 190–249.
Keightley, David, “The Shang,” in Michael Loewe and Edward L. Shaughnessy (eds.), The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 B.C.,Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999, pp. 232–91.
Wang, Haicheng, Writing and the Ancient State: Early China in Comparative Perspective, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.
Writing in comparative perspective
Baines, John, John Bennet, and Stephen Houston (eds.), The Disappearance of Writing Systems: Perspectives on Literacy and Communication, London: Equinox Publishing Ltd., 2008.
Houston, Stephen D. (ed.), The First Writing: Script Invention as History and Process, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Archaeology of early Chinese cities

Bagley, Robert, “Shang Archaeology,” in Michael Loewe and Edward L. Shaughnessy (eds.), The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 B.C., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999, pp. 124–231.
Liu, Li, and Xingcan Chen, The Archaeology of China, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
Steinke, Kyle (ed.), Art and Archaeology of the Erligang Civilization, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2014.

Early cities in comparative perspective

Houston, Stephen D., Hector Escobedo, Mark Child, Charles Golden, and René Muñoz, “The Moral Community: Maya Settlement Transformation at Piedras Negras, Guatemala,” in Monica L. Smith (ed.), The Social Construction of Ancient Cities, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books, 2003, pp. 212–53.
Kemp, Barry, The City of Akhenaten and Nefertiti: Amarna and Its People,London: Thames & Hudson, Ltd., 2012.

Chinese writing

Bagley, Robert, “Anyang Writing and the Origin of the Chinese Writing System,” in Stephen D. Houston (ed.), The First Writing: Script Invention as History and Process, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp. 190–249.
Keightley, David, “The Shang,” in Michael Loewe and Edward L. Shaughnessy (eds.), The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 B.C.,Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999, pp. 232–91.
Wang, Haicheng, Writing and the Ancient State: Early China in Comparative Perspective, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

Writing in comparative perspective

Baines, John, John Bennet, and Stephen Houston (eds.), The Disappearance of Writing Systems: Perspectives on Literacy and Communication, London: Equinox Publishing Ltd., 2008.
Houston, Stephen D. (ed.), The First Writing: Script Invention as History and Process, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Further readings

Barth, Fredrik, “The Guru and the Conjurer: Transactions in Knowledge and the Shaping of Culture in Southeast Asia and Melanesia,” Man 25 (1990), 640–53.
Bourdieu, Pierre, The Field of Cultural Production, New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
Caso, Alfonso, Calendario y escritura de las antiguas culturas de Monte Alban, Mexico, D.F.: Talleres de la Nación, 1947.
Chafe, Wallace, and Deborah Tannen, “The Relation Between Written and Spoken Language,” Annual Review of Anthropology 16 (1987), 383–407.
Chase, Arlen F., and Diane Z. Chase, “External Impetus, Internal Synthesis, and Standardization: E-Group Assemblages and the Cristallization of Classic Maya Society in the Southern Lowlands,” in Nikolai Grube (ed.), The Emergence of Lowland Maya Civilization: The Transition from the Preclassic to the Early Classic: A Conference at Hildesheim, November 1992, Markt Schwaben: Verlag Anton Sarwein, 1995, pp. 87–102.
Cheetham, David, “Cunil: A Pre-Mamom Horizon in the Southern Maya Lowlands,” in Terry G. Powis (ed.), New Perspectives on Formative Mesoamerican Cultures, Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 2005, pp. 27–38.
Coe, William, The Maya Scribe and His World, New York: The Grolier Club, 1973.
Cooper, Jerrold, “Writing,” in Eric Barnouw (ed.), International Encyclopedia of Communications, New York: Oxford University Press, 1989, Vol. IV, pp. 321–31.
Drucker, Philip, Robert F. Heizer, and Robert J. Squier, Excavations at La Venta, 1955, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1959.
Errington, Joseph, “Colonial Linguistics,” Annual Review of Anthropology 30 (2001), 19–39.
Errington, Joseph, Linguistics in a Colonial World: A Story of Language, Meaning, and Power, Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2008.
Estrada Belli, Francisco, Investigaciones arqueologicas en la region de Holmul, Peten, Guatemala. Informe preliminar de la temporada 2008, Boston: Boston University, 2009, accessed November 21, 2013, www.bu.edu/holmul/reports/informe_08_layout.pdf.
Estrada Belli, Francisco, Nikolai Grube, Marc Wolf, Kristen Gardella, and Claudio Lozano Guerra-Librero, “Preclassic Maya Monuments and Temples at Cival, Peten, Guatemala,” Antiquity (2003), accessed November 21, 2013, http://antiquity.ac.uk/projgall/belli296/.
Freidel, David, and F. Kent Reilly III, “The Flesh of God, Cosmology, Food, and the Origins of Political Power in Southeastern Mesoamerica,” in John E. Staller and Michael D. Carrasco (eds.), Pre-Columbian Foodways: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Food, Culture, and Markets in Mesoamerica, New York: Springer, 2010, pp. 635–80.
Hansen, Richard D., An Early Maya Text from El Mirador, Guatemala, Washington, D.C.: Research Reports on Ancient Maya Writing, 1991.
Hansen, Richard D., “The First Cities – The Beginnings of Urbanization and State Formation in the Maya Lowlands,” in Nikolai Grube (ed.), Maya: Divine Kings of the Rainforest, Cologne: Koenneman, 2001, pp. 51–64.
Houston, Stephen D., “Writing in Early Mesoamerica,” in Stephen D. Houston (ed.), The First Writing: Script Invention as History and Process, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp. 274–312.
Houston, Stephen D., and Héctor Escobedo, “Descifrando la política Maya: Perspectivas arqueológicas y epigráficas sobre el concepto de los estados segmentarios,” in Juan Pedro Laporte and Héctor L. Escobedo (eds.), X Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueológicas en Guatemala, Guatemala City: Ministerio de Cultura y Deportes, 1997, pp. 463–81.
Houston, Stephen D., and David Stuart, “The Ancient Maya Self: Personhood and Portraiture in the Classic Period,” RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics 33 (1998), 73–101.
Justeson, John, “The Origin of Writing Systems: Preclassic Mesoamerica,” World Archaeology 17 (1986), 437–58.
Law, Danny, “A Grammatical Description of the Early Classic Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions,” unpublished MA thesis, Brigham Young University, 2006.
Marcus, Joyce, Mesoamerican Writing Systems: Propaganda, Myth, and History in Four Ancient Civilizations, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992.
Marcus, Joyce, “The Origins of Mesoamerican Writing,” Annual Review of Anthropology 5 (1976), 35–67.
Pellecer Alecio, Mónica, “El Grupo Jabali: un complejo arquitectonico de patron triadico en San Bartolo, Peten,” in B. Arroyo, J. P. Laporte, and H. E. Mejia (eds.), XIX Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueológicas en Guatemala, 2005, Guatemala: Ministerio de Cultura y Deportes, Asociacion Tikal, Fundacion Reinhart, 2006, pp. 937–48.
Restall, Matthew, “Heirs to the Hieroglyphs: Indigenous Writing in Colonial Mesoamerica,” Americas 54 (1997), 239–67.
Rodríguez Martínez, Ma. del Carmen, Ponciano Ortíz Ceballos, Michael D. Coe, Richard A. Diehl, Stephen D. Houston, Karl A. Taube, and Alfredo Delgado Calderón, “Did the Olmec Know How to Write?”, Science 9 (2007), 1365–6.
Schele, Linda, and Mary Miller, The Blood of Kings, Fort Worth, TX: Kimbell Art Museum, 1986.
Sharer, Robert James, and David W. Sedat, Archaeological Investigations in the Northern Maya Highlands, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1987, pp. 49–73.
Stuart, David S., “Proper Names and the Origins of Literacy,” Working Paper, Peabody Museum, Harvard University, 2001.
Taube, Karl, “The Rainmakers: The Olmec and their Contribution to Mesoamerican Belief and Ritual,” in Michael D. Coe (ed.), The Olmec World: Ritual and Rulership, Princeton, NJ: The Art Museum, Princeton University, 1995, pp. 83–103.
Urban, Greg, A Discourse-Centered Approach to Culture: Native South American Myths and Rituals, Austin: University of Texas Press, 1991.
Urban, Greg, Metaphysical Community: The Interplay of the Senses and the Intellect, Austin: University of Texas Press, 1996.
Willey, Gordon R., T. Patrick Culbert, and Richard E. W. Adams, “Maya Lowland Ceramics: A Report from the 1965 Guatemala City Conference,” American Antiquity 32 (1967), 289–315.

Further readings

Bauer, Brian S., Ancient Cuzco: Heartland of the Inca, Austin: University of Texas Press, 2004.
Brundage, Burr Cartwright, Lords of Cuzco: A History and Description of the Inca People in Their Final Days, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1967.
Covey, R. Alan, How the Incas Built Their Heartland: State Formation and the Innovation of Imperial Strategies in the Sacred Valley, Peru, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2006.
Covey, R. Alan, “Inka Administration of the Far South Coast of Peru,” Latin American Antiquity 11 (2000), 119–38.
D'Altroy, Terence N., The Incas, Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2002.
D'Altroy, Terence N, Provincial Power in the Inka Empire, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992.
Julien, Catherine J., “Inca Decimal Administration in the Lake Titicaca Region,” in George C. Collier, Renato I. Rosaldo, and John D. Wirth (eds.), The Inca and Aztec States, 1400–1800: Anthropology and History, New York: Academic Press, 1982, pp. 119–51.
Malpass, Michael A., Provincial Inca: Archaeological and Ethnohistorical Assessment of the Impact of the Inca State, Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1993.
McEwan, Gordon, The Incas: New Perspectives, New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2006.
Morris, Craig, and Adriana von Hagen, The Incas, London: Thames & Hudson, Ltd., 2011.
Silverblatt, Irene, “Imperial Dilemmas, the Politics of Kinship, and Inca Reconstructions of History,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 30 (1988), 83–102.
Von Hagen, Adriana, and Craig Morris, The Cities of the Ancient Andes, New York: Thames & Hudson, Ltd., 1998.