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  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: March 2015

Part III - Early urban landscapes

  • Edited by Norman Yoffee, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • pp 227-316
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The Cambridge World History
  • Volume 3: Early Cities in Comparative Perspective, 4000 BCE–1200 CE
  • Edited by Norman Yoffee
  • Online ISBN: 9781139035606
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139035606
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Further readings

Abercrombie, Thomas A., Pathways of Memory and Power: Ethnography and History among an Andean People, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1998.
Albarracín-Jordán, Juan V., Carlos Lemuz Aguirre, and Jose Luis Paz Soria, “Investigaciones en Kallamarka: primer informe de prospeccion,” Textos Antropologicos 6 (1993), 11–123.
Allen, Catherine, The Hold Life Has: Coca and Cultural Identity in an Andean Community, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1986.
Couture, Nicole C., “Ritual, Monumentalism, and Residence at Mollo Kontu, Tiwanaku,” in Alan L. Kolata (ed.), Tiwanaku and Its Hinterland: Archaeology and Paleoecology of an Andean Civilization, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2003, Vol. II, pp. 202–25.
Janusek, John Wayne, “El surgumiento del urbanismo en Tiwanaku y del poder politico en el altiplano andino,” in Krzysztof Makowski (ed.), Señores del Imperio del Sol, Lima: Banco del Credito del Peru, 2010, pp. 39–56.
Janusek, John Wayne, and Victor Plaza Martinez, “Khonkho e Iruhito: tercer informe preliminar del Proyecto Arqueologico Jach'a Machaca,” Research report submitted to the Bolivian Viceministerio de Cultura and the Unidad Nacional de Arqueologia, La Paz, Bolivia (2007).
Janusek, John Wayne, and Victor Plaza Martinez, “Khonkho Wankane: Segundo informe preliminar del Proyecto Arqueologico Jach'a Machaca,” Research report submitted to the Bolivian Viceministerio de Cultura and the Unidad Nacional de Arqueología, La Paz, Bolivia (2006).
Kolata, Alan L., “Tiwanaku Ceremonial Architecture and Urban Organization,” in Alan L. Kolata (ed.), Tiwanaku and Its Hinterland: Archaeology and Paleoecology of an Andean Civilization, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2003, Vol. II, pp. 175–201.
Ohnstad, Arik T., “La escultura de piedra de Khonkho Wankane,” in John W. Janusek (ed.), “Khonkho Wankane: Primer Informe Preliminar del Proyecto Arqueológico Jach'a Machaca,” Research Report submitted to the Bolivian Viceministerio de Cultura and the Unidad Nacional de Arqueología, La Paz, Bolivia (2005), pp. 52–68.
Ponce Sanginés, Carlos, Descripción sumaria del templete semisubterraneo de Tiwanaku, La Paz: Juventud, 1990.
Ponce Sanginés, Carlos, Tiwanaku: Espacio, Tiempo, Cultura: Ensayo de síntesis arqueológica, La Paz: Los Amigos del Libro, 1981.
Portugal Ortíz, Max, and Maks Portugal Zamora, “Investigaciones arqueológicas en el valle de Tiwanaku,” in Arqueología en Bolivia y Perú, La Paz: Instituto Nacional de Arqueología, 1975, Vol. II, pp. 243–83.
Portugal Zamora, Maks, “Las ruinas de Jesus de Machaca,” Revista Geográfica Americana 16 (1941), 291–300.
Posnansky, Arthur, Tihuanacu: The Cradle of American Man, New York: J. J. Augustin, 1945, Vols. I and II.
Protzen, Jean-Pierre, and Stella Nair, “On Reconstructing Tiwanaku Architecture,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 59 (2000), 358–71.
Rivera Casanovas, Claudia S., “Ch'iji Jawira: A Case of Ceramic Specialization in the Tiwankau Urban Periphery,” in Alan L. Kolata (ed.), Tiwanaku and Its Hinterland: Archaeology and Paleoecology of an Andean Civilization, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2003, Vol. II, pp. 296–315.
Smith, Scott Cameron, “Venerable Geographies: Spatial Dynamics, Religion, and Political Economy in the Prehistoric Lake Titicaca Basin, Bolivia” Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Riverside, 2009.
Vranich, Alexei, “Interpreting the Meaning of Ritual Spaces: The Temple Complex of Pumapunku, Tiwanaku, Bolivia,” unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1999.

Further readings

Archi, Alfonso, “The City of Ebla and the Organization of the Rural Territory,” in Erik Aerts and Horst Klengel (eds.), The Town as Regional Economic Centre in the Ancient Near East, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1990, pp. 15–19.
Bernbeck, Reinhard, “Class Conflict in Ancient Mesopotamia: Between Knowledge of History and Historicizing Knowledge,” Anthropology of the Middle East 4 (2009), 33–64.
Childe, V. Gordon, “The Urban Revolution,” Town Planning Review 21 (1950), 3–17.
Cohen, Mark Nathan, Health and the Rise of Civilization, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1989.
Cooper, Jerrold S., Reconstructing History from Ancient Inscriptions: The Lagash–Umma Border Conflict, Malibu: Undena, 1983.
Delougaz, Pinhas, Harold D. Hill, and Seton Lloyd, Private Houses and Graves in the Diyala Region, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1967.
Durand, Jean-Marie, “L'assemblée en Syrie à l'époque pré-amorite,” in Pelio Fronzaroli (ed.), Miscellanea Eblaitica, Firenze: Università di Firenze, Dipartimento di Linguistica, 1989, Vol. II, pp. 27–44.
Emberling, Geoff, “Political Control in an Early State: The Eye Temple and the Uruk Expansion in Northern Mesopotamia,” in Lamia al-Gailani Werret al. (eds.), Of Pots and Plans: Papers on the Archaeology and History of Mesopotamia and Syria Presented to David Oates in Honour of his 75th Birthday, London: Nabu, 2002, pp. 82–90.
Emberling, Geoff, “Urban Social Transformations and the Problem of the ‘First City’: New Research from Mesopotamia,” in Monica L. Smith (ed.), The Social Construction of Ancient Cities, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2003, pp. 254–68.
Forest, Jean-Daniel, “La grande architecture obeidienne, sa forme et sa fonction,” in Jean-Louis Huot (ed.), Préhistoire de la Mésopotamie: La Mésopotamie préhistorique et l'exploration récente du Djebel Hamrin, Paris: Éditions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1987, pp. 385–423.
Gelb, I. J., “On the Alleged Temple and State Economies in Ancient Mesopotamia,” in Studi in Onore di Edoardo Volterra, Milan: A. Giuffré, 1969, pp. 137–54.
Kühne, Hartmut, “Šaiḫ Ḥamad, Tall (Dūr-Katlimmu). B. Archäologisch,” Reallexikon der Assyriologie 11 (2008), 543–51.
Lebeau, Marc, “Les Temples de Tell Beydar et leur environnement immédiat à l'époque Early Jezirah IIIb,” in Pascal Butterlin, Marc Lebeau, J. Y. Monchambert, J. L. Montero Fenollós, and B. Muller (eds.), Les espaces syro-mésopotamiens: dimensions de l'expérience humaine au Proche-Orient ancien, Turnhout: Brepols, 2006, pp. 101–40.
Liverani, Mario, “Ancient Near Eastern Cities and Modern Ideologies,” in Gernot Wilhelm (ed.), Die orientalische Stadt: Kontinuität, Wandel, Bruch, Saarbrücken: Saarbrücker Druckerei und Verlag, 1997, pp. 85–107.
Margueron, Jean-Claude, Recherches sur les palais Mésopotamiens de l'Age du Bronze, Paris: Guethner, 1982.
Matney, Timothy, and Guillermo Algaze, “Urban Development at Mid–Late Early Bronze Age Titriş Höyük in Southeastern Anatolia,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 299/300 (1995), 33–52.
McMahon, Augusta, “Mesopotamia,” in Peter Clark (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Cities in World History, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 31–48.
Meyer, Jan-Waalke, “Town Planning in 3rd Millennium Tell Chuera,” in J. Bretschneider, Jan Driessen, and K. Van Lerberghe (eds.), Power and Architecture: Monumental Public Architecture in the Bronze Age Near East and Aegean, Leuven: Peeters, 2007, pp. 129–42.
Postgate, J. N., The West Mound Surface Clearance, London: British School of Archaeology in Iraq, 1983.
Ristvet, Lauren, “Legal and Archaeological Territories of the Second Millennium BC in Northern Mesopotamia,” Antiquity 82 (2008), 585–99.
Ristvet, Lauren, “The Third Millennium City Wall at Tell Leilan, Syria: Identity, Authority, and Urbanism,” in J. Bretschneider, J. Driessen, and K. Van Lerberghe (eds.), Power and Architecture: Monumental Public Architecture in the Bronze Age Near East and Aegean, Leuven: Peeters, 2007, pp. 183–211.
Seri, Andrea, Local Power in Old Babylonian Mesopotamia, London: Equinox, 2005.
Smith, Adam, The Political Landscape: Constellations of Authority in Early Complex Polities, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003.
Smith, Michael, “The Archaeological Study of Neighborhoods and Districts in Ancient Cities,” Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 29 (2010), 137–54.
Ur, Jason A., “Bronze Age Cities of the Plains and the Highlands: Southern Mesopotamia,” in D. T. Potts (ed.), A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, Vol. I, pp. 533–55.
Ur, Jason A., “Sennacherib's Northern Assyrian Canals: New Insights from Satellite Imagery and Aerial Photography,” Iraq 67 (2005), 317–45.
Ur, Jason A., and Tony Wilkinson, “Settlement and Economic Landscapes of Tell Beydar and its Hinterland,” in Marc Lebeau and Antoine Suleiman (eds.), Beydar Studies, Turnhout: Brepols, 2008, Vol. I, pp. 305–27.
Vallet, Régis, “Habuba Kebira ou la naissance de l'urbanisme,” Paléorient 22 (1996), 45–76.
Weiss, Harvey, “The Origins of Tell Leilan and the Conquest of Space in Third Millennium Mesopotamia,” in H. Weiss (ed.), The Origins of Cities in Dry-Farming Syria and Mesopotamia in the Third Millennium B.C., Guilford, CT: Four Quarters, 1986, pp. 71–108.
Weiss, Harvey, M. A. Courty, W. Wetterstrom, F. Guichard, L. M. Senior, R. Meadow, and A. Curnow, “The Genesis and Collapse of Third Millennium North Mesopotamian Civilization,” Science 261 (1993), 995–1004.
Westenholz, Aage, “The Sumerian City-State,” in Mogens H. Hansen (ed.), A Comparative Study of Six City-State Cultures, Copenhagen: C. A. Reitzels, 2002, pp. 23–42.
Wright, Henry T., The Administration of Rural Production in an Early Mesopotamian Town, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, 1969.
Wright, Rita P., “Crafting Social Identity in Ur III Southern Mesopotamia,” in Cathy Lynne Costin and Rita P. Wright (eds.), Craft and Social Identity, Arlington, VA: Archeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association, 1998, pp. 57–69.
Zeder, Melinda A., Feeding Cities: Specialized Animal Economy in the Ancient Near East, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1993.
Zettler, Richard L., The Ur III Temple of Inanna at Nippur: The Operation and Organisation of Urban Religious Institutions in Mesopotamia in the Late Third Millennium B.C., Berlin: Dietrich Reimer, 1992.

Further readings

Andrews, Bradford W., “Stone Tool Production at Teotihuacan: What More Can We Learn from Surface Collections?”, in Kenneth G. Hirth and Bradford W. Andrews (eds.), Pathways to Prismatic Blades: A Study in Mesoamerican Obsidian Core-Blade Technology, Los Angeles: The Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, University of California, 2002, pp. 47–60.
Barba, Luis A., and José Luis Córdova Frunz, “Estudios energeticos de la producción de cal en tiempos teotihuacanos y sus implicaciones,” Latin American Antiquity 10 (1999), 168–79.
Beramendi-Orosco, Laura E., Galia González-Hernández, Jaime Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Linda R. Manzanilla, Ana M. Soler-Arechalde, Avto Goguitchaishvili, and Nick Jarboe, “High-Resolution Chronology for the Mesoamerican Urban Center of Teotihuacan Derived from Bayesian Statistics of Radiocarbon and Archaeological Data,” Quaternary Research 71 (2008), 99–107.
Blanton, Richard E., and Lane Fargher, Collective Action in the Formation of Pre-modern States, New York: Springer, 2008.
Cabrera Castro, Rubén, “La excavation de la Estructura IB en el interior de la Ciudadela,” in Rubén Cabrera Castro, Ignacio Rodríguez García, and Noel Morelos García (eds.), Memoria del Proyecto Arqueologico Teotihuacan 80–82, Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, 1982, pp. 75–87.
Cabrera Castro, Rubén, and Sergio Gomez Chavez, “La Ventilla: A Model for a Barrio in the Urban Structure of Teotihuacan,” in Alba Guadalupe Mastache, Robert H. Cobean, Ángel García Cook, and Kenneth G. Hirth (eds.), Urbanism in Mesoamerica, University Park: Pennsylvania State University, 2008, Vol. II, pp. 37–83.
Cap, Bernadette, “‘Empty’ Spaces and Public Places: A Microscopic View of a Late Classic Plaza at Chan, Belize,” in Cynthia Robin (ed.), Chan: An Ancient Maya Farming Community in Belize, Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 2012.
Charlton, Thomas H., “Teotihuacan Non Urban Settlements: Functional and Evolutionary Implications,” in Emily McClung de Tapia and Evelyn C. Rattray (eds.), Teotihuacan: nuevos datos, nuevas síntesis, nuevos problemas, Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 1987, pp. 473–88.
Cowgill, George L., “Origins and Development of Urbanism: Archaeological Perspectives,” Annual Review of Anthropology 33 (2004), 525–49.
Cowgill, George L., “Rulership and the Ciudadela: Political Inferences from Teotihuacan Architecture,” in Richard M. Leventhal and Alan L. Kolata (eds.), Civilization in the Ancient Americas: Essays in Honor of Gordon R. Willey, Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, 1983, pp. 313–43.
Cowgill, George L., “Teotihuacan as an Urban Place,” in Alba Guadalupe Mastache, Robert H. Cobean, Ángel García Cook, and Kenneth G. Hirth (eds.), Urbanism in Mesoamerica, University Park: Pennsylvania State University, 2008, Vol. II, pp. 85–112.
Cowgill, George L., “The Urban Organization of Teotihuacan, Mexico,” in Elizabeth C. Stone (ed.), Settlement and Society: Essays Dedicated to Robert McCormick Adams, Los Angeles: Cotsen Institute, 2007, pp. 261–95.
Díaz Oyarzabal, Clara, “Chingú y la expansion teotihuacana,” in Evelyn C. Rattray, Clara Díaz Oyarzabal, and Jaime Litvak King (eds.), Interacción cultural en Mexico central, Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, 1981, pp. 107–12.
García Cook, Ángel, “The Historical Importance of Tlaxcala in the Cultural Development of the Central Highlands,” in Jeremy A. Sabloff (ed.), Supplement to the Handbook of Middle American Indians, Austin: University of Texas Press, 1981, pp. 244–76.
Gazzola, Julie, “La production lapidaria en Teotihuacan, estudio de las actividades productivas en los talleres de un conjunto habitacional,” in María Elena Ruiz Gallut and Jesús Torres Peralta (eds.), Arquitectura y urbanismo: pasado y presente de los espacios en Teotihuacan. Memoria de la Tercera Mesa Redonda de Teotihuacan, Mexico City: INAH, 2005, pp. 841–78.
Gómez Chávez, Sergio, “La Ventilla: un barrio de la antigua ciudad de Teotihuacan,” unpublished BA thesis, Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia, 2000.
Heizer, Robert F., and James A. Bennyhoff, “Archaeological Investigation of Cuicuilco, Valley of Mexico, 1957,” Science 127 (1958), 232–3.
Longstaffe, Fred J., Michael W. Spence, Rebecca Storey, and Christine D. White, “Immigration, Assimilation, and Status in the Ancient City of Teotihuacan: Stable Isotopic Evidence from Tlajinga 33,” Latin American Antiquity 15 (2004), 176–98.
McClung de Tapia, Emily, “Patrones de subsistencia urbana en Teotihuacan,” in Emily McClung de Tapia and Evelyn C. Rattray (eds.), Teotihuacan: nuevos datos, nuevas sintesis, nuevos problemas, Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 1987, pp. 57–74.
Millon, René, “Social Relations in Ancient Teotihuacan,” in Eric R. Wolf (ed.), The Valley of Mexico, Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1976, pp. 205–48.
Millon, René, Bruce Drewitt, and James A. Bennyhoff, The Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacan: 1959 Investigations, Philadelphia, PA: Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 1965.
Plunket, Patricia, and Gabriela Uruñuela, “Tradition and Transformation: Village Ritual at Tetimpa as a Template for Early Teotihuacan,” in Nancy Gonlin and Jon C. Lohse (eds.), Commoner Ritual and Ideology in Ancient Mesoamerica, Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2007, pp. 33–54.
Rattray, Evelyn C., “Anaranjado Delgado: cerámica de comercio de Teotihuacán,” in Evelyn C. Rattray, Clara Díaz Oyarzabal, and Jaime Litvak King (eds.), Interacción cultural en México Central, Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 1981, pp. 55–80.
Sanders, William T., and Larry J. Gorenflo, Prehispanic Settlement Patterns in the Cuautitlan Region, Mexico, University Park: The Pennsylvania State University, 2007.
Spence, Michael W., “Domestic Ritual in Tlailotlacan, Teotihuacan,” in Patricia Plunket (ed.), Domestic Ritual in Ancient Mesoamerica, Los Angeles: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, University of California, 2002, pp. 53–66.
Spence, Michael W., “The Scale and Structure of Obsidian Production in Teotihuacan,” in Emily McClung de Tapia and Evelyn C. Rattray (eds.), Teotihuacan: nuevos datos, nuevos síntesis, nuevos problemas, Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 1987, pp. 430–50.
Sugiyama, Saburo, Human Sacrifice, Militarism, and Rulership: Materialization of State Ideology at the Feathered Serpent Pyramid, Teotihuacan, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Sugiyama, Saburo, and Ruben Cabrera Castro, “The Moon Pyramid Project and the Teotihuacan State Polity,” Ancient Mesoamerica 18 (2007), 109–25.
Sullivan, Kristin S., “Commercialization in Early State Economies: Craft Production and Market Exchange in Classic Period Teotihuacan,” Ph.D. dissertation, Arizona State University, 2007.
Sullivan, Kristin S., “Specialized Production of San Martin Orange Ware at Teotihuacan, Mexico,” Latin American Antiquity 17 (2006), 23–53.
Widmer, Randolph J., “The Evolution of Form and Function in a Teotihuacan Apartment Compound: The Case of Tlajinga 33,” in Emily McClung de Tapia and Evelyn C. Rattray (eds.), Teotihuacan: Nuevos Datos, Nuevas Síntesis, Nuevos Problemas, Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, 1987, pp. 317–68.
Widmer, Randolph J., “Lapidary Craft Specialization at Teotihuacan: Implications for Community Structure at 33:S3W1 and Economic Organization in the City,” Ancient Mesoamerica 2 (1991), 131–47.
Yoffee, Norman, “Political Economy in Early Mesopotamian States,” Annual Review of Anthropology 24 (1995), 281–311.