Skip to main content
Challenges of Party-Building in Latin America

Book description

Nearly four decades since the onset of the third wave, political parties remain weak in Latin America: parties have collapsed in much of the region, and most new party-building efforts have failed. Why do some new parties succeed while most fail? This book challenges the widespread belief that democracy and elections naturally give rise to strong parties and argues that successful party-building is more likely to occur under conditions of intense conflict than under routine democracy. Periods of revolution, civil war, populist mobilization, or authoritarian repression crystallize partisan attachments, create incentives for organization-building, and generate a 'higher cause' that attracts committed activists. Empirically rich chapters cover diverse cases from across Latin America, including both successful and failed cases.

    • Aa
    • Aa
Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

Page 1 of 2

Page 1 of 2

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Christopher Achen . 1992. “Social Psychology, Demographic Variables, and Linear Regression: Breaking the Iron Triangle in Voting Research.” Political Behavior 14 (3): 195211.

Jeremy Albright . 2009. “Does Political Knowledge Erode Party Attachments? A Review of the Cognitive Mobilization Thesis.” Electoral Studies 28 (2): 248260.

John Aldrich . 2011. Why Parties? A Second Look. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Alberto Alesina and Stephen Spear . 1988. “An Overlapping Generations Model of Electoral Competition.” Journal of Public Economics 37 (3): 359379.

Michael Allison . 2006b. “The Transition from Armed Opposition to Electoral Opposition in Central America.” Latin American Politics and Society 48 (4): 137162.

David Altman and Rossana Castiglioni . 2006. “The 2004 Uruguayan Elections: A Political Earthquake Foretold.” Electoral Studies 25 (1): 147154.

Barry Ames . 2001. The Deadlock of Democracy in Brazil: Interests, Identities, and Institutions in Comparative Politics. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Cynthia Arnson . 2000. “Window on the Past: A Declassified History of Death Squads in El Salvador.” In Bruce Campbell and Arthur D. Brenner , eds. Death Squads in Global Perspective: Murder with Deniability, 85124. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Andy Baker and Kenneth Greene . 2011. “The Latin American Left’s Mandate: Free-Market Policies and Issue Voting in New Democracies.” World Politics 63 (1): 4377.

William Barndt . 2014. “Corporation-Based Parties: The Present and Future of Business Politics in Latin America.” Latin American Politics & Society 56 (3): 122.

William Barnes . 1998. “Incomplete Democracy in Central America: Polarization and Voter Turnout in Nicaragua and El Salvador.” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 40 (3): 63101.

Robert Barr . 2009. “Populists, Outsiders and Anti-Establishment Politics.” Party Politics 15 (1): 2948.

Larry Bartels . 2000. “Partisanship and Voting Behavior, 1952–1996.” American Journal of Political Science 44 (1): 3550.

Donald Baumer and Howard Gold . 1995. “Party Images and the American Electorate.” American Politics Research 23 (1): 3361.

Jóhanna Kristín Birnir . 2004. “Stabilizing Party Systems and Excluding Segments of Society? The Effects of Formation Costs on New Party Foundation in Latin America.” Studies in Comparative International Development 39 (3): 327.

Taylor C. Boas 2005. “Television and Neopopulism in Latin America: Media Effects in Brazil and Peru.” Latin American Research Review 40 (2): 2749.

Eric Booth and Joseph Robbins . 2010. “Assessing the Impact of Campaign Finance on Party System Institutionalization.” Party Politics 16: 629650.

Henry Lawrence Boudon . 2000. “Party System Deinstitutionalization: The 1997–98 Colombian Elections in Historical Perspective.” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 42 (3): 3357.

Henry Lawrence Boudon . 2001. “Colombia’s M-19 Democratic Alliance: A Case Study in New-Party Self-Destruction.” Latin American Perspectives 28 (1): 7392.

Ted Brader and Joshua Tucker . 2001. “The Emergence of Mass Partisanship in Russia, 1993–1996.” American Journal of Political Science 45 (1): 6983.

Julia Buxton . 2001. The Failure of Political Reform in Venezuela. Farnham: Ashgate.

Centro de Estudios de la Realidad Contemporánea (CERC). 2013. A cuarenta años del golpe militar . Santiago: Centro de Estudios de la Realidad Contemporánea.

Isidoro Cheresky . 2003. “Las elecciones nacionales de 1999 y 2001: Fluctuación del voto, debilitamiento de la cohesión partidaria y crisis de representación.” In Isidoro Cheresky and Jean-Michel Blanquer , eds. De la ilusión reformista al descontento ciudadano: Las elecciones en Argentina, 1999–2001, 19–51. Buenos Aires: Homo Sapiens Ediciones.

Pradeep Chhibber and Ken Kollman . 2004. The Formation of National Party Systems: Federalism and Party Competition in Canada, Great Britain, India, and the United States. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Michael Coppedge . 1994. Strong Parties and Lame Ducks: Presidential Partyarchy and Factionalism in Venezuela. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Gary Cox . 1997a. Making Votes Count: Political Economy of Institutions and Decisions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cuban Research Institute. 2014. 2014 FIU Cuba Poll. Miami: Florida International University.

Sarah Zukerman Daly . 2016. Organizational Violence after Civil War: The Geography of Recruitment in Latin America. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Eduardo Dargent and Alberto Vergara . 2012. “Decentralization against Parties? The Effects of Decentralization on Political Parties.” Paper Presented at the Conference Ruling Politics: The Formal and Informal Foundations of Power in New Democracies, Harvard University, November 20–22.

Jeroen De Zeeuw . 2008. From Soldiers to Politicians: Transforming Rebel Movements After Civil War. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Robert Dix . 1967. Colombia: The Political Dimensions of Change. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Robert Dix . 1992. “Democratization and the Institutionalization of Latin American Political Parties.” Comparative Political Studies 24 (January): 488511.

Jorge I Domínguez . 1998. “Free Politics and Free Markets in Latin America.” Journal of Democracy 9 (4): 7084.

Kent Eaton . 2011. “Conservative Autonomy Movements: Territorial Dimensions of Ideological Conflict in Bolivia and Ecuador.” Comparative Politics 43 (3): 291310.

Kent Eaton . 2014. “Recentralization and the Left Turn: Explaining Divergent Outcomes in Bolivia, Ecuador and Venezuela.” Comparative Political Studies (47) 8: 11301157.

Robert Erikson . 1978. “Constituency Opinion and Congressional Behavior: A Reexamination of the Miller-Stokes Representation Data.” American Journal of Political Science 22 (3): 511535.

Tulia Falleti . 2010. Decentralization and Subnational Politics in Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Steven Finkel . 1995. Causal Analysis with Panel Data. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Steven Fish . 2005. Democracy Derailed in Russia: The Failure of Open Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Justin Fisher and Todd Eisenstadt . 2004. “Introduction: Comparative Party Finance: What Is To Be Done?Party Politics 10: 619626.

Scott Flanagan and Russell Dalton . 1984. “Parties under Stress: Realignment and Dealignment in Advanced Industrial Societies.” West European Politics 7 (1): 723.

499 Arturo Fontaine Talavera . 2000. “Chile’s Elections: The New Face of the New Right.” Journal of Democracy 11 (2): 7077.

Edward Gibson . 1990. “Democracy and the New Electoral Right in Argentina.” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 32 (3): 177228.

Edward Gibson . 1992. “Conservative Electoral Movements and Democratic Politics: Core Constituencies, Coalition Building, and the Latin American Electoral Right.” In Douglas Chalmers , Maria do Carmo Campello de Souza , and Atilio Borón , eds. The Right and Democracy in Latin America, 1342. New York: Praeger.

Edward Gibson . 2012. Boundary Control: Subnational Authoritarianism in Federal Democracies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Daniel Gingerich . 2009. “Corruption and Political Decay: Evidence from Bolivia.” Quarterly Journal of Political Science 4 (1): 134.

Daniel Gingerich . 2010. “Bolivia: Traditional Parties, the State, and the Toll of Corruption.” In Charles Blake and Steven Morris , eds. Corruption and Politics in Latin America: National and Regional Dynamics, 5588. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.

Boris Goldenberg . 1965. The Cuban Revolution and Latin America. New York: Praeger.

Kenneth Greene , Jorge I. Domínguez , Chappell Lawson , and Alejandro Moreno . 2012. The Mexico 2012 Panel Study. Data file available at the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research, University of Michigan.

Merilee Grindle . 2000. Audacious Reforms: Institutional Invention and Democracy in Latin America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Anna Grzymala-Busse . 2002. Redeeming the Communist Past: The Regeneration of Communist Parties in East Central Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Anna Grzymała Busse . 2008. “The Communist Exit in East Central Europe and Its Consequences.” In Edward Friedman and Joseph Wong , eds. Political Transitions in Dominant Party Systems, 91–105. New York: Routledge.

Frances Hagopian , Carlos Gervasoni , and Juan Andres Moraes . 2009. “From Patronage to Program: The Emergence of Party-Oriented Legislators in Brazil.” Comparative Political Studies 42 (3): 360391.

Frances Hagopian and Scott Mainwaring , eds. 2005. The Third Wave of Democratization in Latin America: Advances and Setbacks. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Imke Harbers . 2009. “Decentralization and the Development of Nationalized Party Systems in New Democracies: Evidence from Latin America.” Comparative Political Studies 43 (5): 606627.

Marta Harnecker , Federico Fuentes , and Santos Ramírez . 2008. MAS-IPSP: instrumento político que surge de los movimientos sociales. Caracas: Centro Internacional Miranda.

Allen Hicken and Erik Martinez Kuhonta , eds. 2015. Party System Institutionalization in Asia: Democracies, Autocracies, and the Shadows of the Past. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Melvin Hinnich and Michael Munger . 1994. Ideology and the Theory of Political Choice. Ann Arbor: Michigan University Press.

503 Albert Hirschman . 1970. Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Michael A. Hogg , Elizabeth A. Hardie , and Katherine J. Reynolds . 1995. “Prototypical Similarity, Self-categorization, and Depersonalized Attraction: A Perspective on Group Cohesiveness.” European Journal of Social Psychology 25 (2): 159177.

Alisha Holland . 2013. “Right on Crime? Conservative Party Politics and Mano Dura Policies in El Salvador.” Latin American Research Review 48 (1): 4467.

Stephanie Holmsten , Robert Moser , and Mary Slosar . 2009. “Do Ethnic Parties Exclude Women?Comparative Political Studies 43 (10): 11791201.

Jonathan Hopkin . 2004. “The Problem with Party Finance: Theoretical Perspectives on the Funding of Party Politics.” Party Politics 10: 627651.

Carlos Huneeus . 2000. “Technocrats and Politicians in an Authoritarian Regime. The ‘Odeplan Boys’ and the ‘Gremialists’ in Pinochet’s Chile.” Journal of Latin American Studies 32 (2): 461501.

Wendy Hunter and Timothy Power . 2007. “Rewarding Lula: Executive Power, Social Power, and the Brazilian Elections of 2006.” Latin American Politics and Society 49 (1): 130.

Samuel Huntington . 1968. Political Order in Changing Societies. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Mateo Jover Marimón . 1971. “The Church.” In Carmelo Mesa-Lago , ed. Revolutionary Change in Cuba, 399–426. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh.

505 Terry Lynn Karl . 1987. “Petroleum and Political Pacts: The Transition to Democracy in Venezuela.” Latin American Research Review 22: 6394.

Mark Andreas Kayser and Christopher Wlezien . 2011. “Performance Pressure: Patterns of Partisanship and the Economic Vote.” European Journal of Political Research 50 (3): 365394.

Rubén Kaztman . 1999. Activos y estructuras de oportunidades. Estudios sobre las raíces de la vulnerabilidad social en Uruguay. PNUD-CEPAL, Montevideo.

Herbert Kitschelt . 2000. “Linkages between Citizens and Politicians in Democratic Polities.” Comparative Political Studies 33 (67): 845879.

Herbert Kitschelt , Kirk A. Hawkins , Juan Pablo Luna , Guillermo Rosas , and Elizabeth J. Zechmeister , eds., 2010. Latin American Party Systems. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Herbert Kitschelt , Zdenka Mansfeldova , Radoslaw Markowski , and Gábor Tóka . 1999. Post-Communist Party-Systems: Competition, Representation, and Inter-Party Cooperation. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Jorge Lanzaro , ed. 2004. La izquierda uruguaya: Entre la oposición y el gobierno. Montevideo: Instituto de Ciencia Política.

Rubens Lemos . 1986. “Balanço mostra um desafio para o Partido: Ou o PT cresce construindo ou apenas existe sem crescer.” Boletim Nacional (January): 67.

Latinobarometer . 1998. Latinobarometer Survey (Mexico) [datafile]. Available from

Steven Levitsky and Lucan Way . 2002. “The Rise of Competitive Authoritarianism.” Journal of Democracy 13 (2): 5165.

Steven Levitsky and Lucan Way . 2013. “The Durability of Revolutionary Regimes.” Journal of Democracy 24 (3): 517.

Arend Lijphart . 1994. Electoral Systems and Party Systems: A Study of Twenty-Seven Democracies, 1945–1990. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Héctor Lindo-Fuentes and Erik Ching . 2012. Modernizing Minds in El Salvador: Education Reform and the Cold War, 1960–1980. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

Juan Linz . 1967. “The Party System of Spain: Past and Future.” In Seymour Lipset and Stein Rokkan , eds. Party Systems and Voter Alignments: Cross-National Perspectives, 197–282. New York: The Free Press.

James Loxton . 2015. “Authoritarian Successor Parties.” Journal of Democracy 26 (3): 157170.

Juan Pablo Luna and David Altman . 2011. “Uprooted but Stable: Chilean Parties and the Concept of Party System Institutionalization.” Latin American Politics and Society 53 (2): 128.

Juan Pablo Luna and Fernando Rosenblatt . 2012. “¿Notas para una autopsia? Los partidos políticos en el Chile actual.” In Javier Díaz and Lucas Sierra , eds. Democracia con partidos. Informe para la reforma de los partidos políticos en Chile, 115268. Santiago: CEP/CIEPLAN.

Juan Pablo Luna and Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser . 2014. “The Right in Contemporary Latin America: A Framework for Analysis.” In Juan Pablo Luna and Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser , eds. The Resilience of the Latin American Right, 122. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Noam Lupu . 2015b. “Party Polarization and Mass Partisanship: A Comparative Perspective.” Political Behavior 37 (2): 331356.

Noam Lupu . 2016. Party Brands in Crisis: Partisanship, Brand Dilution, and the Breakdown of Political Parties in Latin America. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Noam Lupu and Susan Stokes . 2009. “The Social Bases of Political Parties in Argentina, 1912–2003.” Latin American Research Review 44 (1): 5887.

Nicolás Lynch . 1999. Una tragedia sin héroes: la derrota de los partidos y el surgimiento de los independientes, Perú 1980–1992. Lima: San Marcos.

Mona Lyne . 2005. “Parties as Programmatic Agents: A Test of Institutional Theory in Brazil.” Party Politics 11 (2): 193216.

Raúl Madrid . 2012. The Rise of Ethnic Politics in Latin America. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Beatriz Magaloni , Alberto Diaz Cayeros , and Federico Estévez . 2007. “Clientelism and Porfolio Diversification: A Model of Electoral Investment with Applications to Mexico.” In Herbert Kitschelt and Steven Wilkinson , eds. Patrons, Clients, and Policies: Patterns of Democratic Accountability, 182205. New York: Cambridge University Press.

James Mahoney . 2001. The Legacies of Liberalism: Path Dependence and Political Regimes in Central America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Scott Mainwaring and Aníbal Pérez-Liñán . 2013. Democracies and Dictatorships in Latin America: Emergence, Survival, and Fall. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Scott Mainwaring and Timothy Scully . 1995. “Introduction: Party Systems in Latin America.” In Scott Mainwaring and Timothy R. Scully , eds. Building Democratic Institutions: Party Systems in Latin America, 134. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Scott Mainwaring and Timothy Scully . 2003. Christian Democracy in Latin America: Electoral Competition and Regime Conflicts. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Lucy Martín Posada and Lilia Núñez Moreno . 2012. “Geography and Habitat: Dimensions of Equity and Social Mobility in Cuba.” In Jorge Domínguez , Omar Everleny Pérez Villanueva , Mayra Espina Prieto , and Lorena Barberia , eds. Cuban Economic and Social Development: Policy Reforms and Challenges in the 21st. Century, 291320. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Andrea Marston . 2013. “Bolivia: Underground Cooperatives.” Berkeley Review of Latin American Studies (Fall): 4347.

Víctor Martínez . 2005. Fisiones y fusiones, divorcios y reconciliaciones: La dirigencia del Partido de la Revolución Democrática (PRD) 1989–2004. Mexico City: Plaza y Valdés.

Carlos Meléndez . 2007. “Partidos y sistema de partidos en el Perú.” In Rafael Roncagliolo and Carlos Meléndez , eds. La política por dentro: Cambios y continuidades en las organizaciones políticas de los países andinos, 213–272. Lima: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA).

Carlos Meléndez . 2010. “¿Cómo escapar del fatalismo de las estructuras? Marco para entender la formación del sistema de partidos en el Perú.” In Carlos Meléndez and Alberto Vergara , eds. La iniciación de la política. El Perú político en perspectiva comparada, 161182. Lima: Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.

Carlos Meléndez . 2011. “Del Shambar al ‘Sancochado:’ El Proyecto Político de César Acuña.” In Carlos Meléndez , ed. Anti-candidatos: guía analítica para unas elecciones sin partidos, 173186. Lima: Mitin.

Rachel Meneguello and Oswaldo Amaral . 2008. “Ainda Novidade: uma revisão das transformações do Partido dos Trabalhadores no Brasil.” Occasional Paper 02–08, Oxford University Brazilian Studies Programme.

Constanza Moreira . 2000. “Las paradojales elecciones del fin de siglo uruguayo: comportamiento electoral y cultura política.” In Instituto de Ciencia Política , ed. Elecciones 1999/2000, 87110. Montevideo: Ediciones de la Banda Oriental.

Magnus Morner . 1967. Race Mixture in the History of Latin America. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

Sergio Morresi and Gabriel Vommaro . 2014. “Argentina: The Difficulties of the Partisan Right and the Case of Propuesta Republicana.” In Juan Pablo Luna and Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser , eds. The Resilience of the Latin American Right, 319445. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Paula Muñoz . 2005. El diseño institucional municipal 1980–2004 y sus implicancias para las zonas rurales. Lima: Asociación SER.

María Victoria Murillo , Virginia Oliveros , and Milan Vaishnav . 2010. “Electoral Revolution or Democratic Alternation?Latin American Research Review 45 (3): 87114.

Thomas Mustillo . 2007. “Entrants in the Political Arena: New Party Trajectories during the Third Wave of Democracy in Latin America.” Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Political Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Diana Mutz . 2006. Hearing the Other Side: Deliberative versus Participatory Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Karl-Heinz Nassmacher . 2009. The Funding of Party Competition: Political Finance in 25 Democracies. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

Antonio Navarro Wolff . 2001. “La desmovilización del M-19 diez años después.” In Cynthia Arnson and Fernando Cepeda Ulloa , eds. Haciendo paz: reflexiones y perspectivas del proceso de paz en Colombia. Bogotá: El Ancora Editores.

Daniel Nogueira-Budny . 2013. “From Marxist-Leninism to Market-Liberalism? The Varied Adaptation of Latin America’s Leftist Parties.” Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin.

Camila Piñeiro Harnecker . 2013. “Cuba’s New Socialism: Different Visions Shaping Current Changes.” Latin American Perspectives 40 (May): 107126.

Eduardo Pizarro . 2002. “La atomización partidista en Colombia: el fenómeno de las microempresas electorales.” In Franciso Gutiérrez , ed. Degradación o cambio: evolución del sistema político colombiano, 357401. Bogotá: Norma.

Marcelo Pollack . 1999. The New Right in Chile, 1973–1997. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Eleanor Neff Powell and Joshua Tucker . 2009. “New Approaches to Electoral Volatility: Evidence from Postcommunist Countries.” Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Toronto, Ontario, September 3–6.

Margaret Power . 2002. Right-Wing Women in Chile: Feminine Power and the Struggle against Allende, 1964–1973. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Jennifer Pribble . 2013. Welfare and Party Politics in Latin America. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Adam Przeworski and John Sprague . 1986. Paper Stones: A History of Electoral Socialism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Robert Putnam . 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Karen Remmer . 1985. “Redemocratization and the Impact of Authoritarian Rule in Latin America.” Comparative Politics 17 (2): 253275.

Karen Remmer . 2008. “The Politics of Institutional Change: Electoral Reform in Latin America, 1978–2002.” Party Politics 14 (1): 530.

María Isabel Remy . 2010. “Crecientes distancias entre la política nacional y la política regional.” Revista Argumentos 4 (5).

Martinelli Ricardo . 2009a. “Cuña Biográfica.” Video accessed on campaign website, September 20, 2009:

Omar Rincón . 2011. “Mucho ciberactivismo… pocos votos. Antanas Mockus y el Partido Verde colombiano.” Nueva Sociedad 235: 7489.

Kenneth M Roberts . 2014. Changing Course: Parties, Populism, and Political Representation in Latin America’s Neoliberal Era. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kenneth Roberts M. and Moisés Arce . 1998. “Neoliberalism and Lower-Class Voting Behavior in Peru.” Comparative Political Studies 31 (2): 217246.

María Ana Rodríguez and Omar Coronel . 2010. “Introducción.” In María Ana Rodríguez and Omar Coronel , eds. El nuevo poder en las regionales: análisis de las elecciones regionales y municipales 2010, 37. Lima: Pontificia Universidad Católica del Peru.

Mauricio Romero . 2011. La economía de los paramilitares: redes de corrupción, negocios y política. Bogotá: Debate.

521 David Samuels . 2002. “Presidentialized Parties: The Separation of Powers and Party Organization and Behavior.” Comparative Political Studies 35(4): 461483.

David Samuels . 2003. Ambition, Federalism and Legislative Politics in Brazil. New York: Cambridge University Press.

David Samuels . 2008. “Brazil: Democracy under Lula and the PT.” In Jorge Domínguez and Michael Shifter , eds. Constructing Democratic Governance in Latin America. Third Edition, 152176. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

David Samuels and Matthew Shugart . 2010. Presidents, Parties, and Prime Ministers: How the Separation of Powers Affects Party Organization and Behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Enrique Sánchez and Paola García . 2006. “Los Afrocolombianos.” In Josefina Stubbs and Hiska Reyes , eds. Más allá de los promedios: Afrodescendientes en América Latina. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Marco Aurelio Sánchez . 1999. PRD, la élite en crisis: Problemas organizativos, indeterminación ideológica y deficiencias programáticas. Mexico City: Plaza y Valdés.

Arthur Sanders . 1988. “The Meaning of Party Images.” Political Research Quarterly 41: 583599.

Giovanni Sartori . 1976. Parties and Party Systems: A Framework for Analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Elmer Eric Schattschneider . 2004. Party Government: American Government in Action. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.

Joseph Schlesinger . 1991. Political Parties and the Winning of Office. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Hermann Schmitt and Sören Holmberg . 1995. “Political Parties in Decline?” In Hans-Dieter Klingemann and Dieter Fuchs , eds. Citizens and the State, 95133. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Joseph Schumpeter . 1947. Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy. New York: Harper.

David Sears . 1975. “Political Socialization.” In Fred Greenstein and Nelson Polsby , eds. Handbook of Political Science: Micropolitical Theory, 93153. Reading: Addison-Wesley.

Renata Segura and Ana María Bejarano . 2004. “¡Ni Una Asamblea Más Sin Nosotros! Exclusion, Inclusion, and the Politics of Constitution-Making in the Andes.” Constellations 11 (2): 217236.

Martin Shefter . 1977. “Party and Patronage: Germany, England, and Italy.” Politics and Society 7 (December): 403451.

Matthew Soberg Shugart . 1992a. “Guerrillas and Elections: An Institutionalist Perspective on the Costs of Conflict and Competition.” International Studies Quarterly 36 (2): 121151.

Eduardo Silva . 1996. The State and Capital in Chile: Business Elites, Technocrats, and Market Economics. Boulder: Westview Press.

Martín Sivak . 2007. Santa Cruz: una tesis. El conflicto regional en Bolivia (2003–2006). La Paz: Plural.

524 Benjamin Smith . 2005. “Life of the Party: The Origins of Regime Breakdown and Persistence under Single-Party Rule.” World Politics 57 (3): 421451.

Susan Stokes . 2005. “Perverse Accountability: A Formal Model of Machine Politics with Evidence from Argentina.” American Political Science Review 99 (3): 315325.

Susan Stokes . 2009. “Pork, by Any Other Name: Building a Conceptual Scheme of Distributive Politics.” Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Toronto, Ontario, September 3–6.

Susan Stokes , Thad Dunning , Marcelo Nazareno , and Valeria Brusco , eds. 2013. Brokers, Voters and Clientelism: The Puzzle of Distributive Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Francis Sutton . 1990. Ideology and Social Structure: A Study of Radical Marxism. New York: Garland Press.

Martín Tanaka . 2002. La dinámica de los actores regionales y el proceso de descentralización. Working Paper 125. Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos.

Edward Telles . 2004. Race in Another America: The Significance of Skin Color in Brazil. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Arturo Valenzuela . 1977. Political Brokers in Chile: Local Government in a Centralized Polity. Durham: Duke University Press.

Ingrid Van Biezen and Petr Kopecký . 2007. “The State and the Parties: Public Funding, Public Regulation, and Rent-Seeking in Contemporary Democracies.” Party Politics 13: 235254.

Chris Van der Borgh . 2004. Cooperación externa, gobierno local y reconstrucción posguerra: La experiencia de Chalatenango, El Salvador. Amsterdam: Rozenberg Publishers.

Milton Vanger . 1963. José Batlle y Ordóñez of Uruguay: The Creator of His Times, 1902–1907. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Alberto Vergara . 2007. Ni amnésicos ni irracionales: las elecciones peruanas de 2006 en perspectiva histórica. Lima: Solar Central de Proyectos.

Ian Ward . 1993. “‘Media Intrusion’ and the Changing Nature of the Established Parties in Australia and Canada.” Canadian Journal of Political Science 26 (3): 477506.

Alan Ware . 1996. Political Parties and Party Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.

Stephen Webre . 1979. José Napoleón Duarte and the Christian Democratic Party in Salvadoran Politics, 1960–1972. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University.

Martin Weinstein . 1975. Uruguay: The Politics of Failure. Westport: Greenwood Press.

Kurt Weyland . 2000. “A Paradox of Success? Determinants of Political Support for President Fujimori.” International Studies Quarterly 44: 481502.

Alastair White . 1973. El Salvador. Boulder: Westview Press.

Edward Williams . 1967. Latin American Christian Democratic Parties. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Elizabeth Wood . 2000a. Forging Democracy from Below: Insurgent Transitions in South Africa and El Salvador. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Elizabeth Wood . 2000b. “Civil War and the Transformation of Elite Representation in El Salvador.” In Kevin Middlebrook , ed. Conservative Parties, the Right, and Democracy in Latin America, 223254. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

William Wright . 1971. “Comparative Party Models: Rational-Efficient and Party Democracy.” In William Wright , ed. A Comparative Study of Party Organization, 1754. Columbus: Merrill.

Adam Ziegfeld . Forthcoming. Why Regional Parties? Clientelism, Elites, and Party System Formation in India. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Steven Levitsky . 2003. Transforming Labor-Based Parties in Latin America: Argentine Peronism in Comparative Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 53
Total number of PDF views: 404 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 427 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 30th March 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.