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    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Velluti, Julio C Costa da Costa, Jaderson and Russo, Raúl E 1997. The cerebral hemisphere of the turtle in vitro. An experimental model with spontaneous interictal-like spikes for the study of epilepsy. Epilepsy Research, Vol. 28, Issue. 1, p. 29.

    Ling, Douglas S.F. and Benardo, Larry S. 1998. Synchronous firing of inhibitory interneurons results in saturation of fast GABAA IPSC magnitude but not saturation of fast inhibitory efficacy in rat neocortical pyramidal cells. Synapse, Vol. 28, Issue. 1, p. 91.

    Telfeian, Albert E. and Connors, Barry W. 1998. Layer-Specific Pathways for the Horizontal Propagation of Epileptiform Discharges in Neocortex. Epilepsia, Vol. 39, Issue. 7, p. 700.

    Stengel, Wolfgang Jainz, Monika and Andreas, Klaus 1998. Different potencies of dihydropyridine derivatives in blocking T-type but not L-type Ca2+ channels in neuroblastoma-glioma hybrid cells. European Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 342, Issue. 2-3, p. 339.

    Yang, Lie and Benardo, Larry S 1998. Removal of superficial inhibition releases hyperexcitability in middle and deep horizontal slices from rat somatosensory neocortex. Neuroscience Letters, Vol. 257, Issue. 1, p. 33.

    Badea, Tudor Goldberg, Jesse Mao, Buqing and Yuste, Rafael 2001. Calcium imaging of epileptiform events with single-cell resolution. Journal of Neurobiology, Vol. 48, Issue. 3, p. 215.

    Coombes, S. Lord, G.J. and Owen, M.R. 2003. Waves and bumps in neuronal networks with axo-dendritic synaptic interactions. Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, Vol. 178, Issue. 3-4, p. 219.

    van Drongelen, Wim Koch, Henner Marcuccilli, Charles Penã, Fernando and Ramirez, Jan-Marino 2003. Synchrony Levels During Evoked Seizure-Like Bursts in Mouse Neocortical Slices. Journal of Neurophysiology, Vol. 90, Issue. 3, p. 1571.

    Ling, Douglas S.F. and Benardo, Larry S. 2005. Nootropic Agents Enhance the Recruitment of Fast GABAA Inhibition in Rat Neocortex. Cerebral Cortex, Vol. 15, Issue. 7, p. 921.

    Coombes, S. 2005. Waves, bumps, and patterns in neural field theories. Biological Cybernetics, Vol. 93, Issue. 2, p. 91.

    vanDrongelen, W. Lee, H.C. Hereld, M. Chen, Z. Elsen, F.P. and Stevens, R.L. 2005. Emergent Epileptiform Activity in Neural Networks With Weak Excitatory Synapses. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, Vol. 13, Issue. 2, p. 236.

    Yang, Lie Benardo, Larry S. Valsamis, Helen and Ling, Douglas S. F. 2007. Acute Injury to Superficial Cortex Leads to a Decrease in Synaptic Inhibition and Increase in Excitation in Neocortical Layer V Pyramidal Cells. Journal of Neurophysiology, Vol. 97, Issue. 1, p. 178.

    Jradeh, Mouhamad 2010. A New Bidimensional Neural Field Model with Heterogeneous Connection Topology. Neural Computation, Vol. 22, Issue. 10, p. 2647.

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    Dwyer, Jennifer Lee, Hyong Martell, Amber and van Drongelen, Wim 2012. Resonance in neocortical neurons and networks. European Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 36, Issue. 12, p. 3698.

    Meijer, Hil GE and Coombes, Stephen 2014. Travelling waves in models of neural tissue: from localised structures to periodic waves. EPJ Nonlinear Biomedical Physics, Vol. 2, Issue. 1,

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  • Print publication year: 1993
  • Online publication date: May 2010

12 - Generation of epileptiform discharge by local circuits of neocortex

from Section 3 - ‘Normal’ brain mechanisms that support epileptiform activities

Summary

Introduction

So many books have been written on epilepsy that it may seem rash to add another …

(Jackson, 1874)1

The neuronal essence of seizures is exceptionally synchronous activity. Cortical neurons performing normal tasks tend to fire with relatively low synchrony (Abeles, 1982), but during a seizure the activity of affected neurons is abruptly usurped. The kernel of this idea was suggested by John Hughlings Jackson in the nineteenth century; however, the pathological changes that allow hypersynchrony, and the mechanisms that mediate it, are still elusive (Dichter & Ayala, 1987). Synchrony necessarily requires interactions between neurons, and the most obvious substrate for interaction is synaptic circuitry. Here, we focus on the neurons and circuitry involved in epileptiform activity within the neocortex. The justification for another discourse on the subject is recent research that suggests specific circuit-oriented mechanisms for epileptogenesis.

We begin with a brief description of our experimental model, essentially just an isolated fragment of neocortex in a controlled environment. Our concern is the minimum amount of tissue necessary for epileptiform activity, and in the cerebral cortex that turns out to be a surprisingly small volume.

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Epilepsy
  • Online ISBN: 9780511663314
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511663314
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