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  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: March 2012

3 - Musculoskeletal radiology

Further reading
Bertram, C, Popken, F, Rütt, J. Intraosseous lipoma of the calcaneus. Langenbecks Arch Surg 2001; 386: 313–17.
Kwak, HS, Lee, KB, Lee, SY, Han, YM. MR findings of calcaneal intraosseous lipoma with hemorrhage. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2005; 185: 1378–9.
Murphey, MD, Carroll, JF, Flemming, DJ, et al. From the archives of the AFIP. Benign musculoskeletal lipomatous lesions. Radiographics 2004; 24: 1433–66.
Further reading
Tachdjian, MO. Freiberg's infraction. In Pediatric Orthopedics, 2nd edn. Philadelphia, PA:Saunders, 1990; 1006–10.
Thompson, FM, Hamilton, WG. Problems of the second metatarsophalangeal joint. Orthopedics 1987; 10: 83–9.
Further reading
Gordon, L.Paget's disease of the patella. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1958; 40: 1423–5.
Smith, SE, Murphey, MD, Motamedi, K, et al. From the archives of the AFIP. Radiologic spectrum of Paget disease of bone and its complications with pathologic correlation. Radiographics 2002; 22: 1191–216.
Stull, MA, Moser, RP, Vinh, TN, Kransdorf, MJ, Callaghan, JJ. Paget's disease of the patella. Skeletal Radiol 1990; 19: 407–10.
Further reading
Helms, CA. The meniscus: recent advances in MR imaging of the knee. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2002; 179: 1115–22.
Ryu, KN, Kim, IS, Kim, EJ. MR imaging of tears of discoid lateral menisci. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1998; 171: 963–7.
Further reading
Gor, DM. Signs in imaging: the trough line sign. Radiology 2002; 224: 485–6.
Griffith, JF, Antonio, GE, Yung, PS, et al. Prevalence, pattern, and spectrum of glenoid bone loss in anterior shoulder dislocation: CT analysis of 218 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2008; 190: 1247–54.
Saupe, N, White, LM, Bleakney, R, et al. Acute traumatic posterior shoulder dislocation: MR findings. Radiology 2008; 248: 185–93.
Further reading
Blacksin, MF, Finzel, KC, Benevenia, J.Osteomyelitis originating in and around bone infarcts: giant sequestrum phenomena. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2001; 176: 387–91.
Hara, H, Akisue, T, Fujimoto, T, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of medullary bone infarction in the early stage. Clin Imaging 2008; 32: 147–51.
Zurlo, JV. The double-line sign. Radiology 1999; 212: 541–2.
Further reading
Balériaux, DL, Neugroschl, C. Spinal and spinal cord infection. Eur Radiol 2004; 14: E72–83
Conaughty, JM, Chen, J, Martinez, OV, et al. Efficacy of linezolid versus vancomycin in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus discitis: a controlled animal model. Spine 2006; 31: E830–2.
Cottle, L, Riordan, T. Infectious spondylodiscitis. J Infect 2008; 56: 401–12.
Ehara, S.Spondylodiskitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1999; 172: 1450–1.
Further reading
Olsen, KM, Chew, FS. Tumoral calcinosis: pearls, polemics, and alternative possibilities. Radiographics 2006; 26: 871–85.
Further reading
Barron, D, Branfoot, T. Imaging trauma of the appendicular skeleton. Imaging 2003; 15: 324–40.
Further reading
Jacobson, JA, Girish, G, Jiang, Y, Sabb, BJ. Radiographic evaluation of arthritis: degenerative joint disease and variations. Radiology 2008; 248; 737–47.
Further reading
Murphey, MD, Carroll, JF, Flemming, DJ, et al. From the archives of the AFIP: benign musculoskeletal lipomatous lesions. Radiographics 2004; 24: 1433–66.
Further reading
Brant, EE, Jordan, HH. Radiologic aspects of hemophilic pseudotumors in bone. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 1972; 115: 525–39.
James, TT, Stafford, JM, Allen, AM, Dixon, LR. Hemophilic pseudotumor: radiologic–pathologic correlation. Radiographics 2003; 23: 852–6.
Park, JS, Ryu, KN. Hemophilic pseudotumor involving the musculoskeletal system: spectrum of radiologic findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2004; 183: 55–61.
Further reading
Schreiber, A, Smith, WL, Ionasescu, V, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Pediatric Radiology 1987; 17: 495–7.
Further reading
Chew, FS, Huang-Hellinger, F. Brown tumor. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1993; 160: 752.
Eisenberg, RL. Bubbly lesions of bone. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2009; 193: W79–94.
Miller, TT. Bone tumors and tumorlike conditions: analysis with conventional radiography. Radiology 2008: 246; 662–74.
Further reading
Grainger, AJ, McGonagle, D. Imaging in rheumatology. Imaging 2003; 15: 286–97.
Jacobson, JA, Girish, G, Jiang, Y, Sabb, BJ. Radiographic evaluation of arthritis: degenerative joint disease and variations. Radiology 2008: 248: 737–47.
Sheldon, PJ, Forrester, DM, Learch, TJ. Imaging of intraarticular masses. Radiographics 2005; 25: 105–19.
Further reading
McKenzie, G, Raby, N, Ritchie, D. A pictorial review of primary synovial osteochondromatosis. Eur Radiol 2008; 18: 2662–9.
Sheldon, PJ, Forrester, DM, Learch, TJ. Imaging of intraarticular masses. Radiographics 2005; 25: 105–19.
Further reading
Garner, HW, Ortiguera, CJ, Nakhleh, RE. Pigmented villonodular synovitis. Radiographics 2008; 28: 1519–23.
Murphey, MD, Rhee, JH, Lewis, RB, et al. Pigmented villonodular synovitis: radiologic–pathologic correlation. Radiographics 2008; 28: 1493–518.
Sheldon, PJ, Forrester, DM, Learch, TJ. Imaging of intraarticular masses. Radiographics 2005; 25: 105–19.
Further reading
Erlemann, R.Imaging and differential diagnosis of primary bone tumors and tumor-like lesions of the spine. Eur J Radiol 2006; 58: 48–67.
Further reading
Patel, MB, Bhalla, A. Paget's disease of the mandible. N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 625.
Further reading
Leu, KM, Kalemkerian, GP. Osteoporosis circumscripta. N Engl J Med 2002; 347(5): e2.
Love, C, Din, AS, Tomas, MB, Kalapparambath, TP, Palestro CJ. Radionuclide bone imaging: an illustrative review. Radiographics 2003; 23: 341–58.
Smith, SE, Murphey, MD, Motamedi, K, et al. From the archives of the AFIP. Radiologic spectrum of Paget disease of bone and its complications with pathologic correlation. Radiographics 2002; 22: 1191–216.
Further reading
Ejindu, VC, Hine, AL, Mashayekhi, M, Shorvon, PJ, Misra, RR. Musculoskeletal manifestations of sickle cell disease. Radiographics 2007; 27: 1005–21.
Lonergan, GJ, Cline, DB, Abbondanzo, SL.Sickle cell anemia. Radiographics 2001; 21: 971–94.
Madani, G, Papadopoulou, A, Holloway, B, et al. The radiological manifestations of sickle cell disease. Clin Radiol 2007; 62: 528–38.
McCann, C, Mondal, D, Curtis, J. 2_148 The Musculoskeletal Manifestations of the Haemoglobinopathies. Radiology Integrated Training Initiative. Royal College of Radiologists, 2010.
Resnick, D. Hemoglobinopathies and other anemias. In Resnick, D, ed., Diagnosis of Bone and Joint Disorders, 4th edn. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 2002; 2146–87.
Further reading
Angtuaco, EJ, Fassas, AB, Walker, R, Sethi, R, Barlogie, B. Multiple myeloma: clinical review and diagnostic imaging. Radiology 2004; 231: 11–23.
Further reading
Afshani, E, Kuhn, JP. Common causes of low back pain in children. Radiographics 1991; 11: 269–91.
Further reading
Bassett, LW, Blocka, KLN, Furst, , Clements PJ, Gold RH. Skeletal findings in progressive systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). AJR Am J Roentgenol 1981; 136: 1121–6.
Jones, SN, Stoker, DJ. Radiology at your fingertips: lesions of the terminal phalanx. Clin Radiol 1988; 39: 478–85.
Further reading
Dyer, RB, Chen, MYM, Zagoria, RJ. Classic signs in uroradiology. Radiographics 2004; 24: S247–80.
Dyer, RB, Chen, MYM, Zagoria, RJ. Intravenous urography: technique and interpretation. Radiographics 2001; 21: 799–824.
Hartman, MS. The golf ball-on-tee sign. Radiology 2006; 239: 297–8.
Jung, DC, Kim, SH, Jung, SI, Hwang, SI, Kim, SH. Renal papillary necrosis: review and comparison of findings at multi-detector row CT and intravenous urography. Radiographics 2006; 26: 1827–36.
Lonergan, GJ, Cline DB, Abbondanzo SL. Sickle cell anemia. Radiographics 2001; 21: 971–94.
Further reading
Adams, JE. Renal bone disease: radiological investigation. Kidney Int Suppl 1999; 56: S38–41.
Adams, JE. Radiology of rickets and osteomalacia. In Feldman, D, Glorieux, FH, Pike, W, eds., Vitamin D, 2nd edn. New York, NY: Elsevier, 2005; 967–94.
Pitt, MJ. Rickets and osteomalacia. In Resnick, D, Kransdorf, MJ, eds., Bone and Joint Imaging, 3rd edn. Richmond, VA: Elsevier-Saunders, 2005; 563–75.
Further reading
Gilula, . Carpal injuries: analytic approach and case exercises. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1979; 133: 503–17.
Goldfarb, CA, Yin, Y, Gilula, , Fisher, AJ, Boyer, MI. Wrist fractures: what the clinician wants to know. Radiology 2001; 219: 11–28.
Kaewlai, R, Avery, LL, Asrani, AV, et al. Multidetector CT of carpal injuries: anatomy, fractures, and fracture-dislocations. Radiographics 2008; 28: 1771–84.
Peh, WCG, Galloway, HR. Imaging of wrist injuries. In Vanhoenacker FM, Maas M, Gielen JL, eds., Imaging of Orthopedic Sports Injuries. Berlin: Springer, 2007; 201–24.
Further reading
Glass, RB, Norton, KI, Mitre, SA, Kang, E. Pediatric ribs: a spectrum of abnormalities. Radiographics 2002; 22: 87–104.
Guttentag, AR, Salwen, JK. Keep your eyes on the ribs: the spectrum of normal variants and diseases that involves the ribs. Radiographics 1999; 19: 1125–42.
Levine, BD, Motamedi, K, Chow, K, Gold, RH, Seeger, LL. CT of rib lesions. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2009; 193: 5–13.
Further reading
David, R, Oria, RA, Kumar, R, et al. Radiologic features of eosinophilic granuloma of bone. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1989; 153: 1021–6.
Hoover, KB, Rosenthal, DI, Mankin, H. Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Skeletal Radiol 2007; 36: 95–104
Stull, MA, Kransdorf, MJ, Devaney, KO. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of bone. Radiographics 1992; 12: 801–23.
Further reading
Burrill, J, Williams, CJ, Bain, G, et al. Tuberculosis: a radiologic review. Radiographics 2007; 27: 1255–73.
Engin, G, Acunas, B, Acunas, G, Tunaci, M. Imaging of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Radiographics 2000; 20: 471–88.
Harisinghani, MG, McLoud, TC, Shepard, JA, et al. Tuberculosis from head to toe. Radiographics 2000; 20: 449–70.
Jung, NY, Jee, WH, Ha, KY, Park, CK, Byun, JY. Discrimination of tuberculous spondylitis from pyogenic spondylitis on MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2004; 182: 1405–10.
Further reading
Banks, KP, Bui-Mansfield, LT, Chew, FS, Collinson, F. A compartmental approach to the radiographic evaluation of soft-tissue calcifications. Semin Roentgenol 2005; 40: 391–407.
Olsen, KM, Chew, FS. Tumoral calcinosis: pearls, polemics, and alternative possibilities. Radiographics 2006; 26: 871–85.
Further reading
Flach, HZ, Ginai, AZ, Oosterhuis, JW. Maffucci syndrome: radiologic and pathologic findings. Radiographics 2001; 21: 1311–16.
Murphey, MD, Flemming, DJ, Boyea, SR, et al. Enchondroma versus chondrosarcoma in the appendicular skeleton: differentiating features. Radiographics 1998; 18: 1213–37.
Further reading
Levine, SM, Lambiase, RE, Petchprapa, CN. Cortical lesions of the tibia: characteristic appearances at conventional radiography. Radiographics 2003; 23: 157–77.
Murphey, MD, Choi, JJ, Kransdorf, MJ, Flemming, DJ, Gannon, FH. Imaging of osteochondroma: variants and complications with radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics 2000; 20: 1407–34.
Further reading
Jones, EA, Manaster, BJ, May, DA, Disler, DG. Neuropathic osteoarthropathy: diagnostic dilemmas and differential diagnosis. Radiographics 2000; 20: S279–93.
Further reading
Campos, JC, Chung, CB, Lektrakul, N, et al. Pathogenesis of the Segond fracture: anatomic and MR imaging evidence of an iliotibial tract or anterior oblique band avulsion. Radiology 2001; 219: 381–6.
Crotty, JM, Snow, RD, Brogdon, BG, DeMouy, EH. Magnetic resonance imaging of trauma patterns in the knee. Emerg Radiol 1998; 4: 237–44.
Goldman, AB, Pavlov, H, Rubenstein, D. The Segond fracture of the proximal tibia: a small avulsion that reflects major ligamentous damage. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1988; 151: 1163–7.
Matherne, TH, Monu, JUV, Schruff, L, Neitzschman, HR. Avulsions around the knee portend instability. Emerg Radiol 2005; 11: 213–18.
Miller, LS, Yu, JS. Radiographic indicators of acute ligament injuries of the knee: a mechanistic approach. Emerg Radiol 2010; 17: 435–44.
Further reading
Miller, TT. Bone tumors and tumorlike conditions: analysis with conventional radiography. Radiology 2008; 246: 662–74.
Resnick, D. Diagnosis of Bone and Joint Disorders, 4th edn. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 2002; 3757, 3922–4.
Further reading
Chew, FS, Roberts CC, Lalaji AP. Musculoskeletal Imaging: a Teaching File, 2nd edn. Philadelphia, PA:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006.
Helliwell, PS, Taylor, WJ. Classification and diagnostic criteria for psoriatic arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2005; 64: ii3–8.
Ory, PA, Gladman DD, Mease PJ. Psoriatic arthritis and imaging. Ann Rheum Dis 2005; 64: ii55–7
Further reading
Chew, FS, Huang-Hellinger, F. Brown tumor. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1993; 160: 752.
Eisenberg, RL. Bubbly lesions of bone. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2009; 193: W79–94.
Jetvic, V. Imaging of renal osteodystrophy. Eur J Radiol 2003; 46: 85–95.
Jones, SN, Stoker, DJ. Radiology at your fingertips: lesions of the terminal phalanx. Clin Radiol 1988; 39: 478–85.
McDonald, DK, Parman, L, Speights, VO. Best cases from the AFIP: primary hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid adenoma. Radiographics 2005; 25: 829–34.
Miller, TT. Bone tumors and tumorlike conditions: analysis with conventional radiography. Radiology 2008; 246: 662–74.
Tigges, S, Nance, EP, Carpenter, WA, Erb, R. Osteodystrophy: imaging findings that mimic those of other diseases,AJR Am J Roentgenol 1995; 165: 143–8.
Wittenberg, A. The rugger jersey spine sign. Radiology 2004; 230: 491–2.
Further reading
Chew, FS. Radiology of the hands: review and self-assessment module. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2005; 184: S157–68.
Koyama, T, Ueda, H, Togashi, K, et al. Radiologic manifestations of sarcoidosis in various organs. Radiographics 2004; 24: 87–104.
Moore, SL, Teirstein, AE. Musculoskeletal sarcoidosis: spectrum of appearances at mr imaging. Radiographics 2003; 23: 1389–99.
Resnick, D, Niwayama, G. Sarcoidosis. In Resnick, D, Niwayama, G, eds., Diagnosis of Bone and Joint Disorders, 3rd edn. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 1995; 4333–52.
Yaghmai, I. Radiographic, angiographic and radionuclide manifestations of osseous sarcoidosis. Radiographics 1983; 3: 375–96.
Further reading
Littrell, , Wenger, , Wold, , et al. Radiographic, CT, and MR imaging features of dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas: a retrospective review of 174 de novo cases. Radiographics 2004; 24: 1397–409.
Murphey, MD, Walker, EA, Wilson, AJ, et al. From the archives of the AFIP. Imaging of primary chondrosarcoma: radiologic–pathologic correlation. Radiographics 2003; 23: 1245–78.
Further reading
Eisenberg, RL. Bubbly lesions of bone. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2009; 193: W79–94.
Miller, TT. Bone tumors and tumorlike conditions: analysis with conventional radiography. Radiology 2008; 246: 662–74.
Murphey, MD, Nomikos, GC, Flemming, DJ, et al. From the archives of the AFIP. Imaging of giant cell tumor and giant cell reparative granuloma of bone: radiologic– pathologic correlation. Radiographics 2001; 21: 1283–309.
Further reading
Ashlock, SJ, Harris, JH. West, OC, Zelitt, D. Acute elbow injuries. Emerg Radiol 1998; 5: 416–37.
Barron, D, Branfoot, T. Imaging trauma of the appendicular skeleton. Imaging 2003; 15: 324–40.
Gleeson, AP, Beattie, TF. Monteggia fracture–dislocation in children. J Accid Emerg Med 1994; 11: 192–4.
Hunter, TB, Peltier, LF, Lund, PJ.Radiologic history exhibit. Musculoskeletal eponyms: who are those guys?Radiographics 2000; 20: 819–36.
John, SD, Wherry, K, Swischuk, Phillips WA. Improving detection of pediatric elbow fractures by understanding their mechanics. Radiographics 1996; 16: 1443–60.
Further reading
Camp, MD, Tompkins, RK, Spanier, SS, Bridge, JA, Bush, CH. Best cases from the AFIP: adamantinoma of the tibia and fibula with cytogenetic analysis. Radiographics 2008; 28: 1215–20.
Eisenberg, RL. Bubbly lesions of bone. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2009; 193: W79–94.
Levine, SM, Lambiase RE, Petchprapa CN.Cortical lesions of the tibia: characteristic appearances at conventional radiography. Radiographics 2003; 23: 157–77.
Miller, TT. Bone tumors and tumorlike conditions: analysis with conventional radiography. Radiology 2008; 246: 862–74.
O'Donnell, P.Evaluation of focal bone lesions: basic principles and clinical scenarios. Imaging 2003; 15: 298–323.
Further reading
Chai, JW, Hong, SH, Choi, JY, et al. Radiologic diagnosis of osteoid osteoma: from simple to challenging findings. Radiographics 2010; 30: 737–49.
Kransdorf, MJ, Stull, MA, Gilkey, FW, Moser, RP. From the archives of the AFIP: osteoid osteoma. Radiographics 1991; 11: 671–96.
Further reading
Ashlock, SJ, Harris, JH, West OC, Zelitt D. Acute elbow injuries. Emerg Radiol 1998; 5: 416–37.
John, SD, Wherry, K, Swischuk, Phillips WA. Improving detection of pediatric elbow fractures by understanding their mechanics. Radiographics 1996; 16: 1443–60.
Further reading
Dunfee, BL, Sakai, O, Pistey, R, Gohel, A. Radiologic and pathologic characteristics of benign and malignant lesions of the mandible. Radiographics 2006; 26: 1751–68.
Murphey, MD, Robbin, MR, McRae, GA, et al. The many faces of osteosarcoma. Radiographics 1997; 17: 1205–31.
Rana, RS, Wu, JS, Eisenberg, RL. Pattern of the month: periosteal reaction. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2009; 193: W259–72.
Further reading
Lin, J, Martel, W. Cross-sectional imaging of peripheral nerve sheath tumors: characteristic signs on CT, MR imaging, and sonography. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2001; 176: 75–82.
Tateishi, U, Gladish, GW, Kusumoto, M, et al. Chest wall tumors: radiologic findings and pathologic correlation. Part 1. Benign tumors. Radiographics 2003; 23: 1477–90.