Skip to main content
×
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2010
  • Online publication date: February 2011

3 - Gametes and gametogenesis

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

In-Vitro Fertilization
  • Online ISBN: 9780511984761
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511984761
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
×

Further reading

Gametogenesis
AntczakM, Van BlerkomJ (1997) Oocyte influences on early development: the regulatory proteins leptin and STAT3 are polarized in mouse and human oocytes and differentially distributed within the cells of the preimplantation stage embryo. Molecular Human Reproduction 3: 1067–1086.
BachvarovaR (1985) Gene expression during oogenesis and oocyte development in mammals. In: BrowderLW (ed.) Developmental Biology. A Comprehensive Synthesis, Vol. 1, Oogenesis. Plenum, New York, pp. 453–524.
BellveA, O’BrienD (1983) The mammalian spermatozoon: structure and temporal assembly. In: Mechanism and Control of Animal Fertilization. Academic Press, New York, pp. 56–140.
BraunRE (2000) Temporal control of protein synthesis during spermatogenesis. International Journal of Andrology 23(Suppl. 2): 92–94.
BriggsD, MillerD, GosdenR (1999) Molecular biology of female gametogensis. In: Molecular Biology in Reproductive Medicine. Parthenon Press, New York, pp. 251–267.
BuccioneR, SchroederAC, EppigJJ (1990) Interactions between somatic cells and germ cells throughout mammalian oogenesis. Biology of Reproduction 43: 543–547.
ByskovAG, AndersenCY, NordholmL, et al. (1995) Chemical structure of sterols that activate oocyte meiosis. Nature 374: 559–562.
CanipariR (2000) Oocyte-granulosa cell interactions. Human Reproduction Update 6: 279–289.
CanipariR, EpifanoO, SiracusaG, SalustriA (1995) Mouse oocytes inhibit plasminogen activator production by ovarian cumulus and granulosa cells. Developmental Biology 167: 371–378.
ChoWK, SternS, BiggersJD (1974) Inhibitory effect of dibutyryl cAMP on mouse oocyte maturation in vitro. Journal of Experimental Zoology 187: 383–386.
ChooYK, ChibaK, TaiT, OgisoM, HoshiM (1995) Differential distribution of gangliosides in adult rat ovary during the oestrous cycle. Glycobiology 5: 299–309.
ClarksonMJ, HarleyVR (2002) Sex with two SOX on: SRY and SOX9 in testis development. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 13(3): 106–111.
DaleB (1996) Fertilization. In: GregerR, WindhorstU (eds.) Comprehensive Human Physiology. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg.
DekelN (1996) Protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation in the meiotic cell cycle of mammalian oocytes. Reviews of Reproduction 1: 82–88.
DongJ, AlbertiniDF, NishimoriK, KumarTR, LuN, MatzukMM (1996) Growth differentiation factor-9 is required during early ovarian folliculogenesis. Nature 383: 531–535.
EddyEM (1998) Regulation of gene expression during spermatogenesis. Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 9: 451–457.
EdwardsRG, BeardH (1997) Oocyte polarity and cell determination in early mammalian embryos. Molecular Human Reproduction 3: 868–905.
ElderK, ElliottT (eds.) (1998) The use of epididymal and testicular sperm in IVF. Worldwide Conferences in Reproductive Biology 2, Ladybrook Publications, Australia.
EpifanoO, DeanJ (2002) Genetic control of early folliculogenesis in mice. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 13(4): 169–173.
EppigJJ, O’BrienMJ (1996) Development in vitro of mouse oocytes from primordial follicles. Biology of Reproduction 54: 197–207.
FaddyMJ, GosdenRG (1995) A mathematical model for follicle dynamics in human ovaries. Human Reproduction 10: 770–775.
FulkaJ Jr., FirstN, MoorRM (1998) Nuclear and cytoplasmic determinants involved in the regulation of mammalian oocyte maturation. Molecular Human Reproduction 4(1): 41–49.
GardnerR (1999) Polarity in early mammalian development. Current Opinion in Genetics and Development 9(4): 417–421.
GosdenRG, BolandNI, SpearsN, et al. (1993) The biology and technology of follicular oocyte development in vitro. Reproductive Medicine Reviews 2: 129–152.
GosdenRG, BownesM (1995) Cellular and molecular aspects of oocyte development. In: GrudzinskasJG, YovichJL (eds.) Cambridge Reviews in Human Reproduction, Gametes – The Oocyte. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 23–53.
GougeonA (1996) Regulation of ovarian follicular development in primates – facts and hypotheses. Endocrine Reviews 17: 121–155.
GurdonJB (1967) On the origin and persistence of a cytoplasmic state inducing nuclear DNA synthesis in frog’s eggs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 58: 545–552.
HendersonSA, EdwardsRG (1968) Chiasma frequency and maternal age in mammals. Nature 217(136): 22–28.
HessRA (1999) Spermatogenesis, overview. Encyclopedia of Reproduction vol. 4. Academic Press, New York, pp. 539–545.
HillierSG, WhitelawPF, SmythCD (1994) Follicular oestrogen synthesis: the ‘two-cell, two-gonadotrophin’ model revisited. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 100: 51–54.
HirshfieldAN (1991) Development of follicles in the mammalian ovary. International Review of Cytology 124: 43–100.
HuttKJ, AlbertiniDF (2007)An oocentric view of folliculogenesis and embryogenesisReproductive Biomedicine Online 14(6): 758–764.
JohnsonM (2007) Essential Reproduction, 6th edn. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
JohnsonJ, BagleyJ, Skaznik-WikielM, et al. (2005) Oocyte generation in adult mammalian ovaries by putative germ cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood. Cell 122: 303–315.
JonesR (1998) Spermiogenesis and sperm maturation in relation to development of fertilizing capacity. In: LauriaA, et al. (eds.) Gametes: Development and Function. Serono Symposia, Rome, pp. 205–218.
KobayashiM, NakanoR, OoshimaA (1990) Immunohistochemical localization of pituitary gonadotrophins and gonadal steroids confirms the ‘two-cell, two-gonadotrophin’ hypothesis of steroidogenesis in the human ovary. Journal of Endocrinology 126(3): 483–488.
KramerJA, McCarreyJR, DjakiewD, KrawetzSA (1998) Differentiation: the selective potentiation of chromatin domains. Development 125: 4749–4755.
MacLarenA (2003)Primordial germ cells in the mouse. Developmental Biology 262(1): 1–15.
MasuiY (1985) Meiotic arrest in animal oocytes. In: MetzCB, MonroyA (eds.) Biology of Fertilization. Academic Press, New York, pp. 189–219.
MatzukMM, BurnsKH, ViveirosMM, EppigJJ (2002) Intercellular communication in the mammalian ovary: oocytes carry the conversation. Science 296 (5576): 2178–2180.
McNattyKP, FidlerAE, JuengelJL, et al. (2000) Growth and paracrine factors regulating follicular formation and cellular function. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 163: 11–20.
Merchant-LariosH, Moreno-MendozaN (2001) Onset of sex differentiation: dialog between genes and cells. Archives of Medical Research 32(6): 553–558.
MooreHDM (1996) The influence of the epididymis on human and animal sperm maturation and storage. Human Reproduction 11(Suppl.): 103–110.
NurseP (1990) Universal control mechanisms resulting in the onset of M-phase. Nature 344: 503–508.
OktayK, SchenkenRS, NelsonJF (1995) Proliferating cell nuclear antigen marks the initiation of follicular growth in the rat. Biology of Reproduction 53(2): 295–301.
PeredaJ, ZornT, Soto-SuazoM (2006) Migration of human and mouse primordial germ cells and colonization of the developing ovary: An ultrastructural and cytochemical study. Microscopy Research and Technique 69(6): 386–395.
PerezGI, TrbovichAM, GosdenRG, TillyJL (2000) Mitochondria and the death of oocytes. Nature 403(6769): 500–501.
PictonHM, BriggsD, GosdenRG (1998) The molecular basis of oocyte growth and development. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 145: 27–37.
ReynardK, DriancourtMA (2000) Oocyte attrition. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 163: 101–108.
RosnerMH, ViganoMA, OzatoK, et al. (1990) A POU-domain transcription factor in early stem cells and germ cells of the mammalian embryo. Nature 345(6277): 686–692.
SagataN (1996) Meiotic metaphase arrest in animal oocytes: its mechanisms and biological significance. Trends in Cell Biology 6: 22–28.
SagataN (1997) What does Mos do in oocytes and somatic cells?BioEssays 19: 13–21.
SchattenH, SunQY (2009) The role of centrosomes in mammalian fertilization and its significance for ICSI. Molecular Human Reproduction 15(9): 531–538.
SpearsN, BolandNI, MurrayAA, GosdenRG (1994) Mouse oocytes derived from in vitro grown primary ovarian follicles are fertile. Human Reproduction 9: 527–532.
Starz-GaianoM, LehmannR (2001) Moving towards the next generation. Mechanisms of Development 105(1–2): 5–18.
SutovskyP, FlechonJE, FlechonB, et al. (1993) Dynamic changes of gap junctions and cytoskeleton in in vitro culture of cattle oocyte cumulus complexes. Biology of Reproductions 49: 1277–12787.
SwainA, Lovell-BadgeR (1999) Mammalian sex determination: a molecular drama. Genes and Development 13(7): 755–767.
TaylorCT, JohnsonPM (1996) Complement-binding proteins are strongly expressed by human preimplantation blastocysts and cumulus cells as well as gametes. Molecular Human Reproduction 2: 52–59.
TelferEE (1996) The development of methods for isolation and culture of preantral follicles from bovine and porcine ovaries. Theriogenology 45: 101–110.
TelferEE, McLaughlinM (2007) Natural history of the mammalian oocyte. Reproductive Biomedicine Online 15(3): 288–295.
Van BlerkomJ, MottaP (1979) The Cellular Basis of Mammalian Reproduction. Urban and Schwarzenberg, Baltimore.
WardWS (1993) Deoxyribonucleic acid loop domain tertiary structure in mammalian spermatozoa. Biology of Reproduction 48(6): 1193–1201.
WardWS, CoffeyDS (1991) DNA packaging and organization in mammalian spermatozoa: comparison with somatic cells. Biology of Reproduction 44(4): 569–574.
WassarmanPM (1996) Oogenesis. In: AdashiEY, RockJA, RosenwaksZ (eds.) Reproductive Endocrinology, Surgery and Technology, vol. 1. Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, pp. 341–359.
WassarmanPM, LiuC, LitscherES (1996) Constructing the mammalian egg zona pellucida: some new pieces of an old puzzle. Journal of Cell Science 109: 2001–2004.
WhitakerM (1996) Control of meiotic arrest. Reviews of Reproduction 1: 127–135.
YanagamachiR (1994) Mammalian fertilization. In: KnobilE, NeillJ (eds.) The Physiology of Reproduction. Raven Press, New York, pp. 189–317.
Sperm chromatin packaging and RNA carriage
BalhornR (1982) A model for the structure of chromatin in mammalian sperm. Journal of Cell Biology 93: 298–305.
BalhornR, GledhillBL, WyrobekAJ (1977) Mouse sperm chromatin proteins: quantitative isolation and partial characterization. Biochemistry 16: 4074–4080.
BenchG, CorzettM H, DeYebraL, OlivaR, BalhornR (1998) Protein and DNA contents in sperm from an infertile human male possessing protamine defects that vary over time. Molecular Reproduction and Development 50: 345–353.
ChoC, WillisWD, GouldingEH, et al. (2001) Haploinsufficiency of protamine-1 or -2 causes infertility in miceNature Genetics 28: 82–86.
Gardiner-GardenM, BallesterosM, GordonM, TamPP (1998) Histone- and protamine-DNA association: conservation of different patterns within the beta-globin domain in human sperm. Molecular and Cellular Biology 18: 3350–3356.
GatewoodJM, CookGR, BalhornR, BradburyEM, SchmidCW (1987) Sequence-specific packaging of DNA in human sperm chromatinScience 236: 962–964.
GatewoodJM, CookGR, BalhornR, SchmidCW, BradburyEM (1990) Isolation of 4 core histones from human sperm chromatin representing a minor subset of somatic histones. Journal of Biological Chemistry 265: 20662–20666.
MillerD (2000) Analysis and significance of messenger RNA in human ejaculated spermatozoa. Molecular Reproduction and Development 56: 259–264.
MillerD, OstermeierGC (2006) Towards a better understanding of RNA carriage by ejaculate spermatozoa. Human Reproduction Update 12: 757–767.
WykesSM, KrawetzSA (2003) The structural organization of sperm chromatin. Journal of Biological Chemistry 278: 29471–29477.
Sex-determining mechanisms
MillerD (2004) Sex determination: insights from the human and animal models suggest that the mammalian Y chromosome is uniquely specialised for the male’s benefit. Journal of Men’s Health and Gender 1: 170–181.
Morais da SilvaS, HackerA, HarleyV, et al. (1996) Sox9 expression during gonadal development implies a conserved role for the gene in testis differentiation in mammals and birds. Nature Genetics 14: 62–68.
SekidoR, BarI, NarvaezV, PennyG, Lovell-BadgeR (2004) SOX9 is up-regulated by the transient expression of SRY specifically in Sertoli cell precursors. Developmental Biology 274: 271–279.
SekidoR, Lovell-BadgeR (2008) Sex determination involves synergistic action of SRY and SF1 on a specificSox9 enhancer. Nature 453: 930–934.

Gametogenesis

AntczakM, Van BlerkomJ (1997) Oocyte influences on early development: the regulatory proteins leptin and STAT3 are polarized in mouse and human oocytes and differentially distributed within the cells of the preimplantation stage embryo. Molecular Human Reproduction 3: 1067–1086.
BachvarovaR (1985) Gene expression during oogenesis and oocyte development in mammals. In: BrowderLW (ed.) Developmental Biology. A Comprehensive Synthesis, Vol. 1, Oogenesis. Plenum, New York, pp. 453–524.
BellveA, O’BrienD (1983) The mammalian spermatozoon: structure and temporal assembly. In: Mechanism and Control of Animal Fertilization. Academic Press, New York, pp. 56–140.
BraunRE (2000) Temporal control of protein synthesis during spermatogenesis. International Journal of Andrology 23(Suppl. 2): 92–94.
BriggsD, MillerD, GosdenR (1999) Molecular biology of female gametogensis. In: Molecular Biology in Reproductive Medicine. Parthenon Press, New York, pp. 251–267.
BuccioneR, SchroederAC, EppigJJ (1990) Interactions between somatic cells and germ cells throughout mammalian oogenesis. Biology of Reproduction 43: 543–547.
ByskovAG, AndersenCY, NordholmL, et al. (1995) Chemical structure of sterols that activate oocyte meiosis. Nature 374: 559–562.
CanipariR (2000) Oocyte-granulosa cell interactions. Human Reproduction Update 6: 279–289.
CanipariR, EpifanoO, SiracusaG, SalustriA (1995) Mouse oocytes inhibit plasminogen activator production by ovarian cumulus and granulosa cells. Developmental Biology 167: 371–378.
ChoWK, SternS, BiggersJD (1974) Inhibitory effect of dibutyryl cAMP on mouse oocyte maturation in vitro. Journal of Experimental Zoology 187: 383–386.
ChooYK, ChibaK, TaiT, OgisoM, HoshiM (1995) Differential distribution of gangliosides in adult rat ovary during the oestrous cycle. Glycobiology 5: 299–309.
ClarksonMJ, HarleyVR (2002) Sex with two SOX on: SRY and SOX9 in testis development. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 13(3): 106–111.
DaleB (1996) Fertilization. In: GregerR, WindhorstU (eds.) Comprehensive Human Physiology. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg.
DekelN (1996) Protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation in the meiotic cell cycle of mammalian oocytes. Reviews of Reproduction 1: 82–88.
DongJ, AlbertiniDF, NishimoriK, KumarTR, LuN, MatzukMM (1996) Growth differentiation factor-9 is required during early ovarian folliculogenesis. Nature 383: 531–535.
EddyEM (1998) Regulation of gene expression during spermatogenesis. Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 9: 451–457.
EdwardsRG, BeardH (1997) Oocyte polarity and cell determination in early mammalian embryos. Molecular Human Reproduction 3: 868–905.
ElderK, ElliottT (eds.) (1998) The use of epididymal and testicular sperm in IVF. Worldwide Conferences in Reproductive Biology 2, Ladybrook Publications, Australia.
EpifanoO, DeanJ (2002) Genetic control of early folliculogenesis in mice. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 13(4): 169–173.
EppigJJ, O’BrienMJ (1996) Development in vitro of mouse oocytes from primordial follicles. Biology of Reproduction 54: 197–207.
FaddyMJ, GosdenRG (1995) A mathematical model for follicle dynamics in human ovaries. Human Reproduction 10: 770–775.
FulkaJ Jr., FirstN, MoorRM (1998) Nuclear and cytoplasmic determinants involved in the regulation of mammalian oocyte maturation. Molecular Human Reproduction 4(1): 41–49.
GardnerR (1999) Polarity in early mammalian development. Current Opinion in Genetics and Development 9(4): 417–421.
GosdenRG, BolandNI, SpearsN, et al. (1993) The biology and technology of follicular oocyte development in vitro. Reproductive Medicine Reviews 2: 129–152.
GosdenRG, BownesM (1995) Cellular and molecular aspects of oocyte development. In: GrudzinskasJG, YovichJL (eds.) Cambridge Reviews in Human Reproduction, Gametes – The Oocyte. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 23–53.
GougeonA (1996) Regulation of ovarian follicular development in primates – facts and hypotheses. Endocrine Reviews 17: 121–155.
GurdonJB (1967) On the origin and persistence of a cytoplasmic state inducing nuclear DNA synthesis in frog’s eggs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 58: 545–552.
HendersonSA, EdwardsRG (1968) Chiasma frequency and maternal age in mammals. Nature 217(136): 22–28.
HessRA (1999) Spermatogenesis, overview. Encyclopedia of Reproduction vol. 4. Academic Press, New York, pp. 539–545.
HillierSG, WhitelawPF, SmythCD (1994) Follicular oestrogen synthesis: the ‘two-cell, two-gonadotrophin’ model revisited. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 100: 51–54.
HirshfieldAN (1991) Development of follicles in the mammalian ovary. International Review of Cytology 124: 43–100.
HuttKJ, AlbertiniDF (2007)An oocentric view of folliculogenesis and embryogenesisReproductive Biomedicine Online 14(6): 758–764.
JohnsonM (2007) Essential Reproduction, 6th edn. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
JohnsonJ, BagleyJ, Skaznik-WikielM, et al. (2005) Oocyte generation in adult mammalian ovaries by putative germ cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood. Cell 122: 303–315.
JonesR (1998) Spermiogenesis and sperm maturation in relation to development of fertilizing capacity. In: LauriaA, et al. (eds.) Gametes: Development and Function. Serono Symposia, Rome, pp. 205–218.
KobayashiM, NakanoR, OoshimaA (1990) Immunohistochemical localization of pituitary gonadotrophins and gonadal steroids confirms the ‘two-cell, two-gonadotrophin’ hypothesis of steroidogenesis in the human ovary. Journal of Endocrinology 126(3): 483–488.
KramerJA, McCarreyJR, DjakiewD, KrawetzSA (1998) Differentiation: the selective potentiation of chromatin domains. Development 125: 4749–4755.
MacLarenA (2003)Primordial germ cells in the mouse. Developmental Biology 262(1): 1–15.
MasuiY (1985) Meiotic arrest in animal oocytes. In: MetzCB, MonroyA (eds.) Biology of Fertilization. Academic Press, New York, pp. 189–219.
MatzukMM, BurnsKH, ViveirosMM, EppigJJ (2002) Intercellular communication in the mammalian ovary: oocytes carry the conversation. Science 296 (5576): 2178–2180.
McNattyKP, FidlerAE, JuengelJL, et al. (2000) Growth and paracrine factors regulating follicular formation and cellular function. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 163: 11–20.
Merchant-LariosH, Moreno-MendozaN (2001) Onset of sex differentiation: dialog between genes and cells. Archives of Medical Research 32(6): 553–558.
MooreHDM (1996) The influence of the epididymis on human and animal sperm maturation and storage. Human Reproduction 11(Suppl.): 103–110.
NurseP (1990) Universal control mechanisms resulting in the onset of M-phase. Nature 344: 503–508.
OktayK, SchenkenRS, NelsonJF (1995) Proliferating cell nuclear antigen marks the initiation of follicular growth in the rat. Biology of Reproduction 53(2): 295–301.
PeredaJ, ZornT, Soto-SuazoM (2006) Migration of human and mouse primordial germ cells and colonization of the developing ovary: An ultrastructural and cytochemical study. Microscopy Research and Technique 69(6): 386–395.
PerezGI, TrbovichAM, GosdenRG, TillyJL (2000) Mitochondria and the death of oocytes. Nature 403(6769): 500–501.
PictonHM, BriggsD, GosdenRG (1998) The molecular basis of oocyte growth and development. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 145: 27–37.
ReynardK, DriancourtMA (2000) Oocyte attrition. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 163: 101–108.
RosnerMH, ViganoMA, OzatoK, et al. (1990) A POU-domain transcription factor in early stem cells and germ cells of the mammalian embryo. Nature 345(6277): 686–692.
SagataN (1996) Meiotic metaphase arrest in animal oocytes: its mechanisms and biological significance. Trends in Cell Biology 6: 22–28.
SagataN (1997) What does Mos do in oocytes and somatic cells?BioEssays 19: 13–21.
SchattenH, SunQY (2009) The role of centrosomes in mammalian fertilization and its significance for ICSI. Molecular Human Reproduction 15(9): 531–538.
SpearsN, BolandNI, MurrayAA, GosdenRG (1994) Mouse oocytes derived from in vitro grown primary ovarian follicles are fertile. Human Reproduction 9: 527–532.
Starz-GaianoM, LehmannR (2001) Moving towards the next generation. Mechanisms of Development 105(1–2): 5–18.
SutovskyP, FlechonJE, FlechonB, et al. (1993) Dynamic changes of gap junctions and cytoskeleton in in vitro culture of cattle oocyte cumulus complexes. Biology of Reproductions 49: 1277–12787.
SwainA, Lovell-BadgeR (1999) Mammalian sex determination: a molecular drama. Genes and Development 13(7): 755–767.
TaylorCT, JohnsonPM (1996) Complement-binding proteins are strongly expressed by human preimplantation blastocysts and cumulus cells as well as gametes. Molecular Human Reproduction 2: 52–59.
TelferEE (1996) The development of methods for isolation and culture of preantral follicles from bovine and porcine ovaries. Theriogenology 45: 101–110.
TelferEE, McLaughlinM (2007) Natural history of the mammalian oocyte. Reproductive Biomedicine Online 15(3): 288–295.
Van BlerkomJ, MottaP (1979) The Cellular Basis of Mammalian Reproduction. Urban and Schwarzenberg, Baltimore.
WardWS (1993) Deoxyribonucleic acid loop domain tertiary structure in mammalian spermatozoa. Biology of Reproduction 48(6): 1193–1201.
WardWS, CoffeyDS (1991) DNA packaging and organization in mammalian spermatozoa: comparison with somatic cells. Biology of Reproduction 44(4): 569–574.
WassarmanPM (1996) Oogenesis. In: AdashiEY, RockJA, RosenwaksZ (eds.) Reproductive Endocrinology, Surgery and Technology, vol. 1. Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, pp. 341–359.
WassarmanPM, LiuC, LitscherES (1996) Constructing the mammalian egg zona pellucida: some new pieces of an old puzzle. Journal of Cell Science 109: 2001–2004.
WhitakerM (1996) Control of meiotic arrest. Reviews of Reproduction 1: 127–135.
YanagamachiR (1994) Mammalian fertilization. In: KnobilE, NeillJ (eds.) The Physiology of Reproduction. Raven Press, New York, pp. 189–317.

Sperm chromatin packaging and RNA carriage

BalhornR (1982) A model for the structure of chromatin in mammalian sperm. Journal of Cell Biology 93: 298–305.
BalhornR, GledhillBL, WyrobekAJ (1977) Mouse sperm chromatin proteins: quantitative isolation and partial characterization. Biochemistry 16: 4074–4080.
BenchG, CorzettM H, DeYebraL, OlivaR, BalhornR (1998) Protein and DNA contents in sperm from an infertile human male possessing protamine defects that vary over time. Molecular Reproduction and Development 50: 345–353.
ChoC, WillisWD, GouldingEH, et al. (2001) Haploinsufficiency of protamine-1 or -2 causes infertility in miceNature Genetics 28: 82–86.
Gardiner-GardenM, BallesterosM, GordonM, TamPP (1998) Histone- and protamine-DNA association: conservation of different patterns within the beta-globin domain in human sperm. Molecular and Cellular Biology 18: 3350–3356.
GatewoodJM, CookGR, BalhornR, BradburyEM, SchmidCW (1987) Sequence-specific packaging of DNA in human sperm chromatinScience 236: 962–964.
GatewoodJM, CookGR, BalhornR, SchmidCW, BradburyEM (1990) Isolation of 4 core histones from human sperm chromatin representing a minor subset of somatic histones. Journal of Biological Chemistry 265: 20662–20666.
MillerD (2000) Analysis and significance of messenger RNA in human ejaculated spermatozoa. Molecular Reproduction and Development 56: 259–264.
MillerD, OstermeierGC (2006) Towards a better understanding of RNA carriage by ejaculate spermatozoa. Human Reproduction Update 12: 757–767.
WykesSM, KrawetzSA (2003) The structural organization of sperm chromatin. Journal of Biological Chemistry 278: 29471–29477.

Sex-determining mechanisms

MillerD (2004) Sex determination: insights from the human and animal models suggest that the mammalian Y chromosome is uniquely specialised for the male’s benefit. Journal of Men’s Health and Gender 1: 170–181.
Morais da SilvaS, HackerA, HarleyV, et al. (1996) Sox9 expression during gonadal development implies a conserved role for the gene in testis differentiation in mammals and birds. Nature Genetics 14: 62–68.
SekidoR, BarI, NarvaezV, PennyG, Lovell-BadgeR (2004) SOX9 is up-regulated by the transient expression of SRY specifically in Sertoli cell precursors. Developmental Biology 274: 271–279.
SekidoR, Lovell-BadgeR (2008) Sex determination involves synergistic action of SRY and SF1 on a specificSox9 enhancer. Nature 453: 930–934.