Skip to main content
×
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 62
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Dondina, Olivia Orioli, Valerio Colli, Lorenza Luppi, Massimiliano and Bani, Luciano 2018. Ecological network design from occurrence data by simulating species perception of the landscape. Landscape Ecology, Vol. 33, Issue. 2, p. 275.

    Gallardo-Cruz, José Alberto Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis Moser, Dietmar Martínez-Yrizar, Angelina Llobet, Sergi and Meave, Jorge A. 2018. Relating species richness to the structure of continuous landscapes: alternative methodological approaches. Ecosphere, Vol. 9, Issue. 5, p. e02189.

    Yamaura, Yuichi Higa, Motoki Senzaki, Masayuki and Koizumi, Itsuro 2018. Biodiversity Conservation Using Umbrella Species. p. 151.

    Gao, Peichao Zhang, Hong and Li, Zhilin 2018. An efficient analytical method for computing the Boltzmann entropy of a landscape gradient. Transactions in GIS,

    Zhang, Zhiming Zinda, John Aloysius Yang, Zijiang Yin, Mei Ou, Xiaokun Xu, Qian and Yu, Qiaochu 2018. Effects of topographic attributes on landscape pattern metrics based on redundancy ordination gradient analysis. Landscape and Ecological Engineering, Vol. 14, Issue. 1, p. 67.

    Kedron, Peter J. Frazier, Amy E. Ovando-Montejo, Gustavo A. and Wang, Jing 2018. Surface metrics for landscape ecology: a comparison of landscape models across ecoregions and scales. Landscape Ecology,

    Evans, Michael J. Rittenhouse, Tracy A. G. Hawley, Jason E. Rego, Paul W. and Eggert, Lori S. 2018. Spatial genetic patterns indicate mechanism and consequences of large carnivore cohabitation within development. Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 8, Issue. 10, p. 4815.

    Boyce, Mark S. Mallory, Conor D. Morehouse, Andrea T. Prokopenko, Christina M. Scrafford, Matthew A. and Warbington, Camille H. 2017. Defining Landscapes and Scales to Model Landscape–Organism Interactions. Current Landscape Ecology Reports, Vol. 2, Issue. 4, p. 89.

    Humphreys, John M. Elsner, James B. Jagger, Thomas H. and Mahjoor, AmirSassan 2017. Disaggregating the Patchwork:. Wetlands, Vol. 37, Issue. 2, p. 205.

    Dickey-Collas, Mark McQuatters-Gollop, Abigail Bresnan, Eileen Kraberg, Alexandra C Manderson, John P Nash, Richard D M Otto, Saskia A Sell, Anne F Tweddle, Jacqueline F Trenkel, Verena M and Hidalgo, Manuel 2017. Pelagic habitat: exploring the concept of good environmental status. ICES Journal of Marine Science, Vol. 74, Issue. 9, p. 2333.

    Cullum, Carola Brierley, Gary Perry, George LW and Witkowski, Ed TF 2017. Landscape archetypes for ecological classification and mapping. Progress in Physical Geography, Vol. 41, Issue. 1, p. 95.

    Frazier, Amy E. and Kedron, Peter 2017. Landscape Metrics: Past Progress and Future Directions. Current Landscape Ecology Reports, Vol. 2, Issue. 3, p. 63.

    Gao, Peichao Zhang, Hong and Li, Zhilin 2017. A hierarchy-based solution to calculate the configurational entropy of landscape gradients. Landscape Ecology,

    Zeller, Katherine A. McGarigal, Kevin Cushman, Samuel A. Beier, Paul Vickers, T. Winston and Boyce, Walter M. 2017. Sensitivity of resource selection and connectivity models to landscape definition. Landscape Ecology, Vol. 32, Issue. 4, p. 835.

    Li, Kevin Vandermeer, John H. and Perfecto, Ivette 2016. Disentangling endogenous versus exogenous pattern formation in spatial ecology: a case study of the antAzteca sericeasurin southern Mexico. Royal Society Open Science, Vol. 3, Issue. 5, p. 160073.

    Cushman, Samuel A. 2016. Calculating the configurational entropy of a landscape mosaic. Landscape Ecology, Vol. 31, Issue. 3, p. 481.

    Mahamane, Mansour Volker, Hochschild Alfred, Schultz and Jude, NkuoKuma 2016. Fragmentation rate and landscape structure of the Tillabry landscape (Sahel region) with reference to desertification. Journal of Geography and Regional Planning, Vol. 9, Issue. 5, p. 77.

    Chambers, Carol L. Cushman, Samuel A. Medina-Fitoria, Arnulfo Martínez-Fonseca, José and Chávez-Velásquez, Marlon 2016. Influences of scale on bat habitat relationships in a forested landscape in Nicaragua. Landscape Ecology, Vol. 31, Issue. 6, p. 1299.

    Cullum, Carola Rogers, Kevin H. Brierley, Gary and Witkowski, Ed T.F. 2016. Ecological classification and mapping for landscape management and science. Progress in Physical Geography, Vol. 40, Issue. 1, p. 38.

    Jjumba, Anthony and Dragićević, Suzana 2016. Spatial indices for measuring three-dimensional patterns in a voxel-based space. Journal of Geographical Systems, Vol. 18, Issue. 3, p. 183.

    ×
  • Print publication year: 2005
  • Online publication date: November 2009

12 - The gradient concept of landscape structure

from PART III - Landscape patterns
Summary

The goal of landscape ecology is to determine where and when spatial and temporal heterogeneity matter, and how they influence processes (Turner, 1989). A fundamental issue in this effort revolves around the choices a researcher makes regarding how to depict and measure heterogeneity, specifically, how these choices influence the “patterns” that will be observed and what mechanisms may be implicated as potential causal factors. Indeed, it is well known that observed patterns and their apparent relationships with response variables often depend upon the scale that is chosen for observation and the rules that are adopted for defining and mapping variables (Wiens, 1989). Thus, success in understanding pattern–process relationships hinges on accurately characterizing heterogeneity in a manner that is relevant to the organism or process under consideration.

In this regard, landscape ecologists have generally adopted a single paradigm – the patch mosaic model of landscape structure (Forman, 1995). Under the patch-mosaic model, a landscape is represented as a collection of discrete patches. Major discontinuities in underlying environmental variation are depicted as discrete boundaries between patches. All other variation is subsumed by the patches and either ignored or assumed to be irrelevant. This model has proven to be quite effective. Specifically, it provides a simplifying organizational framework that facilitates experimental design, analysis, and management consistent with well-established tools (e.g., FRAGSTATS; McGarigal and Marks, 1995) and methodologies (e.g., ANOVA). Indeed, the major axioms of contemporary landscape ecology are built on this perspective (e.g., patch structure matters, patch context matters, pattern varies with scale).

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Issues and Perspectives in Landscape Ecology
  • Online ISBN: 9780511614415
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511614415
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
×
References
Barbato, G., Carneiro, K., Cuppini, D., et al., (1995). Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Methods for the Characterization of Roughness and Micro Hardness Measurements. Synthesis report for research contract with the European Union under its programme for applied metrology. CD-NA-16145 EN-C. Brussels, Luxembourg: European Commission.
Barnsley, M. F. (2000). Fractals Everywhere. San Diego, CA: Elsevier.
Bradshaw, G. A. and Spies, T. A. (1992). Characterizing canopy gap structure in forests using wavelet analysis. Journal of Ecology, 80, 205–215.
Chui, C. K. (1992). An Introduction to Wavelets: Wavelet Analysis and its Applications. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Cohen, A. (1995). Wavelets and Multiscale Signal Processing. New York, NY: Chapman and Hall.
Forman, R. T. T. (1995). Land Mosaics: The Ecology of Landscapes and Regions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gleason, H. A. (1926). The individualistic concept of the plant association. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 53, 7–26.
Kahane, J. P. and Lemarie, P. G. (1995). Fourier Series and Wavelets. Studies in the Development of Modern Mathematics, vol. 3. London: Taylor and Francis.
Kaiser, G. (1994). A Friendly Guide to Wavelets. Boston, MA: Birkhauser.
Mandelbrot, B. B. (1982). The Fractal Geometry of Nature. New York, NY: Freeman.
McGarigal, K. and Marks, B. J. (1995). FRAGSTATS: Spatial Analysis Program for Quantifying Landscape Structure. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-GTR-351. Portland, OR: USDA Forest Service.
McGarigal, K., Cushman, S. A., Neel, M. C., and Ene, E. (2002). FRAGSTATS: Spatial Pattern Analysis Program for Categorical Maps. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts.
Pentland, A. P. (1984). Fractal-based description of natural scenes. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 6, 661–674.
Peterson, D. L., and Parker, V. T. (1998). Ecological Scale: Theory and Applications. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Plotnick, R. E., Gardner, R. H., and O'Neill, R. V. (1993). Lacunarity indices as measures of landscape texture. Landscape Ecology, 8, 201–211.
SPIP (2001). The Scanning Probe Image Processor. Lyngby, Denmark: Image Metrology APS.
Stout, K. J., Sullivan, P. J., Dong, W. P., et al. (1994). The Development of Methods for the Characterization of Roughness on Three Dimensions. EUR 15178 EN. Luxembourg: European Commission.
Turner, M. G. (1989). Landscape ecology: the effect of pattern on process. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 20, 171–197.
Turner, M. G., Gardner, R. H., and O'Neill, R. V. (2001). Landscape Ecology in Theory and Practice. New York, NY: Springer
Villarrubia, J. S. (1997). Algorithms for scanned probe microscope, image simulation, surface reconstruction and tip estimation. Journal of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, 102, 435–454.
Webster, R. and Oliver, M. (2001). Geostatistics for Environmental Scientists. Chichester: Wiley.
Whittaker, R. H. (1967). Gradient analysis of vegetation. Biological Review, 42, 207–264.
Wiens, J. A. (1989). Spatial scaling in ecology. Functional Ecology, 3, 385–397.