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A Lawyer's Handbook for Enforcing Foreign Judgments in the United States and Abroad
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Book description

This 2007 book assists the practitioner seeking to enforce a foreign judgment in the United States or a US-rendered judgment abroad in navigating the lack of procedural uniformity that exists and in planning strategies likely to ensure effective enforcement. As a handbook, it provides the practitioner with a framework and resources with which to approach and further research the laws of the relevant state or country. In Part One, the guide takes the practitioner chronologically through the process of obtaining a US court's recognition and enforcement of judgments rendered abroad. Part Two takes the practitioner through the process of obtaining an overseas jurisdiction's recognition and enforcement of judgments rendered in the United States. Part Three assesses the current trends in the US and in the international trade environment regarding enforcement of judgments which may be made by foreign courts.

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Contents

Bibliography
Bibliography
Bibliography
Bibliography
Applicable laws and other legal instruments
Federal laws
Jurisdiction
Federal Question, 28 U.S.C. § 1331 (2000)
Diversity of Citizenship; Amount in Controversy; Costs, 28 U.S.C. § 1332(a)(2) (2000).
Service of process
Service in Foreign and International Litigation, 28 U.S.C. § 1696 (2000)
Summons; Service with Complaint; By Whom Made, Fed. R. Civ. P. 4(c) (2004)
Service upon Individuals in a Foreign Country, Fed. R. Civ. P. 4(f) (2004)
Service upon Foreign, State, or Local Governments, Fed. R. Civ. P. 4(j) (2004)
Pleadings of special matters
Judgment, Fed. R. Civ. P. 9(e) (2004)
Judicial procedure
Foreign Official Documents, 28 U.S.C. § 1741 (2000)
Proof of Official Record, Fed. R. Civ. P. 44 (2004)
Full Faith and Credit, 28 U.S.C. § 1738 (2005)
Registration of judgment
Registration of Judgments for Enforcement in Other Districts, 28 U.S.C. § 1963 (2000).
Relief from judgment or order
Mistakes; Inadvertence; Excusable Neglect; Newly Discovered Evidence; Fraud; etc., Fed. R. Civ. P. 60(b)(2004)
Stay of proceedings to enforce judgment
Stay of Proceedings to Enforce a Judgment, Fed. R. Civ. P. 62 (2004).
Multilateral treaties
United Nations Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (New York Convention), June 10, 1958, 9 U.S.C.A. 202, available on Westlaw, 21 U.S.T. 2517, 330 U.N.T.S. 38 (1959), available at: http://untreaty.un.org
Convention Abolishing the Requirement of Legalization for Foreign Public Documents
(Hague Apostille Convention), Oct. 5, 1961, 527 U.N.T.S. 189, 20 I.L.M. 1405, available at: http://untreaty.un.org
Hague Convention on the Choice of Court, November 25, 1965, 4 I.L.M. 348, Receneil de Conventions Hague [RCH] 96
Hague Convention on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil and Commercial Matters, Nov. 15, 1965, 20 U.S.T. 361, 658 U.N.T.S. 163, 4 I.L.M. 341 (1965) [supplemented by Conclusions and Recommendations Adopted by the Special Commission on the Practical Operation of the Hague Apostille, Evidence and Service Conventions, 28 October–4 November, 2003]
Hague Convention on the Taking of Evidence Abroad in Civil or Commercial Matters, Mar. 18, 1970, 23 U.S.T. 2555, 8 I.L.M. 37 [supplemented by Conclusions and Recommendations Adopted by the Special Commission on the Practical Operation of the Hague Apostille, Evidence and Service Conventions, 28 October–4 November, 2003]
American Law Institute, Transnational Insolvency: Cooperation Among the NAFTA Countries, Procedural Principle 10 and Appendix B (Guidelines Applicable to Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases)
American Law Institute, Intellectual Property: Principles Governing Jurisdiction, Choice of Law, and Judgments in Transnational Disputes – Preliminary Draft No. 3 (February 28, 2005)
Bilateral treaties
Convention on the Reciprocal Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments in Civil Matters, October 26, 1976, U.S.–U.K., 16 I.L.M. 71; Third Consultative Paper, March 1979, reprinted in 8 N.C. J. Int'l L. Com. Reg. 322(1983)
Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation Between the United States and the Republic of Korea, 8 U.S.T. 2217 (1957)
Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation Between the United States and Greece, 5 U.S.T. 1829 (1954)
Uniform laws (generally) and restatements
Conflict of Jurisdiction Model Act, reprinted in 26 Int'l. Law. 21, 56 (1992)
Uniform Enforcement of Foreign Judgments Act, 13 U.L.A. 149 (West, Westlaw 2004)
Uniform Foreign-Money Claims Act, 13 U.L.A. 149 (West, Westlaw 2004)
Uniform Foreign Money-Judgments Recognition Act, 13 U.L.A. 263 (West, Westlaw 2004)
Restatement (Second) of Conflict of Laws §§ 92–107 (West, Westlaw 2004)
Restatement (Third) of the Foreign Relations Law of the United States §§ 481–8 (West, Westlaw 2004).
Treatises and books
General
American International Law Cases 1990–2001: Third Series (Bernard D. Reams, Jr., ed., 1998)
Bartolus of Sassoterato, On the Conflict of Laws, ch. 10 (Joseph Henry Beale, tr., 2003), (1914)
Gary B. Born, International Civil Litigation in United States Courts (3rd ed. 1996)
Ronald A. Brand, Recognition of Foreign Judgments as a Trade Law Issue: The Economics of Private International Law, in the Economic Analysis of International Law 592, Jagdeep Bhandari & Alan O. Sykes eds., 1998)
James J. Brown, Judgment Enforcement (2nd ed., 2002)
Declining Jurisdiction in Private International Law: Reports to the xivth Congress of the International Academy of Comparative Law – Athens, August 1994 (J. J. Fawcett ed., 1995)
Albert V. Dicey & John H. C. Morris, The Conflict of Laws (13th ed., 2000)
Georges R. Delaume, Transnational Contracts – Applicable Law and Settlement of Disputes, ch. 9: A Study in Conflict Avoidance (1990)
Effective Dispute Resolution for the International Commercial Lawyer 197 (Dennis Campbell & Peter Summerfield eds., 1989)
Albert A. Ehrenzweig, A Treatise on the Conflict of Laws §§ 45–67 (1967)
Albert Ehrenzweig & Erik Jayme, Private International Law: A Comparative Treatise on American International Conflicts Law, Including the Law of Admiralty, 20–49, 54–8 (1973)
Enforcement of Foreign Judgments (Dennis Campbell & Center for International Legal Studies, eds., 1997)
Enforcement of Money Judgments, Vol. 1–2 (Lawrence W. Newman ed., 2003)
Enforcing Foreign Judgments in the United States and United States Judgments Abroad (Ronald A. Brand ed., 1992)
David Epstein et al., International Litigation: A Guide to Jurisdiction, Practice and Strategy (3d ed., 2004)
John Fellas, International Commercial Litigation, ch. 4 & 6 (1999)
William F. Fox, Jr., International Commercial Agreements: A Primer on Drafting, Negotiating and Resolving Disputes, 165–96 (Deventer, Kluwer Law and Taxation Publishers, 1987)
Ruth B. Ginsburg, Recognition and Execution of Foreign Civil Judgments and Arbitral Awards, in Legal Thought in the United States of America Under Contemporary Pressures 237 (John N. Hazard & Wenceslas J. Wagner eds., 1970)
Judicial Enforcement of International Debt Obligations (David M. Sassoon & Daniel D. Bradlow eds., 1987)
Arthur K. Kuhn, Comparative Commentaries on Private International Law or Conflict of Laws, 103–14 (1937)
Andreas F. Lowenfeld, International Litigation and Arbitration, ch. 5 (1993)
Andreas F. Lowenfeld, International Litigation and the Quest for Reasonableness: Essays in Private International Law, ch. 6: Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments (1996)
Andreas F. Lowenfeld & Linda J. Silberman, United States of America, in Enforcement of Foreign Judgments Worldwide 259 (Charles Platto & William G. Horton, eds., 2d ed., 1993)
Joseph M. Lookofsky, Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration: A Comparative Analysis of American, European and International Law, ch. 3–6 (1992)
Martindale-Hubbell Law Digest-United States Law Digests (New Providence, New Jersey, Martindale-Hubbell, 1992)
Micheal L. Morkin, United States, Enforcement of Money Judgments Abroad (Lawrence W. Newman, ed., 2003)
Ven P. Nanda & David K. Pansius, Litigation of International Disputes in Unted States Courts, ch. 12 (1986–2003)
Covey T. Oliver et. al, International Legal Systems: Cases and Materials (4th ed., 1995)
Ernst Rabel, The Conflict of Laws: A Comparative Study (2d ed., 1958)
Rudolph B. Schlesinger, Comparative Law (6th ed., 1998)
Eugene F. Scoles & Peter Hay, Conflict of Laws, ch. 24 (4th ed., 2004)
Joseph Story, Commentaries on the Conflict of Laws, Foreign and Domestic, In Regard to Contracts, Rights and Remedies, And Especially in Regard to Marriages, Divorces, Wills, Successions, and Judgments, ch. 15 (1972)
Robert Taylor, The Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in the United States of America: Due Process Hurdles in Light of the Uniform Foreign Money Judgments Act, in Effective Dispute Resolution for the International Commercial Lawyer 197 (Dennis Campbell & Peter Summerfields eds., 1989)
Louise Ellen Teitz, Transnational Litigation, ch. 8(1996)
Russell J. Weintraub, International Litigation and Arbitration: Practice and Planning (2nd ed., ch. 1–3 (4th ed., 2003))
David Westin, Enforcing Foreign Judgments in the United States, in International Litigation 473 (ABA Section of International Law and Practice, 1989)
John Westlake, A Treatise on Private International Law with Principle Reference to its Practice in England and Other Cognate Systems of Jurisprudence, and Numerous References to American Authorities (1986)
Arthur T. von Mehren, Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments: Contemporary Practices and Roles of Conventions, in Private Investment Abroad: Problems and Solutions in International Business in 1980 (M. Landwehr, ed., 1980)
Bruno A. Ristau, International Judicial Assistance: Civil and Commercial (2000)
Luther L. Mcdougal et al., American Conflicts Law (5th ed., 2001)
Courtland H. Peterson, Limits on the Enforcement of Foreign Country Judgments and Choice of Law and Forum Clauses, in Law and Justice in a Multistate World (James A. R. Nafziger & Symeon C. Symeonides eds., Transnational, 2002)
States
California
2 Rick Schwartz & Judge Alan M. Ahart, California Practice Guide, Enforcing Judgments and Debts, ch. 6J (1988)
8 B. Witkin, California Procedure, Enf. Judgm. §431, 434 (4th ed., 1997)
Maryland
Goldberg, Stephen M. & Vetter, Gerard R., Collecting Judgments in Maryland: Beyond the Basics (Eau Claire, WI, National Business Institute, Inc., 1993).
The Maryland Guide to International Trade (Frank, , Bernstein, , Conaway, & Goldman, eds., Baltimore, MD, Maryland International Division, 1992).
Massachusetts
Richard M. Gelb, Practical Skills Course in Commercial Arbitration: From Drafting the Initial Clause to Appeals (Boston, MA, MCLE, 1994)
North Carolina
The Unique Impact of North Carolina Law on International Transactions (Raleigh, NC, North Carolina Bar Association Foundation, 1993).
Specialized areas
Antitrust
Alan D. Neal & Mel L. Stevens, International Business and National Jurisdiction, 151 (1988)
The Unique Impact of North Carolina Law on International Transactions (Raleigh, NC, North Carolina Bar Association Foundation, 1993).
Arbitration awards/New York convention
Gary B. Born & David Westin, International Civil Litigation in United States Courts: Commentary and Materials (2d ed., 1992)
Georges R. Delaume, Law and Practice of Transnational Contracts, chs. 9–10 (1988)
Delaume, George R., Law and Practice of Transnational Contracts Applicable Law and Settlement Disputes, ch. 13–14 (New York, Oceana Publications, 1992).
Yves Dezalay & Bryant G. Garth, Grand Old Men v. Multinationals: The Routinization of Charismatic Arbitration into Off-Shore Litigation (ABF Working Paper # 9317)(1993)
David Epstein & Jefrey L. Snyder, International Litigation: A Guide to Jurisdiction, Practice and Strategy (3d ed., 1998)
The International Arbitration Kit: A Compilation of Basic and Frequently Requested Documents (Laura Ferris Brown ed., 4th ed., 1993)
M. Sornarajah, International Commercial Arbitration: The Problem of State Contracts, ch. 7 (1990)
Mclaughlin, Joseph T., Enforcement of Arbitral Awards Under the New York Convention: Practice in the U.S. Courts, in 2 International Commercial Arbitration Recent Developments275 (1988).
Bankruptcy and creditors' rights
Charles D. Booth, Recognition of Foreign Bankruptcies in a Transnational Setting: An Analysis of the Laws of the United States, in II The Law of Transnational Business Transactions, ch. 9 (Ved P. Nanda & Ralph B. Lake eds., 2003).
Current Developments in International and Comparative Corporate Insolvency Law (Jacob. S. Ziegel ed., with assistance of Susan I. Cantlie, 1994)
Dalhuisen, J. H., Dalhuisen on International Insolvency and Bankruptcy, §§1.05 to .07 (New York, Mathew Bender & Co., 1986).
Evan D. Flaschen and Ronald J. Silverman, Maxwell Communication Corporation plc: The Importance of Comity and Co-operation in Resolving International Insolvencies, in Cross-Border Insolvency and Reorganizations (E. Bruce Leonard and Christopher W. Besant, eds.) (IBA, 1994)
Free Trade with Mexico and Canada: Overview of Business Finance and Insolvency (Chicago, IL, American Bar Association, 1993).
International Criminal Law, 478, 492–6 (Gerhard O. W. Mueller and Edward M. Wise, eds., 1965)
David L. Shapiro, Preclusion in Civil Actions, 153–67 (2001)
Domestic relations
Judge William P. Hogoboom & Donald B. King, California Practice Guide: Family Law 18 (2004)
International Child Abductions: A Guide to Applying the Hague Convention, with Forms (Gloria F. DeHarted ed., 2d ed., 1993)
Christian E. Markey Jr., California Family Law: Practice and Procedure, §§ 52.05.06 (1987)
Non-money judgments
Trends in the Enforcement of Nonmoney Judgments and Orders (Jacobsson, Ulla & Jacobs, Jack eds., Norwell, MA, Kluwer Law and Taxation Publishers, 1988).
Sovereign immunity/U.S.-Iran claims tribunal
Georges R. Delaume, Law and Practice of Transnational Contracts, ch. 8, 10 (1988)
Georges R. Delaume, Transnational Contracts Applicable Law and Settlement Disputes: A Study in Conflict Avoidance, ch. 11–12 (1997)
Joseph W. Dellapenna, Suing Foreign Governments and Their Corporations (2d ed., 2003)
M. Sornarajah, International Commercial Arbitration: The Problem of State Contracts (1990)
Turner, Hugh J., Collection Procedures Against Foreign Sovereigns, in International Litigation 515 (ABA Section of International Law and Practice, 1989).
Paul H. Vishny, Guide to International Commerce Law, ch. 12 (2003).
Journals
General
Signed
Adler, Matthew H., If We Build It, Will They Come? – The Need for a Multilateral Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Civil Monetary Judgments, 26 Law & Pol'y Int'l Bus.79 (1994).
Anglim, Jennifer, Crossroads in the Great Race: Moving Beyond the International Race to Judgment in Disputes over Artwork and Other Chattels, 45 Harv. Int'l l.j.239 (2004).
Balan, Violeta I., Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in the United States: The Need for Federal Legislation, 37 J. Marshall L. Rev.229 (2003).
Baumgartner, Samuel P., Is Transnational Litigation Different?, 25 U. Pa. J. Int'l Econ. L.1297 (2004).
Beal, Crystal, Foreign Currency Judgments: A New Option for United States Courts, 19 U. Pa. J. Int'l Econ. L.101 (1998).
Ben-Ezer, Ayelet & Bendor, Ariel L., The Constitution and Conflict-of-Laws Treaties: Upgrading the International Comity, 29 N.C. J. Int'l Law Com. Reg. 1 (2003).
Bermann, George A., Provisional Relief in Transnational Litigation, 35 Colum. J. Transnat'l L.553(1997).
Bishop, R. D. & Burnette, Susan, United States Practice Concerning the Recognition of Foreign Judgments, 16 Int'l Law. 425 (1982).
Brand, Ronald A., Restructuring the U.S. Approach to Judgments on Foreign Currency Liabilities: Building on the English Experience, 11 Yale J. Int'l L.139 (1985).
Brand, Ronald A., Enforcement of Foreign Money Judgments in the United States: In Search of Uniformity and International Acceptance, 67 Notre Dame L. Rev.253 (1991).
Brand, Ronald A., Exchange Loss Damages and the Uniform Foreign-Money Claims Act: The Emperor Hasn't All His Clothes, 23 Law & Pol'y Int'l Bus. 1 (1992).
Brand, Ronald A., Symposium on U.S.-E.C. Legal Relations: Enforcement of Judgments in the United States and Europe, 13 J. L. & Com.193 (1994).
Briggs, Adrian, Which Foreign Judgments Should We Recognize Today?, 36 Int'l & Comp. L.Q.240 (1987).
Burbank, Stephen B., The Bitter with the Sweet Tradition, History and Limitations on Federal Judicial Power – A Case Study, 75 Notre Dame L. Rev.1291 (2000).
Burbank, Stephen B., Jurisdictional Conflict and Jurisdictional Equilibration: Paths to a Via Media?, 26 Hous. J. Int'l L.385 (2004).
Casad, Robert C., Issue Preclusion and Foreign Country Judgments: Whose Law?, 70 Iowa L. Rev.53 (1984).
Carl, Beverly, Suing Foreign Governments in American Courts: The United States' Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act in Practice, 33 Sw. L.J.1009 (1979).
Chao, Cedric C. & Neuhoff, Christine S., International Law Weekend – West Symposium Issue: Enforcement and Recognition of Foreign Judgments in United States Courts: A Practical Perspective, 29 Pepp. L. Rev.147 (2001).
Clark, Harry L., Dealing with US. Extraterritorial Sanctions and Foreign Countermeasures, 25 U. Pa. J. Int'l Econ. L.455 (2004).
DeCluitt, Christopher D., International Patent Prosecution, Litigation and Enforcement, 5 Tulsa J. Comp. & Int'l L.135 (1997).
Degnan, Ronan E. & Kane, Mary Kay, The Exercise of Jurisdiction over and Enforcement of Judgments Against Alien Defendants, 39 Hastings L.J.799, 844–54 (1988).
Dreyfuss, Rochelle C. & Ginsburg, Jane C., Draft Convention on Jurisdiction and Recognition of Judgments in Intellectual Property Matters (Symposium on Constructing International Intellectual Property Law: The Role of National Courts), 77 Chi.-Kent Law Rev.1065 (2002).
Edelman, Paul S., Enforcements of Foreign Judgments, N.Y.L.J., Mar. 2, 1990, at 3.
Fellas, John, Lessons on Enforcing Foreign Judgments in the United States, N.Y.L.J., Sept. 26, 2002.
Foster, Sharon E., Does the First Amendment Restrict Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Copyright Judgments and Arbitration Awards?, 10 Pace Int'l L. Rev.361 (1998).
Franklin, Jonathan A. & Morris, Roberta J., International Jurisdiction and Enforcement of Judgments in the Era of Global Networks: Irrelevance of, Goals for, and Comments on the Current Proposals, 77 Chi.-Kent L. Rev.1213 (2002).
Golomb, Alan E., Recognition of Foreign Money Judgments: A Goal-Oriented Approach, 43 St. John's L. Rev.604 (1969).
Gonzales-Arias, Orlando A., The Enforcement of United States Default Judgments, 10 Hastings Int'l & Comp. L.R.97 (1986).
Gordon, Michael W. & Adler, Matthew., Some Post-Litigation Issues: Enforcement of a Foreign Judgment Which Includes Compensatory, Moral and/or Punitive Damages; Enforcement of Injunctive Relief and Specific Performance: Enforcement of Costs, Interest, and Attorneys' Fees, Determination of the Proper Currency in an Enforcement Proceeding, 5 U.S.-Mex. L.J.183 (1997).
Harrison, Brett, Enforcing U.S. Judgments: Due Process, Proper Jurisdiction, 45 For the Defense75 (2003).
Hicks, J. Noelle, Vance, Andrew P.Memorial Writing Competition Winner, Facilitating International Trade: The U.S. Needs Federal Legislation Governing the Enforcement of Foreign Judgments, 28 brooklyn J. Int'l L.155 (2002).
Hall, Christopher P. & Gordon, David B., Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in the United States, 10 Int'l Law Practicum57 Autumn 1997, at 57.
Hallahan, Janet, Should a Foreign Nation's Jury Awards Limit American Juries? 67 Temple L. Rev.729 (1994).
Homburger, Adolf, Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments: A New Yorker Reflects on Uniform Acts, 18 Am. J. Comp. L.367 (1970).
Honey, William C. & Hall, Marc, Bases for Recognition of Foreign Nation Money Judgments in the U.S. and Need for Federal Intervention, 16 Suffolk Transnat'l L. Rev.405 (1993).
Honigsberg, Carol C., The Uniform Foreign Money-Judgments Recognition Act: A Survey of the Case Law, 14 Vand. J. Transnat'L L. 171 (1981).
Horlick, Gary N., A Practical Guide to Service of United States Process Abroad, 14 Int'l Law.637 (1980).
Joiner, Charles W., The Recognition of Foreign Country Money Judgments by American Courts, 34 Am. J. Comp. L. Supp.193 (1986).
Ju, Wei Jia, The Enforcement Clause: A New Development in the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments, 31 Am. Jur. Comp. L.520 (1983).
Juenger, Friedrich K., The Recognition of Money Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters, 36 Am. J. Comp. L.1 (1988).
Kulzer, Barbara, Some Aspects of Enforceability of Foreign Judgments: A Comparative Summary, 16 Buff. L. Rev.84 (1967).
Leary, Fairfax Jr. & Rosen, Howard T., The Uniform Foreign-Money Claims Act, 12 U. Pa. J. Int'l Bus. L.51 (1991).
Lenhoff, Arthur, Reciprocity and the Law of Foreign Judgments: A Historical Critical Analysis, 16 La. L. Rev.465 (1956).
Levitt, Peter S., The Extraterritorial Assertion of Long-Arm Jurisdiction and the Impact on the International Commercial Community: A Comment and Suggested Approach, 9 U. Pa. J. Int'l Bus. L.713 (1986).
Lily, Graham C., Jurisdiction Over Domestic and Alien Defendants, 69 Va. L. Rev.85 (1983).
Linder, Albert A., Comment, Judgments Rendered Abroad – State Law or Federal Law?, 12 Vill. L. Rev.618 (1967).
Lion, Paul L. III, The Need to Retreat from Inflexible Conversion Rules – An Equitable Approach to Judgments in Foreign Currency, 22 Santa Clara L. Rev.871 (1982).
Lorenzen, Ernest G., The Enforcement of American Judgments Abroad, 29 Yale L.J.188 (1919).
Lowenfeld, Andreas F., International Litigation and the Quest for Reasonableness: General Course on Private International Law, 245Receuil des cours (1994) [The Hague Academy of International Law].
Lowenfeld, Andreas F., Thoughts About a Multinational Judgments Convention: A Reaction to the Von Mehren Report, 57 law and Contemp. Probs.289 (1994).
Lutz, Robert E., Enforcement of Foreign Judgments, Part I: A Selected Bibliography of United States Enforcement of Judgments Rendered Abroad, 27 Int'l Law.471 (1993).
Maloy, Richard H. M. & Nisi, Desamparados M., A Message to the Supreme Court: The Next Time You Get a Chance, Please Look at Hilton v. Guyot; We Think It Needs Repairing, 5 J. Int'l Legal Stud. 1, 2 (1999).
Maltby, Jeremy, Juggling Comity and Self-Government: The Enforcement of Foreign Libel Judgments in U.S. Courts, 94 Colum. L. Rev.1978 (1994).
Miller, Katherine R., Playground Politics: Assessing the Wisdom of Writing a Reciprocity Requirement into U.S. International Recognition and Enforcement Law, 35 Geo. J. Int'l L.239 (2004).
Minehan, Karen E., The Public Policy Exception to the Enforcement of Foreign Judgments: Necessary or Nemesis?, 18 Loy. L.A. Int'l & Comp. L.J.795 (1996).
Moore, Jonathan S., Enforcing Foreign Ownership Claims in the Antiquities Market, 97 Yale L.J.466 (1988).
Newman, Lawrence W., Enforcement of Judgments, 17 Vand J. Transnat'l L.77 (1984).
Newman, Lawrence W., Jurisdiction to Enforce Foreign Judgments, 225 N.Y.L.J.3 (2001).
Nicholas, Robert, Reciprocal Enforcement of U.S. and Foreign Judgments, 2 Tex. Int'l L.J.75 (1971).
Nussbaum, Arthur, Jurisdiction and Foreign Judgments, 41 Colum. L. Rev.221 (1941).
Paul, Joel R., Comity in International Law, 32 Harv. Int'l L.J.1 (1991).
Peterson, Courtland H., Foreign Country Judgments and the Second Restatement of Conflict of Laws, 72 Colum. L. Rev.220 (1972).
Peterson, Courtland H., Res Judicata and Foreign Country Judgments, 24 Ohio St. L.J.291 (1963).
Pittman, Johnathan H., The Public Policy Exception to the Recognition of Foreign Judgments, 22 Vand. J. Transnat'l. L.969 (1989).
Posch, Willibald, Resolving Business Disputes Through Litigation or Other Alternatives: The Effects of Jurisdictional Rules and Recognition Practice, 26 Hous. J. Int'l L.363 (2004).
Quilling, Michael, Note, The Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Country Judgments and Arbitral Awards: A North-South Perspective, 11 Ga. J. Int'l & Comp. L.635 (1981).
Reed, Alan, A New Model of Jurisdictional Propriety for Anglo-American Foreign Judgment Recognition and Enforcement: Something Old, Something Borrowed, Something New?, 25 Loy. L.A. Int'l & Comp. L.J.243 (2003).
Rosen, Mark D., Should Un-American Judgments Be Enforced?, 88 Minn. L. Rev.783 (2004).
Schaack, Beth, In Defense of Civil Redress: The Domestic Enforcement of Human Rights Norms in the Context of the Proposed Hague Judgments Convention, 42 Harv. Int'l L.J.141 (2001).
Schwartz, Carolyn S., Enforcement of Money Judgments: Debt Collection, Foreign Judgments and Effect of Bankruptcy, Commercial Law and Practice Course Handbook Series in Enforcing State and Federal Money Judgments and Commercial Claims, PLI Order No. A4–4454 April 12, 19, 26, and May 3, 1994, 686 PLI/Comm.7 (1994), available on Westlaw.
Scoles, Eugene F., Interstate and International Distinctions in Conflict of Laws in the United States, 54 Cal. L. Rev.1599 (1966).
Scoles, Eugene F. & Aarnas, Laila E., The Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Nation Judgments: California, Oregon, and Washington, 57 Or. L. Rev.377 (1978).
Senger-Weiss, Elisabeth M., Enforcing Foreign Arbitration Awards, 53 Disp. Resol. J.70 (1998).
Silberman, Linda J., Enforcement and Recognition of Foreign Country Judgments in the United States, Litigation and Administrative Practice Course Handbook Series in International Commercial Litigation, PLI Order No. HO-001X February, 1998, 579 PLI/Lit. (1998) 103, available on Westlaw.
Silberman, Linda J., A Different Challenge for the ALI: Herein of Foreign Country Judgments, an International Treaty, and an American Statute, 75 Ind. L.J.635 (2000).
Silberman, Linda J., Enforcement and Recognition of Foreign Country Judgments in the United States, 16 Int'l Q.534 (2004).
Silberman, Linda J., The Impact of Jurisdictional Rules and Recognition Practice on International Business Transactions: the U.S. Regime, 26 Hous. J. Int'l L.327 (2004).
Small, David H., Managing Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Problems: The United States Government Approach, 50 Law. & Contemp. Probs.283 (1987).
Smit, Hans, International Res Judicata and Collateral Estoppel in the United States, 9 U.C.L.A. L. Rev.44 (1962).
Smit, Hans, Enforcement of Judgments in the United States of America, 34 Am. J. Comp. L. Supp. 255 (1986).
Sorkowitz, Alan J., Enforcing Judgments Under the Uniform Foreign Money-Judgments Recognition Act, 37 Prac. Law.57 (1991).
Stone, P. A., The Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982: Some Comments, 32 Int'l & Comp. L.Q.477 (1983).
Stevens, Susan L., Commanding International Judicial Respect: Reciprocity and the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments, 26 Hastings Int'l & Comp. L. Rev.115 (2002).
Sturm, William C., Enforcement of Foreign Judgments, 95 Com. L.J.200 (1990).
Teitz, Louise Ellen, Taking Multiple Bites of the Apple: A Proposal to Resolve Conflicts of Jurisdiction and Multiple Proceedings, 26 Int'l Law.21 (1992).
Teitz, Louise Ellen., International Litigation, 31 Int'l Law. 317 (1997).
Teitz, Louise Ellen, International Litigation – Parallel Proceedings: Parallel Proceeding and the Guiding Hand of Comity, 34 Int'l Law.545 (2000).
Teitz, Louise Ellen, International Litigation – Parallel Proceedings: Moving into Cyberspace, 35 Int'l Law.490 (2001).
Teitz, Louise Ellen, Both Sides of the Coin: A Decade of Parallel Proceedings and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Transnational Litigation, 10 Roger Williams U.L. Rev.1 (2004).
Teitz, Loise Ellen, Development in Parallel Proceedings: The Globalization of Procedural Responses, 38 Int'l Law. 303 (2004).
Thompson, Lisa C., International Dispute Resolution in the United States and Mexico: A Practical Guide to Terms, Arbitration Clauses, and the Enforcement of Judgments and Arbitral Awards, 24 Syracuse J. Int'l L. & Com. 1 (Fall 1997).
Mehren, Robert B., Transnational Litigation in American Courts: An Overview of Problems and Issues, 3 Dick. J. Int'l L.43 (1984).
Robert B. von Mehren Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards in the United States, Litigation and Administrative Practice Course Handbook Series in International Commercial Litigation, PLI order no. ho-001x February, 1998, 579 PLI/LIT. 147 (1998) available on Westlaw
Mehren, Robert B. & Patterson, Michael E., Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign-Country Judgments in the United States, 6 Law & Pol'y Int'L Bus. 37 (1974).
Mehren, Arthur T., Recognition and Enforcement of Sister-State Judgments: Reflections on General Theory and Current Practice in the European Economic Community and the United States, 81 Colum. L. Rev.1044 (1981).
Mehren, Arthur T., Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments: A New Approach for the Hague Conference? 57 Law & Contemp. Probs. 271 (1994).
Mehren, Arthur T. & Trautman, Donald T., Jurisdiction to Adjudicate: A Suggested Analysis, 79 Harv. L. Rev.1121 (1966).
Mehren, Arthur T. & Trautman, Donald T., Recognition of Foreign Adjudications: A Survey and Suggested Approach, 81 Harv. L. Rev.1601 (1968).
Newman, Lawrence W. & Burrows, Michael, Jurisdiction to Enforce Foreign-Country Money Judgments, N.Y.L.J., AUG. 16, 1990, AT 3.
Traynor, Michael, Conflict of Laws, Comparative Law, and The American Law Institute, 49 Am. J. Comp. L. 391, 396 (2001).
Weintraub, Russell J., The Need for Awareness of International Standards When Construing Multilateral Conventions: The Arbitration, Evidence, and Service Conventions, 28 Tex. Int'l L.J.441 (1993).
Westerheim, Suzanne Raggio, The Uniform Foreign-Money Claims Act: No Solution to an Old Problem, 69 Tex. L. Rev.1203 (1991).
Westin, David, Enforcing Foreign Commercial Judgments and Arbitral Awards in the United States, West Germany, and England, 19 Law & Pol'y Int'l Bus. 325 (1987).
Willems, John S., Shutting the U.S. Courthouse Door? Forum non Conveniens in International Arbitration, 58 Dispute Res. J.54 (2003).
Wilmore, Katherine Birmingham, Rhodes, Glen W., Buccino, Lisa S., International Developments in Review: 2001 Business Transactions & Disputes, International Litigation, 36 Int'l Law. 449 (2002).
Woodward, David L., Reciprocal Recognition and Enforcement of Civil Judgments in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the European Economic Community, 8 N.C. J. Int'l L. & Com. Reg.299 (1983).
Yntema, Hessel E., The Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Anglo-American Law, 33 Mich. L. Rev.1129 (1935).
Yntema, Hessel E., The Comity Doctrine, 65 Mich. L. Rev.9 (1966).
Zaphiriou, George A., Transnational Recognition and Enforcement of Civil Judgments, 53 Notre Dame L. Rev.734 (1978).
Unsigned
Appendix G: Federal Foreign Judgments Recognition and Enforcement Act, 8 Transnat'l L. & Contemp. Probs. 105 (1998)
Comment, Survey of International Law & Trade: Foreign Judgments Contrary to Public Policy of the Forum State Will Not Be Recognized or Enforced under Principles of Comity, Telnikoff v. Matusevich, 347 Md. 561 (1997), 22 Md. J. Int'l L. & Trade 180 (1998)
Foreign Currency Judgments: 1985 Report of the Committee on Foreign and Comparative Law, 18 N.Y.U. J. Int'l L. & Pol.791 (1986)
Foreign Judgments-Enforcement, dTahan v. Hodgson, 622 F.2d 862 (D.C. Cir. 1981), 3 J. Int'l. & Comp. L. 116 (1981)
No Personal Jurisdiction over French Defendants in Yahoo! Case Regarding Nazi Material, 21 Computer & Internet Law. 33 (2004).
Note, Conversion Date of Foreign Money Obligations, 65 Colum. L. Rev. 490 (1965)
Annotations
Campbell, Andrew M., Annotation, Refusal to Enforce Foreign Arbitration Awards on Public Policy Grounds, 14 A.L.R. Federal. 481 (1998 & Supp. 2004).
Johnson, Sara L., Validity, Construction, and Application of Uniform Enforcement of Foreign Judgments Act, 31 A.L.R. 4th 706 (1984 & Supp. 2004).
Schopler, E. H., Fraud as Defense to Action on Judgment of Sister State, 55 A.L.R. 2d 673 (1957 & Supp. 2004).
Shapiro, Sheldon R., Res Judicata or Collateral Estoppel Effect, in State Where Real Property Is Located, of Foreign Decree Dealing with Such Property, 32 A.L.R. 3d 1330 (1970 & Supp. 2004).
Smith, Daniel J., Invalidity of Judgment of a Court of Foreign Country, 9 Am. Jur. Proof of Facts 3d 687 (1990).
Spivey, Gary D., Requirement of Full Faith and Credit to Foreign Judgment for Punitive Damages, 44 A.L.R. 3d 960 (1972 & Supp. 2004).
Wakefield, Wanda Ellen, Judgment of Court of Foreign Country as Entitled to Enforcement or Extraterritorial Effect in State Court, 13 A.L.R. 4 th1109 (1982 & Supp. 2004).
Wright, Charles A., Miller, Arthur R. & Cooper, Edward H., Annotation, 18B Federal. Prac. & Proc. Juris. 2d § 4473 (Supp. 2004).
Zitter, Jay M., Construction and Application of Uniform Foreign Money-Judgments Recognition Act, 88 A.L.R. 5th545 (2001).
Federal
Signed
Anderson, Winston, Enforcement of Foreign Judgments Founded upon a Cause of Action Unknown in the Forum, 42 Int'l & Comp. L.Q. 697 (1993).
Burbank, Stephen B., Federal Judgments Law: Sources of Authority and Sources of Rules, 7 O Tex. L. Rev.1551 (1992).
Brummett, John D. Jr., The Preclusive Effect of Foreign-Country Judgments in the United States and Federal Choice of Law: The Role of the Erie Doctrine Reassessed, 33 N.Y. L. Sch. L. Rev.83 (1988).
Conison, Jay, What Does Due Process Have to Do with Jurisdiction? 46 Rutgers L. Rev.1073 (1994).
Darmody, Stephen J., An Economic Approach to Forum Non Conveniens Dismissals Requested by U.S. Multinational Corporations, The Bhopal Case, 22 Geo. Wash. J. Int'l L. & Econ.215 (1988).
Hartmann, David W., Enforcing Foreign Judgments: Due Process Considerations, 46 J. Mo. B.529 (1990).
Hoffman, Jerome A., Recognition by Courts in the Eleventh Circuit of Judgments Rendered by Courts of Other Countries, 29 Cumb. L. Rev.65 (1999).
Jett, Ernest C. Jr., Recent Developments, Conflict of Laws – Recognition of Foreign Judgments – Federal Courts Are to Apply State Laws on Recognition of Foreign Judgments, 8 Tex. Int'l L.J.247 (1973).
Marks, Ramon P., Note, Alternative Theories for Establishing a Federal Common Law of Foreign Judgments in Commercial Cases: The Foreign Affairs Power and the Dormant Foreign Commerce Clause, 16 Va. J. Int'l L.635 (1976).
Moghaddam, Behrooz, Recognition of Foreign Country Judgments – A Case for Federalization, 22 Tex. Int'l L.J.331 (1987).
Reese, Willis L. M., The Status in This Country of Judgments Rendered Abroad, 50 Colum. L. Rev.783 (1950).
Shanks, Hershel & Standiford, Steven A., Schizophrenia in Federal Judgment Enforcement: Registration of Foreign Judgments Under 28 U.S.C. § 1963, 59 Notre Dame L. Rev.851 (1984).
Stevenson, Allan Jay, Forum Non Conveniens and Equal Access Under Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation Treaties: A Foreign Plaintiff's Rights, 13 Hastings Int'l & Comp. L. Rev.267 (1990).
Zagalis, Penny, Hartford Fire Insurance Company v. California: Reassessing the Application of the McCarran-Ferguson Act to Foreign Reinsurers, 27 Cornell Int'l L.J.241 (1994).
Annotations
Karnezis, Kristine Cordier, Registration in Federal District Court of Judgment of Another Federal Court Under 28 U.S.C.A. § 1963, 194 A.L.R. Fed.531 (2004).
Donaldson, Russell G., Proof of Foreign Official Record Under Rule 44(a)(2) of Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, 41 A.L.R. Fed. 784 (1973 & Supp. 2004).
Miller, Robin C., Propriety of Federal Court Injunction Against Suit in Foreign Country, 78 A.L.R. Fed. 831 (1986 & Supp. 2004).
Shapiro, Sheldon R., Federal or State Law as Governing Federal Court's Authority, in Diversity Action after Erie R. Co. v. Tompkins, to Take Judicial Notice of Law of Sister State or Foreign Country, 7 A.L.R. Fed. 921 (1971 & Supp. 2004).
Shapiro, Sheldon R., Valid Judgment of Court of Foreign Country as Entitled to Extraterritorial Effect in Federal District Court, 13 A.L.R. Fed.208 (1972 & Supp. 2004).
States and possession (by state)
Arizona
Ehinger, James O., Enforcement of Foreign Country Judgments in Arizona, 33 Ariz. Att'y 20 (Mar. 1997).
Woods, Winton D. Jr. & Hochuli, Daniel J., Attacking Foreign Judgments in Arizona: Full Faith and Credit Problems to Avoid, 21 Ariz. B.J., Jun.–July 1985, at 35.
California
Comment, Extraterritorial Jurisdiction: The Application of U.S. Antitrust Laws to Acts Outside the United States – Hartford Fire Insurance Co. v. California 113 S. Ct. 2891 (1993), 20 Wm. Mitchell L. Rev. 1109 (1994)
Gordon, Stacy Adler, California Ruling Limits Many Foreign Lawsuits, 25 Bus. Ins., Dec. 23, 1991, at 1.
Hogoboom, William P. & King, Donald B. (Contributing editors:Asimow, Michael, Black, Kenneth A. and Cooperman, Bruce E., Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments Generally (Other Than for Support or Custody), in California Practice Guide (family law chapter) 18:900 – 18:979–84 (1997).
McKnight, Donald E. Jr., Enforcement of a Foreign Money Judgment in California, 1 cal. Int'l Prac. no. 21 (1989–90).
Scoles, Eugene F. & Aarnas, Laila E., The Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Nation Judgments: California, Oregon and Washington, 57 Or. L. Rev.377 (1978).
Zagalis, Penny, Hartford Fire Insurance Company v. California: Reassessing the Application of the McCarran-Ferguson Act to Foreign Reinsurers, 27 Cornell Int'l L.J.241 (1994).
Colorado
Caldwell, Mark S., Enforcing Foreign Country Judgments in Colorado, 13 Colo. Law.381 (1984).
Florida
Cata, Ricardo J., Uniform Foreign Money Judgments Recognition Act: An Idea Whose Time Has Come in Florida?, 66 Fla. B.J.94 (1992).
Franchino, Thomas W., The Florida Enforcement of Foreign Judgments Act: What Time Limit Applies?, 74 Fla. B.J.22 (2000).
Arnaldo, HilarionLlanes, Martinez, Foreign Nation Judgments: Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Florida and the Status of Florida Judgments Abroad, 31 U. Fla. L. Rev.588 (1979).
Kansas
Schmertz, John R. & Meier, Mike, Applying Kansas Law on Enforcement of Foreign Country Judgments, Tenth Circuit Holds That Claim Preclusion Based on Prior Australian Judgment Barred Federal Court Action Arising out of Same Transactions, 2 Int'l L. Update90 (Aug., 1996).
Indianna
Hittle, Jack G., Foreign Judgments: To Docket or Not to Docket, 31 Res Gestae177 (1987).
Massachusetts
Fitch, J. W., et al., The Enforcement of Foreign Money Judgments in Massachusetts, 81 Mass. L. Rev.65 (1996).
Missouri
Boyd, Stephen M. & Ehlers, John N., Missouri's Uniform Foreign Country Money-Judgments Recognition Act, 41 Mo. B.240 (1985).
New Jersey
Ernster, Peter G., Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Money-Judgments: A Clear Position for New Jersey, 22 Rutgers L. Rev.327 (1968).
New York
Anderson, Cerisse, New York Injunction Enforced in Dispute from English Court, 227 N.Y. L.J. (2002).
Freeman, Jennifer, Judgments in Foreign Currency: A Little Known Change in New York Law, 23 Int'l Law.737 (1989).
Homburger, Adolf, Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments: A New Yorker Reflects on Uniform Acts, 18 Am. J. Comp. L.367 (1970).
Kulzer, Barbara, Recognition of Foreign Country Judgments in New York: The Uniform Foreign Money-Judgments Recognition Act, 18 Buff. L. Rev.1 (1969).
Pollock, Ellen J. & Anders, George, Libel Judgment from Britain Is Rejected, Wall St. J., April 16, 1992, at B11.
Weinschenk, Fritz, Cheap Imports: Foreign Judgments in New York, N.Y. L.J., Mar. 16, 1989, at 5.
Ohio
Harrison, Gregory A., Ohio Enacts an Enforcement of Foreign Judgments Law, 9 U. Dayton L. Rev.391 (1984).
Hoffheimer, Daniel J., Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Country Money Judgments, Ohio State Bar Assoc. Report, Aug. 12, 1985, v. 58 n. 32 p.1288(5).
Oklahoma
Marks-Barnett, Sylvia, Enforcement of Foreign Support Orders, Judgments or Decrees, 52 Okla. B.J.1801 (1981).
Pennsylvania
Zicherman, & Brand, R., Improving the Litigation Climate for Pennsylvania Business: The Uniform Foreign Money Judgments Recognition Act, 7 Pitt. Legal J.36 (1989).
Puerto Rico
Toro-Monserrate, Jaime, Recognition of Foreign Judgments in Puerto Rico: Effectos Litograficos, C.A. v. Nat'l Paper Co. of Puerto Rico, 21 Tex. Int'l L.J.151 (1985).
Texas
Bishop, R. Doak, Obtaining Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign-Country Judgments in Texas, 45 Tex. B.J.287 (1982).
Bishop, R. Doak, Recent Amendments to the Texas Foreign Country Judgments Act, 6 Newsl. Int'l L. Sec. St. B. Tex.17 (1990).
Carl, Beverly May, Recognition of Texas Judgments in Courts of Foreign Nations and Vice Versa, 13 Hous. L. Rev.680 (1976).
Carl, Beverly May, Uniform Foreign Country Money Judgments Recognition Act, 44 Tex. B.J.60 (1981).
Graving, Richard J. & Sylvester, Jon H., Is the Uniform Foreign Money Judgments Recognition Act Potentially Unconstitutional? If So, Should the Texas Cure Be Adopted Elsewhere? 25 Geo. Wash. J. Int'l L. & Econ.737 (1992).
Rauer, Francis, Uniform Foreign Money Judgments Recognition Act Amendments, 52 Tex. B.J., January 1989, at 39.
Schimek, Michael D., Anti-Suit and Anti-Anti-Suit Injunctions: A Proposed Texas Approach, 45 Baylor L. Rev.499 (1993).
Specialized areas
Administration orders and public rights
Dodge, William S., Breaking the Public Law Taboo, 43 Harv. Int'l L.J.161 (2002).
Mann, F. A., The International Enforcement of Public Rights, 19 N.Y.U. J. Int'l L. & Pol.603 (1987).
Perez, Antonio F., The International Recognition of Judgments: The Debate Between Private and Public Law Solutions, 19 Berk. J. Int'l J. 44 (2001).
Admiralty
Bentil, J. Kodwo, The Enforcement of Judgments of Foreign Admiralty Courts, 128 Solic. J.375 (1984).
Bono, Michael L., Remedies for Wrongful Seizure in Admiralty Marastro Compania Naviera S.A. v. Canadian Maritime Carriers, 17 Mar. Law.317 (1992).
Theis, William H., Admiralty Proceedings and the Proposed Hague Convention on Jurisdiction and Judgments, 32 J. Mar. L. & Com.59 (2001).
Ward, James R., Thorsteinsson v. The Drangur: The Eleventh Circuit's Unnecessary Scuttling of a Foreign Admiralty in Rem Judgment, 27 Tex. Int'l L.J.507 (1992).
Antitrust
Blythe, M. A., The Extraterritorial Impact of Anti-Trust Laws: Protecting British Trading Interests, 31 Am. J. Comp. L.99 (1983).
Cotter, Jeffrey L., Extraterritorial Jurisdiction: The Application of U.S. Antitrust Laws to Acts Outside the United States – Hartford Fire Insurance Co. v. California 113 S. Ct. 2891 (1993), 20 Wm. Mitchell L. Rev.1109 (1994).
Danaher, Michael J., Anti-Antitrust Law: The Clawback and Other Features of the United Kingdom Protection of Trading Interests Act, 12 Law & Pol'y Int'l Bus.947 (1980).
Dunfee, Thomas W. & Friedman, Aryeh S., The Extra-territorial Application of United States Antitrust Laws: A Proposal for an Interim Solution, 45 Ohio St. L.J.883 (1984).
Harris, David A., United States v. Pilkington plc and Pilkington Holdings, Inc.: The Expansion of International Antitrust Enforcement by the United States Justice Department, 20 N.C. J. Int'l Law & Com. Reg.415 (1995).
Kahn, Tina J., The Protection of Trading Interests Act of 1980: Britain's Response to U.S. Extraterritorial Antitrust Enforcement, 2 Nw. J. Int'l L. & Bus.476 (1980).
Kennedy, Lionel, Enforcing International Commercial Arbitration Agreements and Awards Not Subject to the New York Convention, 23 Va. J. Int'l L. 75 (1982).
Lowe, A. V., Blocking Extraterritorial Jurisdiction: The British Protection of Trading Interests Act, 1980, 75 Am. J. Int'l L.257 (1981).
Maher, Laurence W., Antitrust Fall-out: Tensions in the Australian-American Relationship, 13 Fed. L. Rev.105 (1982).
Pettit, P. C. F. & Styles, C. J. D., The International Response to the Extraterritorial Application of United States Antitrust Laws, 37 Bus. Law.697 (1982).
Spencer Weber Waller, Special Defenses in International Antitrust Litigation, ABA Section of Antitrust Law (1995)
Zagalis, Penny, Hartford Fire Insurance Company v. California: Reassessing the Application of the McCarran-Ferguson Act to Foreign Reinsurers, 27 Cornell Int'l L.J.241 (1994).
Arbitration awards/New York convention
Aksen, Gerald, American Arbitration Accession Arrives in the Age of Aquarius: United States Implements United Nations Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, 3 S.W.U. L. Rev.1 (1971).
Ebke, Werner F. & Parker, Mary E., Foreign Country Money-Judgments and Arbitral Awards and the Restatement (Third) of Foreign Relations Law of the United States: A Conventional Approach, 24 Int'l Law. 21 (1990).
Joyce, Ann, Arbitration: United States Court Recognition of ICSID Arbitral Award Liberian Eastern Timber Corp. v. Republic of Liberia, 650 F. Supp. 73 (S.D.N.Y. 1986), aff'd mem., No. 86–9047 (2d Cir. May 19, 1987); Liberian Eastern Timber Corp. v. Republic of Liberia 659 F. Supp. 606 (D.D.C. 1987), 29 Harv. Int'l L.J.135 (1988).
Kennedy, Lionel, Enforcing International Commercial Arbitration Agreements and Awards Not Subject to the New York Convention, 23 Va. J. Int'l L.75 (1982).
Levine, Stanley L., United Nations Foreign Arbitral Awards Convention: United States Accession, 2 Cal. W. Int'l L.J.67 (1971).
Lecuyer-Thieffry, Christine & Thieffrey, Patrick, Negotiating Settlement of Disputes Provisions in International Business Contracts: Recent Developments in Arbitration and Other Processes, 45 Bus. Law.577 (1990).
McCahon, John P., Implementation of the United Nations Convention on Foreign Arbitral Awards in the United States, 2 J. Mar. L. & Com.735 (1971).
McClendon, J. Stewart, Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards in the United States, 4. Nw. J. Int'l L. & Bus.58 (1982).
Posch, Willibald, Resolving Business Disputes Through Litigation or Other Alternatives: The Effects of Jurisdictional Rules and Recognition Practice, 26 Hous. J. Int'l L. 363 (2004).
Quigley, Leonard V., Convention on Foreign Arbitral Awards, 58 A.B.A. J.821 (1972).
Rubinstein, Javier H., International Commercial Arbitration: Reflections at the Crossroads of the Common Law and Civil Law Traditions, 5 Chi. J. Int'l L.303 (2004).
Thieffrey, Patrick, Europe 1992, New Incentives, Arbitration Expected to Increase, Nat'l L.J., Mar. 19, 1990, at 21.
Ungar, Kenneth T., Note, The Enforcement of Arbitral Awards Under UNCITRAL's Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration, 25 Colum. J. Transnat'l L.717 (1987).
Bankruptcy and creditors' rights
Booth, Charles D., Recognition of Foreign Bankruptcies: An Analysis and Critique of the Inconsistent Approaches of United States Courts, 66 Am. Bankr. L.J.135 (1992).
Boshkoff, Douglass G., United States Judicial Assistance in Cross-Border Insolvencies, 36 Int'l. & Comp. L.Q.729 (1987).
Clift, Jenny, United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL): The UNCITRAL Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency: A Legislative Framework to Facilitate Coordination and Cooperation in Cross-Border Insolvency, 12 Tul. J. Int'l & comp. L.307 (2004).
Coulson, Richard E., Choice of Law in United States Cross-Border Insolvencies, 32 Denv. J. Int'l L. & Pol'y275 (2004).
Gallagher, Brian J. & Hartje, John, The Effectiveness of Section 304 in Achieving Efficient and Economic Equity in Transnational Insolvency, 1983 Norton Ann. Surv. Bankr. L.1 (1983).
Given, Thomas C. & Vilaplana, Victor A., Comity Revisited: Multinational Bankruptcy Cases Under Section 304 of the Bankruptcy Code, 1983 Ariz. St. L.J.325 (1983).
Gross, Mark, Foreign Creditor Rights: Recognition of Foreign Bankruptcy Adjudications in the United States and the Republic of Singapore, 12 U. Pa. J. Int'l Bus. L.125 (1991).
Huber, Ulrich, Creditor Equality in Transnational Bankruptcies: The United States Position, 19 Vand. J. Transnat'l L.741 (1986).
James, Stephen B., International Bankruptcy: Limited Recognition in the New U.S. Bankruptcy Code, 3 Hous. J. Int'l L.241 (1986).
Klocker, Ingo A. J., Foreign Debtors and Creditors under United States and West German Bankruptcy Laws: An Analysis and Comparison, 20 Tex. Int'l L.J.55 (1985).
LoPucki, Lynn M., Cooperation in International Bankruptcy: A Post-Universalist Approach, 84 Cornell L. Rev.696 (1999).
Nadelmann, Kurt H., Rehabilitating International Bankruptcy Law: Lessons Taught by Herstatt and Company, 52 N.Y.U. L. L. Rev.1 (1977).
Nielsen, Anne Norby, Section 304 of the Bankruptcy Code: Has It Fostered the Development of an International Bankruptcy System, 22 Colum. J. Transnat'l L.541 (1984).
Powers, Timothy E. & Mears, Rona R., Protecting a U.S. Debtor's Assets in International Bankruptcy: A Survey and Proposal for Reciprocity, 10 N.C. J. Int'l L. & Com. Reg.303 (1985).
Stevens, Pauline M., The Interpenetration of Foreign Bankruptcy Laws in Domestic Proceedings Under H.R. 8200, 52 Am. Bankr. L.J.61 (1978).
Trautman, Donald T., Foreign Creditors in American Bankruptcy Proceedings, 29 Harv. Int'l L.J.49 (1988).
Unger, Barbara K., United States Recognition of Foreign Bankruptcies, 19 Int'l L.1153 (1985).
Defamation and first amendment issues
Devgun, Derek, United States Enforcement of English Defamation Judgments: Exploring the First Amendment, 23 Anglo-Am. L. Rev.1995 (1994).
Kraus, Ken & Polatsek, Dan, Enforcement of Foreign Media Judgments in the Aftermath of Gutnick v. Dow Jones & Co., 21 SPG Comm. Law.1 (2003).
Maltby, Jeremy, Juggling Comity and Self-Government: The Enforcement of Foreign Libel Judgments in U.S. Courts, 94 Colum. L. Rev.1978 (1994).
Pollock, & Anders, , Libel Judgment from Britain is Rejected, Wall St. J., Apr. 16, 1992, at B6.
Sanders, Jeff, Extraterritorial Application of the First Amendment to Defamation Claims Against American Media, 19 N.C. J. Int'l L. & Com. Reg. 515 (1994).
Stern, Craig A., Foreign Judgments and the Freedom of Speech: Look Who's Talking, 60 Brook. L. Rev.999 (1994).
Houweling, Molly S., Enforcement of Foreign Judgments, the First Amendment, and Internet Speech: Notes for the Next Yahoo! v. Licra, 24 Mich. J. Int'l L.697 (2003).
Youm, Kyu Ho, Suing American Media in Foreign Courts: Doing an End-Run Around U.S. Libel Law, 16 Hastings Comm. & Ent. L.J.235.
Domestic relations
Arenstein, Robert D., Interjurisdictional Enforcement of Matrimonial Orders, 2 Am. J. Fam. L. 7 (Spring 1988).
Blakesly, Christopher L., Comparativist Ruminations from the Bayou on Child Custody Jurisdiction: The UCCJA, the PKPA, and the Hague Convention on Child Abduction, 58 La. L. Rev.449 (1998).
Cavers, David F., International Enforcement of Family Support, 81 Colum. L. Rev.994 (1981).
Chase, R. F., Domestic Recognition of Divorce Decree Obtained in Foreign Country and Attacked for Lack of Domicil or Jurisdiction of Parties, 13 A.L.R. 3d 1419 (1967 & Supp. 1992).
Ehrenzweig, Albert A., Recognition of Custody Decrees Rendered Abroad: Law and Reason Versus the Restatement, 2 Am. J. Comp. L.167 (1953).
Frank, Robin Jo, American and International Responses to International Child Abductions, 16 N.Y.U. J. Int'l L. & Pol. 415 (1984).
Gillen, Rebecca O., Recent Developments, Domestic Relations-Jurisdiction: Extension of Comity to Foreign-Nations Divorce, 46 tenn. l. rev.238 (1978).
Griswold, Erwin N., Divorce Jurisdiction and Recognition of Divorce Decrees: A Comparative Study, 65 harv. l. rev.193 (1951).
International Child Abductions: A Guide to Applying the Hague Convention, with Forms, 2nd ed. (Gloria F. Dehart ed., A.B.A. Section of Family Law, 1993)
Karet, Jerome I., The International Enforcement of Matrimonial Financial Orders, 6 Int'l Legal Prac. 8 (1981).
Krauskopf, Joan M., International Recognition and Enforcement of Family Law Judgments, 27 St. Louis B.J.6 (1980).
Marks-Barnett, Sylvia, Enforcement of Foreign Support Orders, Judgments, or Decrees, 52 Okla. B.J.1801 (1981).
Note, United States Recognition of Foreign, Nonjudicial Divorces, 53 Minn. L. Rev.612 (1969).
O'Hear, Michael M., Some of the Most Embarrassing Questions: Extra-territorial Divorces and the Problem of Jurisdiction Before Pennoyer, 104 Yale L.J.1507 (1995).
Simkin, Michael Jay, Choices in Enforcement of Foreign Marital Judgments, 22 Beverly Hills B. Assn. J.223 (1988).
Special Issue: Divorce Law Around the World, Fam Advoc. (Spring 1987)
Vartanian, P. H., Foreign Filiation or Support Order in Bastardy Proceedings, Requiring Periodic Payments, as Extraterritorially Enforceable, 16 A.L.R. 2d 1098 (1951 & Supp. 1992).
International court of justice
Brown, Colton, Enforcement of ICJ Decisions in the United States Courts, 11 Md. J. Int'l L. & Trade73 (1987).
O'Connell, Mary Ellen, The Prospects for Enforcing Monetary Judgments of the International Court of Justice: A Study of Nicaragua's Judgment Against the United States, 30 Va. J. Int'l L.891 (1990).
Internet (E-Commerce)
Martin, Mary Shannon, Keep It Online: the Hague Convention and the Need for Online Alternative Dispute Resolution in International Business-to-Consumer E-Commerce, 20 Boston U. Int'l.J.125 (2002).
Non-money judgments (equitable remedies)
Buzard, David, U.S. Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Country Injunctive and Specific Performance Decrees, 20 Cal. W. Int'l L.J.91 (1990).
Crawford, James, Execution of Judgments and Foreign Sovereign Immunity, 75 Am. J. Int'l L.820 (1981).
Delaume, Georges R., Long Arm Jurisdiction Under the Federal Sovereign Immunities Act, 74 Am. J. Int'l L.640 (1980).
Delaume, Georges R., The Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act and Public Debt Litigation: Some Fifteen Years Later, 88 Am. J. Int'l L.257 (1994).
Eskridge, William N. Jr., The Iranian Nationalization Cases: Toward a General Theory of Jurisdiction over Foreign States, 22 Harv. Int'l L.J.525 (1981).
Fox, Hazel, Enforcement Jurisdiction, Foreign State Property and Diplomatic Immunity, 34 Int'l & Comp. L.Q.115 (1985).
Hill, Thomas H., A Policy Analysis of the American Law of Foreign State Immunity, 50 Fordham L. Rev.155 (1981).
Jay, Gregory, Foreign Sovereign Immunity Act: Commercial Activity Exception United States May Exercise Jurisdiction over a Foreign Sovereign Who Has Issued Promissory Notes to a U.S. Corporation, 21 Ga. J. Int'l & Comp. L.539 (1991).
Kindall, M. P. A., Immunity of States for Noncommercial Torts: A Comparative Analysis of the International Law Commission's Draft, 75 Cal. L. Rev.1849 (1987).
Montgomery, Wendlene K., Jurisdiction and Sovereign Immunity: Jurisdiction over Foreign States Under the Alien Tort Claims Act: Amerada Hess Shipping Corp. v. Argentine Republic, 830 f.2D 431 (2d cir. 1987), 29 Harv. Int'l L.J.215 (1988).
Murray, Matthew H., The Torture Victim Protection Act: Legislation to Promote Enforcement of the Human Rights of Aliens in U.S. Courts, 25 Colum. J. Transnat'l L.673 (1987).
Selby, Jamison M. & Stewart, David P., Practical and Legal Aspects of Arbitrating Claims Before the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal, 18 Int'l Law.211 (1984).
Silverman, Marisa, Karaha Bodas Co., L.L.C. v. Perusahan Pertambangan Minyak Dan Gas Vedara 313 F.3d 70 (2d Cir. 2002), 16 N.Y. Int'l L. Rev.223 (2003).
Underhill, David L., Denying Enforcement of a Foreign Country Injunction: Solution or Symptom: Pilkington Bros. v. AFG Industries, Inc., 17 Conn. L. Rev.703 (1985).
Wasserman, Rhonda, Equity Renewed: Preliminary Injunctions to Secure Potential Money Judgments, 67 Wash. L. Rev.257 (1992).
Sovereign immunity
Newman, Lawrence W. & Burrows, Michael, Enforceability of Iran Tribunal Awards, N.Y. L.J., Sept. 21, 1990, at 3.
Newman, Lawrence W. & Burrows, Michael, Enforcement of Judgments Against Foreign States, N.Y. L.J., Apr. 3, 1991 at 3.
Ostrander,, JeremyThe Last Bastion of Sovereign Immunity: A Comparative Look at Immunity from Execution of Judgments 22 Berkeley Journal of International Law541 (2004).
Schopler, E. H., Modern Status of the Rules as to Immunity of Foreign Sovereign from Suit in Federal or State Courts, 25 A.L.R. 3d 322 (1969 & Supp. 1992).
Brussels and Lugano conventions
Fitzpatrick, John, The Lugano Convention and Western European Integration: A Comparative Analysis of Jurisdiction and Judgments in Europe and the United States, 8 Conn. J. Int'l L.695 (1993).
Russel, Kathryn A., Exorbitant Jurisdiction and Enforcement of Judgments: The Brussels System as an Impetus for United States Action, 19 Syracuse J. Int'l L. & Com.57 (1993).
Antidilution
Welkowitz, David S., Preemption, Extraterritoriality, and the Problem of State Antidilution Laws, 67 Tul. L. Rev.1 (1992).
Comparative studies
Danford, Brandon B., The Enforcement of Foreign Money Judgments in the United States and Europe: How Can We Achieve a Comprehensive Treaty?, 23 Rev. Litig.381 (2004).
Martinez, Jenny S., Towards an International Judicial System, 56 Stan. L. Rev.429 (2003).
Martinez, Juan Carlos, Recognizing and Enforcing Foreign Nation Judgments: The United States and Europe Compared and Contrasted: A Call for Revised Legislation in Florida, 4 J. Transnat'l L. & Pol'y49 (1995).
Paige, Brian Richard, Foreign Judgments in American and English Courts: A Comparative Analysis, 26 Seattle Univ. L.R.591 (2003).
Transient or tag jurisdiction
Fastiff, Eric B., The Proposed Hague Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Civil Commercial Judgments: A Solution to Butch Reynolds's Jurisdiction and Enforcement Problems, 28 Cornell Int'l L.J.469 (1995).
Parallel proceedings
Drake, Lauretta, Stop the Madness! Procedural and Practical Defenses to Avoid Inconsistent Cross-Border Judgments Between Texas and Mexico, 9 J. Transnat'l L. & Pol'y209 (1999).
George, James, Parallel Litigation, 51 Baylor L. Rev.769 (1999).
George, James P., International Parallel Litigation: A Survey of Current Conventions and Model Laws, 37 Tex. Int'l L.J.499 (2002).
Coal, Margarita Trevino, Stay, Dismiss, Enjoin or Abstain: A Survey of Foreign Parallel Litigation in the Federal Courts of the United States, 17 B.U. Int'l L.J.79 (1999).
Tax
Atik, Jeffery C., The Problem of Reciprocity in Transnational Enforcement of Tax Judgments, 8 Yale J. World Pub. Ord.156 (1981).
Burgess, Philip, Globalization Comes to Tax Collection, 34 Tax Notes Int'l645 (2004).
Dachs, Richard A., Enforcement of Foreign Tax Judgments in the United States: The Queen Ex Rel. British Columbia v. Gilbertson, 14 J. Int'l L. & Econ.281 (1980).
Farnam, Elizabeth J., Racketeering, RICO and the Revenue Rule in Attorney General of Canada v. R. J. Reynolds: Civil RICO Claims for Foreign Tax Law Violations, 77 Wash. L. Rev.843 (2002).
Smith, Richard E., Note, The Nonrecognition of Foreign Tax Judgments: International Tax Evasion, 1981 U. Ill. L. Rev.241.
Stoel, Thomas B. Jr., The Enforcement of Foreign Non-Criminal Penal and Revenue Judgments in England and the United States, 16 Int'l & Comp. L.Q.663 (1967).
U.S.-U.K. convention
Hay, Peter & Walker, Robert J., The Proposed Recognition-of-Judgments Convention Between the United States and the United Kingdom, 11 Tex. Int'l L.J.421 (1976).
Hay, Peter & Walker, Robert J., The Proposed U.S.-U.K. Recognition-of-Judgments Convention: Another Perspective, 18 Va. J. Int'l L.753 (1978).
Bibliography
Applicable laws and other legal instruments
Conventions
United Nations
Convention on the Recognition of Foreign Arbitral Awards (New York Convention), June 10, 1958, 21 U.S.T. 2517, 330 U.N.T.S. 38 (1959)
Convention Concerning the Recognition and Enforcemnet of Decisions Involving Obligations to Support Minor Children, Apr. 15, 1958, 539 U.N.T.S. 27
Convention on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil and Commercial Matters, Nov. 15, 1965, 20 U.S.T. 361, T.I.A.S. No. 6638, 658 U.N.T.S. 163
Others
Agreement on the Execution of Foreign Judgments (Acuerdo Boliviano), Caracas, Venezuela, July 18, 1911
Arab League Convention on the Enforcement of Judgments, Sept. 14, 1952
Convention on Accession of New Member States to the 1968 Convention on Jurisdiction of Courts, Oct. 9, 1978, O.J. (L 304) 1
Convention on the Choice of Court, Nov. 25, 1965, Recueil de Conventions Hague [RCH] 96
Convention on the Jurisdiction Applicable Law and Recognition of Adoptions, Nov. 15, 1965, [RCH] 64, U.K.T.S. 94 (1978) (Cmnd 7342)
Convention on Private International Law (Bustamante Code), Havana, Feb. 20, 1928, 86 L.N.T.S. 111
Convention on the Recognition of Divorces and Legal Separations, June 1, 1970, RCH 138, U.K.T.S. 123 (Cmnd 6248), 8 I.L.M. 31
Draft Treaty Providing for U.S.-U.K. Reciprocal Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments in Civil Matters, 16 I.L.M. 71 (1976); Third Consultive Paper, March 1979, reprinted in 8 N.C.J. Int'L. L. Com. Reg. 322 (1983) [not in force]
European Communities – European Free Trade Association: Convention on Jurisdiction and Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters (Lugano Convention), Sept. 16, 1988, 28 I.L.M. 620 (1989)
European Convention on the Accession of the Kingdom of Spain and the Portuguese Republic to the Brussels Convention (San Sebastion Convention), May 26, 1989, 29 I.L.M. 1413
European Convention on International Commercial Arbitration, Geneva, Apr. 21, 1961, 484 U.N.T.S. 364 (1964)
European Convention on Jurisdiction and Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters (Brussels Convention), Sept. 27, 1968, 1978 O.J. (L 304) 78, 8 I.L.M. 229 (1969)
European Convention on Recognition and Enforcement of Decisions Concerning Children and on Restoration of Custody of Children, Council of Europe, Luxembourg, May 20, 1980, Europ. T.S. No. 105
Hague Convention Abolishing the Requirement of Legalization for Foreign Public Documents, Nov. 5, 1961 [supplemented by Conclusions and Recommendations Adopted by the Special Commission on the Practical Operation of the Hague Apostille, Evidence and Service Conventions, 28 October – 4 November, 2003]
Hague Convention on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil and Commercial Matters, Nov. 15, 1965 [supplemented by Conclusions and Recommendations Adopted by the Special Commission on the Practical Operation of the Hague Apostille, Evidence and Service Conventions, 28 October – 4 November, 2003]
Hague Convention on the Taking of Evidence Abroad in Civil or Commercial Matters, Mar. 18, 1970 [supplemented by Conclusions and Recommendations Adopted by the Special Commission on the Practical Operation of the Hague Apostille, Evidence and Service Conventions, 28 October – 4 November, 2003]
Hague Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Decisions Relative to Maintenance Obligations, Oct. 2, 1973, RCH 203
Hague Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters, Apr. 26, 1966, 5 I.L.M. 636 (1966), 15 Am. J. Comp. L. 362 (1967)
Hague Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters, Feb. 1, 1971, RCH 106
Hague Conference on Private International Law, International Jurisdiction and Foreign Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters (Hague Conference), Some Reflections on the Present State of Negotiations on the Judgments Project in the Context of the Future Work Programme of the Conference, Prel. Doc. No. 16 (Feb. 2002)
Hague Conference, The Impact of the Internet on the Judgments Project: Thoughts for the Future, Prel. Doc. No. 17 (Feb. 2002) (prepared by Avril D. Haines)
Hague Conference, Reflection Paper to Assist in the Preparation of a Convention on Jurisdiction and Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters, Prel. Doc. No. 19 (Aug. 2002) (prepared by Andrea Schulz)
Hague Conference, The Relationship Between the Judgments Project and Other International Instruments, Prel. Doc. No. 24 (Dec. 2003) (prepared by Andrea Schulz)
Inter-American Convention on the Extraterritorial Validity of Foreign Judgments and Arbitral Awards, May 18, 1979, OEA/Ser.A/28 (SEPF), Pan-Am T.S. 51, 18 I.L.M. 1224
Inter-American Convention on International Commercial Arbitration, Panama, Jan. 30, 1975, 14 I.L.M. 336 (1976)
Inter-Americna Convention on Jurisdiction in the International Sphere for the Extraterritorial Validity of Foreign Judgments, Montevideo, May 24, 1984, OEA/Ser.A/39 (1980).
Inter-American Convention on Support Obligations, 29 I.L.M. 73 (1990)
The Proposed Hague Convention on Jurisdiction and Foreign Judgments: Trans-Atlantic Lawmaking for Transnational Litigation, Samuel P. Baumgartner (2003)
Treatises and books
Conventions
General
Council of Europe, The Practical Guide to Enforcement of Foreign Decisions in Civil and Commercial Law pt. I (1975)
Mann, F. A., Notes and Comments on Cases in International Law, Commercial Law, and Arbitration (Oxford University Press, 1992).
Redfern, Alan & Hunter, Martin, Law and Practice of International Commercial Arbitration (London, Sweet, & Maxwell, 2d ed., 1991).
Arthur T. von Mehren, Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments: Contemporary Practices and the Role of Conventions, in Private Investors Abroad: Problems and Solutions in International Business in 1980 (M. Landwehr ed., 1980)
Weintraub, Russell J., International Litigation and Arbitration: Practice and Planning (Durham, NC, Carolina Academic Press, 4th ed., 2003).
Brussels Convention and the EEC [EU]
Byrne, Peter, The E.E.C. Convention on Jurisdiction and the Enforcement of Judgments (Dublin, Round Hall Press, 1990).
Geoffrey Cheshire, Private Interntaional Law chs. 14, 16 (North, P. M. ed., London, Butterworth's, 11th ed., 1987).
John G. Collier, Conflict of Laws 113–3 (Jennings, Robert Y. ed., Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1987).
Dashwood, Alan., A Guide to Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Convention (Boston, Kluwer Law & Taxation Publishers, 1987).
Delaume, Georges R., Transnational Contracts Applicable Law and Settlement of Disputes ch. 10 (New York, Oceana Publications, 1992).
Graveson, Ronald H., Conflict of Laws: Private International Law 98–108 (London, Sweet & Maxwell, 7th ed., 1974) [Brussels Convention].
Lookofsky, Joseph M., Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration, ch. 2 (Ardsley-on-Hudson, NY, Transnational Juris Publications, Inc., 1992).
Outside the Scope of the Brussels and Lugano Conventions (The Hague, Kluwer Law Int'l., 2002).
A. Tebbens, Jurisdiction and Enforcement in International Contract Law (Selected Aspects of the Brussels Convention of 1968/1978), in International Contracts and Conflicts of Laws – A Collection of Essays (P. Šarĉević ed., 1990)
Gerhard Walter & Samuel P. Baugartner, General Report: The Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments Outside the Scope of the Brussels and Lugano Conventions, in Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments (Kluwer Law Int'l, 2000).
Lugano and San Sebastian Conventions
Carpenter, Michael., the Lugano and San Sebastian Conventions (London, Butterworth's, 1990).
General
Bradford C. Cafrey, International Jurisdiction and the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in the Law Asia Region: A Comparative Study of the Laws of Eleven Asian Countries Inter-SE and with the E.E.C. Countries (North Ryde, N.S.W., C.C.H. Australia, 1985) [based on author's doctoral thesis, Universitaet Tuebingen]
Chukwumerije, Okezie, Choice of Law in International Commercial Arbitration (Westport, CT, Quroum Books, 1994).
Dalhuisen, Jan H., Dalhuisen on International Insolvency and Bankruptcy §§ 1.03, 1.04, 1.06, 1.07 (New York, Matthew Bender, 1986).
Delaume, Georges R., Law and Practice of Transnational Contracts 199–222 (New York, Ocena Publications, 1988).
Albert V. Dicey & John H. C. Morris, the Conflict of Law (Collins, 13th ed., 2000)
Effective Dispute Resolution for the International Commercial Lawyer 173–96 (P. Summerfield & D. Campbell eds., Boston, Kluwer Law & Taxation Publishers, 1989) [overview of Asian, civil and common law country approaches]
Elias, Olusoji, Judicial Remedies in the Conflict of Laws, ch. 7 (Oxford, Hart Publishing, 2001).
Encyclopedia of International Commercial Litigation (Anthony Colman ed., Graham & Trotman, Norwell, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991, updated 1997) [practice and procedure of each country with a section for each on enforcement]
Enforcement of Foreign Judgments (Louis Garb & Julian Lew eds., Boston, Kluwer Law & Taxation Publishers, 1994, updated 2003) [country-by-country guide to laws and proce-dures]
Enforcement of Foreign Judgments Worldwide (Charles Platto ed., London, Graham & Trotman, 1993) [practice guide for 34 countries based on answers to questionnaires by practitioners in those countries]
International Bar Association, Enforcement of Foreign Judgments Worldwide (Charles Platto & William G. Horton eds., 2d ed.,1993).
International Execution Aganinst Judgment Debtors (Dennis Campbell ed., London, Sweet & Maxwell, 1993, updated 2004) [country-by-country guide to laws, procedures and recognition of foreign judgments]
International Judicial Assistance (Civil and Commercial) (Ristau, Bruno ed., Washington, D.C., International Law Institute, 1984).
Fox, William F., International Commercial Agreements: A Functional Primer on Drafting, Negotiating, and Resolving Disputes 190–94 (Boston, Kluwer Law & Taxation Publishers, 1988).
Gessner, Volkmar, Foreign Courts: Civil Litigation in Foreign Legal Cultures (The Oñati International Institute for the Sociology of Law, 1996).
Goldsmith, Jack L., International Dispute Resolution: The Regulation of Forum Selection (Transnational Publishers, Inc., 1997).
Graveson, Ronald H., Conflict of Laws: Private International Law 619–46 (London, Sweet & Maxwell, 1974).
Lowenfeld, Andreas F., International Litigation and Arbitration ch. 5 (St. Paul, MN, West Publishing Co., 2d ed., 2002).
Martindale-Hubbel, Martindale Hubbel Law Digest – International Law Digest (New Providence, NJ, Martindale-Hubbel, 1992) [country-by-country general legal reference for 67 countries]
Nelson, Lester, Digest of Commercial Laws of the World (Dobbs Ferry, NY, Oceana Publications, 1987).
Newman, Lawrence W., Enforcement of Money Judgments, Vol. 1–3 (2003).
Piggot, Francis T., Foreign Judgments and Jurisdiction (Hong Kong, Kelly & Walsch, 1908–1910).
Procedures to Enforce Foreign Judgments (Paul Omer ed., Ashgate, Aldershot, 2002) [English manual with bibliography of country-specific texts for several countries]
Reynolds, Thomas H. & Flores, Arturo A., Foreign Law: Current Sources of Codes and Basic Legislation in Jurisdictions of the World (Littleton, CO, Fred B. Rothman & Co., 1989) [see entry for “foreign judgments” under each country].
Bruno Ristau, International Judicial Assistance, Vol. 1–2 (International Law Institute, Washington D.C., updated 1995) [an overview of which country has what multilateral and bilateral agreements, and blocking legislation]
Roman, George J., Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Various Foreign Countries (Washington, D.C., Library of Congress Law Library, 1984).
Tetley, William, International Conflict of Laws: Common, Civil, or Maritime (International Shipping Publications, 1994) [ch. XXV, Recognition of Foreign Judgments].
Westin, David, U.S. Judgments Abroad (New York, Matthew Bender, 1991) [country-by-country practice guide].
Specialized areas
Admiralty
Tetley, William, Maritime Liens and Claims 470–476 (London, Business Law Communications, 1985).
Antitrust
Neale, Alan D. & Stephens, M. L., International Business and National Jurisdiction 151 (New York, Oxford University Press, 1988).
Arbitration Awards/NewYork Convention
Geoffrey C. C. Cheshire, Private International Law 435 (North, P. M. ed., London, Butterworth's, 11th ed., 1987).
David K. Schollenberger, International Commercial Arbitration in Europe, in 1 A The Law of Transnational Business Transactions ch. 19 (Nanada, Ved P. ed., New York, Clark Boardman Callaghan, 1992).
Sornarajah, M., International Commercial Arbitration: The Problem of State Contracts 198–246 (Singapore, Longmann, 1990).
Bankruptcy and Creditors' Rights
Dalhuisen, Jan H., Dalhuisen on International Insolvency and Bankruptcy §§ 1.03 1.04, 2.01–.06 (New York, Matthew Bender, 1986).
Felsenfeld, Carl, Fesenfeld on International Insolvency (Juris Publishing, 2003).
Toshiyuki Kono, The Recognition of Foreign Insolvency Proceedings and Private International Law, in Legal Aspects of Globalization: Conflict of Laws, Internet, Capital Markets and Insolvency in the Global Economy (The Hague, Kluwer Int'l., 2000)
Lowell, , Conflict of Laws as Applied to Assignments for Creditors, 1 Harvard Law Rev. 259 (1888).
Trunk, Alexander, German International Insolvency Law Under the New Insolvency Code: Continuity and Evolution, in Legal Aspects of Globalization: Conflict of Laws, Internet, Capital Markets and Insolvency in the Global Economy (The Hague, Kluwer Law Int'l., 2000).
Wood, Philip R., Principles of International Insolvency, in Law and Practice of International Finance (London, Sweet & Maxwell, 1995).
Domestic Relations
International Child Abductions: A Guide to Applying the 1988 Hague Convention, with Forms (Gloria F. DeHart ed., ABA Section of Family Law, 1989)
McClean, John David, Recognition of Family Judgments in the Commonwealth 209 (1983).
Phillip Schwartz, International Support Remedies, in Interstate Child Support Remedies 243 (M. Haynes & G. Dodson eds., ABA Center on Children and the Law, 1990)
Nonmonetary Judgments (Equitable Remedies)
Trends in the Enforcement of Non-money Judgments and Orders (Ulla Jocobsson & Jack Jacobs eds., Norwell, MA, Kluwer Law and Taxation Publishers, 1988)
Journals
General
Anderson, Winston, Enforcement of Foreign Judgments Founded upon a Cause of Action Unknown in the Forum, 42 Int'l & Comp. L.Q.697 (1993).
Burley, Anne-Marie S., International Law and International Relations Theory: A Dual Agenda, 87 Am. J. Int'l L.205 (1993).
Clermont, Kevin M., Jurisdictional Salvation and the Hague Treaty, 85 Cornell L. Rev.89 (1999).
Committee on Foreign and Comparative Law, Assn. of Bar, City of N.Y., Survey on Foreign Recognition of U.S. Money Judgments (July 2001)
Dellapenna, Joseph W., Suing Foreign Governments and Their Corporations, 22 Vand. J. Transnat'l L.1029 (1989).
Eeckhout, P., [WTO, 1995] Judicial Enforcement of WTO Law in the European Union – Some Further Reflections, J. Int'l Econ. L. 91 (2002).
Golomb, Alan, Recognition of Foreign Money Judgments: A Goal-Oriented Approach, 43 St. John's L. Rev.604 (1969).
Forner, Joaquim- J., Special Jurisdiction in Commercial Contracts: From the 1968 Brussels Convention to “Brussels-One Regulation,” 13 Int'l Comp. Com. L. Rev. 131 (2002).
Ho, H. L., Policies Underlying the Enforcement of Foreign Commercial Judgments, 46 Int'L & Comp. L.Q. 443 (1997).
Juenger, Friedrich K., The Recognition of Money Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters, 36 Am. J. Comp. L.1 (1988).
Kalbe, P., The Award of Contracts and the Enforcement of Claims in the Context of EC External Aid and Development Cooperation, 38 Common Market L. Rev.1217 (2001).
Lowenfeld, Andreas, International Litigation and the Quest for Reasonableness, 245 Receuil des cours (1994) [general course on private international law, The Hague Academy of International Law].
Lowenfeld, Andreas F., Forum Shopping, Anti-suit Injunctions, Negative Declarations, and Related Tools of International Litigation, 91 Am. J. Int'l L.314 (1997).
Lowenfeld, Andreas F., Nationalizing International Law: Essay in Honor of Louis Henkin, 36 Colum. J. Transnat'l L.121, 128 (1997).
Nadelmann, Kurt H., Non-Recognition of American Money Judgments Abroad and What to Do About It, 42 Iowa L. Rev.236 (1957).
Scott, Helen & Barber, N. W., State liability Under Francovich for Decisions of National Courts, 120 L.Q. Rev.403 (2004).
Takahashi, Koji, External Competence Implications of the EC Regulation on Jurisdiction and Judgments, 52 Int'l Com. L.Q.529 (2003).
Varela, Marta B., Arbitration and the Doctrine of Manifest Disregard, 49 Disp. Resol. J.64 (1994).
Warner, Mark A. A., Decisions of Foreign Courts, 88 Am. J. Int'l L.532 (1994).
Phillip R. Weems, How to Enforce U.S. Money Judgments Abroad, Trial, July 1988, at 72
Conventions
Brussels Convention and EEC [EU]
Bartlett, Lee S., Full Faith and Credit Comes to the Common Market: An Analysis of the Provisions of the Convention on Jurisdiction and Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters, 24 Int'l & Comp. L.Q.44 (1975).
Bayraktaroglu, Gulum, Forum Contractus and Article 5(1) of the Brussels I Regulation, 2 J. Int'l Com. L.401 (2004).
Beaumont, Paul R., Current Developments: European Community Law, European Court of Justice and Jurisdiction and Enforcement of Judgments on Civil and Commercial Matters, 41 Int'l & Comp. L.Q.206 (1992).
Beraudo, J., The Arbitration Exception of the Brussels and Lugano Conventions: Jurisdiction, Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments, 18 J. Int'l Arb.13 (2001).
Byrne, N. J. & Greaves, Rosa, The Brussels Convention on Jurisdiction and Judgments, 131 New L.J.395 (1981).
Carl, Beverly M., The Common Market Judgments Convention – Its Threat and Challenges to Americans, 8 Int'l Law.446 (1974).
Collins, Lawrence, Provisional Measures, the Conflict of Laws and Brussels Convention, 1 Y.B. Eur. L.249 (1981).
Denson, John D., Recent Developments, Enforcement of Judgments – Interpretation of EEC Convention on Jurisdiction and Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters Does Not Cover Provisional Ex Parte Measures, 17 Tex. Int'l L.J.252 (1982).
Dyer, Adair, Synthesis of the Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments Under the Hague Conventions and the EEC Conventions, 7(i) Int'l Legal Prac.23 (1982).
Freeman, Elizabeth, The EEC Convention on Jurisdiction and Enforcement of Civil and Commercial Judgments, 3 Nw. J. Int'l L. & Bus.496 (1981).
Giardina, Andrea, The European Court and the Brussels Convention on Jurisdiction and Judgments, 27 Int'l & Comp. L.Q.263 (1978).
Griffin, Joseph P., EC and U.S. Extra-Territoriality: Activism and Cooperation, 17 Fordham Int'l L.J.353 (1994).
Hay, Peter, The Common Market Preliminary Draft Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments – Some Considerations of Policy and Interpretation, 16 A.J. Comp. L.149 (1968).
Hunnings, Neville M., Default Judgments in the EEC, J. Bus. L.303 (1985).
Kaye, Peter, The EEC Judgments Convention and the Outer World: Goodbye to Forum Non Conveniens?, J. Bus. L.47 (1992).
Kerr, Michael, The EEC Judgments Convention: Some Repercussions Beyond the EEC, 15 Europarechtxs353 (1980).
Kohler, Christian, Practical Experience of the Brussels Jurisdiction and Judgments Convention in the Six Original Contracting States, 34 Int'l & Comp. L.Q.563 (1985).
Lane, Suriyakumari, Free Movement of Judgments Within the EEC, 35 Int'l & Comp. L.Q.629 (1986).
Layton, Alexander, The Interpretation of the Brussels Convention by the European Court and English Courts, 11 Civ. Just. Q.28 (1992).
Lipstein, K., Enforcement of Judgments Under the Jurisdiction and Judgments Convention: Safeguards, 36 Int'l & Comp. L.Q.873 (1987).
Mendes, Errol P., The Troublesome Workings of the Judgments Convention of the European Economic Community, 13 Vand. J. Transnat'l L. 75 (1980).
Nadelmann, Kurt H., Jurisdictionally Improper Fora in Treaties on Recognition of Judgments: The Common Market Draft, 67 Colum. L. Rev.995 (1967).
O'Neill, Maria, The Brussels Convention: A Stillborn Child?, 50 N. Ir. Legal Q.243 (1999).
Reuland, Robert C., The Recognition of Judgments in the European Community: The Twenty-Fifth Anniversary of the Brussels Convention, 14 Mich. J. Int'l'L.559 (1993).
Rocher, Phillip, Jurisdiction and Enforcement of Judgments in Europe, 5 Int'l L. Practicum15 (1992).
Rodger, B. J., The Communitarianism of International Private Law: Reform of the Brussels Convention by Regulation, 2001 Jurid. Rev.59 (2001).
Russell, Kathryn A., Exorbitant Jurisdiction and Enforcement of Judgments: The Brussels System as an Impetus for United States Action, 19 Syracuse Int'l L. Comm.57 (1993).
Schultz, Cynthia B., Selected Bibliography of the European Economic Community, 5 Am. U.J. Int'l L. Rev. 161 (1986).
Sedman, Kate, European Aspects of Security for Costs, 141 New L.J.313 (1991).
Torremans, P. L. C., The Uniform Interpretation of the Brussels and Lugano Conventions, 28 Eur. L. Rev.752 (2003).
Vasiljeva, K., 1968 Brussels Convention and EU Council Regulation No. 44/2001: Jurisdiction in Consumer Contracts Concluded Online, 10 Eur. L.J.123 (2004).
Vlas, P., The Protocol on Interpretation of the EEC Convention of Jurisdiction and Enforcement of Judgments: Over Ten Years in Legal Practice (1975–1985), 33 Neth. Int'l L. Rev.84 (1986).
Mehren, Arthur T., Recognition and Enforcement of Sister-State Judgments: Reflections on General Theory and Current Practice in the European Economic Community and the United States, 81 Colum. L. Rev.1044 (1981).
Watt, Horatia Muir, Evidence of an Emergent European Legal Culture: Public Policy Requirements of Procedural Fairness under the Brussels and Lugano Conventions (Symposium on Teaching and Practicing Law in the 21st Century), 36 Tex. Int'l L.J.539 (2001).
Woodward, Donald L., Reciprocal Recognition and Enforcement of Civil Judgments in the United States, the United Kingdom and the European Economic Community, 8 N.C. J. Int'l L. & Com. Reg.299 (1983).
Lugano and San Sebastian Conventions
Fitzpatrick, John, The Lugano Convention and Western European Integration: A Comparative Analysis of Jurisdiction and Judgments in Europe and the United States, 8 Conn. J. Int'l L.695 (1993).
Gautier, Horace & Stormann, Eva, Lugano Convention on Jurisdiction and on the Enforcement of Judgments, 19 Intl Bus. Law.410 (1991).
Jung, Hans, The Brussels and Lugano Conventions: The European Court's Jurisdiction, Its Procedures and Methods, 11 Civ. Just. Q.38 (1992).
McCaffrey, Elizabeth M., The Lugano and San Sebastian Conventions: General Effects, 11 Civ. Just. Q.12 (1992).
Moinor, Jacqueline, The Lugano Convention: Some Problems of Interpretation, 27 Common Mkt. L. Rev.507 (1990).
Hague Conventions
Brand, Ronald A., Intellectual Property, Electronic Commerce, and the Preliminary Hague Jurisdiction and Judgments Convention, 62 U. Pitt. L. Rev.581 (2001).
Borchers, Patrick J., The Incredible Shrinking Hague Evidence Convention, 38 Tex. Int'l L.J. 73 (2003).
Burbank, Stephen B., Jurisdictional Equilibration, the Proposed Hague Convention and Progress in National Law, 49 Am. J. Comp. L.203 (2001).
Clayton, Kristen Hudson, The Draft Hague Convention on Jurisdiction and Enforcement of Judgments and the Internet – A New Jurisdictional Framework, 36 J. Marshall L. Rev.223 (2002).
Droz, George A. L. & Dyer, Adair, The Hague Conference and the Main Issues of Private International Law for the Eighties, 3, No. 1Nw. J. Int'l L. & Bus. 155 (1981).
Elacqua, Benjamin, The Hague Runs into B2B: Why Restructuring the Hague Convention on Foreign Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters to Deal with B2B Contracts Is Long Overdue, 3 J. High Tech. L.93 (2004).
Franklin, Johnathan and Morris, Roberta, International Jurisdiction and Enforcement of Judgments in the Era of Global Networks: Irrelevance of, Goals for, and Comments on Current Proposals, 77 Chi.-Kent L. Rev.1213 (2002).
Hay, Peter, The United States and International Unification of Law: The Tenth Session of the Hague Conference, 1965 U. Ill. L.F.820.
Information Concerning the Hague Conventions on Private International Law, 36 Int'l L. Rev.185 (1989).
Maier, Harold G., A Hague Conference Judgments Convention and United States Courts: A Problem and a Possibility, 61 Alb. L. Rev.1207 (1998).
Nadelmann, Kurt H., The United States Joins the Hague Conference on Private International Law, 30 Law. & Contemp. Probs.291 (1965).
O'Brian, William E., The Hague Convention on Jurisdiction and Judgments: The Way Forward, 66 Mod. L. Rev. 491 (2003).
Mehren, Arthur T., Enforcing Judgments Abroad: Reflections on the Design of Recognition Conventions, 24 Brooklyn J. Int'l L.17 (1998).
Mehren, Arhur T., Drafting a Convention on International Jurisdiction and the Effects of Foreign Judgments Acceptable World-Wide: Can the Hague Convention Project Succeed?, 49 Am. J. Comp. L.191 (2001).
Petkova, Svetozara, The Potential Impact of the Draft Hague Convention on International Jurisdiction and Foreign Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters on Internet-Related Disputes with Particular Reference to Copyright, Intellectual Prop. Q.173 (Spring 2004).
Silberman, Linda, Comparative Jurisdiction in the International Context: Will the Proposed Hague Judgments Convention Be Stalled? (Symposium: Export/Import; American Civil Justice in a Global Context), 52 DePaul L. Rev.319 (2002).
Yackee, Jason Webb, A Matter of Good Form: The (Downsized) Hague Judgments Convention and Conditions of Formal Validity for the Enforcement of Forum Selection Agreements, 53 Duke L.J.1179 (2003).
Weintraub, Russel J., How Substantial Is Our Need for a Judgments Recognition Convention and What Should We Bargain Away to Get It?, 24 Brooklyn J. Int'l L.167 (1998).
Zekoll, Joachim, The Role and Status of American Law in the Hague Judgments Convention Project, 61 Alb. L. Rev.1283, 1305–1306 (1998).
Inter-American Conventions
Low, Lucinda A., International Judicial Assistance Among the American States – the Inter-American Conventions, 18 Int'l Law.705 (1984).
Nadelmann, Kurt H., The Need for Revision of the Bustamante Code on Private International Law, 65 Am. J. Int'l L.782 (1971).
New York Convention
El-Ahdab, Abdul H., Saudi Arabia Accedes to the New York Convention, 11, No. 3 J. Int'l Arb.87 (1994).
Davidson, Fraser P., Where Is an Arbitral Award Made? Hiscox v. Outhwaite, 41 Int'l & Comp. L.Q.637 (1992).
Lee, Moon S. and Yum, Elli, Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards in the Republic of Korea under the New York Convention, 7 Int'l L.Q.31 (1995).
Roy, Kristin T., The New York Convention and Saudi Arabia: Can A Country Use the Public Policy Defense to Refuse Enforcement of Non-Domestic Arbitral Awards?, 18 Fordham Int'l L.J.920 (1995).
Schwartz, Eric A., Resolution of International Construction Disputes, 23 Int'l Bus. Law.149 (1995).
Regional
Africa
Semposa, Samson L., Obstacles to International Commercial Arbitration in African Countries, 41 Int'l & Comp. L.Q.387 (1992).
Asia
Kongchan, Banlue, Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments Among Law Asia Group, Law Journal, 3d year, ed. 12, B.E. 2535 (1992).
Eastern Europe
Ambrose, Clare, Can Anti-Suit Injunctions Survive European Community Law?, 52.2 Int'l & Comp. L.Q.401 (2003).
A Bibliograhy of Transnational Litigation in Socialist Countries: Discovery, Evidence, and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments, 21 Tex. Int'l L.J.383 (1986).
Shaleva, V., The “Public Policy” Exception to the Recognition and Enforcement of Arbitral Awards in the Theory and Jurisprudence of the Central and East European States and Russia, 19 Arb. Int'l67 (2003).
Latin America
Amado, Jose Daniel, Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Latin American Countries: An Overview and Update, 31 Va. J. Int'l L.99 (1990).
Larsen, Jeff, Note, Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Latin America: Trends and Individual Differences, 17 Tex. Int'l L.J.213 (1982).
Middle East
Mulla, Al, Conventions of Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in the Arab States, 14 Arab L.Q.33 (1999).
Western Europe
Beaumont, Paul R., European Court of Justice and Jurisdiction and Enforcement of Judgments, 42 Int'l & Comp. L.Q.728 (1993).
Graupner, Rudolph, Some Recent Aspects of Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Western Europe, 12 Int'l & Comp. L.Q.367 (1963).
Kaye, Peter, Product Liability in Europe: Jurisdiction of Courts and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments, 132 Solic. J.1334 (1988).
Pearce, Brian, The Comity Doctrine as a Barrier to Judicial Jurisdiction: A U.S. – E.U. Comparison, 30 Stan. J. Int'l L.525 (1994) [county-by-county].
Pure Fishing v. Silver Star Co., 202 F. Supp. 2d 905 (2002).
Chukwumerije, Okezie, Enforcement of Foreign Awards in Australia: The Implications of Resort Condominiums, 5 Australian Disp. L.J. 237 (1994).
Davies, Martin & Lewins, Kate, Foreign Maritime Liens: Should They Be Recognised in Australian Courts? 76 Austl. L.J.775 (2002).
Eure, Phillip K., Extraterritoriality: Australian Limitations on Foreign Judgments and Discovery, 26 Harv. Int'l L.J.578 (1982).
Evans, J., Registration of Foreign Judgments in Victoria, 74 L. Inst. J., vol. 4, 66 (2000).
Fine, J. David, Defenses Against Recognition of Enforcement of Interstate or Foreign Judgments, 61 Austl. L.J.350 (1987).
Garnett, Richard, Dow Jones & Company Inc. v. Gutnick: An Adequate Response to Transnational Internet Defamation?, 4 Melbourne J. Int'l L.196 (2003).
Glek, Leslie, Foreign Civil Judgments: Direct Enforcement Legislation In Australia, 48 Austl. L.J.538 (1974).
Nych, P. E., The Enforcement of United States Anti-Trust Judgments in Australia, 16 Gonz. L. Rev.1 (1980).
Austria
Matscher, F., Grundfragen der Anerkennung und Vollstreckung auslaendischer Entscheidungen in Zivilsachen (aus oesterreichischer Sicht), 103 Zeitschrift fuer zivilprozessrecht (Z.Z.P.) 294 (1990).
Belgium
Kennet, W., Enforcement of Judgments, 5 Eur. Rev. Private L.321 (1997).
Woloniecki, Jan, Commentary Pre-Answer Security and Public Policy in Bermuda – A Commentary on Muhl V. Ardra Insurance Co. Ltd., 2, No. 21Andrews Int'l Reinsurance Disp. Rep.3 (1998).
Brazil
Dolinger, J., Brazilian Confirmation of Foreign Judgments, 19 Int'l Law.853 (1985).
Rosen, Keith, Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards in Brazil, 28 Am. J. Comp. L.498 (1980).
Rosenn, K. S., Civil Procedure in Brazil, 34 Am. J. Comp. L.487, 496 (1986).
Zimbler, Brian L., Debtor State Law and Default: Enforcement of Foreign Loan Agreements in Brazilian Courts, 17 U. Miami Inter-Am. L. Rev.509 (1986).
Bulgaria
Cipev, T., Die Anerkennung und Vollstreckung ausländischer Zivilurteile in Bulgarien, 33 Monatshefte für osteuropäisches recht109 (1991).
Baer, Marvin G., Conflict of Laws – Recognition of Foreign Judgments – Fraud – Finality – Public Policy – Proof of Foreign Law, 52 Can. B. Rev.118 (1974).
Blom, Jost, The Enforcement of Judgments in Canada, 57 Or. L. Rev.399 (1978).
Caher, John, Quebec Court's Default Ruling Binds U.S. Firm (Wimmer Canada, Inc. v. Abele Tractor)(New York), 228 N.Y.L.J.1 (2002).
Castel, J. G., Reciprocal Enforcement of Judgments in the Province of Quebec, 21 R. De B.128 (1961).
Castel, J. G., Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments In Personum and In Rem in the Common Law Provinces of Canada, 17 McGill L.J.11 (1971).
Castel, J. G., Proof of Foreign Law, 22 U. Toronto L.J.33 (1972).
Eikenberry, Kenneth O., et al., Enforcing Washington Judgments in British Columbia: “Reciprocating State” Status for Washington Will Make Enforcement Easier, 13 Puget Sound L. Rev.491 (1990).
Kenneth O. Eikenberry, et al., Enforcing Washington Judgments in Canadian Courts: Taking the Dams Out of the Stream of Commerce, Wash. St. B. News, Jan. 1991, at 10
Feldman, Ivan R., Reciprocal Enforcement of Judgments Act, 1 U.B.C.L. Rev.229 (1959).
Glenn, H. Patrick, Foreign Judgments, the Common Law and the Constitution; De Savoye v. Morguard Investments, Ltd., 37 McGill L.J.537 (1992).
Goodman, Joy & Talpis, Jeffrey A., Beals v. Saldanha and the Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Canada, 40 Can. Bus. L.J.227 (2004).
Gordon, D. M., Judgments – Reciprocal Enforcement – Foreign Judgments for Costs, 32 Can. B. Rev.1146 (1954).
Henderson, G. F., Foreign Court and the National Interest, the Effect of Foreign Judgments on Activities in Canada, 3 Int'l Bus. L.133 (1975).
Hertz, Michael, The Constitution and the Conflict of Laws: Approaches in Canadian and American Law, 27 U. Toronto L.J.1 (1977).
Horton, William G., The Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Ontario, 10 Advoc. Q.89 (1988).
Johnson, Walter S., Foreign Judgments in Quebec, 35 Can. B. Rev.911 (1957).
Kennedy, Gilbert D., “Reciprocity” in the Recognition of Foreign Judgments, 32 Can. B. Rev. 359 (1954).
Lange, Donald J. A., Conflict of Laws – Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments In Personum – Jurisdiction, 61 Can. B. Rev.637 (1983).
Loree, Phillip J. Jr., Note, The Recognition and Enforcement of United States Judgments in the Canadian Common Law Provinces: The Problem of In Personum Jurisdiction, 15 Brooklyn J. Int'l L.317 (1989) [helpful as a procedural guide].
Nadelman, Kurt H., Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Canada, 38 Can. B. Rev.68 (1960).
Pitel, Stephen G. A., Enforcement of Foreign Judgments: Where Morguard Stands after Beals, 40 Can. Bus. L.J.189 (2004).
Ram, Eric D., Note, Reciprocal Recognition of Foreign Country Money Judgments: The Canada-United States Position, 45 Fordham L. Rev.1456 (1977), reprinted in 8 Man. L.J. 473 (1977).
Saumier, Genevieve, The Recognition of Foreign Judgments in Quebec – The Mirror Crack'd?, 81 Can. Bar Rev.677 (2002).
Stotland, Gerald, Recognition of Foreign Support and Property Orders in Canada, 17 Am. J. Family L.230 (2004).
Strangers in a Strange Land – Transnational Litigation, Foreign Judgment Recognition, and Enforcement in Ontario, 13 J. Transnt'l L. & Pol'y347 (Spring 2004).
Sullivan, John, The Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in B.C. – Ten Years After Morguard, 59 The Advocate399 (2001).
Swan, John, Uniform Enforcement of Canadian Judgments Act, 22 Can. Bus. L.J. No. 1, 87 (1993).
Ullrich, Dierk, Money Is Not Everything: Recent Developments in the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Non-Monetary Judgments, 63 The Advocate53 (2005).
Walker, Janet, The Great Canadian Comity Experiment Continues, 120 Law Q. Rev.365 (2004).
Ziegel, J. S., Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Canada, Unlevel Playing Fields, and Beals v. Saldanha: A Consumer Perspective, 38 Can. Bus. L.J.294 (April 2003).
Gilligan, P. & Bannister, J., Recovering Assets in China, 21 Int'l Fin. L. Rev.52 (2002).
Cheung, Andrew Kui-Nung, Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards in the People's Republic of China, 34 Am. J. Comp. L.295 (1986).
Chew-LaFitte, Pat, The Resolution of Transnational Commercial Disputes in the People's Republic of China: A Guide for U.S. Practitioners, 8 Yale J. World Pub. Ord.236 (1982).
Clarke, Donald C., Power and Politics in the Chinese Court System: The Enforcement of Civil Judgments, 10 Colum. J. Asian L.1 (1996).
Ellis, Sally Lord & Shea, Laura, Foreign Commercial Dispute Settlement in the People's Republic of China, 6 Int'l Trade L.J.155 (1981).
Reyes, R. E. J., The Enforcement of Foreign Court Judgments in the People's Republic of China: What the American Lawyer Needs to Know, 23 Brooklyn J. Int'l L.241 (1997).
Zhenjie, Hu, Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in China: Rules, Interpretation and Practice, 46 neth. int'l. l. rev.291 (1999).
Colombia
Mancero, Gabriela, Foreigners Entering into Contracts with the Colombian Government Can Submit Their Differences to International Arbitration, 32 Int'l Bus. Law.299 (2004).
Czechoslovakia
Macur, Josef, Execution Proceedings, 15 Bull. Czechoslovak L.49 (1976).
Steiner, H., The Recognition of Money Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters, 7 Travaux de droit comparé 99 (1986).
Cyprus
Nathanael, S., An Overview of Civil Litigation as Practiced in Cyprus and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments, 1989 Epitheorese kypriakou dikaiou (Cyprus L. Rev.)4034.
England and the Common Wealth of Nations
Briggs, Adrian, Which Foreign Judgments Should We Recognize Today?, 36 Int'l & Comp. L.Q.240 (1987).
Caffrey, Bradford A., Recognition and Enforcements of Foreign Civil Judgments in New Zealand, Australian and English Law, 1 Comp. L.Y.B.265 (1977).
Caffrey, Bradford A., Invoking an Enforcement Statute to a Common Law Application for Enforcement, 29 Int'l & Comp. L.Q.766 (1980).
Davidson, Fraser P., Where Is an Arbitral Award Made? Hiscox v. Outhwaite, 41 Int'l Comp. L.Q.637 (1992).
Fagan, Neil, Enforcement of Gaming Debts in Britain, 8 N.Y. L. Sch. J. Int'l & Comp. L.7 (1986).
Kahn, Tina J., Comment, The Protection of Trading Interests Act of 1980: Britain's Response to U.S. Extraterritorial Antitrust Enforcement, 2 Nw. J. Int'l L. & Bus.476 (1980).
Lipstein, K., The Evidence (Proceedings in Other Jurisdictions) Act 1975: An Interpretation, 39 Int'l & Comp. L.Q.120 (1990).
Lowe, A. V., Blocking Extraterritorial Jurisdiction: The British Protection of Interests Act, 1980, 75 Am. J. Int'l L.257 (1981).
Manick, Catherine V., Recent Developments, Anti-Trust: British Restrictions on Enforcement of Foreign Judgments, 21 Harv. Int'l L.J.727 (1980).
Neuhaus, Joseph E., Power to Reserve Foreign Judgments: The British Clawback Statute Under International Law, 81 Colum. L. Rev.1097 (1981).
North, P. M., Insurance and Foreign Judgments, 128 New L.J.315 (1978).
Peterson, Courtland H., Choice of Law and Forum Clauses and the Recognition of Foreign Country Judgments Revisited Through Lloyd's of London Cases, 60 La. L. Rev.1259 (2000).
Recent Developments, International Enforcement of Judgments: Evasion of a Garnishee Order – Deutsche Schachtbau-und-Tiefbohrgesellschaft mbH v. Shell International Petroleum Co., Ltd., 30 Harv. Int'l L.J. 256 (1989)
Stoel, Thomas B. Jr., The Enforcement of Foreign Non-Criminal Penal and Revenue Judgments in England and the United States, 16 Int'l & Comp. L.Q.663 (1983).
Stone, P. A., The Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act of 1982: Some Comments, 32 Int'l & Comp. L.Q.477 (1983).
Stone, P. A., The Recognition and Enforcement in England of Foreign Personal and Property Judgments, 1983 Lloyds's Mar. & Com. L.Q.1 (1983).
Walters, Gregory T., Bachchan v. India Abroad Publications, Inc.: The Clash Between Protection of Free Speech in the United States and Great Britain, 16 Fordham Int'l L.J.895 (1993).
Westin, David, Enforcing Foreign Commercial Judgments and Arbitral Awards in the United States, West Germany, and England, 19 Law & Pol'y Int'l Bus.325 (1987).
Woodward, David L., Reciprocal Recognition and Enforcement of Civil Judgments in the United States, the United Kingdom and the European Economic Community, 8 N.C.J. Int'l L. & Com. Reg.299 (1983).
Simpson, Barbara, The Perils of REMO (Recognition in Enforcement of Maintenance Orders) (United Kingdom), 33 Family Law121 (2003).
Ethiopia
Teshale, S., Reciprocity with Respect to Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Ethiopia: A Critique of the Supreme Court's Decision in the Paulos Papassinous Case, 12 Afr. J. Int'l & Comp. L.569 (2000).
Finland
Brandt, Tom, Prospective Measures for Recovering Commercial Debts in Finland, 2 Int'l Cont.519 (1981).
Martin, D. F., A Comparative Study of Enforcement in England and France, 1 Civ. Just. Q.219 (1982).
Nadelman, Kurt H., Recognition of Foreign Money Judgments in France, 5 Am. Comp. L.248 (1956).
Nadelman, Kurt H., French Courts Recognize Foreign Money Judgments: One Down and More to Go, 13 Am. Comp. L.72 (1964).
Regan, James C., The Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in France Under the Nouveau Code de Procedure Civile, 4 B.C. Int'l & Comp. L. Rev.149 (1981).
Yates, G. T. III, Substantive Law Aspects of Foreign Judgments Between Foreigners in France: The Competence Question, 9 Int'l Law.251 (1975).
Behr, Volker, Symposium on U.S.-E.C. Legal Relations: Enforcement of United States Money Judgments in Germany, 13 J.L. & Com.211 (1994).
Beucher, Klaus & Sandage, John Byron, United States Punitive Damage Awards in German Courts: The Evolving German Position on Service and Enforcement, 23 Vand. J. Transnat'l L.967 (1991).
Brenscheidt, M. N., The Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Money Judgments in the Federal Republic of Germany, 11 Int'l Law.261 (1977).
Dickson, Brice, The Reform of Private International Law in the Federal Republic of Germany, 34 Int'l & Comp. L.Q.231 (1985).
Fischer, Gerfried, Recognition and Enforcement of American Tort Judgments in Germany, 68 St. John's L. Rev.199 (1994).
Hay, Peter, The Recognition and Enforcement of American Money-Judgments in Germany – The 1992 Decision of the German Supreme Court, 40 Am J. Comp. L.729 (1992).
Heidenberger, , Similarities and Differences in the Enforcement of Foreign Decrees and Judgments in the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States, 33 D.C. B.J.433 (1966).
Hess, , Die Anerkennung eines Class Action Settlement in Deutschland, 55 Juristen Zeitung373 (2000).
Kraus, Hans-Michael, Enforcement of Foreign Money Judgments in the Federal Republic of Germany, 17 Tex. Int'l L.J.195 (1982).
Martiny, Dieter, Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Money Judgments in the Federal Republic of Germnay, 35 Am. J. Comp. L.721 (1987).
Nothnagel, Hans-Bertram, Enforcement of Foreign Judgments and Arbitral Awards in West Germany, 17 Va. J. Int'l Law.385 (1977).
Sandrock, Otto &Hentzen, Matthias K., Enforcing Foreign Arbitral Awards in the Federal Republic of Germany: The Example of the United States Award, 2 Transnat'l L.49 (1989).
Schutze, Rolf A., The Recognition and Enforcement of American Civil Judgments Containing Punitive Damages in the Federal Republic of Germany, 11 U. Pa. J. Int'l Bus. L.581 (1990).
John R. Schmertz & Mike Meier, Supreme Court of German Land Denies Enforcement of Wisconsin Judgment Because, According to German Rules, Wisconsin Federal Court Lacked Jurisdiction Over Any Assets Belonging to German Defendant. Citation: OLG Hamm, Urteil vom 4.6.1997 – 1 U 2/96, 1997 riw, heft 12, internationales, 4 Int'l Update 29 (March 1998).
Stiefel, Ernst C. et al., The Enforceability of Excessive U.S. Punitive Damage Awards in Germany, 39 Am. J. Comp. L.779 (1991).
Westin, David, Enforcing Foreign Commercial Judgments and Arbitral Awards in the United States, West Germany, and England, 19 L. & Pol'y Int'l Bus.325 (1987).
Young, James, Extending the Free Movement of Judgments in Western Europe, Lloyd's Mar. & Com. L.Q. (Feb. 1992), at 109.
Zekoll, Yoachim, Recognition and Enforcement of American Products Liability in the Federal Republic of Germany, 37 Am. J. Comp. L.301 (1989).
Zekoll, Yoachim, The Enforceability of American Money Judgments Abroad: A Landmark Decision by the German Federal Court of Justice, 30 Colum. J. Transnat'l L.641 (1992).
Hungary
Gayer, Gyula, Amendment to Law Concerning Jurisdiction, Recognition and Execution of Foreign Decisions in Hungary, 29 Int'l Bus. Law.207 (2001).
India
Khindria, Tony, Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in India, 23 Int'l Bus. Law.11 (1995).
Indonesia
Hornick, Robert N., The Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Indonesia, 18 Harvard Int'l L.J.97 (1977).
Hornick, Robert N., Foreign Arbitral Awards Are Not Enforceable, E. Asian Exec. Rep. (Nov. 15, 1985), at 11.
Bank Melli Iran v. Pahlavi, 58 F.3d 1406 (1995).
Delaume, G. R., Enforcement of State Contract Awards: Jurisdictional Pitfalls and Remedies, 8 Foreign Inv. L.J.29 (1993).
Westberg, John A., Applicable Law, Expropriatory Takings and Compensation in Cases of Expropriation: ICSID and Iran-United States Claims Tribunal Case Law Compared, 8 Foreign Inv. L.J.1 (1993).
Ireland
Gill, A. V., Jurisdiction and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Ireland, 1980 J. Irish Soc'y for eur. L. 3.
Kam-Tech Sys. v. Yardeni, 340 N.J. Super. 414 (2001).
Goldwater, Chaim L., Amendments to the Foreign Judgments Enforcement Law, 10 Isr. L. Rev.247 (1975).
Goldwater, Chaim L., Issue Estoppel by Foreign Judgment in Israeli Law, 25 Int'l & Comp. L.Q.868 (1976).
Kapeliuk, D., Enforcement of Foreign Arbitration Agreements: The Israeli Experience, 17 J. Int'l Arb.109 (2000).
Klaristenfeld, David M., Old Wine in Recycled Bottles: An Overview of Israeli Commercial and Insolvency Law, 1994 A.B.I.J., Available in Lexis 2621 (Mar. 1994).
Levontin, A. V., Two Paradoxes in the Recognition of Foreign Judgments, 2 Isr. L. Rev.197 (1967).
Shapira, Amos, Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Personam in Israel, 3 Tel Aviv Univ. Stud. L.171 (1978).
Hyatt Int'l Corp. v. Coco, 302 F.3d 707 (2002).
Barone, Arturo, Reciprocal Enforcement of Judgments in the United Kingdom and Italy, 131 New L.J.572 (1981).
Vigoriti, Vicenzo, Recent Developments in the Recognition and Execution of Foreign Judgments and Arbitral Awards in Italy, 6 Civ. Just. Q. Ann.248 (1987).
Mayekawa Mfg. Co. v. Sasaki, 76 Wn. App. 791 (1995).
Fujita, Yasuhori, Service of American Process on Japanese Nationals by Registered Airmail and Enforceability of Resulting American Judgments in Japan, 12 Law in Japan69 (1979).
Ishikawa, Akira, Civil Execution Procedure in Japan: Basic Ideas of the Law of Civil Execution and an Outline of Execution Procedure Against Immovable, 5 Keio L. Rev.47 (1985).
Kajitani, G., Computation of Damages and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Japan, 23 Int'l Legal Prac.18 (1998).
Kakinuki, John, Dispute Resolution in Japan: Choosing the Right Alternative, E. Asian Exec. Rep., Nov. 15, 1987, at 7 [arbitration].
Sawaki, Takao, Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Japan, 23 Int'l Law.29 (1989) [brief but useful for practice].
Seki, Hoken, Effective Dispute Resolution in United States-Japan Commercial Transactions, 6 Nw. J. Int'l L. & Bus.979 (1984–85).
Takeshita, M., The Recognition of Foreign Judgments by the Japanese Courts, 39 Japan Ann. Int'l L. 55 (1996).
Requirements for the Recognition of a Foreign Judgment – Tokyo District – September 17, 1979, 25 Japan Ann. Int'l L. (1982).
Younggap Kim, The Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Korea: With Particular Reference to United States Judgments, LL.M. Thesis, Georgetown University, 1994
Lee, Moon S. & Yum, Elli, Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards in the Republic of Korea Under the New York Convention, 7 Int'l Q.31 (1995).
Malaysia
Marasighe, , The Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments, J. Malaysian & Comp. L.197 (1985).
Mohamed, A. H., Reciprocal Enforcement of Judgments and Service of Process in Malaysia, 1981(ⅱ) Malaysian L.J. (1982).
Evans, R. R., Enforcement of U.S. Judgments in Mexico: Illusion or Reality?, 64 Tex. B.J.138 (2001).
Furnish, Dale B., Foreign Judgments in Mexico and the United States, 1985 Ariz. J. Int'l & Comp. L.173.
Griego, Francisco Acuna, Execution of Foreign Judgments in the State of Sonora, 1985 Ariz. J. Int'l & Comp. L.162.
Juenger, Friedrich K., The Recognition of Money Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters, 36 Am. J. Comp. L.1 (1988).
Mayer, Jeffrey J., Recent Mexican Arbitration Reform: The Continued Influence of the “Pubilcistas,” 47 U. Miami L. Rev.913 (1993).
Pando, Fernando Alejandro Vazquez, New Trends in Mexican Private International Law, 23 Int'l Law.995 (1989).
Siqueiros, Jose Luis, Enforcement of Foreign Civil and Commercial Judgments in the Mexican Republic, 1986 Ariz. J. Int'l & Comp. L.149 (1986).
Siqueiros, Jose Luis, Enforcement of Foreign Civil and Commercial Judgments in the Mexican Republic, 2 Hous. J. Int'l L.375 (1980).
Vargas, Jorge A., Enforcement of Judgments in Mexico: The 1988 Rules of the Federal Code of Civil Procedure, 14 J. Int'l L. Bus.376 (1994).
Vargas, Jorge A., Mexican Law on the Web: The Ultimate Research Guide, 32 Int'l J. Legal Info.34 (2004).
New Zealand
Barnard, Laurette, Enforcement of Foreign Judgments, 1996 N.Z. L.J.227.
Oman
Lane, Terence & Morton, William, Enforcement of a Foreign Award in Oman, 2 Arb. Int'l75 (1986).
Pakistan
Jillani, Anees, Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards in Pakistan, 37 Int'l & Comp. L.Q.926 (1988).
Saudi Arabia
Ashereman, Jeanne, Doing Business in Saudi Arabia: The Contemporary Application of Islamic Law, 16 Int'l Law.321, 324 (1982).
El-Ahdab, Abdul H., Saudi Arabia Accedes to the New York Convention, 11 J. Int'l Arb.87 (1994).
Karl, David J., Islamic Law in Saudi Arabia: What Foreign Attorneys Should Know, 25 Geo. Wash. J. Int'l L. & Econ.131 (1992).
Roy, Kristin T., The New York Convention and Saudi Arabia: Can A Country Use the Public Policy Defense to Refuse Enforcement of Non-Domestic Arbitral Awards? 18 Fordham Int'l L.J.920 (1995).
Truck, Nancy, Saudi Board of Grievances Enforces Foreign Judgment, Middle E. Exec. Rep., (May 1990), at 9.
Scotland
Maher, G., Community Law: Enforcing EEC Convention Judgments in Scotland, 34 J.L. Soc'y Scot.130 (1989).
Maher, G., The Enforcement of Judgments in Scots Law, 2 Civ. Just. Q.244 (1983).
Singapore
Gross, Mark, Foreign Creditor Rights: Recognition of Foreign Bankruptcy Adjudications in the United States and the Republic of Singapore, 12 U. Pa. J. Int'l Bus. L.125 (1991).
Martin, R., Reciprocal Enforcement of Judgments and Service of Processes in Singapore, Malaysian L.J. (Aug. 1981) at ⅹⅼⅱ.
South Africa
Leon, P. S. G., Roma Non Mocuta Est: The Recognition nad Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in South Africa, 16 Comp. & Int'l L.J. S. Afr.325 (1983).
Leslie, R. D., The Non-Enforcement of Foreign Revenue Laws, 93 S. Afr. L.J.46 (1976).
South Korea
Hwang, J. M., Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in South Korea, 10 Cal. Int'l Prac.31 (2000).
Gonzalez v. Lebensversicherung A.G., 761 N.Y.S.2d 2 (2003).
Clare, J. T., Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Spain, 9 Int'l Law.509 (1975).
Dahl, Enrique, Enforcement of American Judgments in Spain, 5 B.U. Int'l L.J.29 (1987).
Marta Requejo Isidro, Medidas Antiprocesso: Turner v. Grovit, Final Discutible de un Debate, La Ley. 6051 (June 2004)
Weiss v. La Suisse Societe d'Assurances Sur La Vie, 161 F. Supp. 2d 305 (2001).
Bernet, Martin & Ulmer, Nicotas C., Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Civil Judgments in Switzerland, 27 Int'l Law317 (1993).
Bernet, M., Recognition and Enforcement in Switzerland of U.S. Judgments Containing an Award of Punitive Damages, 22 Int'l Bus. Law.272 (1994).
Piantino, Yves P., Review Essay, Switzerland's Treatment of U.S. Money Judgments, 46 Am J. Comp. L.181 (Winter 1998).
Romeu, Francisco Ramos, Litigation Under the Shadow of an Exequatur: The Spanish Recognition of U.S. Judgments, 38 Int'l Law.945 (2004).
Wirth, Markus H., Attachment of Swiss Bank Accounts: International Debt Collection, 36 Bus. Law.1029 (1981).
Shen v. Leo A. Daly Co., 222 F.3d 472 (2000).
Fan, K. C., Commercial Litigation, Arbitration and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Taiwan, 12 Comp. L.Y.B. Int'l Bus.119 (1990).
Uchima, J. V., Recognition and Enforcement of U.S. Judgments in Taiwan, 3 Cal. Int'l Prac.17 (1991/1992).
Cantrade Privatbank AG Zurich v. Bangkok Bank Pub. Co., 681 N.Y.S.2d 21 (1998).
Panthip Karnchanachitra Saisonthorn, The Procedure for Introducing Foreign Judgments to the Thai Courts, Law Journal, 20th year, ed. 3, B.E. 2533 (1990)
United Arab Emirates
Dixon, Giles & Wood, Priscilla, Arbitration Law, Practice and Enforcement of Awards in the United Arab Emirates, Middle E. Exec. Rep. (Nov. 1988), at 24.
Vietnam
Howell, David, A Realistic Look at Vietnam: Can Disputes Be Resolved and Awards Enforced?, E. Asian Exec. Rep. (Mar. 15), 1992, at 9.
Yugoslavia (former)
Ŝarĉević, Peter, The New Yugolav Private International Law Act, 33 Am. J. Comp. L.283 (1985).
Specialized Areas
Admiralty
Bentil, J. Kodwo, Enforcement of Judgments in Foreign Admiralty Courts, 128 Solic. J.375 (1984).
Ringbom, H., EU Regulation 44/2001 and Its Implications for the International Maritime Liability Conventions, 35 J. Mar. L. & Com.1 (2004).
Antitrust
Cotter, Jeffrey L., Extraterritorial Jurisdiction; The Application of U.S. Antitrust Laws to Acts Outside the United States, 20 Wm. Mitchell L. Rev.1109 (1994).
Mannick, Catherine, Recent Developments, Antitrust: British Restrictions on Enforcement of Foreign Judgments, 21 Harv. Int'l L.J.727 (1980).
Walter, Spencer W., Neo-Realism and the International Harmonization of Law: Lessons from Antitrust, 42 Kan L. Rev.557 (1994).
Bankruptcy and Creditors' Rights
Diaconis, John S., Corcoran v. Ardra: The Impact of Insolvency on International Reinsurance Arbitration, 28 Tort & Ins. L.J.109 (1992).
Montfort, Roland, European Law on Cross-Border Insolvencies, 23 Am. Bankr. Inst. J.28 (2004).
Domestic Relations
Annotation, Injunction Against Suit in Another State or Country for Divorce or Separation, 54 A.L.R.3d1240 (1992 & Supp. 2004).
Arenstein, Robert A., Interjurisdictional Enforcement of Matrimonial Orders, Am. J. Fam. L. (Spring 1988), at 7.
Cavers, David F., International Enforcement of Family Support, 81 Colum. L. Rev.994 (1981).
Daigle, Dorothy C., Due Process Rights of Parents and Children in International Child Abductions: An Examination of the Hague Convention and Its Exceptions, 26 Vand J. Transnat'l L.865 (1993).
O'Hear, Michael M., “Some of the Most Embarrassing Questions”: Extraterritorial Divorces and the Problem of Jurisdiction Before Pennoyer, 104 Yale L.J.1507 (1995).
Schwartz, Phillip, How to Collect Support from Overseas, Fairshare (Mar. 1988), at 8.
Shapiro, Sheldon R., Annotation, Extraterritorial Effect of Valid Award of Custody of Child of Divorced Parents, in Absence of Substantial Change in Circumstances, 35 A.L.R.3d520 (1991 & Supp. 2004).
Sovereign Immunity
Kindall, M. P. A., Immunity of States for Non-Commercial Torts: A Comparative Analysis of the International Law Commission's Draft, 75 Cal. L. Rev.1849 (1987).
Klotz, Robert A., Enforcement of Judgments Against Foreign States in Canada, Newsl. on Int'l Litig. ABA Sec. on Int'l L. & Prac. (Apr. 1990), at 13.
Zimmermann, Andreas, Sovereign Immunity and Violations of International Jus Cogens – Some Critical Remarks, 16 Mich. J. Int'l L.433 (1995).
Defamation and First Amendment Issues
Rosen, Mark D., Exporting the Constitution, 53 Emory L.J.171 (2004).
Sanders, Jeff, Extraterritorial Application of the First Amendment to Defamation Claims Against American Media, 19 N.C.J. Int'l L. & Com. Reg.515 (1994).
Hazardous Waste
Murphy, Sean D., Prospective Liability Regimes for the Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes, 88 Am. J. Int'l L.24 (1994).
Construction
Schwartz, Eric A., Resolution of International Construction Disputes, 23 Int'l Bus. Law.149 (1995).
U.S. Securities Law
Hall, Darrell, No Way Out: An Argument Against Permitting Parties to Opt Out of U.S. Securities Laws in International Transactions, 97 Colum. L. Rev.57 (1997).
Intellectual Property
Dreyfuss, Rochelle C. & Ginsburg, Jane C., Draft Convention on Jurisdiction and Recognition of Judgments in Intellectual Property Matters (Symposium on Constructing International Intellectual Property Law: The Role of National Courts), 77 Chi.-Kent L. Rev.1065 (2002).
Goldstein, Paul, Hadley, Lawrence, Kendall, David, & Oppedahl, Carl, Copyright's Long Arm: Enforcing U.S. Copyrights Abroad, 24. Loy. L.A. Ent. L. Rev.45 (2004).
Jooris, E., Infringement of Foreign Copyright and the Jurisdiction of English Courts, 18 Eur. Intell. Prop. Rev.127 (1996).
Internet (E-Commerce)
Greenberg, Marc H., A Return to Lilliput: the LICRA v. Yahoo! Case and the Regulation of Online Content in the World Market, 18 Berkeley Tech. L.J.1191 (2003).
Shartel, Stratton, Hague Delegates Revise Choice of Court Convention, but Some Concerns Remain, 8 Elec. Com. & L. ReP. 1134 (December 17, 2003).
Shartel, Stratton, Hague Delegates Find Consensus, Narrow Disputes, as Diplomatic Conference Nears, 9 Elec. Com. & L. Rep. 450 (May 12, 2004).
Intellectual Property
Dreyfuss, Rochelle C. & Ginsburg, Jane C., Draft Convention on Jurisdiction and Recognition of Judgments in Intellectual Property Matters (Symposium on Constructing International Intellectual Property Law: The Role of National Courts), 77 Chi.-Kent L. Rev.1065 (2002).
Selected Cases
Pure Fishing v. Silver Star Co., 202 F. Supp. 2d 905 (2002).
Dow Jones & Co. v. Gutnick, [2002] HCA 56 (2002) [First Amendment issues]
Lewis v. Beck, unreported, Bench J of Supreme Court of Victoria, May 12, 1998 [conversion of damages and registration issues]
Brazil
Kappel Indust. Cal. & Equipt. Co. v. Banco de Recife, SE No. 4811, 85 Rev. de Direito 481 (1927) [denying enforcement of New York judgment based on jurisdiction]
Beals v. Saldanha, [2003] S.C.C. 72 WL No. 28829 (Can. Dec. 18, 2003). [Florida judgment enforced; jurisdiction based on “real and substantial connection” test for presence-based jurisdiction; for synopsis and analysis see 13 J. Transnat'l L. & Pol'y 347, 364 (2003)].
Bangoura v. Washington Post, O.J. No. 284 (S.C.) (2004), available at www.canlii.org/on/cas/onsc/2004/2004onsc10181.html [defamation, First Amendment issues]
European Community
Krombach v. Bamberski, [2000] E.C.R. I-1935 (Case C-7/98)
Einstweilige Anordnung vom 25. Juli 2003, BVerfG 2.Senat [temporary court order of July 25, 2003, denying recognition of service of a New York class action judgment]
Beschluss vom 13. Februar 2001, OLG Frankfurt 20.Zivilsenat [decision of February 13, 2001 denying recognition of American judgment based on German public policy]
Urteil vom 24. November 1999, LG Stuttgart 24.Zivilkammer [judgment of November 24, 1999 on the effect of a pending U.S. class action suit]
South Korea
Judgment of 14 April 1987, Supreme Court, 86 Mu 57, 58 [New York judgment enforced]
Judgment of 12 September 1984, Seoul District Court, 84 Kaha 364 [Massachusetts judgment enforced]
Weiss v. La Suisse Societe d'Assurances Sur La Vie, 161 F. Supp. 2d 305 (2001).
M.P. v. A, SA & D Est., ATF 122 III 439 (Federal Tribunal 1996) [enforced Southern District of New York award, dealt with forum selection clause]
G v. B Laboratories, X & Y Corp., ATF 120 II 83, SJ 1994 470 (Federal Tribunal 1994) [enforcement of California judgment despite defect that would have rendered the judgment unenforceable in the United States]
Rostuca Holdings v. Polo and Cour de Justice du Canton de Geneve, ATF 116 II 25, JT 1992 II 182 (Federal Tribunal 1990) [enforced New York default judgment; for synopsis, see 46 Am. J. Comp. L. 181, 186]
Trade Center Services AG v. Security Forwarders, ATF 116 II 376, JT 1990 I 616 (Federal Tribunal 1990) [California judgment enforced]
United Kingdom
Smith Kline & French Labs. Ltd. v. Bloch, [1983] 1 W.L.R. 730 (C.A. 1982) (Lord Denning, MR)
Turner v. Grovit, [2002] 1 W.L.R. 107 (H.L. 2001)
Harmonization and Other Types of Reform
Treatises and Books
Jurgen Basedow, et al., Private Law in The International Arena: From National Conflict Rules Towards Harmonization and Unification (Jurgen Basedow, et al., eds., Cambridge, MA, Kluwer Law International, 2000)
Rene David, The Legal Systems of the World, Their Comparison and Unification, in 2 International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law ch. 5 (Rene David ed., New York, Oceana Publications, 1969).
Ong, Colin, Cross-Border Litigation Within Asean: The Prospects for Harmonization of Civil and Commercial Litigation (Cambridge, MA, Kluwer Law International, 1997).
Journals
Brand, Ronald S., Enforcement of Foreign Money Judgments in the United States: In Search of Uniformity and International Acceptance, 67 Notre Dame L. Rev.253 (1991).
Cremades, Bernardo M. & Plehn, Stephen L., The New Lex Mercatoria and the Harmonization of the Laws of International Commercial Transactions, 2 B.U. Int'l L.J.317 (1984).
Martinez, Jenny S., Towards an International Judicial System, 56 Stan. L. Rev.429 (2003).
Mayer, Jeffrey J., Recent Mexican Arbitration Reform: The Continued Influence of the “Publicistas,” 47 U. Miami L. Rev.913 (1993).
Nadelmann, Kurt H., The United States of America and Agreements on Reciprocal Enforcement of Foreign Judgments, 1 Neth. Int'l L. Rev.156 (1953).
Nadelmann, Kurt H., Ignored State Interest: The Federal Government and International Effort to Unify Rules of Private Law, 102 Pa. L. Rev.323 (1954).
Pfund, Peter H., United States Participation in International Unification of Private Law, 19 Int'l Law.505 (1985).
Pfund, Peter H., International Unification of Private Law: A Report on United States Participation, 1985–86, 20 Int'l Law.623 (1986).
Pfund, Peter H., International Unification of Private Law: A Report on United States Participation, 1986–87, 21 Int'l Law.1245 (1986).
Pfund, Peter H., International Unification of Private Law: A Report on United States Participation, 1987–88, 22 Int'l Law.1157 (1988).
Pfund, Peter H., Overview of the Codification Process, 15 Brooklyn. J. Int'l L.8 (1989).
Pfund, Peter & Taft, George, Congress' Role in the International Unification of Private Law, 16 Ga. J. Int'l & Comp. L.671 (1986).
Wailer, Spencer W., Neo-Realism and the International Harmonization of Law: Lessons from Antitrust, 42 Kan. L. Rev.557 (1994).
Bibliography
Hague convention
Background
Adler, Matthew H., If We Build It, Will They Come? The Need for a Multilateral Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Civil Monetary Judgments, 26 Law & Pol'y Int'l Bus.79 (1989).
Beaumont, Paul R., A United Kingdom Perspective on the Proposed Hague Judgments Convention, 24 Brooklyn J. Int'l L.75, 100 (1998).
Christophe Bernasconi, Provisional Version of the New Practical Handbook on the Operation of the 1965 Hague Service Convention. July, 2003. Available at: http://hcch.e-vision.nl/upload/wop/lse_pd01e.pdf (last visited Aug. 15, 2005)
Birke, Richard & Teitz, Louise Ellen, American Law in a Time of Global Interdependence: U.S. National Reports to the 26th International Congress of Comparative Law: Section II, U.S. Mediation in 2001: The Path that Brought America to Uniform Laws and Mediation in Cyberspace. 50 Am. J. Comp. L.181 (Fall 2002).
Bruch, Carol S., The 1989 Inter-American Convention on Support Obligations, 40 Am. J. Comp. L.817 (1992).
Gary B. Born, International Civil Litigation in United States Courts 298 (3d ed., Kluwer Law Int'l., 1996)
Glenn, H. Patrick, Foreign Judgments, the Common Law and the Constitution: De Savoye v. Morguard Investments Ltd, 37 McGill L.J.537 (1992).
Hague Conference on Private International Law, Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments, Prel. Docs. Nos. 2–6 (Dec. 1995–Aug. 1996)
Hague Conference on Private International Law, Conclusions of the Special Commission of May 2000 on General Affairs and Policy of the Conference, Prel. Doc. No. 10 (June 2000)
Internet and Federal Courts: Issues and Obstacles: Hearing before the Subcomm. on Courts and Intellectual Property of the Comm. on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives, 106th Cong. 2 (2000) (witness testimony of Jeffrey Kovar, Assistant Legal Advisor for Private International Law, U.S. Department of State), at 22
Juenger, Fredriech K., A Shoe Unfit for Globetrotting, IV. Impediments to International Accommodation, 28 U.C. Davis L. Rev.1027, 1050 (1995).
Lipstein, Kurt, One Hundred Years of the Hague Conference on Private International Law, 42 Int'l Comp. L.Q.554 (1993).
Lynch, Katherine, The Forces of Economic Globalization: Challenges to the Regime of International Commercial Arbitration (The Hague: Kluwer Law Int'l., 2003).
Maier, Harold G., A Hague Conference Judgments Convention and United States Courts: A Problem and a Possibility, 61 Alb. L. Rev.1207 (1998).
Nygh, Peter, Arthur's Baby: The Hague Negotiations for a World-Wide Judgments Convention in Law and Justice in a Multistate World: Essays in Honor of Arthur T. von Mehren 151 (Nafziger, J. & Symeonides, S., eds., 2002, Transnational Publishers, Inc,).
Gonzalo Parra-Aranguren, The Centenary of the Hague Conference on Private International Law in Etudes de Droit International en L'Honneur de Pierre Lalive (Christian Dominice, Robert Patry, & Claude Reymond eds., 1993)
Pfund, Peter H., International Unification of Private Law: A Report on United States Participation, 1985–1986, 20 Int'l Law.623 (1986).
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Pfund, Peter H., United States Participation in International Unification of Private Law, 19 Int'l Law.505 (1985).
Reese, W. & Johnson, V., The Scope of the Full Faith and Credit to Judgments, 49 Colum. L. Rev.153, 161 (1949) (quoting Sherrer v. Sherrer, 334 U.S. 343, 355 (1948)).
Andrea Schultz, Reflection Paper to Assist in Preparation of a Convention on Jurisdiction and Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters, Prel. Doc. No. 19, p. 6 (Aug. 2002), Hague Conference on Private International Law, available at: http://www.hcch.net/upload/wop/jdgm_pdlge.pdf (last accessed Mar. 22, 2006)
U. Schneider, The Uniform Rules for International Credit Transfers Under the UNCITRAL Model Law in Legal Issues in International Credit Transfers 451 (W. Hadding & U. Schneider eds., Berlin, 1993)
Sherman, Edward F., American Class Actions: Significant Features and Developing Alternatives in Foreign Legal Systems, 215 F.R.D.130 (2003).
Survey Regarding Business Practices on Jurisdictional Issues, Int'l Chamber of Commerce (Mar. 2003)
Symposium: New Directions in Comparative Law, 46 Am. J. Comp. L.597 (1998).
Symposium: New Approaches to Comparative Law, 1 997 Utah L. Rev.255 (1997).
Farrow, Trevor C. W., Globalization, International Human Rights, and Civil Procedure, 41 Alberta L. Rev.671 (Dec. 2003).
U.S. Department of State Authentication Office, available at: http://www.state.gov/m/a/auth/ (last visited Aug. 15, 2005)
Varady, J. Barcelo III, & A. von Mehren, International Commercial Arbitration (3d ed., Thomson-West 2006)
Mehren, Arthur & Trautman, Donald T., Recognition of Foreign Adjudications: A Survey and a Suggested Approach, 81 Harv. L. Rev.1601, 1610 (1968).
Mehren, Arthur, Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments: a New Approach for the Hague Conference?, 57 Law & Contemp. Prob.271 (1994).
G. Walter & S. Baumgartner, General Report – The Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments Outside the Scope of the Brussels and Lugano Conventions in 3 Civil Procedure in Europe – the Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments Outside the Scope of the Brussels and Lugano Conventions (G. Walter & S. Baumgartner eds. Klewer Law Int'l., 2000)
Weintraub, Russell J., How Substantial Is Our Need for a Judgments Recognition Convention and What Should We Bargain Away to Get It? 24 Brooklyn J. Int'l.174 (1998).
Zekoll, Joachim, The Role and Status of American Law in the Hague Judgments Convention Project, 61 Albany L. Rev.1283, 1297–1306 (1998).
Relevant statutes and principles
Congress Approving the United States as a Member of the Hague Conference. 22 U.S.C. 269(g) (1988)
Restatement (Third) of the Foreign Relations Law of the United States 421, Reporters' Note 4 (1987)
Uncitral Model Law on International Credit Transfers, adopted by the United Nations Commission on International Law on May 15, 1992
General
Relevant case law
Schlunk v. Volkswagenwerk A. G., 486 U.S. 694 (1988) [Service of Process]
Yahoo! Inc. v. La Ligue Contre Le Racisme et L'Antisemitisme, 169 F. Supp. 2d 1181 (2001) [Comity]
Delbruek v. Manufacturers Hanover Trust Company, 464 F. Supp. 989 (S.D.N.Y. 1979), at 993 [Choice of Law]
Evra Corporation v. Swiss Bank Corporation, 522 F. Supp. 820 (N.D. Ill. 1981), at 826 [Choice of Law]
Smith Kline & French Laboratories Ltd. v. Bloch, [1983] 1 W.L.R. 730, 733 (Eng. C.A. 1982)
Drafts
Draft on Exclusive Choice of Court Agreements, Work. Doc. No. 110 E, Revised, April 2004
Draft on Exclusive Choice of Court Agreements, Work. Doc. No. 49 E, Revised, December 2003
Final Draft Convention on Exclusive Choice of Court Agreements, Doc. No. 37 (June 30, 2005)
Masato Dogauchi and Trevor Hartley, Draft Report on Preliminary Draft Convention on Exclusive Choice of Court Agreements, Prel. Doc. No. 25 (March 2004), at 6–7
Reports, conventions, and committee actions
Brussels Convention for most EC Member States, 348 final of July 14, 1999
Collection of Hague Conference Conventions (1951–2003). HCCH Publications, 2003
Comment, The United States and the Hague Conferences on Private International Law, 1 Am. J. Comp. L.268 (1952).
Comments on IPR Aspects of Hague Convention on Jurisdiction and Foreign Judgment in Civil and Commercial Matters (Consumer Project on Technology, Washington, D.C.), Jan. 12, 2001, available at: http://www.cptech.org/ecom/hague/CPT-Hague-IPR-Jan12-USPTO.html (last accessed Aug. 15, 2005)
Comments to the USPTO on Hague Convention (Jurisdiction/Judgments) (A.I.P.L.A. Arlington, VA), Dec. 8, 2000, available at: http://www.aipla.org/Content/ContentGroups/Issues_and_Advocacy/Comments2/Hague_Convention/HagueConvention.pdf (last accessed Aug. 15, 2005)
Commission of the European Communities, Proposal for a Council Regulation (EC) on Jurisdiction and the Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters 19 (1999) (on file with author)
Communication of 9 August 2000 from the Permanent Bureau of the Hague Conference to the National Organs of the Member States, L.C. ON No. 44 (00), 2 (2000)
Convention of 15 November 1965 on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil or Commercial Matters, available at: http://www.hcch.net/index_en.php?act=conventions.text&cid=17 (last accessed Aug. 15, 2005)
Convention of 25 October 1980 on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, available at: http://www.hcch.net/index_en.php?act=conventions.text&cid=24 (last accessed Aug. 15, 2005)
Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalization for Foreign Public Documents, available at: http://www.hcch.net/index_en.php?act=conventions.text&cid=41 (last accessed Aug. 15, 2005)
Convention on the Grant of European Patents, Oct. 5, 1973, 1065 U.N.T.S. 255, 13 I.L.M. 270 [hereinafter EPC]
Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards [New York Convention], 9 U.S.C.A. §201, 21 U.S.T. 2517, 330 U.N.T.S. 38 (1959)
European Communities, Convention on Jurisdiction and the Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters, 1972 O.J. (L299) 32, reprinted as amended in 29 I.L.M. 1413 (1990)
Explanatory Report on the 1965 Hague Choice of Court Convention; L. Welamson; 1965
Explanatory Report on the 1965 Hague Service Convention; V. Taborda Ferreira; 1965
Explanatory Report on the 1971 Hague Judgments Convention; C. N. Fragistas & G. Droz; 1969
Hague Conference on Private International Law. Proceedings of the Special Commission with a Diplomatic Character of September–October 1999, at 461
Hague Convention on the Law Applicable to Certain Rights in respect of Securities held with an Intermediary, 13 December 2002
Hague Conference on Private International Law, available at: http://www.hcch.net/index_en.php?act=conventions.text&cid=98
Inter-American Convention on Support Obligations, July 15, 1989, Art. 8, 29 I.L.M. 73 (1990)
International Criminal Court (ICC): Report of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court on Sudan (June 29, 2005)
International Law Commission, Draft Code of Crimes Against the Peace and Security of Mankind, 1996, art. 18, at http://www.un.org/law/ilc/texts/dcodefra.htm (last accessed Aug. 15,2005)
International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS): Election of Seven Members (June 22, 2005)
Catherine Kessedjian, Synthesis of the Work of the Special Commission of March 1998 on International Jurisdiction and the Effects of Foreign Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters, Hague Conf. Prelim. Doc. No. 9 (July 1998)
Catherine Kessedjian, Synthesis of the Work of the Special Commission of March 1998 on International Jurisdiction and the Effects of Foreign Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters, Preliminary Document No. 9, at 40–44 (1998)
Letter from Edwin D. Williamson, Legal Adviser, U.S. Department of State, to Georges Droz, Secretary General, The Hague Conference on Private International Law (May 5, 1992) (Hague Conference document L.C. ON No. 15 (92)).
Letter from Jeffrey D. Kovar, Assistant Legal Adviser for Private International Law, U.S. Dept. of State, to J. H. A. van Loon, Secretary General, Hague Conference on Private International Law (Feb. 22, 2000)
Letter from Jeffrey D. Kovar, Assistant Legal Advisor for Private International Law, United States Department of State, to J. H. A. van Loon, Secretary General, Hague Conference on Private International Law (Feb. 22, 2000) (on file with author)
Letter from Jeffrey Kovar, Assistant Legal Advisor for Private International Law, U.S. Department of State, to Alasdair Wallace, Head of International and Common Law Services Division, England, (Sept. 10, 2000)
Note of Question of “Forum Non-Conveniens” in the Perspective of the Double Convention on Judicial Jurisdiction and the Enforcement of Decisions, Prel. Doc. No. 3 (1996), available at: http://www.state.gov/www/global/legal_affairs/forum.html (last accessed.15, 2005)
P. Nygh & F. Pocar, Report of the Special Commission, available at the Hague Conference Web site, http://www.hcch.net (last accessed Aug. 15, 2005)
Permanent Bureau, Conclusions of the Working Group Meeting on Enforcement of Judgments in the Hague Conference on Private International Law, Proceedings of the Seventeenth Session 10 to 29 May 29, 1993, Tome I, 17 H.C.P.I.L. Proc. 257 (1995)
Resolution adopted by the Seventeenth Session of the Hague Conference on Private International Law, 19 May 1993, available at: www.hcch.net/e/resolution.html
Statute of the Hague Conference on Private International Law, July 1955
Statute of The Hague Conference on Private International Law, available at: http://www.hcch.net/index_en.php?act=conventions.text&cid=29 (last accessed Aug. 15, 2005)
Summary of the Outcome of the Discussion in Commission II of the First Part of the Diplomatic Conference of 6–20 June 2001, available at: www.hcch.net, (2001 Draft)
Supplementary Protocol to The Hague Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters, 1 February 1971
Supplementary Protocol to the Hague Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters, 1971 Hague Convention
The Hague Conference on Private International Law. Seehttp://www.hcch.net/index_en.php (last accessed Aug. 15,2005)
The Hague Convention Concerning the International Administration of the Estates of Deceased Persons, 2 October 1973
The Hague Convention Concerning the Recognition of the Legal Personality of Foreign Companies, Associations and Institutions, 1 June 1956
The Hague Convention listing of Member States. Seehttp://www.hcch.net/index_en.php?act=states.listing (last accessed Aug. 15, 2005)
The Hague Convention on International Access to Justice, 25 October 1980
The Hague Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law and Recognition of Decrees Relating to Adoptions, 15 November 1965
The Hague Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Co-Operation in Respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children, 19 generic Referencer 1996
The Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-Operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption, 29 May 1993
The Hague Convention on the Choice of Court, 25 November 1965
The Hague Convention on the International Protection of Adults, 13 January 2000
The Hague Convention on the Jurisdiction of the Selected Forum in the Case of International Sales of Goods, 15 April 1958
The Hague Convention on the Law Applicable to Agency, 14 March 1978
The Hague Convention on the Law Applicable to Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, 22 December 1986
The Hague Convention on the Law Applicable to International Sales of Goods, 15 June 1955
The Hague Convention on the Law Applicable to Maintenance Obligations, 2 October 1973
The Hague Convention on the Law Applicable to Trusts and on Their Recognition, 1 July 1985
The Hague Convention on the Law Governing Transfer of Title in International Sales of Goods, 15 April 1958
The Hague Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Decisions Relating to Maintenance Obligations, 2 October 1973
The Hague Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters, 1 February 1971
The Hague Convention on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil and Commercial Matters (Nov. 15, 1965)
The Hague Convention on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil and Commercial Matters (Nov. 15, 1965), which were reviewed in 2003 by a Conference Special Committee
The Hague Convention on the Taking of Evidence Abroad in Civil or Commercial Matters (Mar. 18, 1970)
The Hague Convention Relating to Civil Procedure, 1 March 1954
The Hague Convention Relating to the Settlement of the Conflicts Between the Law of Nationality and the Law of Domicile, 15 June 1955
U.S.-U.K. Convention on the Reciprocal Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments in Civil Matters. 16 I.L.M. 71 (1977), revised in 1979, reprinted in 8 N.C.J. Int'l. & Comm. Reg. 322 (1983)
UNCC Governing Council: Report and Recommendations Made by the Panel of Commissioners Concerning the Fifth Installment of F4 Claims (June 30, 2005)
UNCITRAL: Adoption of Draft Convention on the Use of Electronic Communications in International Contracting (July 15, 2005)
United Nations Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, June 10, 1958, 21 U.S.T. 2517, T.I.A.S. No. 6997, 330 U.N.T.S. 38
U.S. participation in the Hague Conference on Private International Law was authorized by Congress in 1963. H.R.J. Res. 778, 88th Cong., 77 Stat. 775 (1963), codified as amended at 22 U.S.C. § 269g (1988)
U.S. Participation in the Hague Conference and the Rome Institute: Hearing Before the Subcomm. on International Organizations and Movements of the House Comm. on Foreign Affairs, 88th Cong., 1st Sess. 732 (1963)
Arthur von Mehren, Minutes No. 3, Commission I, Seventeenth Session, Hague Conference on Private International Law, Meeting of 20 May 1993, at 1 (on file with the Cornell International Law Journal)
Specific issues
Choice of law concerns
Brand, Ronald A., Foreign Judgments in U.S. Courts 2 Can. Int'l Law.10 (1996).
Coffino, M. J. & Wolff, M. T., Choice of Law and Forum Clauses, Int'l Comm. Lit. 37. (Dec. 1995–Jan. 1996).
Kennett, W., Forum Non Conveniens in Europe, 54 Cambridge L.J.552 (1995).
Lober, Burckhardt, Forum Shopping, Forum non Conveniens oder Schlicht: Justizgewahrungsanspruch, 6 IPRAX283 (1986).
Lowenfeld, Andreas F., Thoughts About a Multinational Judgments Convention: A Reaction to the von Mehren Report, 57 Law & Contemp. Probs.289 (1994).
Miller, Arthur R. & Crump, David, Jurisdiction and Choice of Law in Multistate Class Actions After Phillips Petroleum Co. v. Shutts, 96 Yale L.J.1, 16 (1986).
Mitchell, M. Paul, Forum Selection Clauses and Fundamental Breach: Z.I. Pompey Industrie v. Ecu-Line N.V., The Canmar Fortune, 36 Can. Bus. L.J.453 (2002).
Rabel, Ernst, The Conflict of Laws – A Comparative Study (4 vols., 1945–1954). Martin Stueckelberg, Lis Pendens and Forum Non Conveniens at the Hague Conference, 26 Brooklyn J. Int'l L.949 (2001).
Reimann, Mathias, Parochialism in American Conflicts Law. 49 Am. J. Comp. L.369 (Summer 2001).
Robertson, , The Federal Doctrine of Forum Non Conveniens: “An Object Lesson in Uncontrolled Discretion,” 29 Tex. Int'l L.J.353, 370, n.139 (1994).
Symeon C. Symeonides, Wendy Collins Perdue, & Arthur T. von Mehren, Cases and Materials on Conflict of Laws: American, Comparative, International 820–21 (2d ed., Thomson-West, 2003)
Mehren, Arthur T. & Trautman, Donald T., Recognition of Foreign Adjudications: A Survey and a Suggested Approach, 81 Harv. L. Rev.1601, 1606–07 (1968).
Mehren, Arthur T., Drafting A Convention on International Jurisdiction and the Effects of Foreign Judgments Acceptable Worldwide: Can the Hague Conference Project Succeed? 49 Am. J. Comp. L.191 (2001).
Intellectual property issues
Brand, Ronald A., Intellectual Property, Electronic Commerce and the Preliminary Hague Jurisdiction and Judgments Convention, 62 U. Pitt. L. Rev.581, 582 (2001).
Brand, Ronald A., Intellectual Property, Electronic Commerce and the Preliminary Draft Hague Convention on Jurisdiction and Foreign Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters, 62 U. Pitt. L. Rev.581, 587 (2001).
Brinkhof, Jan J., Could the President of the District Court of the Hague Take Measures Concerning the Infringement of Foreign Patents? 16 Eur. Intell. Prop. Rev.360, 361 (1994).
DeCluitt, Christopher D., International Patent Prosecution, Litigation and Enforcement, 5 Tulsa J. Comp. & Int'l L.135 (1997).
Dreyfuss, Rochelle C., Symposium: Intellectual Property Challenges in the Next Century – An Alert to the Intellectual Property Bar: The Hague Judgments Convention, U. Ill. L. Rev.421, 427 (2001), citing Draft Hague Convention art. 17.
Elacqua, Benjamin C., The Hague Runs into B2B: Why Restructuring the Hague Convention of Foreign Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters to Deal With B2B Contracts Is Long Overdue, 3 J. High Tech. L.93 (2004).
J., Dick C.A. Van Engelen, Intellectual Property Issues in Cross-Border Transactions, 5 Tulsa J. Comp. & Int'l L.135 (1997).
Anti-suit injunctions
Bermann, George A., The Use of Anti-Suit Injunctions in International Litigation, 28 Colum. J. Transnat'l L.589, 594–5 (1990).
Hartley, Trevor C., Antisuit Injunctions and the Brussels Jurisdiction and Judgments Convention, 49 Int'l & Comp. L.Q.166 (2000).
Lowenfeld, Andreas F., Forum Shopping, Antisuit Injunctions, Negative Declarations and Related Tools of International Litigation, 91 Am. J. Int'l L.314 (1997).
Civil rights and freedoms issues
Hudleston, Sarah, Note, Preserving Free Speech in a Global Courtroom: The Proposed Hague Convention and the First Amendment, 10 Minn. J. Global Trade403, 427–28 (2001).
Minehan, Karen E., The Public Policy Exception to the Enforcement of Foreign Judgments: Necessary or Nemesis?, 18 Loy. L.A. Int'l & Comp. L.J.795, 798 (1996).
Shaak, Beth, In Defense of Civil Redress: The Domestic Enforcement of Civil Rights Norms in the Context of the Proposed Hague Judgments Convention, 42 Harv. Int'l L.J.141 (2001).
Recognition and enforcement issues
Alford, Mary Anne, The Effect of the Proposed U.S.-U.K. Reciprocal Recognition and Enforcement of Civil Judgments Treaty on Current Recognition Practices in the U.S, 18 Colum. J. Transnat'l L.119, 120 (1979).
Danford, Brandon, The Enforcement of Foreign Money Judgments in the United States and Europe: How Can We Achieve A Comprehensive Treaty?, 23 Rev. Litig.381, 403 (2004).
Saumier, Genevieve, The Recognition of Foreign Judgments in Quebec – The Mirror Crack'd 81 Can. Bar Rev. 677 at 704–09, 713–15 (2002).
Giovanoli, Paiements et obligations Monetaires internationales, in Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law (1997)
Fairley, H. Scott, Enforcement of Foreign Judgments by Canadian Courts: A New Age of Uncertainty 2 Can. Int'l Law.1 (1996).
Franklin, Johnathan A. & Morris, Roberta J., International Jurisdiction and Enforcement of Judgments in the Era of Global Networks: Irrelevance of, Goals for, and Comments on the Current Proposals, 77 Chi.-Kent L. Rev.1213, 1237–8 (2002).
Miller, Katherine R., Playground Politics: Assessing the Wisdom of Writing a Reciprocity Requirement into U.S. International Recognition and Enforcement Law, 35 Georgetown J. Int'l L.239, 257 (2004).
Mehren, Arthur, Enforcing Judgments Abroad: Reflections on the Design of Recognition Conventions, 24 Brooklyn J. Int'l L.17 (1998).
Jurisdiction issues
Bassett, Debra Lyn, U.S. Class Actions Go Global: Transnational Class Actions and Personal Jurisdiction, 72 Fordham L. Rev. 41, 72–3, 91 (2003).
Borchers, Patrick J., Comparing Personal Jurisdiction in the United States and European Community: Lessons for American Reform, 40 Am. J. Comp. L.121, 143–6 (1992).
Borchers, Patrick J., Could a Treaty Trump Supreme Court Jurisdictional Doctrine? Judgments Conventions and Minimum Contacts, 61 Alb. L. Rev.1161. (1998).
Born, G., Forum Selection Clauses Anatomized, Int'l Comm. Lit. 26 (May 1999).
Brand, , Due Process, Jurisdiction and a Hague Judgments Convention, 60 U. Pitt. L. Rev.661 (1999).
Burbank, Stephan B., Interjurisdictional Preclusion, Full Faith and Credit and Federal Common Law: A General Approach, 71 Cornell L. Rev.733, 744 (1986).
Burbank, Stephan B., Jurisdiction to Adjudicate: End of the Century or Beginning of the Millennium?, 7 Tul. J. Int'l Comp. L.111, at 119 (1999).
Burbank, Stephan B., The Reluctant Partner: Making Procedural Law for International Civil Litigation, 57 Law & Contemp. Probs.103, 131–5 (1994).
Kessedjian, Catherine, International Jurisdiction and Foreign Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters 12, Hague Conference on Private Int'l Law, Prel. Doc. No.7, 1997 (Kessedjian Report), at 88, cited in Russell J. Weintraub, How Substantial Is Our Need For a Judgments Recognition Convention and What Should We Bargain Away to Get it?, 24 Brooklyn J. Int'l L.167, 186 (1998).
Clayton, Kristen Hudson, The Draft Hague Convention on Jurisdiction and Enforcement of Judgments and the Internet – A New Jurisdictional Framework, 36 J. Marshall L. Rev.223, 227–8 (2002).
Clermont, Kevin M., Jurisdictional Salvation and the Hague Treaty, 85 Cornell L. Rev.89 (1999).
Paul R. Dubinsky, The Reach of Doing Business Jurisdiction and Transacting Business Jurisdiction Over Non-U.S. Individuals and Entities (New York Law School, March 1998), available at: http://www.state.gov/www/global/legal_affairs/dubinsky.html
Fastiff, Eric B., The Proposed Hague Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Civil and Commercial Judgments: A Solution to Butch Reynold's Jurisdiction and Enforcement Problems, 28 Cornell Int'l L.J.469, 470 (1995).
Fawcett, J. J., General Report, in Declining Jurisdiction in Private International Law 10 (Fawcett, J. J. ed., Oxford University Press, New York, 1995).
Trevor C. Hartley, Introduction to the Brussels Jurisdiction and Judgments Convention, in 1994/vol. ⅴ Collected Courses of the Academy of European Law, Book 1, 229 (Aspen Publishers, 1996)
P. Kaye, Civil Jurisdiction and the Enforcement of Foreign Judgments (1987)
O'Brian, William E., The Hague Convention on Jurisdiction and Judgments: The Way Forward, 66 Mod. L. Rev.491 (2003).
Randall, Kenneth C., Universal Jurisdiction Under International Law, 66 Tex. L. Rev.785, 789 (1988).
Silberman, Linda J., Can the Hague Project Be Saved? A Perspective from the United States, in A Global Law of Jurisdiction and Judgments: Lessons from the Hague 159, 182 (Barcelo, John J. III & Clermont, Kevin M. eds., The Hague/New York: Klewer Law Int'l., 2002).
Theis, William H., Admiralty Proceedings and the Proposed Hague Convention on Jurisdiction and Judgments, 32 J. Marshall L. & Com.59, 61–2 (2001).
Peter D. Trooboff, Proposed Hague Conference General Convention on Jurisdiction and the Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments – Some Thoughts on Finding Solutions to Tough Issues, in, E Pluribus Unum – Liber Amicorum Georges A. L. Droz (Barras et al., eds. 1996) 461, at 464–5
Twitchell, M., Why We Keep Doing Business with Doing-Business Jurisdiction, 171 U. Chi. Legal F. 202 (2001).
Mehren, Arthur & Trautman, Donald, Jurisdiction to Adjudicate: A Suggested Analysis, 79 Harv. L. Rev.1131 (1966).
Mehren, Arthur, Drafting a Convention on International Jurisdiction and the Effects of Foreign Judgments Acceptable World-Wide: Can the Hague Convention Project Succeed?, 49 Am. J. Comp. L.191, 194 (2001).
Mehren, Arthur, Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments – General Theory and the Role of Jurisdictional Requirements, in Academy of International Law, 167 Receuil des Cours (1980-II) 9–112 (1981).
Horatia Muir Watt, New Perspectives for Jurisdiction and Judgements in Europe: A Critical View (on file with author)
Weinstein, James, The Early American Origins of Territoriality in Judicial Jurisdiction, 37 St. Louis U. L.J.1 (1992).
American law institute (ALI)
Background
Adler, Matthew H., If We Build It, Will They Come? – The Need for a Multilateral Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Civil Monetary Judgments, Law & Pol'y Int'l Bus., 79, 91 (Fall 1994).
Anglim, Jennifer M., Crossroads in the Great Race: Moving Beyond the International Race to Judgment in Disputes Over Artwork and Other Chattels, 45 Harv. Int'l L.J.239 (2004).
American Law Institute Certificate of Incorporation, available at: http://www.ali.org, under “Charter, Bylaws and Rules.”
American Law Institute (ALI). Seehttp://ali.org (last accessed Aug. 15, 2005)
Conant, A. B. Jr., The Act of State Doctrine and Its Exceptions: An Introduction, 12 Vand. J. Transnat'l L.259, 259 (1979).
Bassett, Debra Lyn, U.S. Class Actions Go Global: Transnational Class Actions and Personal Jurisdiction, 72 Fordham L. Rev.41, 72–3, 91 (2003).
Baumgartner, Samuel P., Is Transnational Litigation Different? 25 U. Pa. J. Int'l Econ. L. 1297 (2004).
Boyd, Kathryn L., Collective Rights Adjudication in U.S. Courts: Enforcing Human Rights at the Corporate Level, 1999 B.Y.U L. Rev.1139, 1208.
Burbank, Stephen B., Jurisdictional Conflict and Jurisdictional Equilibration: Paths to a Via Media? 26 Hous. J. Int'l L.385 (2004).
Burley, Anne Marie, Law Among Liberal States: Liberal Internationalities and the Act of State Doctrine, 92 Colum. L. Rev.1907, 1948 (1992).
Carter, P. B., Transnational Recognition and Enforcement of Public Foreign Laws, 48 Cambridge L.J.417 (1989).
Castel, J. G., Foreign Tax Claims and Judgments in Canadian Courts, 42 Can. B. Rev.277 (1964).
Danford, Brandon B., The Enforcement of Foreign Money Judgments in the United States and Europe: How Can We Achieve a Comprehensive Treaty? 23 Rev. Litig.381 (2004).
Elacqua, Benjamin C., The Hague Runs into B2B: Why Restructuring the Hague Convention of Foreign Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters to Deal with B2B Contracts is Long Overdue, 3 J. High Tech. L.93 (2004).
Ginsburg, Ruth Bader, Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Civil Judgments: A Summary View of the Situation in the United States, 4 Int'l Law. 720 (1970).
Homburger, Adolf, Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments, 18 Am. J. Comp. L.367, 384–85 (1970).
International Bar Association, Enforcement of Foreign Judgments Worldwide (Charles Platto and William G. Horton eds., 2d ed., 1993)
Janis, Mark W., The Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Law: The Antelope's Penal Law Exception, 20 Int'l Law.303 (1986).
Lowenfeld, Andreas F., Public Law in the International Arena: Conflict of Laws, International Law, and Some Suggestions for Their Interaction, 163 Recueil Des Cours311, 322–6 (1979-II).
Mann, F. A., The International Enforcement of Public Rights, 19 N.Y.U. J. Int'l L. & Pol.603 (1987).
Marks, Raymond P., Note, Alternative Theories for Establishing a Federal Common Law of Foreign Judgments in Commercial Cases: The Foreign Affairs Power and the Dormant Foreign Commerce Clause, 16 Va. J. Int'l L.635, 642 (1976).
McConnaughay, Philip J., Reviving the “Public Law Taboo” in International Conflict of Laws, 35 Stan. J. Int'l L.255, 283 (1999).
Perez, Antonio F., The International Recognition of Judgments: The Debate Between Private and Public Law Solutions, 19 Berkeley J. Int'l L.44, 44 (2001).
Reese, Willis L., The Status in This Country of Judgments Rendered Abroad, 50 Colo. Law. 783, 790–93 (1950).
Dr. George J. Roman, Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Various Foreign Countries, 36 (Washington, D.C.: Law Library of Congress, 1984)
Silberman, Linda J., The Impact of Jurisdictional Rules and Recognition Practice on International Business Transactions: The U.S. Regime, 26 Hous. J. Int'l L.327 (2004).
Mehren, Arthur T. & Trautman, Donald T., Recognition of Foreign Adjudications: A Survey and a Suggested Approach, 81 Harv. L. Rev.1601, 1670 (1968).
Westbrook, Jay Lawrence, Choice of Avoidance Law in Global Insolvencies, 17 Brooklyn J. Int'l L.499, 520 (1991).
Relevant statutes and principles
Full Faith and Credit Clause of the Constitution and the implementing statute, 28 U.S.C. § 1738
U.S. Arbitration Act, 9 U.S.C. §§ 201–08, ch. 2, implementing the United Nations Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (the New York Convention)
Fla. Stat. Ann. § 55.605(2)(g)
N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 524:11
Restatement (Third), The Foreign Relations Law of the United States § 481, Comment c
Restatement (Third), The Foreign Relations Law of the United States §§ 402, 403, 415, 416
Restatement (Third), The Foreign Relations Law of the United States § 482 (1987)
Unif. Foreign Money-Judgments Recognition Act 2, U.L.A. 3 (1962).
Unif. Foreign Money-Judgments Recognition Act, 13 (pt. 2) U.L.A. 43 (2002)
EU Regulation on Jurisdiction and the Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments, Council Reg. 44/2001, OJ L 12/1 (2000) Art. 34(1)
General
Enforcement
Albrecht, A. R., The Enforcement of Taxation Under International Law, 1953 Brit. Y.B. Int'l L.454.
Hamid G. Gharavi, The International Effectiveness of the Annulment of an Arbitral Award (Kluwer Law Int'l., 2002)
Kovatch, William J. Jr., Recognizing Foreign Tax Judgments: An Argument for the Revocation of the Revenue Rule, 22 Hous. J. Int'l L.265 (2000).
Silberman, L. & Lowenfeld, A., A Different Challenge for the ALI: Herein of Foreign Country Judgments, an International Treaty, and an American Statute, 75 Ind. L.J.635 (2000).
Lowenfeld, Andreas F. & Silberman, Linda J., U.S. of America, in Enforcement of Foreign Judgments Worldwide 123 (Platto, Charles & Horton, William G. eds., 2nd ed., Graham & Trotman, London; 1993).
Rosen, Mark D., Exporting the Constitution: The Grave Misconception Concerning “Un-American” Foreign Judgments, 53 Emory L.J. (2004).
Eugene F. Scoles, et al., Conflict of Laws 24.45, at 1211 n.12 (3d ed., Thomsons-West St. Paul: 2000)
Silberman, Linda J. & Lowenfeld, Andreas F., A Different Challenge for the ALI: Herein of Foreign Country Judgments, an International Treaty, and an American Statute, 75 Ind. L.J.635, 635 (2000).
Silver, Barbara A., Modernizing the Revenue Rule: The Enforcement of Foreign Tax Judgments, 22 Ga. J. Int'l & Comp. L.609 (1992).
Strebel, Felix D., The Enforcement of Foreign Judgments and Foreign Public Law, 21 Loy. L.A. Int'l & Comp. L. Rev.55, 55 (1999).
Drafts
American Law Institute, Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments: Analysis and Proposed Federal Statute. ALI Proposed Final Draft, April 11, 2005
American Law Institute, Reporter's Memorandum in 2002 ALI Draft
American Law Institute, Transnational Rules of Civil Procedure (Preliminary Draft No. 2, March 17, 2000)
American Law Institute/UNIDROIT, Principles and Rules of Transnational Civil Procedure, Proposed Final Draft (2004)
Comment in American Law Institute, International Jurisdiction and Judgments Project at 31 (Tentative Draft No. 2, April 14, 2004)
Foreword, American Law Institute, International Jurisdiction and Judgments Project, at xi (Discussion Draft, Mar. 29, 2002)
K. King Burnett, Memorandum in Support of the Motion by Guy Miller Struve, et al, Concerning Proposed Federal Statute on Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Country Judgments, submitted to the Executive Office of the American Law Institute at the Eighty-First Annual Meeting on May 17, 18, and 19, 2004
Reports, hearings, and committee actions
Assn. of the Bar, City of N.Y., Committee on Foreign and Comparative Law, Survey on Foreign Recognition of U.S. Money Judgments (July 2001)
Effect of the Japanese Patent System on American Business: Hearing Before the Subcomm. on Foreign Commerce and Tourism of the Senate Comm. on Commerce, Science and Transportation, 100th Cong., 2d Sess. 39 (1988)
Eric M. Freedman, Memorandum to ALI Membership and Council, Re: International Jurisdiction and Judgments Project Public Policy Exception – First Amendment, May 17, 2004
Richard W. Hulbert, Statement in Support of Motion to Delete the Requirement of Reciprocity, submitted to the Executive Office of the American Law Institute at the Eighty-First Annual Meeting on May 17, 18, and 19, 2004
International Law Association, Report of International Committee on Transnational Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Public Laws, in Report of the Sixty-Third Conference 719 (1988)
Catherine Kessedjian, Remarks, Proceedings of the 76th Annual Meeting of the American Law Institute, 76 A.L.I. Proc. 465, at 457 (1999).
Lowenfeld, Andreas F., Remarks, Proceedings of the 79th Annual Meeting of the American Law Institute, 79 A.L.I. Proc.329 (2002).
United Nations Convention 53 on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (the New York Convention), Article V(2)(b)
Gerhard Walter & Samuel P. Baumgartner, Civil Procedure in Europe – the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments Outside the Scope of the Brussels and Lugano Conventions, 1–45 (G. Walter & S. Baumgartner, eds., Kluwer Law Int'l, 2000)
Specific issues
The public policy exception and the first amendment
Devgun, Derek, United States Enforcement of English Defamation Judgments: Exporting the First Amendment?, 23 Anglo-Am. L. Rev.195, 203 (1994).
Enson, Eric P., Comment, A Roadblock on the Detour Around the First Amendment: Is the Enforcement of English Libel Judgments in the United States Unconstitutional?, 21 Loy. L.A. Int'l & Comp. L. Rev.159, 160 (1999).
Maltby, Jeremy, Note, Juggling Comity and Self-Government: The Enforcement of Foreign Libel Judgments in U.S. Courts, 94 Colum. L. Rev.1978, 1995–6 (1994).
Stern, Craig A., Foreign Judgments and the Freedom of Speech: Look Who's Talking, 60 Brooklyn L. Rev.999, 1033–34 (1994).
Youm, Kyu Ho, Suing American Media in Foreign Courts: Doing an End-Run Around U.S. Libel Law?, 16 Hastings Comm. & Ent. L.J.235, 256–62 (1994).
Intellectual property law
Biddinger, Brian P., Note: Limiting the Business Method Patents: A Comparative and Proposed Alignment of European, Japanese, and United States Patent Law, 69 Fordham L. Rev.2523, 2543 (2001).
Bradley, Curtis A., Extraterritorial Application of U.S. Intellectual Property Law – Principal Paper: Territorial Intellectual Property Rights in an Age of Globalism, 37 Va. J. Int'l L.505 (1997).
Cuenot, Kevin, Perilous Potholes in the Path Toward Patent Law Harmonization, 11 J. Law. & Pub. Pol'y101 (1999).
DeCluitt, Christopher D., International Patent Prosecution, Litigation and Enforcement, 5 Tulsa J. Comp. & Int'l L.135 (1997).
Rochelle C. Dreyfuss & Jane C. Ginsburg, A Standalone Treaty on Jurisdiction and Recognition of Judgments in Intellectual Property Matters, presented at Chicago-Kent Symposium on Constructing International Intellectual Property Law: The Role of National Courts, October 19, 2001 [hereinafter Draft IP Treaty], available at: http://www.kentlaw.edu/depts/ipp/intl-courts/materials.html (last visited Aug. 15, 2005)
Kalikow, Martin, Multi-Country Patent Litigation: Strategy and Administration of Multi-Country Patent Litigation, in International Patent Litigation: A Country-by-Country Analysis (Meller, Michael N. ed., BNA Books, 1994).
Thomas, John R., Litigation Beyond the Technological Frontier: Comparative Approaches to Multinational Patent Enforcement, 27 Law & Pol'y Int'l Bus.277, 277 (1996).
Van, Dick C. J. A.Engelen, Intellectual Property Issues in Cross-Border Transactions, 5 Tulsa J. Comp. & Int'l L.135 (1997).
Forum non conveniens and forum clauses
Berman, Paul Schiff, The Globalization of Jurisdiction, 151 U. Pa. L. Rev.311, 389 n.305, 519–21 (2002).
Davies, Martin, Time to Change the Federal Forum Non Conveniens Analysis, 77 Tul. L. Rev.309, 381 (2002).
Karayanni, Michael M., The Myth and Reality of a Controversy: “Public Factors” and the Forum Non Conveniens Doctrine, 21 Wis. Int'l L.J.327, 330, 379 (2003).
Peterson, Courtland H., Choice of Law and Forum Clauses and the Recognition of Foreign Judgments Revisited Through Lloyd's of London Cases, 60 La. L. Rev.1259 (2000).
Courtland H. Peterson, Limits on the Enforcement of Foreign Country Judgments and Choice of Law and Forum Clauses, Law and Justice in a Multistate World (James A. R. Nafziger & Symeon C. Symeonides eds., Transnational, 2002)
Waples, Megan, Note, The Adequate Alternative Forum Analysis in Forum Non Conveniens: A Case for Reform, 36 Conn. L. Rev.1475, 1484–5 (2004).
Wilson, John R., Note, Coming to America to File Suit: Foreign Plaintiffs and the Forum Non Conveniens Barrier in Transnational Litigation, 65 Ohio St. L.J.659, 684–90 (2004).
Preclusion and final judgments
Casad, Robert C., Intersystem Issue Preclusion and the Restatement (Second) of Judgments, 66 Cornell L. Rev.510, 513–14 (1981).
Casad, Robert C., Issue Preclusion and Foreign Country Judgments Whose Law?, 70 Iowa L. Rev.53, 79 (1984).
Peterson, Professor, Res Judicata and Foreign Country Judgments, 24 Ohio St. L.J.291 (1963).
Smit, Hans, International Res Judicata and Collateral Estoppel in the United States, 9 Ucla L. Rev.44 (1962).
Vestal, Allan D., Preclusion/Res Judicata Variables: Adjudicating Bodies, 54 Geo. L.J.857, 869–73 (1966).
Reciprocity
Miller, Katherine R., Playground Politics: Assessiing the Wisdom of Writing a Reciprocity Requirement into U.S. International Recognition and Enforcement Law, 35 Geo. J. Int'l L.239 (2004).
Concurrent or parallel proceedings
Teitz, Louise Ellen, Developments in Parallel Proceedings: The Globalization of Procedural Responses, 38 Int'l Law.303 (2004).
Relevant case law
Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain, 124 S. Ct. 2739, 2754, 2762 (2004) [Sources of Law]
Semtek International, Inc. v. Lockheed Martin Corporation, 531 U.S. 497 (2001) [Full Faith & Credit; Res Judicata]
Missouri v. Holland, 252 U.S. 416 (1920).[Supremacy Clause].
The Antelope, 23 U.S. (10 Wheat.) 66, 123 (1825) [Conflicts of Law]
Matusevitch v. Telnikoff, 159 F.3d 636 (D.C. 1998) [Public Policy]
Baker Marine (Nigeria) Ltd. v. Chevron (Nigeria) Ltd., 191 F.3d 194 (2d Cir. 1999) [Enforcement of Arbitration Awards]
Success Motivation Inst. of Japan, Ltd. v. Success Motivation Inst. Inc., 966 F.2d 1007, 1008 (5th Cir. 1992) [Choice of Law]
Banque Libanaise Pour Le Commerce v. Khreich, 915 F.2d 1000, 1003 (5th Cir. 1990) [Choice of Law]
Zorgias v. SS Hellenic Star and Hellenic Lines Ltd., 487 F.2d 519, 519 (5th Cir. 1973) [Res Judicata]
Spinozzi v. ITT Sheraton Corp., 174 F.3d 842 (7th Cir. 1999) [Choice of Law]
Posner v. Essex Insurance Company, Ltd., 178 F.3d 1209, 1222 (11th Cir. 1999) [Comity Doctrine; International Abstention]
Turner Entertainment Co. v. Degeto Films GmbH, 25 F.3d 1512, 1519 (11th Cir. 1994) [Comity Doctrine]
Yahoo! v. La Ligue Contre le Racisme et L'Antisemitisme, 169 F. Supp. 2d 1181 (N.D. Cal. 2001) [Comity Doctrine]
Films by Jove, Inc. v. Berov, 250 F. Supp. 2d 158 (E.D.N.Y. 2003) [Comity Doctrine]
S. C. Chimexim S. A. v. Velco Enterprises Ltd., 36 F. Supp. 2d 206, 212 (S.D.N.Y. 1999) [Comity Doctrine]
Voreep v. Tarom Romanian Air Transport, 1999 WL 311811 (S.D.N.Y. May 18, 1999) [Comity Doctrine; Res Judicata]
Hilton v. Guyot, 159 U.S. 113 (1894) [Comity Doctrine]
Philips Electronics, N.V. v. New Hampshire Insurance Co., 692 N.E.2d 1268 (Ill. App. 1998) [Choice of Law]
Manches & Co. v. Gilbey, 646 N.E.2d 86 (Mass. 1995) [Currency of Award]
Kam-Tech Systems Limited v. Yardeni, 340 N.J. Super. 414, 774 A.2d 644 (2001) [Full Faith & Credit]
Neporany v. Kir, 5 A.D.2d 438 (N.Y. App. Div.1958) [Comity Doctrine]
Bachchan v. Indian Abroad Publications, 154 Misc.2d 228, 585 N.Y.S.2d 661 (1992) [Due Process; Public Policy; Choice of Law]
CIBC Mellon Trust Co. v. Mora Hotel, 100 N.Y.2d 215, 792 N.E.2d 155 (N.Y. 2003) [Comity Doctrine]
Watts v. Swiss Bank Corporation, 27 N.Y.2d 270, 317 N.Y.S.2d 315, 265 N.E.2d 739 (1970) [Comity Doctrine; Res Judicata]
Red Fox v. Hatttich, 494 N.W.2d 638, 641 (S.D. 1993) [Comity Doctrine regarding Indian Tribes]
Mori v. Mori, 896 P.2d 1237, 1240 (Utah Ct. App. 1995) [Full Faith & Credit]
Uniform state law
Background
Full Faith and Credit Clause, Art. IV, Section 1, The U.S. Constitution
Interstate Family Support Act and the federal International Child Support Enforcement Act, 42 U.S.C. § 659a (1996)
Martindale-Hubbell Massachusetts Law Digest Civil Action & Procedure (1999)
Martindale-Hubbell North Carolina Law Digest Civil Actions & Procedures (1999)
Martindale-Hubbell Ohio Law Digest Civil Actions & Procedures (1999)
Restatement (Third) of the Foreign Relations Law of the United States § 481 (1986)
Restatement (Third) of the Foreign Relations Law of the United States, §482(2)(d) (1986)
Restatement Third of the Foreign Relations Law of the United States § 483 (1986)
The National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws (NCCUSL). Seehttp://nccusl.org (last visited Aug. 15, 2005)
The National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws (NCCUSL). Annual Meeting information, available at: http://nccusl.org/Update/Annual_Meeting_2005/AnnMtg05_Drafts.htm (last visited Aug. 15, 2005)
The National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws (NCCUSL). Drafting Committee update, available at: http://nccusl.org/Update/CommitteeSearchResults.aspx?committee=92 (last visited Aug. 15, 2005)
The National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws Legislative Fact Sheet, available at: http://www.nccusl.org/nccusl/DesktopDefault.aspx?tabindex=0&tabid=1
U.S. Arbitration Act, 9 U.S.C. §§ 201–08, ch. 2, implementing the United Nations Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards
U.S. Arbitration Act, 9 U.S.C. §§ 301–07, ch. 3, implementing the Inter-American Convention on International Commercial Arbitration
Drafts
Comment to §4, Uniform Foreign Money-Judgment Recognition Act (1962)
Harvard Draft Convention on the International Responsibility of States for Injuries to Aliens, Art. 10(3), reprinted in R. R. Baxter & Louis B. Sohn, Responsibility of States for Injuries to the Economic Interests of Aliens, 55 AJIL 545, 553 (1961)
Meeting Draft of Uniform Foreign-Country Money Judgments Recognition Act (200_) (March, 2005). Seehttp://www.law.upenn.edu/bll/ulc/ufmjra/2005annmtgdraft.htm (last visited Aug. 15, 2005)
Meeting Draft of Uniform Foreign-Country Money Judgments Recognition Act (200_) (July 22–29, 2005)
Reporters' Notes in Redline Draft of Uniform Foreign-Country Money Judgments Recognition Act (200_) (March, 2005)
Reporters' Notes in Redline Draft of Uniform Foreign-Country Money Judgments Recognition Act (200_) (July 22–29, 2005)
Uniform Enforcement of Foreign Judgments Act, § 1 (1964)
Recognition issues
Brand, Ronald A., Enforcement of Foreign Money-Judgments in the United States: In Search of Uniformity and International Acceptance, 67 Notre Dame L. Rev.253, 275 (1991).
Carl, B.Recognition of Texas Judgments in Courts of Foreign Nations – and Vice Versa, 13 Hous. L. Rev.680 (1976).
Kulzer, Barbara, Recognition of Foreign Country Judgment in New York: The Uniform Foreign Money-Judgments Recognition Act, 18 Buffalo L. Rev.1, 32 (1968).
Panitch, Leo, Rethinking the Role of the State, in Globalization: Critical Reflections 83, 96–7 (Mittelman, James H. ed., Lynne Reinner-Publishers, 1996).
Scoles, Eugene F. & Aarnas, Laila E., The Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Nation Judgments: California, Oregon, and Washington, 57 Or. L. Rev. 377 (1978).
Mehren, Arthur T. & Patterson, Michael E., Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign-Country Judgments in the United States, 6 Law & Pol'y Int'l Bus.37 (1974).
Mehren, Arthur T. & Donald Trautman, , Recognition of Foreign Adjudications: A Survey and a Suggested Approach, 81 Harv. L. Rev.1601 (1968).
Wakefield, Wanda Ellen, Annotation, Judgment of Court of Foreign Country as Entitled to Enforcement or Extraterritorial Effect in State Court, 13 A.L.R. 4th 1109 (1998).
Choice of law concerns
Comment, Conflict of Laws – Recognition of Judgments – Federal Courts Are to Apply State Laws on Recognition of Foreign Judgments, 8 Tex. Int'l L.J.247, 253 (1973).
Ely, Hart, Choice of Law and the State's Interest in Protecting its Own, 23 Wm. & Mary L. Rev.173 (1981).
Peterson, Professor, Foreign Country Judgments and the Second Restatement of Conflict of Laws, 72 Colum. L. Rev.220 (1972).
Scoles, Eugene F., Interstate and International Distinctions in the Conflict of Laws in the United States, 54 Calif. L. Rev.1599, 1605–07 (1966).
Troutman, Donald P., Toward Federalizing Choice of Law, 70 Tex. L. Rev.1715, 1736 n.95 (1992).
Relevant case law
Society of Lloyd's v. Ashenden, 233 F.3d 473 (7th Cir. 2000) [Due Process]
Society of Lloyd's v. Turner, 303 F.3d 325 (5th Cir. 2002) [Public Policy]
Southwest Livestock & Trucking Co., Inc. v. Ramon, 169 F.3d 317 (5th Cir. 1999) [Public Policy]
Chase Manhattan Bank, N.A. v. Hoffman, 665 F. Supp 73 (D. Mass. 1987) [Choice of Law]
Bridgeway Corp. v. Citibank, 45 F. Supp. 2d 276, 285 (S.D.N.Y. 1999) [Due Process]
S. C. Chimexim S. A. v. Velco Enterprises, Ltd., 36 F. Supp. 2d 206, 212 (S.D.N.Y. 1999) [Comity Doctrine]
Eagle Leasing v. Amandus, 476 N.W.2d 35 (S.Ct. Iowa 1991) [Personal Jurisdiction]
Wolff v. Wolff, 389 A.2d 413 (My. App. 1978) [Personal Jurisdiction]
Day v. Montana Dept. of Social & Rehab. Servs., 900 P.2d 296 (Mont. 1995) [Full Faith & Credit for Child Support Orders]
Kam-Tech Systems, Ltd. v. Yardeni, 74 A.2d 644, 649 (N.J. App. 2001) [Full Faith & Credit]
CIBC Mellon Trust Co. v. Mora Hotel Corp., N.V., 743 N.Y.S.2d 408, 415 (N.Y. App. 2002) [Comity Doctrine]
Bachchan v. India Abroad Publications, Inc., 585 N.Y.S.2d 661 (N.Y. Sup. Ct. 1992) [Due Process, Public Policy; Choice of Law]
Johnston v. Compagnie Generale Transatlantique, 242 N.Y. 381 (1926) [Reciprocity – Full Faith and Credit]
Fredericks v. Eide-Kirschmann Ford, 462 N.W.2d 164, 170 (N.D. 1990) [Comity on Tribal Court Judgment]
Hunt v. BP Exploration Co. (Libya) Ltd., 492 F. Supp. 885, 901 (N.D. Tex. 1980) [Res Judicata & Collateral Estoppel]
The Courage Co. LLC v. The ChemShare Corp., 93 S.W.3d 323, 331 (Tex. App. 2002) [Arbitration Contractual Provision]
Mayekawa Mfg. Co. Ltd. v. Sasaki, 888 P.2d 183, 189 (Wash. App. 1995) [Comity Doctrine]
Free trade agreements
Background
Administration Works on Investment Position for Singapore FTA, Inside U.S. Trade, Dec. 15, 2000
Anderson, Chandler P., The Extent and Limitations of the Treaty-Making Power Under the Constitution, 1 A.J.I.L.636, 648 (1907).
Bergmann, Mark S., Bilateral Investment Protection Treaties: An Examination of the Evolution and Significance of the U.S. Prototype Treaty, 16 N.Y.U. J. Int'l L. & Pol.1 (1983).
Bhala, Raj, The Myth About Stare Decisis and International Trade Law, 14 Am. U. Int'l L. Rev.845, 849 (1999).
Boyd, Stewart C., Interest for the Late Payment of Money, 1 Arb. Int'l153 (1985).
Branson, David J. & Wallace, Richard E. Jr., Awarding Interest in International Commercial Arbitration: Establishing a Uniform Approach, 28 Va. J. Int'l L.919 (1988).
Cerina, Paolo, Interest as Damages in International Commercial Arbitration, 4 Am. Rev. Int'l Arb.255 (1993).
Cho, Sungjoon, A Bridge Too Far: The Fall of the Fifth WTO Ministerial Conference in Cancun and the Future of Trade Constitution, 7 J. Int'l Econ. L. 219 (2004).
Clodfelter, Mark, U.S. State Department Participation in International Economic Dispute Resolution, 42 S. Tex. L. Rev.1273, 1283 (2001).
Compare Trade in Services and E-Commerce: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Commerce, Trade and Consumer Protection of the House Energy and Commerce Comm., 108th Cong. 3 (2003)
Friedman, Mark & Verhoosel, Gaetan, Arbitrating over BIT Claims; Under Bilateral Investment Treaties, More Investors Are Taking Action Against Foreign States, 26 Nat'l L.J.15, 17 (2003).
Gotanda, John Y., Awarding Interest in International Arbitration, 90 Am. J. Int'l L.40 (1996).
Don Henry, Editorial, “Free-Trade Clause Would Be a Dangerous Weakening of the Law,” Sydney Morning Herald, Oct. 27, 2003, at 2003 WL 66059983
Hudec, Robert E., Circumventing Democracy: The Political Morality of Trade Negotiations, 25 N.Y.U.J. Int'l L. & Pol.311 (1993).
Hunter, Martin & Triebel, Volker, Awarding Interest in International Arbitration – Some Observations Based on a Comparative Study of the Laws of England and Germany, 6(1) J. Int'l Arb.7 (1989).
John H. Jackson, The Effect of Treaties in Domestic Law in the United States, in The Jurisprudence of Gatt & the WTO 297 (2000)
Kunzer, Kathleen, Developing a Model Bilateral Investment Treaty, 15 L. & Pol'y Int'l Bus.273 (1983).
Julian D. M. Lew, Interest on Money Awards in International Arbitration, in Making Commercial Law: Essays in Honour of Roy Goode 543 (Ross Cranston ed., 1997)
F. A. Mann, Further Studies in International Law 234, 238 (1990)
Mayer, Pierre, Mandatory Rules of Law in International Arbitration 2 Arb. Int'l274, 281 (1986).
Moses, Margaret L., Vacatur or Non-enforcement of International Commercial Arbitration: A Dual System of Judicial Control (unpublished manuscript, on file with author).
Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), available at: http://www.pca-cpa.org (last visited Aug. 15, 2005)
Schneiderman, David, Investment Rules and the New Constitutionalism, 25 Law & Soc. Inquiry757, 771 (2000).
Smit, Hans, Substance and Procedure in International Arbitration: The Development of a New Legal Order, 65 Tulane L. Rev.1309, 1310–11 (1991).
M. Sornarajah, The International Law on Foreign Investment 299 (1994)
USTR Information on U.S. Trade Agreements, available at http://ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/Section_Index.html (last visited Aug. 15, 2005)
USTR Web site, available at http://www.ustr.gov (last visited Aug. 15, 2005)
Voser, Nathalie, Mandatory Rules of Law as a Limitation on the Law Applicable in International Commercial Arbitration, 7 Am. Rev. Int'l Arb.319 (1997).
Wright, Laura L., Trade Promotion Authority: Fast Track for the Twenty-First Century? 12 Wm. & Mary Bill Rts. J. 979 (2004).
Quincy Wright, The United States and International Agreements, 38 A.J.I.L. 341, 348, 355 (1944)
Robert B. Zoellick, “Our Credo: Free Trade and Competition,” Wall Street Journal July 10, 2003
Reports, conventions, and committee actions
134 Cong. Rec. H6611–02 (daily ed. Aug. 9, 1988)
139 Cong. Rec. H9875–01 (daily ed. Nov. 17, 1993)
Article 1 of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Draft Convention on the Protection of Foreign Property, 7 I.L.M. 117, 119 (1968)
Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, June 10, 1958, 21 U.S.T. 2517, 330 U.N.T.S. 3
Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes Between States and Nationals of Other States, Mar. 18, 1965, 17 U.S.T. 1270, 575 U.N.T.S. 159
Letter from Benjamin A. Gilman, Chairman, House Committee on International Relations, to Sir Leon Brittan, Vice President, The European Commission (Jan. 8, 1999) in Inside U.S. Trade (Jan. 22, 1999)
The Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes Between States and Nationals of Other States, opened for signature, 17 U.S.T. 1270, 575 U.N.T.S. 159 (Mar. 18, 1965)
The International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes also maintains documentation on the cases arbitrated under its auspices, at http://www.worldbank.org/icsid/ (last visited Aug. 15, 2005)
U.S. Bilateral Investment Treaties, available at: http://www.tcc.mac.doc.gov/cgi-bin/doit.cgi?219:64:d5c333fdc357d3df07e119f1bf7aa0a6f42c164ff5d2bf29e8e65dde9058144b:0:TOVR!-!Bilateral%20Investment%20Treaties!-!QuickLink!-!BILATERAL (last visited Aug. 15, 2005)
U.S. Dep't of State Advisory Comm. on International Economic Policy (ACIEP), Report Regarding the Draft Model Bilateral Investment Treaty 2–3 (Jan. 30, 2004), available at http://www.ciel.org/ (last visited Aug. 15, 2005)
U.S. Dep't of State Press Release on U.S. Bilateral Investment Treaty Program (July 1, 2003), available at http://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/fs/22422.htm (last visited Aug. 15, 2005)
United Nations Centre on Transnational Corporations, Bilateral Investment Treaties, 41–4 (1988)
UN Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL), available at http://www.uncitral.org (last visited Aug. 15, 2005)
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, May 23, 1969, 1155 U.N.T.S. 331, reprinted in 8 I.L.M. 679 (1969)
Relevant rules and acts
American Arbitration Association (AAA) Rules, Art. 29(2)
Bipartisan Trade Promotion Authority Act, 19 U.S.C. § 3802(b)(3) (Supp.2002)
Bipartisan Trade Promotion Authority Act of 2002. Compare 19 U.S.C.S. §2903(b) (2004) with 19 U.S.C.S. § 3803 (2004)
Final Act Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, Apr. 15, 1994, Legal Instruments – Results of the Uruguay Round; 33 I.L.M. 1140 (1994)
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Oct. 30, 1947, 61 Stat. A-11, T.I.A.S. No. l700, 55 U.N.T.S. l87
Hong Kong International Arbitration Centre Rules, Art. 33
ICC Rules, Art. 17(1) (1998)
Int'l Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes, ICSID Additional Facility Rules art. 53(3) (2003), available at: http://www.worldbank.org/icsid/facility/facility.htm (last visited Aug. 15, 2005)
Restatement (Third) of Foreign Relations Law § 712, cmt. g (1987)
Trade Act of 1974, Section 301, 19 U.S.C. §§ 2411–2420 (1994)
Senate Report on the Bipartisan Trade Promotion Act of 2002, Feb. 28, 2002, at 107 Cong., 2d Sess
Statute of the International Court of Justice, June 26, 1945, Art. 38, 59 Stat. 1055, 1058
Super 301 of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, 19 U.S.C. §2420 (A)(1)(a)-(b) (1994)
U.N. Commission on Int'l Trade Law, UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules, Art. 32(5) (1976), available at: http://www.jus.uio.no/lm/un.arbitration.rules.1976/32 (last visited Aug 15, 2005)
UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules, Art. 33; UNCITRAL Model Law, Art. 28; International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) Rules, Art. 13(5)
UNCITRAL Model Law (U.N. Doc A/40.17 Annex 1 as Adopted by the UN Commission on International Trade Law on June 21, 1985)
Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes, April 15, 1994, Art. 17(6), Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Annex 2, The Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations: The Legal Texts 404, 418 (1994), reprinted in 33 I.L.M. 1226, 1236 (1994)
United Nations Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States, Art. 2, 14 I.L.M.254 (1975)
U.S. free trade agreements
NAFTA
Abbott, Frederick M., NAFTA and the Legalization of World Politics: A Case Study, in Legalization and World Politics 135, 149, 158 (Goldstein, Judith L. et al., eds., Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 2001).
Abbott, Frederick M., Integration Without Institutions: The NAFTA Mutation of the EC Model and the Future of the GATT Regime, 40 Am. J. Comp. L.917 (1992).
Abbott, Frederick M., The North American Free Trade Agreement and Its Implications for the European Union, 4 Transnat'l L. & Contemp. Probs. 119 (1994).
Frederick M. Abbott, The North American Integration Regime and Its Implications for the World Trading System, in The EU, the WTO, and the NAFTA: Towards a Common Law of International Trade? 169, 170 (J. H. H. Weiler ed., 2000)
Bruce Ackerman & David Golove, Is NAFTA Constitutional? (1995)
Edward Alden, “Canada Seeks Tighter NAFTA rules to Limit Compensation”, Fin. Times (London), Jan. 22, 1999
Barry Appleton, Navigating NAFTA: A Concise User's Guide to the North American Free Trade Agreement 169 (Carswell Legal Publications, 1994)
Stefan Baumgarten, “Canadian Group to Fight Methanex on NAFTA MTBE Spat,” Chem. News & Intelligence, Feb. 4, 2004
Been, Vicki & Beauvais, Joel C., The Global Fifth Amendment? NAFTA's Investment Protections and the Misguided Quest for an International “Regulatory Takings” Doctrine, 78 N.Y.U. L. Rev.30, 88–100 (2003).
Brower, Charles N. & Steven, Lee A., Who Then Should Judge?: Developing the International Rule of Law Under NAFTA Chapter 11, 2 Chi. J. Int'l L.193 (2001).
Canada Appeals NAFTA Chapter 11 Case, Arguing That Panel Exceeded Its Jurisdiction, 18 Int'L Trade Rep. 273 (BNA, Feb. 15, 2001)
Canada Seeks NAFTA Chapter 11, Improvements, Trade Minister Marchi Says, 16 Int'l Trade Rep. 1634 (BNA, Oct. 13, 1999)
Canada-United States: Free-Trade Agreement, Jan. 2, 1988, 27 I.L.M. 281 (1988)
Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, available at: http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/tna-nac/gov-en.asp (last accessed Aug. 15, 2005)
Cannon, James R. Jr., Resolving Disputes Under NAFTA Chapter 19 (Shepard's McGraw-Hill, 1994).
Chrush, Michael J., Note, The North American Free Trade Agreement: Reasons for Passage and Requirements to Be a Foreign Legal Consultant in a NAFTA Country, 3 I.L.S.A. J. Int'l Comp. L.177, 178 (1996).
Dep't of External Affairs, “North American Free Trade Agreement: Canadian Statement on Implementation,” Canada Gazette, Jan. 1, 1994
Dodge, William S., Case Report: Waste Management, Inc. v. Mexico, 95 A.J.I.L.186, 191–92 (2001).
Fitzpatrick, John P., The Future of the North American Free Trade Agreement: A Comparative Analysis of the Role of Regional Economic Institutions and the Harmonizaton of Law in North America and Western Europe, 19 Hous. J. Int'l L.1 (1996).
Free Trade Commission Clarifications Related to NAFTA Chapter 11 (July 31, 2001), available at: http://www.ustr.gov/regions/whemisphere/
Free Trade Commission, Statement of the Free Trade Commission on Non-Disputing Party Participation, available at: http://www.ustr.gov/regions/whemisphere/nafta2003/statement-nondisputingparties.pdf
“Full Slate of Negotiations Underway on Chile's Entry to NAFTA,” Inside U.S. Trade, Jul. 28, 1995
Gal-Or, Noemi, Private Party Direct Access: A Comparison of the NAFTA and the EU Disciplines, 21 B.C. Int'l & Comp. L. Rev.1, 6–7 (1998).
Godshall, Lauren E., Student Article, In the Cold Shadow of Metalclad: The Potential for Change to NAFTA's Chapter Eleven, 11 N.Y.U. Envtl. L.J. 264 (2002).
Johnson, Pierre Marc & Beaulieu, Andre, The Environment and NAFTA: Understanding and Implementing the New Continental Law 117–18 (Island Press, 1996).
Legum, Barton, The Innovation of Investor-State Arbitration Under NAFTA, 43 Harv. Int'l L.J.531, 538–9 (2002).
Loewen Group v. United States, Decision on Hearing of Respondent's Objection to Competence and Jurisdiction, paras. 25–6, 28 (NAFTA Ch. 11 Arb. Trib. Jan. 9, 2001) (discussing the tribunal's September 1999 and June 2000 orders on confidentiality)
Lopez, David, Dispute Resolution Under NAFTA: Lessons from the Early Experience, 32 Tex. Int'l L.J.163 (1997).
Daniel Magraw, NAFTA & the Environment: Substance & Process, in NAFTA & the Environment: Substance & Process 1, 23 (Daniel Magraw ed., 1995)
Howard Mann, First North American Symposium on Understanding the Linkage Between Trade and the Environment: Assessing the Impact of NAFTA on Environmental Law and Management Processes 25 (2000), available at: http://www.iisd.org/pdf/2001/trade mann final.pdf
Manyasz, Peter, Regulatory Chill of NAFTA Chapter 11 to Be Avoided in FTAA, Lawyer Warns, 18 Int'l Trade Rep.626 (2001).
Metropoulos, Demetrios G., Constitutional Dimensions of the North American Free Trade Agreement, 27 Cornell Int'l L.J.141, 145–6 (1994).
NAFTA Free Trade Commission, Notes of Interpretation of Certain Chapter 11 Provisions, Part B (July 31, 2001), available at: http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/tna-nac/gov-en.asp
NAFTA Implementation Act, Pub. L. No. 103–82, 401–08, 411, 107 Stat.2057, 2129 (codified as amended at 19 U.S.C. 3431-3438, 1516a (1994))
NAFTA claims, available at: http://www.naftalaw.org (last visited Aug. 15, 2005)
News Release, Methanex Corp., Methanex Seeks Damages Under NAFTA for California MTBE Ban (June 15, 1999), available at: http://www.methanex.com/investorcentre/newsreleases/nafta.pdf
North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation, Sept. 8, 9, 12, & 14, 1993, Can.-Mex.-U.S., 32 I.L.M. 1480
North American Free Trade Agreement, Annex 1901.2, Dec. 17, 1992, U.S.-Can.-Mex., 32 I.L.M. 605 (1993)
North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act, Pub. L. No. 103–82, 107 Stat. 2057 (1993)
Daniel Q. Posin, The Multi-Faceted Investment Arbitration Rules of NAFTA, 13 World Arb. & Mediation Rep. 13, 15 (2002)
Press Release, Int'l Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes, United Parcel Service of American, Inc. v. Government of Canada NAFTA/UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules Proceeding (Jul. 25, 2002)
Daniel M. Price & P. Bryan Christy, III, An Overview of the NAFTA Investment Chapter: Substantive Rules and Investor-State Dispute Settlement, in The North American Free Trade Agreement: A New Frontier in International Trade and Investment in the Americas 174 (Judith H. Bello et al., eds., ABA Section of International Laws, 1994)
Response of Respondent United States of America to Methanex's Submission Concerning the NAFTA Free Trade Commission's July 31, 2001 Interpretation, Oct. 26, 2001, available at: http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/6028.pdf
Strazzeri, Joseph A., Note, A Lucas Analysis of Regulatory Expropriations Under NAFTA Chapter Eleven, 14 Geo. Int'l Envtl. L. Rev.837, 846 (2002).
Swan, Alan C., Case Report: Ethyl Corporation v. Canada: Award on Jurisdiction (Under NAFTA/UNCITRAL), 94 A.J.I.L.159 (2000).
Thomas, J. C. & Ayllon, Sergio Lopez, NAFTA Dispute Settlement and Mexico: Interpreting Treaties and Reconciling Common and Civil Law Systems in a Free Trade Area, 33 Can. Y.B. Int'l L.75 (1995).
Tollefson, Chris, Metalclad v. United Mexican States Revisited: Judicial Oversight of NAFTA's Chapter Eleven Investor-State Claim Process, 11 Minn. J. Global Trade183, 226–7 (2002).
Uruguay Round Agreements Act, Pub. L. No. 103–465, 108 Stat. 4809 (1994)
USTR NAFTA information, available at: http://ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Regional/NAFTA/Section_Index.html (last visited Mar. 23, 2005)
Valihora, Michael S., NAFTA Chapter 19 or the WTO's Dispute Settlement Body: A Hobson's Choice for Canada?, 30 Case W. Res. J. Int'l L. 447 (1998).
Yee, Marisa, The Future of Environmental Regulation After Article 1110 of NAFTA: A Look at the Methanex and Metalclad Cases, 9 Hastings W.-NW. J. Envtl. L. & Pol'y85, 89 (2002).
Zamora, Stephen, NAFTA and the Harmonization of Domestic Legal Systems: The Side Effects of Free Trade, 12 Ariz. J. Int'l & Comp. L.401, 406–08 (1995).
Australian FTA
Exchange of Letters on Implementation of the U.S.-Australia Free Trade Agreement, available at: http://ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/Australia_FTA/Implementation/Section_Index.html (last visited Aug. 15, 2005)
Final Text of the Australian FTA, available at: http://ustr.gov/assets/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/Australia_FTA/Final_Text/asset_upload_file148_5168.pdf (last visited Aug. 15, 2005)
Transcript of U.S.-Australia FTA Signing, U.S. Trade Representative Robert B. Zoellick, May 18, 2004, available at: http://ustr.gov/assets/Document_Library/Transcripts/2004/May/asset_upload_file697_3379.pdf (last visited Aug. 15, 2005)
United States-Australia Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act, Pub. L. No.108–286, § 2, 118 Stat. 919 (2004) Jul. 15, 2004 (to be codified at 19 U.S.C. § 3805 note)
U.S.-Australia FTA Quotes of Support, Jul. 15, 2004, available at: http://ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/Australia_FTA/U.S.-Australia_FTA_Quotes_of_Support.html
USDA Fact Sheet on the United States and Australian Free Trade Agreement, available at: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/Australia/us-auscommodityfactsheets.html (last visited Aug. 15, 2005).
USTR Australian FTA information, available at: http://ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/Australia_FTA/Section_Index.html (last visited Aug. 15, 2005)
Andean
Andean FTA Federal Register Notices, available at: http://ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/Andean_FTA/Andean_FTA_Federal_Register_Notices/Section_Index.html (last visited Aug. 15, 2005)
Interim Environmental Review U.S.-Andean Free Trade Agreement, February 2005, available at: http://ustr.gov/assets/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/Andean_FTA/asset_upload_file27_7305.pdf (last visited Aug. 15, 2005)
Press Release, USTR Notifies Congress of Intent to Initiate Free Trade Talks with Andean Countries. 11/18/2003. Available at: http://ustr.gov/Document_Library/Press_Releases/2003/November/USTR_Notifies_Congress_of_Intent_to_Initiate_Free_Trade_Talks_with_ Andean_Countries.html (last visited Aug. 15, 2005)
Treaty with Argentina Concerning the Reciprocal Encouragement and Protection of Investment, Nov. 14, 1991, U.S.-Arg., Art. IV(1), S. Treaty Doc. No. 103–2
USTR Andean FTA information, available at: http://ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/Andean_FTA/Section_Index.html (last visited Mar. 23, 2006)
Cecuk v. MacAdoo, 726 N.Y.S.2d 421 (2001).
Center for International Environmental Law, Comments on the Chile and Singapore Free Trade Agreements (2003), available at: http://www.citizenstrade.org/pdf/chile-sing_ciel.pdf (last vistited Mar. 23, 2006)
“Chile FTA Labor, Environment Measures in Doubt with Bush Administration Bilateral Negotiations – Chile and U.S. Officially Launch Negotiations on Free Trade Pact,” Inside U.S. Trade, Dec. 15, 2000
“Chilean Minister Presses Pre-Fast Track Bilateral U.S. Trade Talks,” Inside U.S. Trade, Aug. 13, 1999
Final Text of the Chile FTA, available at: http://ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/Chile_FTA/Final_Texts/Section_Index.html
Langman, James, Chilean Lawmaker Says Free Trade Accord with U.S. Unconstitutional, Plans Challenge, 26 Int'l Env't Rep.1100 (2003).
Miller, Melissa Ann, Note, Will the Circle Be Unbroken? Chile's Accession to the NAFTA and the Fast-Track Debate, 31 Val. U.L. Rev.153, 178–9 (1996).
Press Release, Office of the United States Trade Representative, U.S. and Chile Conclude Historic Free Trade Agreement (Dec. 11, 2002)
Christopher S. Rugaber, Chile, Singapore Draft Legislation Approved by House, Senate Panels, Daily Rep. for Executives (BNA), July 11, 2003
Tratado de Libre Comercio entre el Gobierno de la Republica de Chile y el Gobierno de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, Oct. 1, 1998
United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act, H.R. Rep. No.108–224, pt. I, at 2 (2003).
USTR Chile FTA information, available at: http://ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/Chile_FTA/Section_Index.html (last visited Mar. 23, 2006)
Singapore
Center for International Environmental Law, Comments on the Chile and Singapore Free Trade Agreements (2003), available at http://www.citizenstrade.org/pdf/chile sing ciel.pdf (last visited Aug. 15, 2005)
Christopher S. Rugaber, Chile, Singapore Draft Legislation Approved by House, Senate Panels, Daily Rep. for Executives (BNA), July 11, 2003
“Congress, Business Surprised by Singapore FTA Announcement,” Inside U.S. Trade, Nov. 24, 2000
Final Text of the Singapore FTA, available at: http://ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/Singapore_FTA/Final_Texts/Section_Index.html (last visited Mar. 23, 2006)
Press Release, President Signed U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement, May, 2003, available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/05/20030506–11.html (last visited Mar. 23, 2006)
TPA and Advisor Reports for the Singapore FTA, available at: http://ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/Singapore_FTA/Reports/Section_Index.html (last visited Mar. 23, 2006)
“U.S. Completes Deal with Singapore on Capital Controls, Freeing FTA,”Inside U.S. Trade, Jan. 17, 2003
U.S. Dept. of State, Background Note: Singapore (detailing how Singapore has acted as a beneficial trade partner and political ally to the United States), available at: http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2798htm (last visited Mar. 23, 2006)
USTR Singapore FTA information, available at: http://ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/Singapore_FTA/Section_Index.html (last visited Mar. 23, 2006)
Free trade area of the Americas
Free Trade Area of the Americas, First Summit of the Americas Declaration of Miami, December 19–21, 1994, available at: http://www.ftaa-alca.org/Summits/Miami/declara e.asp (last visited Mar. 24, 2006)
Free Trade Area of the Americas, Ministerials, available at: http://ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Regional/FTAA/FTAA_Ministerials/Section_Index.html (last visited Mar. 24, 2006)
Free Trade Area of the Americas, Negotiating Team, available at: http://ustr.gov/assets/Trade_Agreements/Regional/FTAA/asset_upload_file791_3678.pdf (last visited Mar. 24, 2006)
Free Trade Area of the Americas, Official Reports, available at: http://www.ftaa-alca.org/SPCOMM/COMMCS_E.ASP#pubs (last visited Mar. 24, 2006)
Free Trade Area of the Americas, Second Draft Agreement, available at: http://www.ftaa-alca.org/ftaadraft02/drafte.asp (last visited Mar. 24, 2006)
Free Trade Area of the Americas, Third Draft Agreement, available at: http://www.ftaa-alca.org/FTAADraft03/Indexe.asp (last visited Mar. 24, 2006)
Opinion of the Inter-America Juridical Committee on Resolution AG/DOC. 3375/96 Freedom of Trade and Investment in the Hemisphere, OEA/ser. G/CP, doc. 2803/96, paras. 5, 6 (Aug. 23, 1996), available in 35 I.L.M. 1322 (1996).
Press Release, Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, USTR Zoellick Says Publication of Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) Text Will Help Explain Trade Benefits (July, 3, 2001)
Jordan
Final Environmental Review of the Agreement on the Establishment of a Free Trade Area Between the Government of the United States and the Government of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, November 18, 1999, available at: http://ustr.gov/assets/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/Jordan/asset_upload_file64_5111.pdf (last visited Mar. 24, 2006)
Final Text of the Jordan FTA, available at: http://ustr.gov/assets/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/Jordan/asset_upload_file250_5112.pdf (last visited Mar. 24, 2006)
USTR Jordan FTA information, available at: http://ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/Jordan/Section_Index.html (last visited Mar. 24, 2006)
Kam-Tech Sys. v. Yardeni, 340 N.J. Super. 414 (2001).
Background Information on the United States-Israel Free Trade Area (FTA) Agreement, available at: http://www.itds.treas.gov/us-israel.html (last visited Mar. 24, 2006)
Final Text of the Israel FTA, available at: http://www.mac.doc.gov/tcc/data/commerce_html/TCC_Documents/IsraelFreeTrade.html (last visited Mar. 24, 2006).
USTR Israel FTA information, available at: http://ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/Israel/Section_Index.html (last visited Mar. 24, 2006)
Southern African customs union
Letter from the USTR, USTR Notifies Congress Administration Intends to Initiate Free Trade Negotiations with Sub-Saharan Nations, 11/05/2, available at: http://ustr.gov/Document_Library/Letters_to_Congress/2002/USTR_Notifies_Congress_Administration_Intends_to_Initiate_Free_Trade_Negotiations_with_Sub-Saharan_Nations.html (last visited Mar. 24, 2006)
Letter from the USTR, USTR Notifies Congress Administration Intends to Initiate Free Trade Negotiations with Sub-Saharan Nations – House Letter, 11/05/02, available at: http://ustr.gov/Document_Library/Letters_to_Congress/2002/USTR_Notifies_Congress_Administration_Intends_to_Initiate_Free_Trade_Negotiations_with_Sub-Saharan_Nations_–_House_Letter.html (last visited Mar. 24, 2006)
Press Release, U.S. and Southern African Nations Plan for Upcoming FTA Negotiations, 1/13/03, available at: http://ustr.gov/Document_Library/Press_Releases/2003/January/U.S._Southern_African_Nations_Plan_for_Upcoming_FTA_Negotiations.html?ht= (last visited Mar. 24, 2006)
USTR Southern Africa FTA information, available at: http://ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/Southern_Africa_FTA/Background_Information_on_the_U.S.-SACU_FTA.html (last visited Mar. 24, 2006)
Morocco
Final text of the Morocco FTA, available at: http://ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/Morocco_FTA/FInal_Text/Section_Index.html (last visited Mar. 24, 2006)
Informational Web site on the United States and Morocco Free Trade Agreement, available at: http://www.moroccousafta.com/index_ang.htm (last visited Mar. 24, 2006)
Press Releases for the Morocco FTA, available at: http://ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/Morocco_FTA/Press_Releases/Section_Index.html (last visited Mar. 24, 2006)
Transcripts of the Morocco FTA, available at: http://ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/Morocco_FTA/Transcripts/Section_Index.html (last visited Aug. 15, 2005)
United States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act, Pub. L. No.108–302, 118 Stat. 1103 (2004) (to be codified at 19 U.S.C. § 3805 note)
USTR Morocco FTA information, available at: http://ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/Morocco_FTA/Section_Index.html (last visited Aug. 15, 2005)
USTR Morocco FTA Quotes of Support, available at: http://ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/Morocco_FTA/Morocco_FTA.html (last visited Aug. 15, 2005)
Bahrain
USTR Bahrain FTA information, available at: http://ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/Bahrain_FTA/Section_Index.html (last visited Aug. 15, 2005)
Panama
Federal Register seeking Comments on the Panama FTA Negotiations, available at: http://a257.g.akamaitech.net/7/257/2422/14mar20010800/edocket.access.gpo.gov/2004/pdf/04–3872.pdf (last visited Mar. 23, 2006)
Joint Statement by Panama and the United States on the Second Round of U.S.-Panama Free Trade Negotiations, June 11, 2004, available at: http://ustr.gov/Document_Library/Press_Releases/2004/June/Joint_Statement_by_Panama_the_United_States_on_the_Second_Round_of_U.S.-Panama_Free_Trade_Negotiations.html?ht= (last visited Mar. 24, 2006)
Press Release, U.S. and Panama to Begin FTA Negotiations on April 26, 2004, issued on 3/26/04, available at: http://ustr.gov/Document_Library/Press_Releases/2004/March/U.S._Panama_to_Begin_FTA_Negotiations_on_April_26.html (last visited Mar. 24, 2006)
USTR Panama FTA information, available at: http://ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/Panama_FTA/Section_Index.html (last visited on Mar. 24, 2006)
CAFTA
CAFTA-DR Final Text, available at: http://ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/CAFTA/CAFTA-DR_Final_Texts/Section_Index.html (last visited on Mar. 24, 2006)
CAFTA-DR Final Text en espanol (from El Salvador's Ministry of Economy), available at: http://www.minec.gob.sv/default.asp?id=84&mnu=70 (last visited Mar. 23, 2006)
Final Environmental Review of the Dominican Republic – Central America – United States Free Trade Agreement, available at: http://ustr.gov/assets/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/CAFTA/asset_upload_file953_7901.pdf (last visited Mar. 24, 2006)
Statement of USTR Rob Portman on Signing of U.S.-Central American-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement. August 2, 2005, available at: http://ustr.gov/Document_Library/Press_Releases/2005/August/Statement_of_USTR_Rob_Portman_on_Signing_of_U.S.-Central_American-Dominican_Republic_Free_Trade_Agreement.html?ht= (last visited on Mar. 23, 2006).
USTR CAFTA information, available at: http://ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/CAFTA/Section_Index.html (last visited Mar. 24, 2006)
Other countries
Free Trade Agreement Between the Government of Canada and the Government of the Republic of Chile, Dec. 5, 1996, available at: http://www.sice.oas.org/trade/chican_e/chca07ae.asp (last visited Mar. 24, 2006)
London Court of International Arbitration (LCIA) Rules, Art. 26.6 (1998)
F. A. Mann, British Treaties for the Promotion and Protection of Investments, 52 Brit. Y.B. Int'l L. 241, 244 (1981)
The Treaty of Rome Establishing the European Economic Community, Mar. 25, 1957, 298 U.N.T.S. 3. Article 63 of the Brussels Convention
Relevant case law
American Coalition for Competitive Trade v. Clinton, 128 F.3d 761, 765 (D.C. Cir. 1997) (citing 19 U.S.C. 1516a (g)(4)(A) (1994))[Standing/Interested Party – Due Process]
Barcelona Traction, Light & Power Co. (Belgium v. Spain), Second Phase, 1970 I.C.J. Rep. 3 (Feb. 5)[Standing]
Pope & Talbot, Inc. v. Canada, Damages (May 31, 2002), 41 I.L.M. 1347 (2002) [NAFTA Chapter 11 – National Treatment/Expropriation]
United States (L.F. Neer) v. United Mexican States (U.S.-Mex. General Claims Comm'n Oct. 15, 1926), 4 R.I.A.A. 60, 3 ILR 213 (1927)
Mondev Int'l Ltd. v. United States (NAFTA Ch. 11 Arb. Trib. Oct. 11, 2002), 42 I.L.M. 85 (2003) [State Agency Statutory Immunity]
Feldman Karpa v. United Mexican States (NAFTA Ch. 11 Arb. Trib. Dec. 16, 2002) [Expropriation / National Treatment]
S. D. Myers v. Canada, Second Partial Award (NAFTA Ch. 11 Arb. Trib. Oct. 21, 2002) [Parties – Indirect Control]
Pope & Talbot, Inc. v. Canada, Interim Award (NAFTA Ch. 11 Arb. Trib. June 26,2000), para. 99, 23 Hastings Int'l & Comp. L. Rev. 455, 480 (2000), available at: http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/tna-nac/NAFTA-e.asp (last visited Aug. 15, 2005).