Abani, Chris. Song for Night: A Novella. New York: Akashic Books, 2007.
Abram, David. “The Commonwealth of Breath.” Material Ecocriticism. Ed. Iovino, Serenella and Oppermann, Serpil. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2014. 291–314.
Achebe, Chinua. Arrow of God. London: Heinemann, 1964.
Achebe, Chinua. Hopes and Impediments: Selected Essays 1965–1987. London: Heinemann, 1988.
Adamson, Joni. “Cosmovisions: Environmental Justice, Transnational American Studies, and Indigenous Literature.” The Oxford Handbook of Ecocriticism. Ed. Garrard, Greg. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. 172–187.
Adeeko, Adeleke. “Accounting for African Presence in Aesthetic Modernity in Simon Gikandi’s Slavery and the Culture of Taste.” Research in African Literatures 45.4 (2014): 1–7.
Adejunmobi, Moradewun. “The Infrapolitics of Subordination in Patrice Nganang’s Dog Days.” Journal of Contemporary African Studies 32.4 (2014): 438–452.
Adichie, Chimamanda Ngozi. Half of a Yellow Sun. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2006.
Adunbi, Omolade. Oil Wealth and Insurgency in Nigeria. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2015.
Agamben, Giorgio. Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998.
Agarwal, Bina. “The Gender and Environment Debate: Lessons from India.” Feminist Studies 18.1 (1992): 119–158.
Agary, Kaine. Yellow-Yellow. Lagos: Dtalkshop, 2006.
Aghalino, Samuel Ovuete. Crude Oil Business in the Western Niger Delta Nigeria 1956–1995. Enugu: Rhyce Kerex, 2009.
Agrawal, Arun. Environmentality: Technologies of Government and the Making of Subjects. Durham: Duke University Press, 2005.
Ahuja, Neel. “Postcolonial Critique in a Multispecies World.” PMLA 124.2 (2009): 556–563.
Ahwefeada, Sunny. “A Nameless Activist in the Service of the Fatherland.” The Guardian. January 22, 2007.
Alaimo, Stacy. Bodily Natures: Science, Environment, and the Material Self. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2010.
Alden, Patricia, and Tremaine, Louis. “Reinventing Family in the Second Trilogy of Nuruddin Farah.” World Literature Today 72.4 (Autumn 1998): 759–766.
Alidou, Ousseina D., and Mazrui, Alamin. “‘Secrets’: ‘Things Fall Apart.’” Research in African Literatures 31.1 (2000): 122–128.
Altman, Jane Gurkin. Epistolarity: Approaches to a Form. Columbus: The Ohio State University Press, 1982.
Alu, Nester A., and Suwa, Vashti Yusuf, “Tanure Ojaide: The Poet-Priest of the Niger-Delta and the Land Saga.” AFRREV LALIGENS 1.1 (2012): 132–144.
Armbruster, Karla. “‘Buffalo Gals, Won’t You Come Out Tonight’: A Call for Boundary-Crossing in Ecofeminist Literary Criticism.” Ecofeminist Literary Criticism: Theory, Interpretation, Pedagogy. Ed. Gaard, Greta and Murphy, Patrick D.. Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1998. 97–122.
Anugwom, Edlyne Ezenongaya, and Anugwom, Kenechukwu N.. “The Other Side of Civil Society Story: Women, Oil, and the Niger Delta Environmental Struggle in Nigeria.” GeoJournal 74.4 (2009): 333–346.
Appiah, Kwame Anthony. Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2006.
Appiah, Kwame Anthony, and Farah, Nuruddin. “Nuruddin Farah.” Bomb 87 (2004): 54–59.
Attridge, Derek. “Against Allegory: Waiting for the Barbarians, Life & Times of Michael K, and the Question of Literary Reading.” J. M. Coetzee and the Idea of the Public Intellectual. Ed. Poyner, Jane. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2006. 63–82.
Ba, Mariama. So Long a Letter. London: Heinemann, 1981.
Babcock, David. “Professional Subjectivity and the Attenuation of Character in J. M. Coetzee’s Life & Times of Michael K.” PMLA 127.4 (2012): 890–904.
Baderoon, Gabeba. “The African Oceans – Tracing the Sea as Memory of Slavery in South African Literature and Culture.” Research in African Literatures 40.4 (2009): 89–107.
Baker, Houston. “Critical Memory and the Black Public Sphere.” Public Culture 7.1 (Fall 1994): 3–33.
Bales, Kevin. Blood and Earth: Modern Slavery, Ecocide, and the Secret to Saving the World. New York: Spiegel & Graw, 2016.
Bardolph, Jacqueline. “Brothers and Sisters in Nuruddin Farah’s Two Trilogies.” World Literature Today 72.4 (1998): 727–732.
Barnard, Rita. “J. M. Coetzee’s ‘Disgrace’ and the South African Pastoral.” Contemporary Literature 44.2 (2003): 199–224.
Bartosch, Roman. Environmentality: Ecocriticism and the Event of Postcolonial Fiction. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2013.
Beah, Ishmael. A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2007.
Beinart, William. The Rise of Conservation in South Africa: Settlers, Livestock, and the Environment, 1770–1950. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Beinart, William, and Hughes, Lotte. Environment and Empire. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Bell, David, and Jacobs, J. U.. “Introduction.” Ways of Writing: Critical Essays on Zakes Mda. Ed. Bell, David and Jacobs, J. U.. KwaZulu-Natal: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press, 2009. 1–14.
Bennett, Jane. Vibrant Matter: A Political Ecology of Things. Durham: Duke University Press, 2010.
Bhabha, Homi. The Location of Culture. London: Routledge, 1994.
Billingslea-Brown, Alma Jean. “New Codes of Honor and Human Values in Bessie Head’s ‘When Rain Clouds Gather.’” South Atlantic Review 75.2 (2010): 85–93.
Bird-David, Nurit. “‘Animism’ Revisited: Personhood, Environment, and Relational Epistemology.” Current Anthropology 40.S1 (Supplement, February 1999): S67–91.
Bond, Patrick. “Foreword.” Criminal Resistance? The Politics of Kidnapping Oil Workers. Authored by Oriola, Temitope B.. Surrey: Ashgate, 2013.
Bourdieu, Pierre. Sociology in Question. Trans. Nice, Richard. London: Sage, 1993.
Braidotti, Rosi. The Posthuman. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2013.
Branch, Daniel. Defeating Mau Mau, Creating Kenya: Counterinsurgency, Civil War, and Decolonization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Brown, Coreen. The Creative Vision of Bessie Head. Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses, 2003.
Brown, Michelle Lynn. “Bleeding for the Mother(Land): Reading Testimonial Bodies in Nuruddin Farah’s Maps.” Research in African Literatures 41.4 (2010): 125–143.
Buell, Lawrence. Writing for an Endangered World: Literature, Culture, and Environment in the U.S. and Beyond. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2001.
Butler, Judith. Precarious Life: The Power of Mourning and Violence. London: Verso, 2004.
Calarco, Matthew. Zoographies: The Question of the Animal from Heidegger to Derrida. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008.
Caminero-Santangelo, Byron. Different Shades of Green: African Literature, Environmental Justice, and Political Ecology. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2014.
Caminero-Santangelo, Byron. “In Place: Tourism, Cosmopolitan Bioregionalism, and Zakes Mda’s The Heart of Redness.” Postcolonial Ecologies: Literatures of the Environment. Ed. DeLoughrey, Elizabeth M. and Handley, George B.. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. 291–307.
Caminero-Santangelo, Byron, and Myers, Garth. Environment at the Margins: Literary and Environmental Studies in Africa. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2011.
Campbell, SueEllen. “The Land and Language of Desire: Where Deep Ecology and Post-Structuralism Meet.” Western American Literature 24 (1989): 199–211.
Carrigan, Anthony. Postcolonial Tourism: Literature, Culture, and the Environment. New York: Routledge, 2011.
Carruth, Allison. “Compassion, Commodification, and the Lives of Animals: J. M. Coetzee’s Recent Fiction.” Postcolonial Ecologies: Literatures of the Environment. Ed. DeLoughrey, Elizabeth M. and Handley, George B.. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. 200–215.
Chakrabarty, Dipesh. “Postcolonial Studies and the Challenge of Climate Change.” New Literary History 43.1 (Winter 2012): 1–18.
Chakrabarty, Dipesh. Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.
Cheah, Pheng. Inhuman Conditions: On Cosmopolitanism and Human Rights. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006.
Chen, Mel Y. Animacies: Biopolitics, Racial Mattering, and Queer Affect. Durham: Duke University Press, 2012.
Chiwengo, Ngwarsungu. “Dog Days: An Animal Chronicle (Review).” African Studies Review 50.2 (2007): 278–280.
Chuma-Udeh, Ngozi. “The Niger-Delta, Environment, Women, and the Politics of Survival in Kaine Agary’s Yellow-Yellow.” Eco-Critical Literature: Regreening African Landscapes. Ed. Okuyade, Ogaga. New York: African Heritage Press, 2013. 109–122.
Coetzee, J. M. Life & Times of Michael K. New York: Penguin Books, 1983.
Cohen, Jeffery Jerome. Stone: An Ecology of the Inhuman. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2015.
Cooper, Brenda. Magical Realism in West African Fiction. New York: Routledge, 2004.
Couto, Mia. Sleepwalking Land. Trans. Brookshaw, David. London: Serpent’s Tail, 2006.
Cronon, William. “The Trouble with Wilderness, or, Going Back to the Wrong Nature.” Environmental History 1.1 (1996): 7–28.
Crutzen, Paul J., and Stoermer, Eugene F.. “The Anthropocene.” IGBP Newsletter 41 (May 2000): 17–18.
Dash, J. Michael. The Other America: Caribbean Literature in a New World Context. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1998.
Deleuze, Gilles, and Guattari, Felix. A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Trans. Massumi, Brian. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987.
DeLoughrey, Elizabeth, Didur, Jill, and Carrigan, Anthony. “Introduction: A Postcolonial Environmental Humanities.” Global Ecologies and the Environmental Humanities: Postcolonial Approaches. London: Routledge, 2015. 1–32.
DeLoughrey, Elizabeth. “Ordinary Futures: Interspecies Worldings in the Anthropocene.” Global Ecologies and the Environmental Humanities: Postcolonial Approaches. Ed. DeLoughrey, Elizabeth, Didur, Jill, and Carrigan, Anthony. London: Routledge, 2015. 352–372.
Derrida, Jacques. “The Animal That Therefore I Am.” Critical Inquiry 28.2 (2002): 369–418.
De Bruijn, Esther. “Coming to Terms with New Ageist Contamination: Cosmopolitanism in Ben Okri’s The Famished Road.” Research in African Literatures 38.4 (2007): 170–186.
De la Cadena, Marisol. “Indigenous Cosmopolitics in the Andes: Conceptual Reflection beyond ‘Politics.’” Cultural Anthropology 25.2 (2010): 334–370.
De Waal, Alexander. Evil Days: Thirty Years of War and Famine in Ethiopia. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1991.
Dooley, Gillian. J. M. Coetzee and the Power of Narrative. Amherst, NY: Cambria Press, 2010.
Dovey, Teresa. “J. M. Coetzee: Writing in the Middle Voice.” Critical Essays on J. M. Coetzee. Ed. Kossew, Sue. New York: G.K. Hall & Co., 1998. 18–28.
Dunton, Chris. “Pupils, Witch Doctor, Vengeance: Amos Tutuola as Playwright.” Research in African Literatures 37.4 (2006): 1–14.
Ebiede, Tarila Marclint. “Conflict Drivers: Environmental Degradation and Corruption in the Niger Delta Region.” African Conflict & Peacebuilding Review 1.1 (2011): 139–151.
Ebila, Florence. “‘A Proper Woman, in the African Tradition’: The Construction of Gender and Nationalism in Wangari Maathai’s Autobiography Unbowed.” TYDSKRIF VIR LETTERKUNDE 52.1 (2015): 144–154.
Elder, Arlene A. Narrative Shape-Shifting: Myth, Humor, and History in the Fiction of Ben Okri, B. Kojo Laing and Yvonne Vera. Suffolk: James Currey, 2009.
Emenyonu, Ernest. Ed. War in African Literature Today 26 (2008): xi–136.
Estok, Simon. Ecocriticism and Shakespeare: Reading Ecophobia. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.
Fagunwa, D. O. Forest of a Thousand Daemons. Trans. Soyinka, Wole. San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1982.
Fanon, Frantz. Black Skin, White Masks. New York: Grove Press, 1968.
Fanon, Frantz. The Wretched of the Earth. New York: Grove Press, 1963.
Farah, Nuruddin. Crossbones. New York: Penguin, 2012.
Farah, Nuruddin. Links. New York: Penguin, 2003.
Farah, Nuruddin. Secrets. New York: Arcade Publications, 1998.
Farah, Nuruddin. “The Family House.” Transition 99 (2008): 6–16.
Farred, Grant. “A Thriving Postcolonialism: Toward an Anti-Postcolonial Discourse.” Neplanta: Views from South 2.2 (2001): 229–246.
Feghabo, Charles Cliff. “Isidore Okpewho’s Tides and Ken Saro-Wiwa’s A Month and a Day: A Kinesis of Eco-Activism from Theory to Praxis.” Eco-Critical Literature: Regreening African Landscapes. Ed. Okuyade, Ogaga. New York: African Heritage Press, 2013. 47–73.
Ferguson, James. Global Shadows: Africa in the Neoliberal World Order. Durham: Duke University Press, 2006.
Freud, Sigmund. Moses and Monotheism. Trans. Jones, Katherine. New York: Vintage Books, 1939.
Gaard, Greta. “Ecofeminism Revisited: Rejecting Essentialism and Re-Placing Species in a Material Feminist Environmentalism.” Feminist Formations 23.2 (2011): 26–53.
Gaard, Greta, and Murphy, Patrick D.. “Introduction.” Ecofeminist Literary Criticism: Theory, Interpretation, Pedagogy. Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1998. 1–14.
Garuba, Harry. “Explorations in Animist Materialism: Notes on Reading/Writing African Literature, Culture, and Society.” Public Culture 15.2 (2003): 261–285.
Gedicks, Al. Resource Rebels: Native Challenges to Mining and Oil Corporations. Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 2001.
George, Olakunle. Relocating Agency: Modernity and African Letters. Albany: SUNY Press, 2003.
Ghosh, Amitav. The Great Derangement: Climate Change and the Unthinkable. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016.
Gilroy, Paul. Postcolonial Melancholia. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.
Gordimer, Nadine. “The Idea of Gardening: Life and Times of Michael K by J. M. Coetzee [Review].” Critical Essays on J. M. Coetzee. Ed. Kossew, Sue. New York: G.K. Hall & Co., 1998. 139–144.
Gorsevski, Ellen W. “Wangari Maathai’s Emplaced Rhetoric: Greening Global Peacebuilding.” Environmental Communication 6.3 (2012): 290–307.
Grusin, Richard. “Introduction.” The Nonhuman Turn. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2015. Kindle ebook file.
Guha, Ramachandra. “Radical American Environmentalism and Wilderness Preservation: A Third World Critique.” Environmental Ethics 11 (1989): 71–83.
Guha, Ramachandra, and Alier, Joan Martinez. Varieties of Environmentalism: Essays North and South. London: Routledge, 1997.
Habermas, Jurgen. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Trans. Burger, Thomas. Cambridge, MA: MIT University Press, 1989.
Habila, Helon. Oil on Water. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 2011.
Habila, Helon. “We Need New Names by Noviolet Bulawayo.” Guardian. June 20, 2013. Web. March 5, 2015.
Hamilton, Grant. On Representation: Deleuze and Coetzee on the Colonized Subject. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2011.
Haraway, Donna. When Species Meet. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008.
Harlow, Barbara. Resistance Literature. New York: Methuen, 1987.
Harvey, David. “What’s Green and Makes the Environment Go Around.” The Cultures of Globalization. Ed. Jameson, Fredric and Miyoshi, Masao. Durham: Duke University Press, 1998. 327–355.
Harrow, Kenneth. Patrice Nganang’s L’invention du beau regard and Dog Days: Three Phases of Capitalism with Two Dogs and One Devouring Pig.” Research in African Literatures 41.2 (2010): 55–73.
Harrow, Kenneth. Thresholds of Change in African Literature: The Emergence of a Tradition. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1994.
Head, Bessie. A Question of Power. London: Longman, 1973.
Head, Bessie. When Rain Clouds Gather. Oxford: Heinemann, 1969.
Head, Dominic. “The (im)Possibility of Ecocriticism.” Writing the Environment: Ecocriticism & Literature. Ed. Kerridge, Richard and Sammells, Neil. London: Zed Books, 1998. 27–39.
Heise, Ursula. Imagining Extinction: The Cultural Meanings of Endangered Species. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016.
Heise, Ursula. Sense of Place and Sense of Planet: The Environmental Imagination of the Global. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Hewson, Kelly. “Making the ‘Revolutionary Gesture’: Nadine Gordimer, J. M. Coetzee and Some Variations on the Writer’s Responsibility.” Critical Essays on J. M. Coetzee. Ed. Kossew, Sue. New York: G.K. Hall & Co., 1998. 145–156.
Highfield, Jonathan. “‘Relations with Food’: Agriculture, Colonialism, and Foodways in the Writing of Bessie Head.” Postcolonial Green: Environmental Politics and World Narratives. Ed. Roos, Bonnie and Hunt, Alex. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2010. 102–117.
Hildyard, Nicholas. “Blood, Babies, and the Social Roots of Conflict.” Ecology, Politics & Violent Conflict. Ed. Suliman, Mohamed. London: Zed Books, 1999. 3–24.
Holley, Peter. “‘It’s Destroyed Us,’ Says Cecil the Lion Hunting Guide.” The Washington Post. October 17, 2015. Web. August 8, 2016.
Horsthemke, Kai. Animals and African Ethics. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.
Huggan, Graham, and Tiffin, Helen. Postcolonial Ecocriticism: Literature, Animals, Environment. New York: Routledge, 2010.
Ibrahim, Huma. Bessie Head: Subversive Identities in Exile. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1996.
Ikelegbe, Augustine. “Popular and Criminal Violence as Instruments of Struggle in the Niger Delta.” Oil and Insurgency in the Niger Delta. Ed. Obi, Cyril and Rustad, Siri Aas. London: Zed Books, 2011. 125–135.
Iovino, Serenella, and Oppermann, Serpil. “Introduction.” Material Ecocriticism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2014. 1–20.
Iovino, Serenella, and Oppermann, Serpil. “Material Ecocriticism: Materiality, Agency, and Models of Narrativity.” Ecozon@ 3.1 (2012): 75–91.
Irele, Abiola. The African Experience in Literature and Ideology. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1981.
James, Erin. The Storyworld Accord: Econarratology and Postcolonial Narratives. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2015.
Jameson, Fredric. “War and Representation.” PMLA 124.5 (2009): 1532–1547.
Kalliney, Peter J. Commonwealth of Letters: British Literary Culture and the Emergence of Postcolonial Aesthetics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.
Kirksey, S. Eben, and Helmreich, Stefan. “The Emergence of Multispecies Ethnography.” Cultural Anthropology 25.4 (2010): 545–576.
Kitamura, Katie. Gone to the Forest. London: The Clerkenwell Press, 2013.
Klein, Naomi. This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs the Climate. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2014.
Kohn, Eduardo. How Forests Think: Toward an Anthropology beyond the Human. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013.
Korieh, Chima, and Ezeonu, Ifeanyi. Ed. Remembering Biafra: Narrative, History, and Memory of the Nigeria-Biafra War. Glassboro: Goldline and Jacobs, 2010.
Latour, Bruno. Politics of Nature: How to Bring the Sciences into Democracy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004.
Latour, Bruno. Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Lazarus, Neil. “Representations of the Intellectual in ‘Representations of the Intellectual.’” Research in African Literatures 36.3 (2005): 112–123.
Lazarus, Neil. The Postcolonial Unconscious. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.
LeMenager, Stephanie. Living Oil: Petroleum Culture in the American Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.
Leopold, Aldo. A Sand County Almanac: With Essays on Conservation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1949.
Lessing, Doris. The Grass Is Singing. London: Michael Joseph Publishers, 1950.
Levinas, Emmanuel. Difficult Freedom: Essays on Judaism. Trans. Hand, Sean. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1990.
Likar, Lawrence. Eco-Warriors, Nihilist Terrorists and the Environment. Santa Barbara: Praeger, 2011.
Lindfors, Bernth. “Five Nigerian Novels.” Books Abroad 39.4 (Autumn 1965): 411–413.
Lindfors, Bernth. “Introduction.” Critical Perspectives on Amos Tutuola. Washington, DC: Three Continents Press, 1975. xiii–xiv.
Low, Gail. “The Natural Artist: Publishing Amos Tutuola’s The Palm-Wine Drinkard in Postwar Britain.” Research in African Literatures 37.4 (2006): 15–33.
Lundblad, Michael. “Malignant and Beneficent Fictions: Constructing Nature in Ecocriticism and Achebe’s Arrow of God.” West Africa Review 3.1 (2001): 1–20.
Maathai, Wangari. Unbowed: A Memoir. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2006.
Maduakor, Obi. “Gabriel Okara: Poet of the Mystic Inside.” World Literature Today 61.1 (1987): 41–45.
Mafe, Diana Adesola. “Ghostly Girls in the ‘Eerie Bush’: Helen Oyeyemi’s The Icarus as Postcolonial Female Gothic Fiction.” Research in African Literatures 43.3 (2012): 21–35.
Maloba, Wunyabari. Mau Mau and Kenya. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998.
Marais, Michael. “From the Standpoint of Redemption: Aesthetic Autonomy and Social Engagement in J. M. Coetzee’s Fiction of the Late Apartheid Period.” Journal of Narrative Theory 38.2 (2008): 229–248.
Marzec, Robert. An Ecological and Postcolonial Study of Literature: From Daniel Defoe to Salman Rushdie. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
Masterson, John. The Disorder of Things: A Foucauldian Approach to the Work of Nuruddin Farah. Johannesburg: Wits University Press, 2013.
Mbembe, Achille. “Life, Sovereignty, and Terror in the Fiction of Amos Tutuola.” Research in African Literatures 34.4 (2003): 1–26.
Mbembe, Achille. “Variations on the Beautiful in Congolese Worlds of Sound.” Beautiful Ugly: African and Diaspora Aesthetics. Ed. Nuttall, Sarah. Durham: Duke University Press, 2006. 60–93.
McCabe, Douglas.“Higher Realities: New Age Spirituality in Ben Okri’s The Famished Road.” Research in African Literatures 36.4 (2005): 1–21.
McCabe, Douglas. “Histories of Errancy: Oral Yoruba Abiku Texts and Soyinka’s ‘Abiku.’” Research in African Literatures 33.1 (2002): 45–74.
McClintock, Anne. Imperial Leather: Race, Gender, and Sexuality in the Colonial Contest. London: Routledge, 1995.
Mda, Zakes. The Whale Caller. New York: Picador, 2006.
Mitchell, Timothy. Carbon Democracy: Political Power in the Age of Oil. London: Verso Books, 2011.
Moro, Alexander Jebiminih. Socio-Political Crisis in the Niger Delta. Ibadan: Spectrum Books, 2009.
Morrison, Susan Signe. “Waste Aesthetics: Form as Restitution.” ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment 20.3 (2013): 464–478.
Morton, Timothy. The Ecological Thought. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010.
Murphy, Laura. Metaphor and the Slave Trade in West African Literature. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2012.
Mwangi, Evan. “The Incomplete Rebellion: Mau Mau Movement in Twenty-First Century Kenyan Popular Culture.” African Studies Review 57.2 (2010): 87–113.
Myers, Garth. African Cities: Alternative Visions of Urban Theory and Practice. London: Zed Books, 2011.
Mzali, Ines. “Wars of Representation: Metonymy and Nuruddin Farah’s Links.” College Literature 37.3 (2010): 84–105.
Ngaboh-Smart, Francis. Beyond Empire and Nation: Postnational Arguments in the Fiction of Nuruddin Farah and B. Kojo Laing. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2004.
Nganang, Patrice. Dog Days: An Animal Chronicle. Trans. Reid, Amy Baram. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2006.
Ngugi wa Thiong’o. Decolonizing the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature. London: Heinemann, 1986.
Niemi, Minna. “Witnessing Contemporary Somalia from Abroad: An Interview with Nuruddin Farah.” Callaloo 35.2 (2012): 330–340.
Nixon, Rob. “Environmentalism and Postcolonialism.” Postcolonial Studies and Beyond. Ed. Loomba, Ania, Kaul, Suvir, Bunzl, Matti, Burton, Antoinette, and Esty, Jed. Durham: Duke University Press, 2005. 233–251.
Nixon, Rob. “Rural Transnationalism: Bessie Head’s Southern Spaces.” Text, Theory, Space: Land, Literature, and History in South Africa and Australia. Ed. Darien-Smith, Kate, Gunner, Elizabeth, and Nuttall, Sarah. London: Routledge, 1996. 243–254.
Nixon, Rob. Slow Violence and the Environment of the Poor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011.
Njeru, Jeremia. “‘Defying’ Democratization and Environmental Protection in Kenya: The Case of Karura Forest Reserve in Nairobi.” Political Geography 29 (2010): 333–342.
Norton, Bryan G. “Environmental Ethics and Weak Anthropocentrism.” Environmental Ethics 6 (1984): 131–148.
Ntalindwa, Raymond. “Linkages of History in the Narrative of Close Sesame.” Journal of African Cultural Studies 12.2 (1999): 187–202.
Obi, Cyril, and Rustad, Siri Aas, “Introduction: Petro-violence in the Niger Delta – the Complex Politics of an Insurgency.” Oil and Insurgency in the Niger Delta. London: Zed Books, 2011. 1–14.
Oboreh, J. S. “The Origins and the Causes of Crisis in the Niger-Delta: The Way Forward.” Anatomy of the Niger Delta Crisis: Causes, Consequences and Opportunities for Peace. Ed. Ojakorotu, Victor. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2010. 17–36.
Obumselu, Ben. “Ben Okri’s The Famished Road: A Re-evaluation.” TYDSKRIF VIR LETTERKUNDE 48.1 (2011): 26–38.
Oenbring, Raymond. “Strategic Essentialism and the Representation of the Natural: The Case of Ecofeminist/Scientist Wangari Maathai.” Agency in the Margins: Stories of Outsider Rhetoric. Ed. Stockdell-Giesler, Anne Meade. Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2010. 287–306.
Ogwude, Sophia Obiajulu. “Protest and Commitment in Bessie Head’s Utopia.” Research in African Literatures 29.3 (1998): 70–81.
Ojaide, Tanure. The Activist. Lagos: Farafina Press, 2006.
Okafor, Clement. “Sacrifice & the Contestation of Identity in Chukwuemeka Ike’s Sunset at Dawn.” War in African Literature Today 26 (2008): 33–48.
Okara, Gabriel. The Voice. London: Heinemann, 1970.
Okeke-Ezigbo, Emeka. “J. M. Synge and Gabriel Okara: The Heideggarian Search for a Quintessential Language.” Comparative Literature Studies 26.4 (1989): 324–340.
Okereke, Grace. “The Nigerian Civil War and the Female Imagination: Buchi Emecheta’s Destination Biafra.” Feminism in African Literature: Essays on Criticism. Ed. Chukwuma, Helen. Enugu: New Generation Books, 1994. 144–158.
Okonta, Ike, and Douglas, Oronto. Where Vultures Feast: Shell, Human Rights and Oil. London: Verso, 2003.
Okpewho, Isidore. Tides. London: Longman, 1993.
Okri, Ben. The Famished Road. London: Random House, 1991.
Olaniyan, Tejumola. “African Literature in the Post-Global Age: Provocations on Field Commonsense.” Cambridge Journal of Postcolonial Literary Inquiry 3.3 (2016): 387–396.
Olaoluwa, Senayon S. “Where Do We Go from Here? Niger Delta, Crumbling Urbanscape and Migration in Tanure Ojaide’s When It No Longer Matters Where You Live.” Nordic Journal of African Studies 18.2 (2009): 175–195.
Onoh, J. K. The Nigerian Oil Economy: From Prosperity to Glut. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 1983.
Onuoha, Freedom C., and Ezirim, Gerald E. “The Resource Curse and National Development in Nigeria.” Niger-Delta: Constraints and Pathways to Development. Ed. Ibaba, Ibaba Samuel. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2012.
Oppermann, Serpil. “From Ecological Postmodernism to Material Ecocriticism: Creative Materiality and Narrative Agency.” Material Ecocriticism. Ed. Iovino, Serenella and Oppermann, Serpil. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2014. 21–36.
Oppermann, Serpil. “Theorizing Ecocriticism: Toward a Postmodern Ecocritical Practice.” ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment 13.2 (2006): 103–128.
Oriola, Temitope B. Criminal Resistance? The Politics of Kidnapping Oil Workers. Surrey: Ashgate, 2013.
Orogun, Paul. “Resource Control, Revenue Allocation and Petroleum Politics in Nigeria: The Niger Delta Question.” Geojournal 75 (2010): 459–507.
Palmer, Eustace. “Social Comment in the West African Novel.” Studies in the Novel 4.2 (1972): 218–230.
Peterson, Anna L. Being Human: Ethics, Environment, and Our Place in the World. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.
Pratt, Mary Louise. Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation. London: Routledge, 1992.
Quayson, Ato. “Magical Realism and the African Novel.” The Cambridge Companion to the African Novel. Ed. Irele, F. Abiola. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. 159–176.
Quayson, Ato. Oxford Street, Accra: City Life and the Itineraries of Transnationalism. Durham: Duke University Press, 2014.
Quayson, Ato. Strategic Transformations in Nigerian Writing. Oxford: James Currey, 1997.
Randeria, Shalini. “Global Designs and Local Lifeworlds.” Interventions: International Journal of Postcolonial Studies 9.1 (2007): 12–30.
Ravenscroft, Arthur. “Introduction.” The Voice. London: Heinemann, 1970. 1–21.
Rohman, Carrie. Stalking the Subject: Modernism and the Animal. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009.
Roos, Bonnie, and Hunt, Alex. “Introduction: Narrative of Survival, Sustainability, and Justice.” Postcolonial Green: Environmental Politics and World Narratives. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2010. 1–13.
Sachs, Wolfgang. “Social Justice and Environmental Sustainability in the Post-Development Era.” Ecology, Politics, and Violent Conflict. Ed. Suliman, Mohamed. London: Zed Books, 1999. 59–75.
Said, Edward. Representations of the Intellectual. London: Vintage Books, 1994.
Samatar, Said. “Are There Secrets in Secrets?” Research in African Literatures 31.1 (2000): 137–143.
Saro-Wiwa, Ken. A Month and a Day & Letters. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2005.
Saro-Wiwa, Ken. Genocide in Nigeria: The Ogoni Tragedy. London: Saro International Publishers, 1992.
Sasser, Kim. Magical Realism and Cosmopolitanism: Strategizing Belonging. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.
Schatzel, L. H. Petroleum in Nigeria. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1969.
Schofield, Clive. “Plundered Waters: Somalia’s Maritime Resource Insecurity.” Crucible of Survival. Ed. Doyle, Timothy and Risely, Melissa. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2008. 102–115.
Scott, James C. Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990.
Scott, Patrick. “‘The Voice’: The Non-Ijo Reader and the Pragmatics of Translingualism.” Research in African Literatures 21.3 (1990): 75–88.
Sewlall, Harry. “Border Crossings.” Scrutiny2 12.1 (2007): 129–138.
Slaughter, Joseph. Human Rights, Inc.: The World Novel, Narrative Form, and International Law. New York: Fordham University Press, 2007.
Slaymaker, William. “Echoing the Other(s): The Global Green and Black African Responses.” PMLA 116.1 (2001): 129–144.
Slovic, Scott. “Editor’s Note.” ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment 17.4 (2010): 639–641.
Smith, Sidonie, and Watson, Julie. “Witness or False Witness? Metrics of Authenticity, Collective I-Formations, and the Ethic of Verification in First-Person Testimony.” Biography 35.4 (2012): 590–626.
Soyinka, Wole. Myth, Literature, and the African World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976.
Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. A Critique of Postcolonial Reason: Toward a History of the Vanishing Present. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.
Stam, Robert. “Beyond Third Cinema: The Aesthetics of Hybridity.” Rethinking Third Cinema. Ed. Guneratne, Anthony R. and Dissanayake, Wimal. London: Routledge, 2003. 31–48.
Steinwand, Jonathan. “What the Whales Would Tell Us: Cetacean Communication in Novels by Witi Ihimaera, Linda Hogan, Zakes Mda, and Amitav Ghosh.” Postcolonial Ecologies: Literatures of the Environment. Ed. DeLoughrey, Elizabeth M. and Handley, George B.. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. 182–199.
Sumner, David Thomas, and Wiedman, Lisa M.. “Eco-terrorism or Eco-tage: An Argument for the Proper Frame.” ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment 20.4 (2013): 856–876.
Táíwò, Olúfẹ́mi. How Colonialism Preempted Modernity in Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2010.
Tamuno, Tekena N. Oil Wars in the Niger Delta 1849–2009. Ibadan: Stirling-Horden Publishers Ltd., 2011.
Thornber, Karen. Ecoambiguity: Environmental Crises and East Asian Literature. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2012.
Tobias, Steven M. “Amos Tutuola and the Colonial Carnival.” Research in African Literatures 30.2 (1999): 66–74.
Tulloch, Elspeth. “Husbandry, Agriculture and Ecocide: Reading Bessie Head’s When Rain Clouds Gather as a Postcolonial Georgic.” European Journal of English Studies 16.2 (2012): 137–150.
Tutuola, Amos. My Life in the Bush of Ghosts. London: Faber and Faber, 1954.
Tutuola, Amos. The Palmwine Drinkard. London: Faber and Faber, 1952.
Tylor, Edward B. Primitive Culture. New York: Harper and Row, 1871.
Ugor, Paul. “The Niger-Delta Wetland, Illegal Oil Bunkering and Youth Identity Politics in Nigeria.” Postcolonial Text 8.3 (2013): 1–18.
Ukeje, Charles. “Changing the Paradigm of Pacification: Oil and Militarization in Nigeria’s Delta Region.” Oil and Insurgency in the Niger Delta. Ed. Obi, Cyril and Rustad, Siri Aas. London: Zed Books, 2011. 83–98.
Ushie, Joseph. “The Niger-Delta Crisis, Origins and Neo-colonialist Complications: An Entremesa Discourse.” Journal of African Literature and the Environment 1.2 (2011): 1–26.
Vital, Anthony. “Toward an African Ecocriticism: Postcolonialism, Ecology and ‘Life & Times of Michael K.’” Research in African Literatures 39.1 (2008): 87–121.
Watts, Michael. “Anatomy of an Oil Insurgency: Violence and Militants in the Niger Delta, Nigeria.” Extractive Economies and Conflicts in the Global South: Multi-Regional Perspectives on Rentier Politics. Ed. Omeje, Kenneth. Surrey: Ashgate, 2008. 51–74.
Webb, Hugh. “Allegory: Okara’s The Voice.” English in Africa 5.2 (1978): 66–73.
Weheliye, Alexander. Habeas Viscus: Racializing Assemblages, Biopolitics, and Black Feminist Theories of the Human. Durham: Duke University Press, 2014.
Wenzel, Jennifer. “Forest Fictions and Ecological Crises: Reading the Politics of Survival in Mahasweta Devi’s ‘Dhowli.’” Postcolonial Ecologies: Literatures of the Environment. Ed. DeLoughrey, Elizabeth M. and Handley, George B.. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. 136–155.
Williams, Raymond. The Country and the City. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1973.
Wolfe, Cary. Before the Law: Humans and Other Animals in a Biopolitical Frame. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013.
Woodward, Wendy. The Animal Gaze: Animal Subjectivities in Southern African Narratives. Johannesburg: Wits University Press, 2008.
Woodward, Wendy.“Whales, Clones, and Two Ecological Novels: The Whale Caller and Jane Rosenthal’s Souvenir.” Ways of Writing: Critical Essays on Zakes Mda. Ed. Bell, David and Jacobs, J. U.. KwaZulu-Natal: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press, 2009. 333–354.
Wright, Derek. The Novels of Nuruddin Farah. Bayreuth: Pia Thielmann & Eckhard Breitinger, 1994.
Wright, Laura. “Wilderness into Civilized Shapes”: Reading the Postcolonial Environment. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2010.
Wright, Timothy. “The Art of Evasion: Writing and the State in J. M. Coetzee’s Life & Times of Michael K.” JLS/TLW 28.3 (2012): 55–76.
Wylie, Dan. “Touching Trunks: Elephants, Ecology and Compassion in Three Southern African Teen Novels.” Journal of Literary Studies 30.4 (2014): 25–44.