This chapter discusses the intellectual movement which blossomed into the Renaissance in Italy during the fourteenth century. The earliest humanist academy had been started informally in Naples by Antonio Panormita in the days of Alfonso V mostly connected with classical antiquity. Among the most lasting achievements of Italian humanism between 1470 and 1520, three are particularly worth noting. They are its contributions to textual criticism, classical archaeology, and Greek studies. The greatest translating achievement of the second half of the fifteenth century, the Latin version of the Corpus Platonicum was none the less the work not of a Byzantine but of an Italian, the Florentine Marsilio Ficino. One result of the pursuit of Greek learning by the Italians was an interesting development in philosophical thought. The enthusiasm for biblical scholarship at Alcala was also responsible for the study of the other languages of the Bible: Hebrew and Aramaic.