Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 103
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Arugay, Aries A. and Slater, Dan 2019. Polarization Without Poles: Machiavellian Conflicts and the Philippines’ Lost Decade of Democracy, 2000–2010. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 681, Issue. 1, p. 122.

    Unger, Abraham 2019. The Death and Life of the American Middle Class. p. 1.

    Warnecke-Berger, Hannes 2019. Politics and Violence in Central America and the Caribbean. p. 25.

    Thompson, Mark R. 2019. Authoritarian Modernism in East Asia. p. 41.

    Kenny, Paul D. 2018. Populism in Southeast Asia.

    Arlen, Gordon and Rossi, Enzo 2018. Is this what democracy looks like? (Never mind epistocracy). Inquiry, p. 1.

    Souleles, Daniel 2018. How to Study People Who Do Not Want to be Studied: Practical Reflections on Studying Up. PoLAR: Political and Legal Anthropology Review, Vol. 41, Issue. S1, p. 51.

    Greer, Scott L 2018. Labour politics as public health: how the politics of industrial relations and workplace regulation affect health. European Journal of Public Health, Vol. 28, Issue. suppl_3, p. 34.

    Schakel, Wouter and Hakhverdian, Armen 2018. Ideological congruence and socio-economic inequality. European Political Science Review, Vol. 10, Issue. 3, p. 441.

    Harrington, Brooke 2018. Turning vice into virtue: Institutional work and professional misconduct. Human Relations, p. 001872671879393.

    London, Jonathan D 2018. Welfare and Inequality in Marketizing East Asia. p. 269.

    Wade, Robert H. and Alacevich, Michele 2018. Inequality. p. 323.

    Gill, Graeme 2018. Collective Leadership in Soviet Politics. p. 1.

    Umam, Ahmad Khoirul Whitehouse, Gillian Head, Brian and Adil Khan, Mohammed 2018. Addressing Corruption in Post-Soeharto Indonesia: The Role of the Corruption Eradication Commission. Journal of Contemporary Asia, p. 1.

    Thompson, Michael J 2018. The two faces of domination in republican political theory. European Journal of Political Theory, Vol. 17, Issue. 1, p. 44.

    Aitchison, Guy 2018. Domination and Disobedience: Protest, Coercion and the Limits of an Appeal to Justice. Perspectives on Politics, Vol. 16, Issue. 3, p. 666.

    Karavitis, Gerasimos 2018. Castoriadis versus Michels. Thesis Eleven, Vol. 146, Issue. 1, p. 24.

    Gebregziabher, Tefera Negash and Hout, Wil 2018. The rise of oligarchy in Ethiopia: the case of wealth creation since 1991. Review of African Political Economy, Vol. 45, Issue. 157, p. 501.

    Ortega, Bienvenido Sanjuán, Jesús and Casquero, Antonio 2018. Illicit Financial Flows: Another Road Block to Human Development in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Social Indicators Research,

    Hanley, Seán and Vachudova, Milada Anna 2018. Understanding the illiberal turn: democratic backsliding in the Czech Republic. East European Politics, Vol. 34, Issue. 3, p. 276.


Book description

For centuries, oligarchs were viewed as empowered by wealth, an idea muddled by elite theory early in the twentieth century. The common thread for oligarchs across history is that wealth defines them, empowers them and inherently exposes them to threats. The existential motive of all oligarchs is wealth defense. How they respond varies with the threats they confront, including how directly involved they are in supplying the coercion underlying all property claims and whether they act separately or collectively. These variations yield four types of oligarchy: warring, ruling, sultanistic and civil. Moreover, the rule of law problem in many societies is a matter of taming oligarchs. Cases studied in this book include the United States, ancient Athens and Rome, Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore, medieval Venice and Siena, mafia commissions in the United States and Italy, feuding Appalachian families and early chiefs cum oligarchs dating from 2300 BCE.


Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
Aaron, Henry J., Burman, Leonard E. and Steuerle, C. Eugene. 2007. Taxing Capital Income. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.
Achen, Christopher H. and Bartels, Larry M. 2004. “Musical Chairs: Pocketbook Voting and the Limits of Democratic Accountability.” Working Paper. Princeton University.∼bartels/chairs.pdf.
Adams, Charles Francis. 1875. Familiar Letters of John Adams and His Wife Abigail, during the Revolution, with a Memoire of Mrs. Adams. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Adams, John. 1854 [1776]. “Letter to James Sullivan.” May 26. In The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States, with a Life of the Author, Vol. 9. Adams, Charles Francis, ed. Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown. Text of letter available at:
France-Presse, Agence. 2009. “RP Ranking Improves in Asian Corruption Survey.” Agence France-Presse. April 8.
Alföldy, Géza. 1988 [1975]. The Social History of Rome. Revised edition. Translated by Braund, David and Pollock, Frank. London: Routledge.
Allen, Danielle S. 1997. “Imprisonment in Classical Athens.” Classical Quarterly, New Series 47(1): 121–135.
Allen, Danielle S. 2000. The World of Prometheus: The Politics of Punishment in Democratic Athens. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Ambler, C. H. 1949. “Review: The Hatfields and the McCoys by Virgil Carrington Jones.” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 35(4): 697–699.
,American Political Science Association (APSA). 2004. “American Democracy in an Age of Rising Inequality.” Report by the Task Force on Inequality and American Democracy.
Anderson, Benedict. 1972. Java in a Time of Revolution. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Anderson, Benedict. 1988. “Cacique Democracy in the Philippines: Origins and Dreams.” New Left Review 169: 3–33.
Anderson, Benedict. 2008. “Exit Suharto: Obituary for a Mediocre Tyrant.” New Left Review 50: 27–59.
Anderson, Perry. 1974a. Passages from Antiquity to Feudalism. London: Verso Press.
Anderson, Perry. 1974b. Lineages of the Absolutist State. London: Verso Press.
Apel, Jan. 2001. Daggers, Knowledge, and Power: The Social Aspects of Flint-Dagger Technology in Scandinavia 2350–1500 cal BC. Doctoral dissertation. Uppsala: Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala University.
,Appian, of Alexandria. 1912–1913. Appian's Roman History. Translated by Horace White Loeb Classical Library. London: Heinemann; New York: Macmillan.
,Aristotle. 1996. The Politics and The Constitution of Athens. Edited by Everson, Stephen (original translation by Benjamin Jowett). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Arlacchi, Pino. 1986. Mafia Business: The Mafia Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. London: Verso.
Aron, Raymond. 1950. “Social Structure and the Ruling Class: Part 1.” British Journal of Sociology 1(1): 1–16; and Part 2, 1(2): 126–143.
Åslund, Anders. 2007. How Capitalism Was Built: The Transformation of Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, and Central Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Aspinall, Edward. 2005. Opposing Suharto: Compromise, Resistance, and Regime Change in Indonesia. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.
Avi-Yonah, Reuven S. 2000. “Globalization, Tax Competition, and the Fiscal Crisis of the Welfare State.” Harvard Law Review 113.
Avi-Yonah, Reuven S. 2002. “Why Tax the Rich? Efficiency, Equity, and Progressive Taxation.” Yale Law Journal 111(6): 1391–1416.
Bachrach, Peter and Baratz, Morton. 1962. “The Two Faces of Power.” American Political Science Review 56(4): 947–52.
Baehr, Peter R. 1997. Caesar and the Fading of the Roman World: A Study in Republicanism and Caesarism. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Press.
Bain, David. 2010. “IMF Finds ‘Trillions’ in Undeclared Wealth.” Wealth Bulletin. March 15.
Bankoff, Greg. 1996. Crime, Society, and the State in Nineteenth-Century Philippines. Manila: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
Bartels, Larry M. 2005. “Economic Inequality and Political Representation.” Paper presented at the APSA Annual Meeting, Boston, August 29–September 1. (Revised August 2005).∼bartels/economic.pdf.
Bartels, Larry M. 2008. Unequal Democracy: The Political Economy of the New Gilded Age. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Bates, Robert, Greif, Avner, and Singh, Smita. 2002. “Organizing Violence.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 46(5): 599–628.
Beesly, Augustus. H. 1877. The Gracchi, Marius, and Sulla. London: Longmans, Green and Co.
Benitez, Conrado, Tirona, Ramona S., and Gatmaytan, Leon. 1937. Philippine Social Life and Progress. Boston and New York: Ginn and Company.
Bentham, Jeremy. 1978 [1843]. “Security and Equality of Property.” In Property: Mainstream and Critical Positions. MacPherson, C. B., ed., 39–58. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Berent, Moshe. 2000. “Anthropology and the Classics: War, Violence, and the StatelessPolis.” Classical Quarterly, New Series 50(1): 257–289.
Berle, Adolf A.. 1959. Power without Property: A New Development in American Political Economy. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.
Birnbaum, Jeffrey H. and Weisman, Jonathan. 2005. “The 1% Split Over Estate Taxes.” Washington Post. August 12.
Blee, Kathleen M. and Billings, Dwight B.. 1996. “Violence and Local State Formation: A Longitudinal Case Study of Appalachian Feuding.” Law & Society Review 30(4): 671–705.
Blee, Kathleen M. and Billings, Dwight B. 2000. “Where ‘Bloodshed is a Pastime’: Mountain Feuds and Appalachian Stereotyping.” In Back Talk from Appalachia: Confronting Stereotypes. Billings, Dwight B, Norman, Gurney, and Ledford, Katherine, eds., 119–137. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.
Blomley, Nicholas. 2003. “Law, Property, and the Geography of Violence: The Frontier, the Survey, and the Grid.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 93(1): 121–141.
Bloomquist, Kim M. 2003. “Trends as Changes in Variance: The Case of Tax Noncompliance.” Presented at the 2003 IRS Research Conference.
Blum, Jack A. 2009. “Testimony of Jack A. Blum, Esq., before The United States Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs on S.569, the Incorporation Transparency and Law Enforcement Assistance Act.” United States Senate. November 5.–15ca-4152-bd25–6e9289bd304e.
Bonanno, Joseph. 2003. A Man of Honor: The Autobiography of Joseph Bonanno. New York: St. Martin's Press.
,Boston Consulting Group. 2010. “Regaining Lost Ground: Resurgent Markets and New Opportunities.” Global Wealth 2010. June.
Bottomore, T. B. 1964. Elites and Society. Baltimore: Penguin Books.
Bowman, Alan K. 1994. Life and Letters on the Roman Frontier: Vindolanda and Its People. London: British Museum Publications.
Bowsky, William M. 1962. “The Buon Governo of Siena (1287–1355): A Medieval Italian Oligarchy.” Speculum 37(3): 368–381.–713428196207%2937%3A3%3C368%3ATBGOS%28%3E2.O.CO%3B2-G.
Bowsky, William M. 1972. “The Anatomy of Rebellion in Fourteenth-Century Siena: From Commune to Signory?” In Violence and Civil Disorder in Italian Cities, 1200–1500. Lauro Martines, ed., 229–272. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Braguinsky, Serguey. 2009. “Postcommunist Oligarchs in Russia: Quantitative Analysis.” Journal of Law and Economics 52(2): 307–349.
Brunt, Peter A. 1962. “The Army and the Land in the Roman Revolution.” Journal of Roman Studies 52(1-2): 69–86.
Bryan, Kelley. 2007. “Rule of Law in Singapore: Independence of the Judiciary and Legal Profession.” Lawyers' Rights Watch Canada. NGO in Special Consultative Status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations.
Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce, Smith, Alastair, Siverson, Randolph, and Morrow, James. 2004. The Logic of Political Survival. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Burman, Leonard E. 2003. “On Waste, Fraud, and Abuse in Federal Mandatory Programs.” Statement before The Committee on the Budget. United States House of Representatives. July 9.
Burton, Michael G. and John, Higley. 1987. “Elite Settlements.” American Sociological Review 52(3): 295–307. 198706%2952%3A3%3C295%3AES%3E2.0.CO%3B2–0.
Cammack, Paul. 1990. “A Critical Assessment of the New Elite Paradigm.” American Sociological Review 55(3): 415–420.
Capgemini, . 2008 to 2010. “World Wealth Report.” Capgemini and Merrill Lynch, Inc.
Carlton, Eric. 1996. The Few and the Many: A Typology of Elites. Aldershot, England: Scolar Press.
Carney, Timothy P. 2007. “Death Tax Is a Lifeline for Insurance Industry.” Washington Examiner. November 16.
Carney, Timothy P. 2009. “Life Insurers Lobby to Save the Death Tax.” Washington Examiner. December 11.–78996407.html.
Cassinelli, C. W. 1953. “The Law of Oligarchy.” American Political Science Review 47(3): 773–784.–0554%2189 5309%2947%3A3%3C773%3ATL00%3E2.O.C0%3B2.
Catanzaro, Raimondo. 1992. Men of Respect: A Social History of the Sicilian Mafia. New York: The Free Press.
,CCH. 2010. “Standard Federal Tax Reporter.” Commerce Clearing House. A Wolters Kluwer Business.
,Center for Responsive Politics. 2008. “U.S. Election Will Cost $5.3 Billion, Center for Responsive Politics Predicts.” October 22.
,Center for Responsive Politics. 2010a. “Donor Demographics.”
,Center for Responsive Politics. 2010b. “Top Individual Contributors.”
,Center for Responsive Politics. 2010c. “Tracking the Payback.”
Chambers, Johnathan D. 1953. “Enclosure and Labour Supply in the Industrial Revolution.” Economic History Review 3: 319–343.
Chehabi, H. E. and Linz, Juan J.. 1998. Sultanistic Regimes. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Chen, Katherine K. 2008. “Oligarchy.” Encyclopedia of Social Problems. Parrillo, Vincent N., ed., 637–638. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc.
Christensen, John. 2006. “Follow the Money: How Tax Havens Facilitate Dirty Money Flows and Distort Global Markets.” RGS-IBG Conference. Economic Geography Research Group – Geographies of Corruption. September 1.
Clark, Thomas D. 1948. “Review: The Hatfields and the McCoys by Virgil Carrington Jones.” Journal of Southern History 14(3): 427–428.
Clastres, Pierre. 1999. Archéologie de la violence: La guerre dans les sociétés primitives. La Tour d'Aigues: Éditions de l'Aube.
Collier, David and Levitsky, Steven. 1997. “Research Note: Democracy with Adjectives: Conceptual Innovation in Comparative Research.” World Politics 49(3): 430–451.
Critchley, John S. 1978. Feudalism. London: Allen & Unwin.
Crouch, Harold. 1988. The Army and Politics in Indonesia. Revised Edition. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
D'Altroy, Terence and Hastorf, Christine, eds. 2001. Empire and Domestic Economy. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
Dahl, Robert A. 1958. “A Critique of the Ruling Elite Model.” American Political Science Review 52(2): 463–469.
Dahl, Robert A. 1985. A Preface to Economic Democracy. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Davies, John K. 1971. Athenian Propertied Families 600–300 B.C. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Davis, William Stearns. 1910. The Influence of Wealth in Imperial Rome. New York: Macmillan Company.
Laveleye, Emile. 1878. Primitive Property. Translated from French by G. R. L. Marriott, with an Introduction by T. E. Cliffe Leslie. London: Macmillan and Co.
Montesquieu, C. B. S. 1748. Spirit of the Laws. Book 11, Chapter 6.
Ste, Croix, Geoffrey E, M. 1989. The Class Struggle in the Ancient Greek World. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Tocqueville, Alexis. 2007 [1838]. Democracy in America. Translated by Reeve, Henry. Stillwell, KS: Publishing.
Del Col, Mark, Hogan, Andrew, and Roughan, Thomas. 2004. “Transforming the Wealth Management Industry.” Journal of Financial Transformation. Capco Institute. Capco Inc.
Dhakidae, Daniel. 1991. “The State, the Rise of Capital, and the Fall of Political Journalism: Political Economy of Indonesia News Industry.” Doctoral Dissertation. Cornell University.
Diamond, Jared. 1999. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company.
Dietz, Mary G. 2007. “Between Polis and Empire: Aristotle's Politics.” Prepared for PoliticalTheory Colloquium, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. April 20.
Dogan, Mattei and Higley, John, eds. 1998. Elites, Crises, and the Origins of Regimes. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.
Doggart, Caroline. 1997. Tax Havens and Their Uses. London: Economist Intelligence Unit.
Domhoff, G. William. 1990. The Power Elite and the State. New York: Aldine.
Domhoff, G. William. 2002. “The Power Elite, Public Policy, and Public Opinion.” In Navigating Public Opinion: Polls, Policy, and the Future of American Democracy. Jeff Manza, Fay Lomax Cook, and Benjamin I. Page, eds. New York: Oxford University Press.
Domhoff, G. William. 2006. Who Rules America? Power, Politics, and Social Change. 5th ed. New York: McGraw Hill.
Domhoff, G. William and Ballard, Hoyt B. 1968. C. Wright Mills and the Power Elite. Boston: Beacon Press.
Duggan, Christopher. 1984. A Concise History of Italy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Earle, Timothy. 1997. How Chiefs Come to Power: The Political Economy in Prehistory. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Echols, Edward. 1958. “The Roman City Police: Origin and Development.” Classical Journal 53(8): 377–385.
Ellickson, Robert C. 1993. “Property in Land.” Yale Law Journal 102(6): 1315–1400.
Ellis, Eric. 2010. “Singapore Wishes Indonesian Investigation into Corruption Wasn't Happening.” Sydney Morning Herald. May 6.
Emmerson, Donald K. 1983. “Understanding the New Order: Bureaucratic Pluralism in Indonesia.” Asian Survey 23(11): 1220–1241.–4687%21898311%2923%3A11%3C1220%3AUTNOBP%3E2.O.CO%3B2–2.
Encyclopedia Britannica. 2009. “Spurius Cassius Vecellinus.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
Engen, Darel. 2004. “The Economy of Ancient Greece.” EH.Net Encyclopedia. Robert Whaples, ed. July 31.
Epstein, Stephan R. 2000a. Freedom and Growth: The Rise of States and Markets in Europe, 1300–1750. New York: Routledge.
Epstein, Stephan R. 2000b. “The Rise and Fall of Italian City-States.” In Hansen, Mogens Herman, ed. A Comparative Study of Thirty City-State Cultures: An Investigation. Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab.
Erlanger, Steven. 1990. “For Suharto, His Heirs Are Key to Life After '93.” New York Times. November 11.
Etzioni-Halevy, Eva. 1997. Classes and Elites in Democracy and Democratization. New York and London: Garland Publishing.
,Federal Bureau of Investigations. 2009. “Italian Organized Crime.” Federal Bureau of Investigations Web site.
Ferguson, Yale H. and Mansbach, Richard W. 1996. Polities: Authority, Identities, and Change. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press.
Ferraro, Joanne. 1988. “Oligarchs, Protesters, and the Republic of Venice: The ‘Revolution of the Discontents’ in Brescia, 1644–1645.” Journal of Modern History 60(4): 627–653.–280128198812%2960%3A4%3C627%3AOPATRO%3E2.O.CO%3B2-A.
Field, G. Lowell and Higley, John. 1980. Elitism. London and Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Finn, Daniel. 2009. “Short Cuts.” London Review of Books 31(13): 20.
Fisher, Nick. 1996. “Review: Policing Athens: Social Control in the Attic Lawsuits, 420–320 B.C. by V. J. Hunter.” Journal of Hellenic Studies 116: 218–219.
Flynn, Daniel and Cinelli, Antonella. 2009. “Crisis Hands Crime Groups Chance to Extend Grip: U.N.” Reuters. May 28.
,Forbes. 2010. “The World's Billionaires.” March 10.
,Forbes Asia. 2010. “Singapore's 40 Richest.” July 28.
Foucault, Michel. 1980. Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews & Other Writings 1972–1977. Gordon, Colin, ed. New York: Pantheon Books.
Fraenkel, Ernst. 1941. The Dual State: A Contribution to the Theory of Dictatorship. Translated from the German by E. A. Shils, in collaboration with Edith Lowenstein and Klaus Knorr. New York: Oxford University Press. Available in Lawbooks Exchange version at The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. NJ: 2006.
Franchetti, L. 1974 [1876] “Condizioni politiche ed amministrative della Sicilia.” In Franchetti, L. and Sonnino, S.. Inchiesta in Sicilia, vol. 1. Florence: Vallecchi.
Frank, Beatrice S., Markowitz, Joseph C, McKay, Robert B, and Roth, Kenneth. 1991. “The Decline in the Rule of Law in Malaysia and Singapore: Part II – Singapore, a Report of the Committee on International Human Rights.” January/February. Record of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York 46(1): 7–85.
Frank, Thomas. 2006. “Thus Spake Zinsmeister.” New York Times. Op-ed, August 25, p. A23.
Fraser, Steve and Gerstle, Gary, eds. 2005. Ruling America: A History of Wealth and Power in a Democracy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
House, Freedom. 2009. “Freedom in the World 2009.”
Freeman, Jo. 1975. “Political Organization in the Feminist Movement.” Acta Sociologica 18(2–3): 222–44.
Freeman, Jo. 1984. “The Tyranny of Structurelessness.” In Untying the Knot: Feminism, Anarchism & Organisation. Jo Freeman and Cathy Levine. London: Dark Star and Rebel Press.
Friedrich, Carl J. 1937. “Oligarchy.” Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences 11: 462–65. New York: Macmillan.
Friend, Theodore. 2003 Indonesian Destinies. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gambetta, Diego. 1993. The Sicilian Mafia: The Business of Private Protection. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gambetta, Diego. 2000. “Mafia: The Price of Distrust.” In Trust: Making and Breaking Cooperative Relations. Diego Gambetta, ed., 158–175. Electronic edition, Department of Sociology, University of Oxford.–175.pdf.
Gans-Morse, Jordan. 2010. “The Evolution of Russian Business Conflicts and the Development of Legal Institutions.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association. Chicago, IL. April 22–25.
Gel'man, Vladimir. 2004. “The Unrule of Law in the Making: The Politics of Informal Institution Building in Russia.” Europe-Asia Studies 56(7): 1021–1040.
Gelzer, Matthias. 1969 [1912]. The Roman Nobility. Die Nobilität der römischen Republik. English trans. by R. Seager. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gilens, Martin. 2005. “Inequality and Democratic Responsiveness.” Public Opinion Quarterly 69(5): 778–96.
Glovin, David. 2010. “HVB Is Sued by Ex-Client Saperstein over Tax Shelters.” Bloomberg News. March 31.
Goldman, Marshall I. 2003. The Piratization of Russia: Russian Reform Goes Awry. London and New York: Routledge.
Goldsmith, Raymond W. 1984. “An Estimate of the Size and Structure of the National Product of the Early Roman Empire.” Review of Income & Wealth 30(3): 263–288.
Goodin, Robert and Dryzek, John. 1980. “Rational Participation: The Politics of Relative Power British.” Journal of Political Science 10: 273–292.
Graetz, Michael J. 2002. “100 Million Unnecessary Returns: A Fresh Start for the U.S. Tax System.” Yale Law Journal 112(2): 261–310.
Graetz, Michael J. and Shapiro, Ian. 2005. Death by a Thousand Cuts: The Fight Over Taxing Inherited Wealth. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Greif, Avner. 2005. “Commitment, Coercion, and Markets: The Nature and Dynamics of Institutions Supporting Exchange.” In Handbook of New Institutional Economics. Ménard, C. and Shirley, M., eds. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Greif, Avner. 2006. Institutions and the Path to the Modern Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Greif, Avner. 2008. “Coercion and Exchange: How Did Markets Evolve?” Available at
Grief, Avner, Milgrom, Paul, and Weingast, Barry. 1994. “Commitment, Coordination, and Enforcement: The Case of the Merchant Guilds.” Journal of Political Economy 102: 745–776.
Guerin, Bill. 2003. “Indonesia's First Family of Corruption.” Asia Times. October 31.
Guilaine, Jean and Zammit, Jean. 2001. The Origins of War: Violence in Prehistory. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
Guriev, Sergei and Rachinsky, Andrei. 2005. “The Role of Oligarchs in Russian Capitalism.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 19(1): 131–150.
Guttentag, Joseph and Avi-Yonah, Reuven. 2006. “Closing the International Tax Gap.” In Bridging the Tax Gap: Addressing the Crisis in Federal Tax Administration. Sawicky, Max B, ed. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute.
Hacker, Jacob S. and Pierson, Paul. 2010. Winner-Take-All Politics: How Washington Made the Rich Richer – And Turned Its Back on the Middle Class. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Harrington, James. 1656. The Commonwealth of Oceana. The Constitution Society.
Harris, Roy. 2008. “KPMG Tax-Shelter Case Is Mixed Win for U.S.” CFO Magazine (online). December 18.
Harris, William V. 1980. “Towards a Study of the Roman Slave Trade.” Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome 36: 117–140. The Seaborne Commerce of Ancient Rome: Studies in Archaeology and History.
Hendley, Kathryn. 2006. “Assessing the Rule of Law in Russia.” Cardozo Journal of International and Comparative Law 14(2): 347–391.
Hendley, Kathryn. 2009. “‘Telephone Law’ and the ‘Rule of Law’: The Russian Case.” Hague Journal on the Rule of Law 1(2): 241–264.
Hendley, Kathryn. 2010. “Coping with Uncertainty: The Role of Contracts in Russian Industry During the Transition to the Market.” Northwestern Journal of International Law and Business 30(2): 25–45.
Herber, Bernard P. 1981. “Personal Income Tax Reform and the Interaction Between Budgetary Goals: A UK and USA Comparison.” In Reforms of Tax Systems. Roskamp, Karl W and Forte, Francesco, eds. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.
Herber, Bernard P. 1988. “Federal Income Tax Reform in the United States: How Did It Happen? What Did It Do? Where Do We Go from Here?” American Journal of Economics and Sociology 47(4): 391–408.
Herlihy, David. 1972. “Some Psychological and Social Roots of Violence in the Tuscan Cities.” In Martines, Lauro, ed. Violence and Civil Disorder in Italian Cities, 1200–1500. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 129–154.
Hertzberg, Hendrik. 2009. “Biggus Buckus.” New Yorker. November 9: 27–28.
Hess, Henner. 1973. Mafia and Mafiosi: The Structure of Power. Farnborough: Saxon House.
Heston, Alan, Summers, Robert, and Aten, Bettina. 2009. “Penn World Table Version 6.3.” Center for International Comparisons of Production, Income and Prices at the University of Pennsylvania. August.
Hetherington, Kregg. 2009. “Privatizing the Private in Rural Paraguay: Precarious Lots and the Materiality of Rights.” American Ethnologist 36(2): 224–241.
Higley, John, Burton, Michael G, and Lowell Field, G. 1990. “In Defense of Elite Theory: A Reply to Cammack.” American Sociological Review 55(3): 421–426.
Higley, John and Gunther, Richard, eds. 1992. Elites and Democratic Consolidation in Latin America and Southern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Higley, John, Hoffmann-Lange, Ursula, Kadushin, Charles, and Moore, Gwen. 1991. “Elite Integration in Stable Democracies: A Reconsideration.” European Sociological Review 7(1): 35–53.
Hodgson, Geoffrey M. 1998. “The Approach of Institutional Economics.” Journal of Economic Literature 36(1): 166–192.
Hoffman, David E. 2003. The Oligarchs: Wealth and Power in the New Russia. New York: PublicAffairs.
Högfeldt, Peter. 2004. “The History and Politics of Corporate Ownership in Sweden.” NBER Working Paper No. W10641. July.
Hommon, Robert J. 1995. “Social Complex Adaptive Systems: Some Hawaiian Examples.” Working Paper. Santa Fe Institute.
Huang, Yasheng. 2008. Capitalism with Chinese Characteristics: Entrepreneurship and the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
,Hurun Report. 2010. “The Richest People in China 2010.” The Hurun Rich List. Shanghai, China.
Hutchcroft, Paul D. 1991. “Oligarchs and Cronies in the Philippine State: The Politics of Patrimonial Plunder.” World Politics 43: 414–450.
Hutchcroft, Paul D. 1998. Booty Capitalism: The Politics of Banking in the Philippines. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Hutchcroft, Paul D. 2000. “Colonial Masters, National Politicos, and Provincial Lords: Central Authority and Local Autonomy in the American Philippines, 1900–1913.” Journal of Asian Studies 59(2): 277–306.
Hutchcroft, Paul D. 2008. “The Arroyo Imbroglio in the Philippines.” Journal of Democracy 19(1): 141–155.
,IBA. 2007a. “International Bar Association Annual Conference: Singapore 2007.” Singapore. October 14–19.
,IBA. 2007b. “Rule of Law Symposium.” International Bar Association Annual Conference. Singapore. October 19. Suntec Singapore, International Convention & Exhibition Centre.
,IBA. 2008. “Prosperity Versus Individual Rights? Human Rights, Democracy, and the Rule of Law in Singapore.” An International Bar Association Human Rights Institute Report. July.
Indridason, Indridi H. 2008. “Oligarchy.” International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. William A. Darity, Jr. Vol. 6. 2nd ed.: 36–37. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA.
,Internal Revenue Manual. 2010. “Review of Doubt as to Liability Offers: Legal Basis for Compromise.” Part 33, Chapter 3, Section 2. Internal Revenue Service.–003-002.html.
,Internal Revenue Service. 2009. “The 400 Individual Income Tax Returns Reporting the Highest Adjusted Gross Incomes Each Year, 1992–2007.” United States Department of Treasury.
,International Crisis Group. 2009. The Philippines: After the Maguindanao Massacre. Asia Briefing No. 98, December 21.
Isaac, Jeffrey C. 1987. “Beyond the Three Faces of Power: A Realist Critique.” Polity 20(1): 4–31.
Isaac, Jeffrey C. 1988. “Republicanism vs. Liberalism?: A Reconsideration.” History of Political Thought 9(2): 349–77.
Jackson, Paul. 2003. “Warlords as Alternative Forms of Governance.”Small Wars and Insurgencies 14(2): 131–150.
Jaczynowska, Maria. 1962. “The Economic Differentiation of the Roman Nobility at the End of the Republic.” Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte 11(4): 486–499.
,Jakarta Post. 2004. “Court Tells Kito, Akbar to Settle Out of Court.” Jakarta Post. April 16.
,Jakarta Post. 2009. “Golkar's Younger Members Demand Leadership Roles.” Jakarta Post. July 15.
Jayasuriya, Kanishka. 1996. “The Rule of Law and Capitalism in East Asia.” Pacific Review 9(3): 367–388.
Jayasuriya, Kanishka. 1999. “Corporatism and Judicial Independence within Statist Legal Institutions in East Asia.” In Law, Capitalism, and Power in Asia. Kanishka Jayasuriya, ed., 173–204. London: Routledge, pp. 173–204.
Jayasuriya, Kanishka. 2000. “The Rule of Law and Regimes of Exception in East Asia.” Working Paper No. 96. Asia Research Centre, Murdoch University. July.
Jayasuriya, Kanishka. 2001. “The Exception Becomes the Norm: Law and Regimes of Exception in East Asia.” Asian-Pacific Law & Policy Journal 2(1): 108–124.
Jayasuriya, Kanishka. 2002. “The Rule of Law and Governance in East Asia.” In Reconfiguring East Asia: Regional Institutions and Organisations after the Crisis. Mark Beeson, ed., 99–116. New York: Routledge Curzon.
Jefferson, Thomas. 1950 [1785]. “Thomas Jefferson to James Madison. 28 Oct. 1785.” In Boyd, Julian P., et al. The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. Papers 8: 681–82. Volume 1, chapter 15, document 32, p. 539. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Johnson, David G. 1977. The Medieval Chinese Oligarchy. Boulder: Westview Press.
Johnston, David Cay. 2003. Perfectly Legal: The Covert Campaign to Rig Our Tax System to Benefit the Super Rich – and Cheat Everybody Else. New York: Portfolio Publishing.
Johnston, David Cay. 2006. “Tax Cheats Called Out of Control.” New York Times. August 1.
Johnston, David Cay. 2009. “Fiscal Therapy.” Mother Jones. January/February.
Johnston, David Cay. 2010a. “Is Our Tax System Helping Us Create Wealth?” Tax Analysts. January 29.
Johnston, David Cay. 2010b. “Tax Rates for Top 400 Earners Fall as Income Soars, IRS Data.” Tax Analysts. February 17.
Jones, A. H. M. 1955. “The Social Structure of Athens in the Fourth Century.” Economic History Review, New Series 8(2): 141–155.
Jones, A. H. M. 1958. Athenian Democracy. New York: Frederick A. Praeger Publishers.
Judson, Bruce. 2009. “Economic Inequality: The Wall Street Journal is Just Wrong.” It Could Happen Here. Blog. September 14.
Kapur, Ajay, Macleod, Niall, and Singh, Narendra. 2005. “Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances.” Industry Note. Citigroup Investment Research. Citigroup Global Markets, Inc. October 16.–2005-Plutonomy-Report-Part-1.
Kar, Dev and Cartwright-Smith, Devon. 2006. “Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries, 2002–2006.” Global Financial Integrity. Center for International Policy.–5-09.pdf.
Karhunen, Jussi and Keloharju, Matti. 2001. “Shareownership in Finland 2000.” Liiketaloudellinen Aikakauskirja. Finnish Journal of Business Economics 2(1): 188–226.
Kenworthy, Lane. 2009a. “Reducing Inequality: What to Do about the Top 1%.” CrookedTimber. April 17.
Kenworthy, Lane. 2009b. “Tax Myths.” Contexts 8(3): 28–32.
Kenworthy, Lane 2009c. “The High-Employment Route to Low Inequality.” Challenge 52(5): 77–99.–99.htm.
Khalik, Abdul. 2004. “Golkar's Internal Fight Heats Up As Polls Near.” Jakarta Post. March 30.
Kleber, John E. 1992. The Kentucky Encyclopedia. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.
Koh, Joyce. 2010. “Credit Suisse Targets Indonesia Rich as Yudhoyono Beats Karaoke.” Bloomberg News. January 4.
Kolb, Michael J. and Dixon, Boyd. 2002. “Landscapes of War: Rules and Conventions of Conflict in Ancient Hawai'i (And Elsewhere).” American Antiquity 67(3): 514–534.
Korpi, Walter. 1985. “Developments in the Theory of Power and Exchange.” Sociological Theory 3(2): 31–45.
Kotlikoff, Laurence J. and Rapson, David. 2006. “Comparing Average and Marginal Tax Rates under the Fair Tax and the Current System of Federal Taxation.” Mimeo. October.
Kristiansen, Kristian. 1999. “The Emergence of Warrior Aristocracies in Later European Prehistory and Their Long-Term History.” In Carman, John and Harding, Anthony, eds. Ancient Warfare. Stroud: Sutton Publishing.
Kristof, Nicholas D. 2000. “Big Brother.” New York Times. November 5.
Lachmann, Richard. 2000. Capitalists in Spite of Themselves: Elite Conflict and Economic Transitions in Early Modern Europe. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lachmann, Richard. 2003. “Elite Self-Interest and Economic Decline in Early Modern Europe.” American Sociological Review 68(3): 346–372.
Lane, Frederic. 1973. Venice: A Maritime Republic. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Lane, Max. 2008. Unfinished Nation: Indonesia Before and After Suharto. London and New York: Verso.
Larkin, John A. 1982. “Philippine History Reconsidered: A Socioeconomic Perspective.” American Historical Review 87(3): 595–628.
Larkin, John A. 1993. Sugar and the Origins of Modern Philippine Society. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Leach, Darcy K. 2005. “The Iron Law of What Again? Conceptualizing Oligarchy across Organizational Forms.” Sociological Theory 23(3): 312–337.
Lee, Kuan Yew. 2000. From Third World to First: The Singapore Story, 1965–2000. New York: HarperCollins.
Lee, Philip. 2003. “Had LKY Not Been Tough Then.” Straits Times (Singapore). September 20: 27.
Lenardon, Robert J. 1974. “Review: Athenian Propertied Families 600–300 B.C. by John K. Davies.” Classical Journal 69(4): 379–380.
Lev, Daniel S. 1965. “The Politics of Judicial Development in Indonesia.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 7(2): 173–199.
Lev, Daniel S. 1985. “Colonial Law and the Genesis of the Indonesian State.” Indonesia 40: 57–74.
Lev, Daniel S. 2000. Legal Evolution and Political Authority in Indonesia: Selected Essays. The Hague, Netherlands: Kluwer Law International.
Lev, Daniel S. 2007. “The State and Law Reform in Indonesia.” In Law Reform in Developing and Transitional States. Tim Lindsey, ed. New York: Routledge.
Levin, Carl. 2010. “Closing Tax Loopholes.” Website of Senator Carl Levin.
Lewis, D. M. 1980. “Politics in the Greek City.” Review: Untersuchungen zu Staat und Politik in Griechenland vom 7–4 Jh. v. Chr by Eberhard Ruschenbusch. Classical Review, New Series 30(1): 77–78.
Liddle, R. William. 1985. “Soeharto's Indonesia: Personal Rule and Political Institutions.” Pacific Affairs 58(1): 68–90.–851X%28198521%2958%3A1%3C68%3ASIPRAP%3E2.O.CO%3B2-Y.
Linz, Juan J. 1975. “Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes.” In Handbook of Political Science, vol. 3. Polsby, Nelson and Greenstein, Fred, eds. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Low, Aaron. 2009. “Ideal Govt ‘A Balance between Quality Leadership and Free Play.’” Straits Times. July 23.
Low, Polly. 2008. The Athenian Empire. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press.
Lukes, Steven. 1974. Power: A Radical View. London: Macmillan.
Lyttkens, Carl Hampus. 1994. “A Predatory Democracy? An Essay on Taxation in Classical Athens.” Explorations in Economic History 31: 62–90.
Macan-Markar, Marwaan. 2007. “S'pore – Venue for Int'l Bar Association Meet?” Inter Press Service. February 24.
MacClintock, S. S. 1901. “The Kentucky Mountains and Their Feuds II: The Causes of Feuds.” American Journal of Sociology 7(2): 171–187.
MacDougall, John M. 2008. “Prison cum Hostel?” Inside Indonesia 93: Aug–Oct.
Machiavelli, Niccolò. 1958 [1519–20]. “A Discourse on Remodeling the Government of Florence.” In Machiavelli, : The Chief Works and Others, Vol. I. Gilbert, Allan, trans. and ed., 101–15. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
MacKenzie, Donald C. 1983. “Pay Differentials in the Early Empire.” Classical World 76(5): 267–273.
Madison, James. 1787. “The Federalist No. 10: The Utility of the Union as a Safeguard against Domestic Faction and Insurrection (continued).” The Constitution Society.
Magnuson, Ed. 2001. “Hitting the Mafia.” Time Magazine. June 24.,8599,145082,00.html.
Mangunwijaya, Y. B. 1998. “Wawancara Y. B. Mangunwijaya. Cuma Satu: Soeharto Harus Turun.” [“Interview with Y. B. Mangunwijaya. Just One Thing: Suharto Must Step Down.”]. AJInews Edisi 5 Maret.
Mann, Michael. 1986. The Sources of Social Power: A History of Power from the Beginning to A.D. 1760 (Volume I). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Marten, Kimberly. 2007. “Warlordism in Comparative Perspective.” International Security 31(3): 41–73.
Martines, Lauro, ed. 1972. Violence and Civil Disorder in Italian Cities, 1200–1500. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Marx, Karl. 1978 [1844]. “On ‘The Jewish Question.’” In The Marx-Engels Reader, second edition. Tucker, Robert C., ed., 26–52. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
McArthur, Todd Y., Castro, Julio A, Harris, Anna-Liza, and Ashford, Tamara W.. 2010. “Recent U.S. Tax Bills Target Offshore Tax Abuse.” In the News. Dewey & LeBoeuf.∼/media/Files/inthenews/2010/20100413_RecentUSTaxBillsTargetOffshoreTaxAbuse.ashx.
McClellan, George B. 1904. The Oligarchy of Venice. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company.
McCormick, John P. 2006. “Contain the Wealthy and Patrol the Magistrates: Restoring Elite Accountability to Popular Government.” American Political Science Review 100(2): 147–163.
McCoy, Alfred W., ed. 2009. An Anarchy of Families: State and Family in the Philippines. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
,MDRC. 2008. “European High Net Worth 2008.” Research Brief. Market Dynamics Research & Consulting Ltd. February.
Meisel, James H. 1958. The Myth of the Ruling Class: Gaetano Mosca and the “Elite.” Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Merriam, Charles E. 1938. “The Assumptions of Aristocracy.” American Journal of Sociology 43(6): 857–877.
Michels, Robert. 2001 [1911]. Political Parties: A Sociological Study of the Oligarchical Tendencies of Modern Democracy. Kitchener, Ontario: Batoche Books. Originally published as Zur Soziologie der Parteiwesens in der modernen Demokratie (Leipzig, 1911).
Milanovic, Branko, Lindert, Peter H, and Williamson, Jeffrey G. 2007. “Measuring Ancient Inequality.” NBER Working Paper Series No. 13550.
Mills, C. Wright. 1956. The Power Elite. New York: Oxford University Press.
Mizruchi, Mark A. 2004. “Berle and Means Revisited: The Governance and Power of Large U.S. Corporations.” Theory and Society 33(5): 579–617.
Moldenhauer, David T. 2007. “Tax Opinions.” Social Science Research Network.
Molho, Anthony, Raaflaub, Kurt, and Emlen, Julia, eds. 1991. City-States in Classical Antiquity and Medieval Italy. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Mommsen, Theodor. 2006 [1855]. The History of Rome, Book III: From the Union of Italy to the Subjugation of Carthage and the Greek States. London: Hard Press.
Monoson, Sara. 2000. Plato's Democratic Entanglements: Athenian Politics and the Practice of Philosophy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Monsivais, Pablo and Drewnowski, Adam. 2007. “The Rising Cost of Low-Energy-Density Foods.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 107(12): 2071–2076.
Moore, Barrington. 1966. Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World. Boston: Beacon Press.
Mosca, Gaetano. 1939. The Ruling Class. Ed. and rev. Livingston, Arthur. Trans. Hannah D. Kahn. New York and London: McGraw-Hill Book Company. [Orig. pub. as Elementi di scienza politica. Roma: Bocca, 1896].
Myers, Henry A. 1982. Medieval Kingship. Chicago: Nelson Hall.
Nam, Suzanne. 2009. “Indonesia's 40 Richest.” Forbes. December 2.
Nederman, Cary J. 1987. “Sovereignty, War, and the Corporation: Hegel on the Medieval Foundations of the Modern State.” Journal of Politics 49(2): 500–520.
New York Times. 1894. “Mr. Cockran's Final Effort.” January 31.
New York Times. 1986. “The Commission's Origins.” November 20.
Nippel, Wilfried. 1984. “Policing Rome.” Journal of Roman Studies 74: 20–29.
North, Douglass C. 1981. Structure and Change in Economic History. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
North, Douglass C. 1990. Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
North, Douglass C. 1994. “Economic Performance through Time.” American Economic Review 84(3): 359–368.
North, Douglass C. 2005. Understanding the Process of Economic Change. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
North, Douglass C. and Thomas, Robert Paul. 1973. The Rise of the Western World: A New Economic History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
North, Douglass C. and Weingast, Barry R. 1989. “Constitutions and Commitment: The Evolution of Institutions Governing Public Choice in 17th Century England.” Journal of Economic History 49: 803–32.
North, Douglass C., Wallis, John Joseph, and Weingast, Barry R. 2006. “A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History.” NBER Working Paper Series. Working Paper 12795.
Obama, Barack H. 2009. “Remarks by the President on International Tax Policy Reform.” Office of the Press Secretary. The White House. May 4.
Ober, Josiah. 1993. Mass and Elite Democratic Athens: Rhetoric, Ideology, and the Power of the People. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Ober, Josiah. 2007. “‘I Besieged That Man’: Democracy's Revolutionary Start.” In The Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece. Raaflaub, Kurt A, Ober, Josiah, and Wallace, Robert W, eds., 83–104. Berkeley: University of California Press.
O'Donnell, Guillermo. 2004. “Why the Rule of Law Matters.” Journal of Democracy 15(4): 32–46.
O'Donnell, Guillermo, Cullell, Jorge Vargas, and Iazzetta, Osvaldo M, eds. 2004. The Quality of Democracy: Theory and Applications. South Bend: University of Notre Dame Press.
Olson, Mancur. 1993. “Dictatorship, Democracy, and Development.” American Political Science Review 87(3): 567–576.
Onishi, Norimitsu. 2010. “Filipinos Rely on Armies of Their Own for Influence.” New York Times, February 21.
Otto, Ton, Thrane, Henrik, and Vandkilde, Helle, eds. 2006. Warfare and Society: Archaeological and Social Anthropological Perspectives. Aarhus: Aarhus Universitet.
Overton, Spencer A. 2002. “But Some are More Equal: Race, Exclusion, and Campaign Finance.” Texas Law Review 80(5).
Overton, Spencer A. 2004. “The Donor Class: Campaign Finance, Democracy, and Participation.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 152.
Palan, Ronen. 2002. “Tax Havens and the Commercialization of State Sovereignty.” International Organization 56(1): 151–176.
Palan, Ronen, Murphy, Richard, and Chavagneux, Christian. 2009. Tax Havens: How Globalization Really Works. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Paoli, Letizia. 2003. Mafia Brotherhoods: Organized Crime, Italian Style. New York: Oxford University Press.
Pareto, Vilfredo. 1935. The Mind and Society: A Treatise on General Sociology [Trattato di Sociologia generale, 1916]. Ed., Livingston, Arthur and Trans., Andrew Bongiorno, Arthur Livingston, and James Harvey Rogers. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company.
Pareto, Vilfredo. 1968 [1901]. The Rise and Fall of the Elites: An Application of Theoretical Sociology. Totowa, NJ: Bedminster Press. [Originally published as Un'applicazione di teorie sociologiche.]
Parker, Paul P. 1950. “The Roach-Belcher Feud.” California Historical Society 29(1): 19–28.
Payne, James L. 1968. “The Oligarchy Muddle.” World Politics, 20(3): April, pp. 439–453.
Pepinsky, Thomas B. 2009. Economic Crises and the Breakdown of Authoritarian Regimes: Indonesia and Malaysia in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pereira, Anthony W. 2003. “Explaining Judicial Reform Outcomes in New Democracies: The Importance of Authoritarian Legalism in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile.” Human Rights Review 4(3): April.
Perlez, Jane. 2004. “Indonesian Court Overturns Conviction of Party Leader.” New York Times. February 13.
Phillips, Kevin. 2002. Wealth and Democracy: A Political History of the American Rich. New York: Broadway Press.
Phillips-Fein, Kim. 2009. Invisible Hands: The Making of the Conservative Movement from the New Deal to Reagan. New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company.
Piketty, Thomas and Saez, Emmanuel. 2003. “Income Inequality in the United States, 1913–1998.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 118(1): 1–39.∼saez/pikettyqje.pdf.
Piven, Frances and Cloward, Richard C. 1978. Poor People's Movements: Why They Succeed, How They Fail. New York: Random House.
Piven, Frances and Cloward, Richard C. 2000. Why Americans Still Don't Vote: And Why Politicians Want It That Way. Boston: Beacon Press.
,PERC. 2010. “Political and Economic Risk Consultancy.” Hong Kong.
Polanyi, Karl. 2001 [1944]. The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. Boston: Beacon Press.
Poly, Jean-Pierre and Bournazel, Eric. 1990. The Feudal Transformation, 900-1200. Trans. by Higgitt, Caroline. New York: Holmes & Meier.
Pompe, Sebastiaan. 2005. The Indonesian Supreme Court: A Study of Institutional Collapse. Ithaca: Cornell Southeast Asia Publications.
Poor, Jeff. 2009. “Media Deride Tax Haven ‘Cheats’ and ‘Loopholes;’ Ignore Benefits.” Business & Media Institute. May 6.
Quah, Jon S. T. 1982. “Bureaucratic Corruption in the ASEAN Countries: A Comparative Analysis of Their Anti-Corruption Strategies.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 13(1): 153–177.
Quah, Jon S. T. 1999. “Corruption in Asian Countries: Can It Be Minimized?” Public Administration Review 59(6): 483–494.
Quek, Tracy. 2009. “S'pore Ranked World's 3rd Least-Corrupt Country.” Straits Times (Singapore). November 18.
Quimpo, Nathan Gilbert. 2005. “Oligarchic Patrimonialism, Bossism, Electoral Clientelism, and Contested Democracy in the Philippines.” Comparative Politics 37(2): 229–250.
Rainie, Lee and Smith, Aaron. 2008. “The Internet and the 2008 Election.” Pew Research Center. June 15.
Raskin, Jamin B. and Bonifaz, John. 1993. “Equal Protection and the Wealth Primary.” Yale Law and Policy Review 11(4): 273–332.
Raskin, Jamin B. 1994. “The Constitutional Imperative and Practical Superiority of Democratically Financed Elections.” Columbia Law Review 94(4): 1160–203.
Rayda, Nivell. 2009. “The Shadowy World of Indonesia's Case Brokers.” Jakarta Globe. December 13.
Reed, Adolph L.. 2007. “Sitting This One Out.” The Progressive. November.
Reno, William. 1998. Warlord Politics and African States. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Reno, William. 2002. “Mafiya Troubles, Warlord Crises.” In Beyond State Crisis? Postcolonial Africa and Post-Soviet Eurasia in Comparative Perspective. Beissinger, Mark R and Young, Crawford, eds. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
,Research and Markets. 2010. “Trends That Will Shake Up the Wealth Management Industry in 2010.” Research and Markets. Dublin, Ireland.
Richardson, Darrell C. 1986. Mountain Rising. Oneida, KY: Mountaineer Press.
Ricklefs, M. C. 2008. A History of Modern Indonesia Since c. 1200. 4th edition. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Riedinger, Jeffrey M. 1995. Agrarian Reform in the Philippines: Democratic Transitions and Redistributive Reform. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.
Robinson, Jeffrey. 1995. The Laundrymen: Inside Money Laundering, the World's Third Largest Business. London: Pocket Books.
Robison, Richard and Hadiz, Vedi. 2004. Reorganising Power in Indonesia: The Politics of Oligarchy in an Age of Markets. London: Routledge Curzon.
Robison, Richard. 2008 [1986]. Indonesia: The Rise of Capital. Singapore: Equinox Publishing.
Rodan, Garry. 1989. The Political Economy of Singapore's Industrialization: National State and International Capital. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
Rodan, Garry. 2006. “Singapore: Globalisation, the State, and Politics.” In The Political Economy of South-East Asia: Markets, Power and Contestation. Rodan, Garry, Hewison, Kevin, and Robison, Richard, eds., 137–169. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Rodan, Garry and Jayasuriya, Kanishka. 2009. “Capitalist Development, Regime Transitions, and New Forms of Authoritarianism in Asia.” Pacific Review 22(1): 23–47.
Roosevelt, Theodore. 1910. “The New Nationalism.” Presidential speech. August 31.
Roosa, John. 2006. Pretext for Mass Murder: The September 30th Movement and Suharto's Coup d'État in Indonesia. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
Roston, Aram. 2010. “Bloomberg's Offshore Millions.” Observer. April 20.
Runciman, W. G. 1982. “Origins of States: The Case of Archaic Greece.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 24(3): 351–377.
Runciman, W. G. 1983. “Capitalism without Classes: The Case of Classical Rome.” British Journal of Sociology 34(2): 157–181.
Rustow, Dankwart A. 1966. “The Study of Elites: Who's Who, When, and How.” World Politics 18(4): 690–717.
Ryter, Loren. 2009. “Their Moment in the Sun: The New Indonesian Parliamentarians from the Old OKP.” In State of Authority: The State in Society in Indonesia. Klinken, Gerry and Barker, Joshua, eds. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program.
Samons, Loren J. 1998. “Mass, Elite, and Hoplite-Farmer in Greek History.” A review and discussion of J. Ober, The Athenian Revolution, and V. Hanson, The Other Greeks. Arion, Third Series, 5(3): 99–123.
Santino, Umberto. 2003. “Mafia and Mafia-Type Organizations in Italy.” In Organized Crime: World Perspectives. Albanese, J. A., Das, D. K., and Verma, A., eds., 82–100. Prentice-Hall.
Sarauw, Torben. 2007. “Male Symbols or Warrior Identities? The ‘Archery Burials’ of the Danish Bell Beaker Culture.” Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 26(1): 65–87.
Sastre, Inés. 2008. “Community, Identity, and Conflict: Iron Age Warfare in the Iberian Northwest.” Current Anthropology 49(6): 1021–1051.
Scheidel, Walter. 2005. “Human Mobility in Roman Italy, II: The Slave Population.” Journal of Roman Studies 95: 64–79.
Schmidt, Alvin J. 1973. Oligarchy in Fraternal Organizations: A Study in Organizational Leadership. Detroit: Gale Research Company.
Schneider, Jane T. and Schneider, Peter T. 2003. Reversible Destiny: Mafia, Antimafia, and the Struggle for Palermo. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Schryer, Frans J. 1986. “Peasants and the Law: A History of Land Tenure and Conflict in the Huasteca.” Journal of Latin American Studies 18(2): 283–311.
Schumpeter, Joseph A. 1975 [1942]. Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy. New York: Harper Perennial.
Schwarz, Adam. 2000. A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia's Search for Stability. Boulder: Westview Press.
Seager, Robin. 1987. “Proscription.” A Review of F. Hinard, Les Proscriptions de la Rome républicaine. Classical Review 37(2): 248–250.
Seow, Francis T. 2006. Beyond Suspicion: The Singapore Judiciary. Monograph 55. New Haven: Yale Southeast Asian Studies.
Shelton, Jo-Ann. 1988. As the Romans Did: A Source Book in Roman Social History. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sherwin-White, Adrian. N. 1956. “Violence in Roman Politics.” Journal of Roman Studies 46(1–2): 1–9.
Sidel, John T. 1998. “Macet Total: Logics of Circulation and Accumulation in the Demise of Indonesia's New Order.” Indonesia 66: 158–195.–7289%2189 981 0%2966%3C1 58%3AMTLOCA%3E2.O.C0%3B2-W.
Sidel, John T. 1999. Capital, Coercion, and Crime: Bossism in the Philippines. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.
Sidel, John T. 2004. “Bossism and Democracy in the Philippines, Thailand, and Indonesia: Towards an Alternative Framework for the Study of ‘Local Strongmen.’” In Politicising Democracy: The New Local Politics of Democratisation. Harriss, John, Stokke, Kristin, and Tornquist, Olle, eds., 51–74. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Sidel, John T. 2009. “Walking in the Shadow of the Big Man: Justiniano Montano and Failed Dynasty Building in Cavite, 1935–1972.” In An Anarchy of Families: State and Family in the Philippines. McCoy, Alfred W, ed., 109–162. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Simbulan, Dante C. 2006. The Modern Principalia: The Historical Evolution of the Philippine Ruling Oligarchy. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Simkhovitch, Vladimir G. 1916. “Rome's Fall Reconsidered.” Political Science Quarterly 31(2): 201–243.
Simpson, Bradley. 2009. Economists with Guns: Authoritarian Development and U.S.-Indonesian Relations, 1960–1968. Stanford: Stanford Univerity Press.
Simpson, Glenn. 2008. “U.S. to Seek Client Names from UBS in Tax Case.” Wall Street Journal. May 15.
,Singapore Department of Statistics. 2010. “Key Household Income Trends, 2009.” Occasional Paper on Income Statistics. February.
Smiley, Gene and Richard, H.Keehn, . 1995. “Federal Personal Income Tax Policy in the 1920s.” Journal of Economic History 55(2): 285–303.–0507%28199506%2955%3A2%3C285%3AFPITPI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-J.
Smith, Adam. 1776. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Library of Economics and Liberty.
Smith, Vernon L. 1993. “Humankind in Prehistory: Economy, Ecology, and Institutions.” In The Political Economy of Customs and Culture: Informal Solutions to the Commons Problem. Anderson, Terry L and Simmons, Randy T, ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Soemitro, and Ramadhan, K. H. 1994. Soemitro: Dari Pangdam Mulawarman Sampai Pangkopkamtib. Petikan dari Memoar: 1965–1976. Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan.
Solt, Frederick. 2008. “Economic Inequality and Democratic Political Engagement.” American Journal of Political Science 52(1): 48–60.
Sonnichsen, C. L. 1949. “Review: The Hatfields and the McCoys by Virgil Carrington Jones.” Western Folklore 8(1): 83–85.
Spengler, Joseph J. 1953. “Changes in Income Distribution and Social Stratification: A Note.” American Journal of Sociology 59(3): 247–259.–960228 1953 11%2959%3A3%3C247%3ACIIDAS%3E2.O.C0%3B2-A.
Spruyt, Hendrik. 1994. The Sovereign State and Its Competitors: An Analysis of Systems Change. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Sri Saraswati, Muninggar. 2004. “Court Opens New Case against Akbar.” Jakarta Post. April 13.
Staggenborg, Suzanne. 1988. “The Consequences of Professionalization and Formalization in the Pro-Choice Movement.” American Sociological Review 53(4): 585–605.
Stalley, Richard. F. 1995. Politics. By Aristotle. Trans. by Ernest Barker. Revised with an Introduction and Notes by F. Stalley, Richard.. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Steen, Jennifer A. 2006. Self-Financed Candidates in Congressional Elections. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Stephenson, Andrew. 1891. Public Lands and Agrarian Laws of the Roman Republic. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Syme, Ronald. 1939. The Roman Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tarrow, Sidney. 2004. “From Comparative Historical Analysis to ‘Local Theory’: The Italian City-State Route to the Modern State.” Theory and Society 33(3/4): 443–471.
,Tax Foundation. 2009a. “Summary of Latest Federal Individual Income Tax Data, 1980–2007.” Tax Data. July 30.
,Tax Foundation. 2009b. “U.S. Federal Individual Income Tax Rates History, 1913–2010.” Tax Data. December 31.
,Tax Justice Network. 2005. “The Price of Offshore.” Briefing Paper.
,Tax Justice Network. 2009. “Financial Secrecy Index.” 2009 Results.
,Tax Justice Network. 2010. “Magnitudes: Dirty Money, Lost Taxes, and Offshore.” Magnitudes and Measurements.
Taylor, Martha C. 2002. “Implicating the Demos: A Reading of Thucydides on the Rise of the Four Hundred.” Journal of Hellenic Studies 122: 91–108.
,Tempo. 2004. “Protected by Presidential Order?” Tempo 23(4). February 10–16.
,Tempo. 2010. “Mafia at the Gates.” Tempo 28(10). March 10–16.
Thayer, William. R. 1904. “The Oligarchy of Venice: An Essay.” American Historical Review 9(4): 784–785.–8762%21890407%299%3A4%3C784%3ATOOVAE%3E2.O.C0%3B2-H.
Thompson, Mark R. 1995. The Anti-Marcos Struggle: Personalistic Rule and Democratic Transition in the Philippines. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Thomson, George. 1949. Studies in Ancient Greek Society: The Prehistoric Aegean. London: Lyle Stuart.
,Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. October 16, 2009.
Tilly, Charles. 1992. Coercion, Capital, and the European State: AD 990–1992. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
Time. 1958. “Singapore: Far East Story.” Time Magazine. September 8.,9171,868802,00.html.
Time. 1959a. “Singapore: Chophouse Chopin.” Time Magazine. June 29.,9171,864665,00.html.
Time. 1959b. “Singapore: Triad in Trouble.” Time Magazine. November 16.,9171,811441,00.html.
Time. 1960. “Singapore: How to Catch a Millionaire.” Time Magazine. August 15.,9171,939750,00.html.
Time. 1965. “Malaysia: One of Our Islands Is Missing.” Time Magazine. August 20.,9171,841964,00.html.
Time. 1966. “Singapore: The Boom That Went Bust.” Time Magazine. January 7.,9171,834961,00.html.
Todd, S. C. 1995. “Policing Athens.” Review: Policing Athens: Social Control in the Attic Lawsuits, 420–320 B.C. by V. J. Hunter. Classical Review, New Series 45(1): 89–91.
,Transparency International. 2009. “Corruption Perceptions Index 2009.”
Tronto, Joan C. 2007. “American Oligarchy?” Presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago, IL. August 31–September 2.
Turner, Ralph E. 1948. “Economic Discontent in Medieval Western Europe.” Journal of Economic History 8, Supplement, pp. 85–100.
,United Nations. 1976. “UNCITRAL: United Nations Commission on International Trade Law, 1976.” Arbitration rules.
Uslaner, Eric M. 2008. Corruption, Inequality, and the Rule of Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
,U.S. Department of Defense. 2009. “Military Pay Tables – Basic Pay Effective January 1, 2009.” Defense Finance and Accounting Service.
,U.S. Department of State. 2004. “Singapore: County Report on Human Rights Practices.” Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Office of the Under Secretary for Democracy and Global Affairs. Released: February 28, 2005.
,U.S. Department of State. 2010. “Background Note: Singapore.” Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs. April 1.
,U.S. District Court. 2006. United States of America v. David Rifkin. Plea in the United States District Court, Southern District of New York, before the Hon. Lewis A Kaplan, District Judge. March 27.
,U.S. Senate. 2003. “U.S. Tax Shelter Industry: The Role of Accountants, Lawyers, and Financial Professionals – Four KPMG Case Studies: FLIP, OPIS, BLIPS, and SC2.” Report Prepared by the Minority Staff of the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Governmental Affairs. United States Senate. Released in Conjunction with the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations' Hearings on November 18 and 20, 2003. Washington, DC: GPO.
,U.S. Senate. 2005. “The Role of Professional Firms in the U.S. Tax Shelter Industry.” Report Prepared by the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. United States Senate. April 13.
,U.S. Senate. 2006. “Tax Haven Abuses: The Enablers, the Tools and Secrecy.” Minority & Majority Staff Report, Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. United States Senate. Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. Norm Coleman, Chairman; Carl Levin, Ranking Minority Member. Released in Conjunction with the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations August 1, 2006 Hearing.
Vandenbosch, Amry. 1930. “A Problem in Java: The Chinese in the Dutch East Indies.” Pacific Affairs 3(11): 1001–1017.
Verba, Sidney, Schlozman, Kay Lehman, and Brady, Henry E. 1995. Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Waller, Altina. 1988. Feud: Hatfields, McCoys, and Social Change in Appalachia, 1860–1900. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Wedel, Janine R. 2009. Shadow Elite: How the World's New Power Brokers Undermine Democracy, Government, and the Free Market. New York: Basic Books.
Wantchekon, Leonard. 2004. “The Paradox of ‘Warlord’ Democracy.” American Political Science Review 98(1): 17–34.
Whibley, Leonard. 1896. Greek Oligarchies: Their Character and Organisation. London: Methuen & Co.
Whitte, John F. 1986. The Politics and Development of the Federal Income Tax. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Williams, John A. 1976. West Virginia: A Bicentennial History. New York: Norton Publishing Co.
Winters, Jeffrey A. 1988. “Indonesia: The Rise of Capital, A Review Essay.” Indonesia 45: 109–28.
Winters, Jeffrey A. 1996. Power in Motion: Capital Mobility and the Indonesian State. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Winters, Jeffrey A. 1999. “The Determinants of Financial Crisis in Asia.” In Pempel, T. J., ed. The Politics of the Asian Economic Crisis. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Winters, Jeffrey A. 2000. “The Financial Crisis in Southeast Asia.” In Robison, Richard, Beeson, Mark, Jayasuriya, Kanishka, and Kim, Hyuk-Rae, eds. Politics and Markets in the Wake of the Asian Crisis. London and New York: Routledge.
Winters, Jeffrey A. and Benjamin, I. Page. 2009. “Oligarchy in the United States?” Perspectives on Politics 7(4): 731–751.
,Wiranto. 2003. Witness in the Storm: A Memoir of an Army General. Jakarta: Delta Pustaka Express; and The Centre for Globalisation and Social Studies.
Wolff, Edward N. 2007. “Recent Trends in Household Wealth in the United States: Rising Debt and the Middle-Class Squeeze.” Working Paper No. 502. The Levy Economics Institute of Bard College. June.
Woo, Jung-en. 1991. Race to the Swift. New York: Columbia University Press.
Wood, Ellen Meiksins. 1989. “Oligarchic ‘Democracy.’” Monthly Review 41: 1–7.
Yarros, Victor S. 1917. “Representation and Leadership in Democracies.” American Journal of Sociology 23(3): 390–402.
Zhuravskaya, Ekaterina. 2007. “Whither Russia? A Review of Andrei Shleifer's A Normal Country.” Journal of Economic Literature 45(1): 127–146.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed