Skip to main content
Open versus Closed
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 8
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Federico, Christopher M. and Ekstrom, Pierce D. 2018. The Political Self: How Identity Aligns Preferences With Epistemic Needs. Psychological Science, Vol. 29, Issue. 6, p. 901.

    Boston, Joshua Homola, Jonathan Sinclair, Betsy Torres, Michelle and Tucker, Patrick D 2018. The Dynamic Relationship between Personality Stability and Political Attitudes. Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 82, Issue. S1, p. 257.

    Johnston, Christopher D. 2018. Authoritarianism, Affective Polarization, and Economic Ideology. Political Psychology, Vol. 39, Issue. , p. 219.

    Luttig, Matthew D. 2018. The “Prejudiced Personality” and the Origins of Partisan Strength, Affective Polarization, and Partisan Sorting. Political Psychology, Vol. 39, Issue. , p. 239.

    Federico, Christopher M. and Malka, Ariel 2018. The Contingent, Contextual Nature of the Relationship Between Needs for Security and Certainty and Political Preferences: Evidence and Implications. Political Psychology, Vol. 39, Issue. , p. 3.

    Cahn, Naomi and Carbone, June 2018. The politics of marriage policy. Australian Journal of Political Science, Vol. 53, Issue. 3, p. 385.

    Grossmann, Matt and Thaler, Daniel 2018. Mass–Elite Divides in Aversion to Social Change and Support for Donald Trump. American Politics Research, Vol. 46, Issue. 5, p. 753.

    Weiner, Elliot and Federico, Christopher M. 2017. Authoritarianism, Institutional Confidence, and Willingness to Engage in Collective Action. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 43, Issue. 3, p. 392.


Book description

Debates over redistribution, social insurance, and market regulation are central to American politics. Why do some citizens prefer a large role for government in the economic life of the nation while others wish to limit its reach? In Open versus Closed, the authors argue that these preferences are not always what they seem. They show how deep-seated personality traits underpinning the culture wars over race, immigration, law and order, sexuality, gender roles, and religion shape how citizens think about economics, binding cultural and economic inclinations together in unexpected ways. Integrating insights from both psychology and political science - and twenty years of observational and experimental data - the authors reveal the deeper motivations driving attitudes toward government. They find that for politically active citizens these attitudes are not driven by self-interest, but by a desire to express the traits and cultural commitments that define their identities.


'A creative and original investigation into the puzzling, polarizing and often contradictory personality-based forces driving economic policy preferences. It’s a fascinating read and a major contribution to the field of political psychology.'

Kevin Smith - University of Nebraska, Lincoln

'Political psychologists know why people adopt particular stances on social issues but the sources of economic preferences remain murky. Johnston, Lavine, and Federico rectify this situation in one fell swoop with an inventive and compelling account of the reasons many people - especially the well-informed - frequently act contrary to their own economic self-interest.'

John R. Hibbing - Co-Author of Predisposed: Liberals, Conservatives and the Biology of Political Differences

'Open versus Closed develops a fascinating theoretical argument around a central dimension of personality: the disposition for being ‘open’ or ‘closed’ to uncertainty and risk. Integrating disparate strands of research in political science, economics, and psychology, Johnston, Lavine, and Federico articulate two alternative pathways for how being open versus closed shapes opinions on fundamentally important issues of social welfare, redistribution, and government intervention in the market. Through wide-ranging observational and experimental tests, the authors show that political engagement plays a critical role in leading the open vs. closed citizen to develop opinions that, among the politically unengaged, reflect what they need and that, among the politically engaged, reflect who they aspire to be. Amidst a politically polarized and economically stratified society, [this] work reminds us of the critical importance of political elites and citizen engagement in channeling how personality informs what citizens demand from government and why.'

Cindy D. Kam - Vanderbilt University, Tennessee

'This is a path-breaking study. It brings into view, arguably more dramatically than any previous work, the complexity - or perhaps better the perversity - of personality and political choice. Among other things, it is on the thinking of the politically aware and engaged, not the inattentive and indifferent, that personality, the emblem of the irrational, has its strongest impact.'

Paul Sniderman - Stanford University

'Open Versus Closed is certain to have a major impact on the field. Not only do Johnston, Lavine, and Federico comprise a veritable all-star team of co-authors, their book embodies the best features of political psychology. It doesn’t give short shrift to the political in its exploration of the psychological. Instead the emphasis on the psychological allows them to solve an important political puzzle about attitudes toward redistribution that no one else has been able to crack.'

Marc J. Hetherington - Vanderbilt University, Tennessee

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
Abramowitz, Alan I. 2010. The Disappearing Center: Engaged Citizens, Polarization, and American Democracy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Abramowitz, Alan I., and Saunders, Kyle L.. 1998. “Ideological Realignment in the U.S. Electorate.The Journal of Politics 60 (3): 634652.
Abrams, Samuel, Iversen, Torben, and Soskice, David. 2011. “Informal Social Networks and Rational Voting.” British Journal of Political Science 41 (2): 229–57.
Achen, Christopher H., and Bartels, Larry M.. 2006. “It Feels Like We’re Thinking: The Rationalizing Voter and Electoral Democracy.” Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia.
Achen, Christopher H., and Bartels, Larry M.. 2016. Democracy for Realists: Why Elections Do Not Produce Responsive Government. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Adams, Greg D. 1997. “Abortion: Evidence of an Issue Evolution.” American Journal of Political Science 41 (3): 718–37.
Adams, Thomas G., Stewart, Patrick A., and Blanchar, John C.. 2014. “Disgust and the Politics of Sex: Exposure to a Disgusting Odorant Increases Politically Conservative Views on Sex and Decreases Support for Gay Marriage.” PLoS One 9 (5): e95572.
Adorno, Theodor W., Frenkel-Brunswik, Else, Levinson, Daniel J., and Sanford, R. N.. 1950. The Authoritarian Personality. New York: Harper and Row.
Ahn, Woo-Young, Kishida, Kenneth T., Gu, Xiaosi, Lohrenz, Terry, Harvey, Ann, Alford, John R., Smith, Kevin B., Yaffe, Gideon, Hibbing, John R., and Dayan, Peter. 2014. “Nonpolitical Images Evoke Neural Predictors of Political Ideology.” Current Biology 24 (22): 2693–9.
Alesina, Alberto, and Ferrara, Eliana La. 2005. “Preferences for Redistribution in the Land of Opportunities.” Journal of Public Economics 89 (5): 897931.
Alesina, Alberto, Glaeser, Edward, and Sacerdote, Bruce. 2001. “Why Doesn’t the US Have a European-Style Welfare System?Brookings Papers on Economic Activity (2): 188277.
Alford, John R., Funk, Carolyn L., and Hibbing, John R.. 2005. “Are Political Orientations Genetically Transmitted?American Political Science Review 99 (2): 153–67.
Alford, John R., Funk, Carolyn L., and Hibbing, John R.. 2008. “Beyond Liberals and Conservatives to Political Genotypes and Phenotypes.” Perspectives on Politics 6 (2): 321–8.
Allport, Gordon W. 1954. The Nature of Prejudice. Perseus Books Publishing.
Altemeyer, Bob. 1981. Right-Wing Authoritarianism. University of Manitoba Press.
Altemeyer, Bob 1988. Enemies of Freedom: Understanding Right-Wing Authoritarianism. Jossey-Bass.
Altemeyer, Bob 1996. The Authoritarian Specter. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Altemeyer, Bob 1998. “The Other ‘Authoritarian Personality.’Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 30: 4792.
Amodio, David M., Jost, John T., Master, Sarah L., and Yee, Cindy M.. 2007. “Neurocognitive Correlates of Liberalism and Conservatism.” Nature Neuroscience 10 (10): 1246–7.
Ansolabehere, Stephen, Rodden, Jonathan, and Snyder, James M.. 2006. “Purple America.” The Journal of Economic Perspectives 20 (2): 97118.
Ansolabehere, Stephen, Rodden, Jonathan, and Snyder, James M.. 2008. “The Strength of Issues: Using Multiple Measures to Gauge Preference Stability, Ideological Constraint, and Issue Voting.” American Political Science Review 102 (2): 215–32.
Arceneaux, Kevin, and Johnson, Martin. 2013. Changing Minds or Changing Channels? Partisan News in an Age of Choice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Aspelund, Anna, Lindeman, Marjaana, and Verkasalo, Markku. 2013. “Political Conservatism and Left–Right Orientation in 28 Eastern and Western European Countries.” Political Psychology 34 (3): 409–17.
Bafumi, Joseph, and Shapiro, Robert Y.. 2009. “A New Partisan Voter.” The Journal of Politics 71 (01): 124.
Barbaranelli, Claudio, Caprara, Gian V., Vecchione, Michele, and Fraley, Chris R.. 2007. “Voters’ Personality Traits in Presidential Elections.” Personality and Individual Differences 42 (7): 1199–208.
Barker, David C., and Tinnick, James D.. 2006. “Competing Visions of Parental Roles and Ideological Constraint.” American Political Science Review 100 (2): 249–63.
Bartels, Larry M. 2005. “Homer Gets a Tax Cut: Inequality and Public Policy in the American Mind.” Perspectives on Politics 3 (1): 1531.
Bartels, Larry M.. 2006. “What’s the Matter with What’s the Matter with Kansas?Quarterly Journal of Political Science 1 (2): 201–26.
Baumeister, Roy F., Bratslavsky, Ellen, Finkenauer, Catrin, and Vohs, Kathleen D.. 2001. “Bad Is Stronger than Good.” Review of General Psychology 5 (4): 323–70.
Bem, Daryl J. 1967. “Self-Perception: An Alternative Interpretation of Cognitive Dissonance Phenomena.” Psychological Review 74 (3): 183200.
Bennett, W. Lance, and Manheim, Jarol B.. 2006. “The One-Step Flow of Communication.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 608: 213–32.
Berinsky, Adam J. 2007. “Assuming the Costs of War: Events, Elites, and American Public Support for Military Conflict.” Journal of Politics 69 (4): 975–97.
Bilsky, Wolfgang, and Schwartz, Shalom H.. 1994. “Values and Personality.” European Journal of Personality 8 (3): 163–81.
Bishop, Bill. 2009. The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tearing Us Apart. New York: Mariner Books.
Block, Jack, and Block, Jeanne H.. 2006. “Nursery School Personality and Political Orientation Two Decades Later.” Journal of Research in Personality 40 (5): 734–49.
Bonanno, George A., and Jost, John T.. 2006. “Conservative Shift among High-Exposure Survivors of the September 11th Terrorist Attacks.” Basic and Applied Social Psychology 28 (4): 311–23.
Botvinick, Matthew M., Cohen, Jonathan D., and Carter, Cameron S.. 2004. “Conflict Monitoring and Anterior Cingulate Cortex: An Update.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (12): 539–46.
Boyce, Christopher J., Wood, Alex M., and Ferguson, Eamonn. 2016. “Individual Differences in Loss Aversion: Conscientiousness Predicts how Life Satisfaction Responds to Losses Versus Gains in Income.” Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 42 (4): 471–84.
Brennan, Geoffrey, and Lomasky, Loren. 1993. Democracy and Decision: The Pure Theory of Electoral Preference. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Brown, Rupert. 2000. “Social Identity Theory: Past Achievements, Current Problems and Future Challenges.” European Journal of Social Psychology 30 (6): 745–78.
Bullock, John G. 2011. “Elite Influence on Public Opinion in an Informed Electorate.” American Political Science Review 105 (3): 496515.
Cacioppo, John T., Petty, Richard E., Feinstein, Jeffrey A., and Jarvis, W. B. G.. 1996. “Dispositional Differences in Cognitive Motivation: The Life and Times of Individuals Varying in Need for Cognition.” Psychological Bulletin 119 (2): 197253.
Camerer, Colin. 2005. “Three Cheers – Psychological, Theoretical, Empirical – for Loss Aversion.” Journal of Marketing Research 42 (2): 129–33.
Campbell, Angus, Converse, Phillip, Stokes, Donald, and Miller, Warren. 1960. The American Voter. New York: John Wiley.
Caprara, Gian V., Barbaranelli, Claudio, and Zimbardo, Philip G.. 1999. “Personality Profiles and Political Parties.” Political Psychology 20 (1): 175–97.
Caprara, Gian V., Schwartz, Shalom, Capanna, Cristina, Vecchione, Michele, and Barbaranelli, Claudio. 2006. “Personality and Politics: Values, Traits, and Political Choice.” Political Psychology 27 (1): 128.
Caprara, Gian V., and Vecchione, Michele. 2013. “Personality Approaches to Political Behavior.” In The Oxford Handbook of Political Psychology (Second Edition), Eds. Huddy, Leonie, Sears, David O., and Levy, Jack S., 2358. New York: Oxford University Press.
Caprara, Gian V., and Zimbardo, Philip G.. 2004. “Personalizing Politics: A Congruency Model of Political Preference.” American Psychologist 59 (7): 581–94.
Carl, Noah. 2015. “Does Intelligence Have a U-Shaped Relationship with Leftism?Intelligence 49: 159–70.
Carmines, Edward G., and Stimson, James A.. 1980. “The Two Faces of Issue Voting.” American Political Science Review 74 (1): 7891.
Carmines, Edward G., and Stimson, James A.. 1989. Issue Evolution: Race and the Transformation of American Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Carney, Dana R., Jost, John T., Gosling, Samuel D., and Potter, Jeff. 2008. “The Secret Lives of Liberals and Conservatives: Personality Profiles, Interaction Styles, and the Things They Leave Behind.” Political Psychology 29 (6): 807–40.
Carraro, Luciana, Castelli, Luigi, and Macchiella, Claudia. 2011. “The Automatic Conservative: Ideology-Based Attentional Asymmetries in the Processing of Valenced Information.” PLoS One 6 (11): e26456.
Castelli, Luigi, and Carraro, Luciana. 2011. “Ideology Is Related to Basic Cognitive Processes Involved in Attitude Formation.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 47 (5): 1013–16.
Chang, Linchiat, and Krosnick, Jon A.. 2009. “National Surveys Via RDD Telephone Interviewing Versus the Internet Comparing Sample Representativeness and Response Quality.” Public Opinion Quarterly 73 (4): 641–78.
Charney, Evan. 2008. “Genes and Ideologies.” Perspectives on Politics 6 (2): 299319.
Charney, Evan, and English, William. 2012. “Candidate Genes and Political Behavior.” American Political Science Review 106 (1): 134.
Chirumbolo, Antonio. 2002. “The Relationship between Need for Cognitive Closure and Political Orientation: The Mediating Role of Authoritarianism.” Personality and Individual Differences 32 (4): 603–10.
Chirumbolo, Antonio, Areni, Alessandra, and Sensales, Gilda. 2004. “Need for Cognitive Closure and Politics: Voting, Political Attitudes and Attributional Style.” International Journal of Psychology 39 (4): 245–53.
Chong, Dennis. 2013. “Degrees of Rationality in Politics.” In The Oxford Handbook of Political Psychology (Second Edition), Eds. Huddy, Leonie, Sears, David O., and Levy, Jack S., 96129. New York: Oxford University Press.
Chong, Dennis, Citrin, Jack, and Conley, Patricia. 2001. “When Self-Interest Matters.” Political Psychology 22 (3): 541–70.
Chong, Dennis, and Druckman, James N.. 2007. “Framing Theory.” Annual Review of Political Science 10: 103–26.
Citrin, Jack, Reingold, Beth, and Green, Donald P.. 1990. “American Identity and the Politics of Ethnic Change.” The Journal of Politics 52 (4): 1124–54.
Citrin, Jack, and Sears, David O.. 2014. American Identity and the Politics of Multiculturalism. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Cizmar, Anne M., Layman, Geoffrey C., McTague, John, Pearson-Merkowitz, Shanna, and Spivey, Michael. 2014. “Authoritarianism and American Political Behavior from 1952 to 2008.” Political Research Quarterly 67 (1): 7183.
Cohen, Florette, Ogilvie, Daniel M., Solomon, Sheldon, Greenberg, Jeff, and Pyszczynski, Tom. 2005. “American Roulette: The Effect of Reminders of Death on Support for George W. Bush in the 2004 Presidential Election.” Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy 5 (1): 177–87.
Cohen, Geoffrey L. 2003. “Party over Policy: The Dominating Impact of Group Influence on Political Beliefs.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85 (5): 808–22.
Cohen, Geoffrey L., Aronson, Joshua, and Steele, Claude M.. 2000. “When Beliefs Yield to Evidence: Reducing Biased Evaluation by Affirming the Self.Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 26 (9): 1151–64.
Cohrs, Christopher J., and Asbrock, Frank. 2009. “Right-Wing Authoritarianism, Social Dominance Orientation and Prejudice Against Threatening and Competitive Ethnic Groups.” European Journal of Social Psychology 39 (2): 270–89.
Conover, Pamela J., and Feldman, Stanley. 1981. “The Origins and Meaning of Liberal/Conservative Self-Identifications.” American Journal of Political Science 25 (4): 617–45.
Converse, Phillip. 1964. “The Nature of Belief Systems in Mass Publics.” In Ideology and Discontent, Ed. Apter, David. New York: Free Press.
Conway, Lucian G., Gornick, Laura J., Houck, Shannon C., Anderson, Christopher, Stockert, Jennifer, Sessoms, Diana, and McCue, Kevin. 2015. “Are Conservatives really More Simple-Minded than Liberals? The Domain Specificity of Complex Thinking.” Political Psychology: doi:10.1111/pops.12304.
Cornwell, J. F., and Higgins, E. T.. 2013. “Morality and Its Relation to Political Ideology: The Role of Promotion and Prevention Concerns.” Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 39 (9): 1164–72.
Costa, Paul T., and McCrae, Robert R.. 1992. “Normal Personality Assessment in Clinical Practice: The NEO Personality Inventory.” Psychological Assessment 4 (1): 513.
Credé, Marcus, Harms, Peter, Niehorster, Sarah, and Gaye-Valentine, Andrea. 2012. “An Evaluation of the Consequences of Using Short Measures of the Big Five Personality Traits.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 102 (4): 874–88.
Crowson, H. Michael. 2009. “Are all Conservatives Alike? A Study of the Psychological Correlates of Cultural and Economic Conservatism.” The Journal of Psychology 143 (5): 449–63.
Crowson, H. Michael, Debacker, Teresa K., and Thoma, Stephen J.. 2006. “The Role of Authoritarianism, Perceived Threat, and Need for Closure or Structure in Predicting Post-9/11 Attitudes and Beliefs.” The Journal of Social Psychology 146 (6): 733–50.
Cunningham, William A., Johnson, Marcia K., Gatenby, J. C., Gore, John C., and Banaji, Mahzarin R.. 2003. “Neural Components of Social Evaluation.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85 (4): 639–49.
Dancey, Logan, and Goren, Paul. 2010. “Party Identification, Issue Attitudes, and the Dynamics of Political Debate.” American Journal of Political Science 54 (3): 686–99.
Dawson, Michael C. 1994. Behind the Mule: Race and Class in African-American Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
De Martino, B., Camerer, C. F., and Adolphs, R.. 2010. “Amygdala Damage Eliminates Monetary Loss Aversion.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107 (8): 3788–92.
Delli Carpini, Michael X., and Keeter, Scott. 1996. What Americans Know about Politics and Why It Matters. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Dodd, M. D., Balzer, A., Jacobs, C. M., Gruszczynski, M. W., Smith, K. B., and Hibbing, J. R.. 2012. “The Political Left Rolls with the Good and the Political Right Confronts the Bad: Connecting Physiology and Cognition to Preferences.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 367: 640–9.
Downs, Anthony. 1957. An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper and Row.
Druckman, James N., Peterson, Erik, and Slothuus, Rune. 2013. “How Elite Partisan Polarization Affects Public Opinion Formation.” American Political Science Review 107 (1): 5779.
Duch, Raymond M., Palmer, Harvey D., and Anderson, Christopher J.. 2000. “Heterogeneity in Perceptions of National Economic Conditions.” American Journal of Political Science 44 (4): 635–52.
Duch, Raymond M., and Rueda, David. 2014. “The People You Are: Personality Traits as Determinants of Redistribution Preferences.” Unpublished Manuscript.
Duckitt, John. 2001. “A Dual-Process Cognitive-Motivational Theory of Ideology and Prejudice.” Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 33: 41114.
Duckitt, John, and Sibley, Chris G.. 2009.” A Dual-Process Motivational Model of Ideology, Politics, and Prejudice.” Psychological Inquiry 20 (23): 98109.
Edsall, Thomas B., and Edsall, Mary D.. 1992. Chain Reaction: The Impact of Race, Rights, and Taxes on American Politics. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Ehrlich, Sean, and Maestas, Cherie. 2010. “Risk Orientation, Risk Exposure, and Policy Opinions: The Case of Free Trade.” Political Psychology 31 (5): 657–84.
Eidelman, Scott, Crandall, Christian S., Goodman, Jeffrey A., and Blanchar, John C.. 2012. “Low-Effort Thought Promotes Political Conservatism.” Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 38 (6): 808–20.
Ellis, Christopher, and Stimson, James A.. 2012. Ideology in America. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Evans, Geoffrey, and Andersen, Robert. 2006. “The Political Conditioning of Economic Perceptions.” Journal of Politics 68 (1): 194207.
Evans, Geoffrey, Heath, Anthony, and Lalljee, Mansur. 1996. “Measuring Left-Right and Libertarian-Authoritarian Values in the British Electorate.” British Journal of Sociology 47 (1): 93112.
Eysenck, Hans J. 1954. The Psychology of Politics. London: Routledge.
Federico, Christopher M. 2004. “When do Welfare Attitudes Become Racialized? The Paradoxical Effects of Education.” American Journal of Political Science 48 (2): 374–91.
Federico, Christopher M. 2012. “Ideology and Public Opinion.” In New Directions in Public Opinion, Ed. Berinsky, Adam, 81103. New York: Routledge.
Federico, Christopher M., Deason, Grace, and Fisher, Emily L.. 2012. “Ideological Asymmetry in the Relationship between Epistemic Motivation and Political Attitudes.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 103 (3): 381.
Federico, Christopher M., Fisher, Emily L., and Deason, Grace. 2011. “Expertise and the Ideological Consequences of the Authoritarian Predisposition.” Public Opinion Quarterly 75 (4): 686708.
Federico, Christopher M., A. Golec, , and Dial, J. L.. 2005. “The Relationship between the Need for Closure and Support for Military Action Against Iraq: Moderating Effects of National Attachment.” Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 31 (5): 621–32.
Federico, Christopher M., and Goren, Paul. 2009. “Motivated Social Cognition and Ideology: Is Attention to Elite Discourse a Prerequisite for Epistemically Motivated Political Affinities?” In Social and Psychological Bases of Ideology and System Justification, Eds. Jost, John T., Kay, Aaron C., and Thórisdóttir, Hulda, 267–91. New York: Oxford University Press.
Federico, Christopher M., and Holmes, Justin W.. 2005. “Education and the Interface between Racial Perceptions and Criminal Justice Attitudes.” Political Psychology 26 (1): 4775.
Federico, Christopher M., Hunt, Corrie V., and Ergun, Damla. 2009. “Political Expertise, Social Worldviews, and Ideology: Translating ‘Competitive Jungles’ and ‘Dangerous Worlds’ Into Ideological Reality.” Social Justice Research 22 (23): 259–79.
Federico, Christopher M., and Sidanius, Jim. 2002. “Sophistication and the Antecedents of Whites’ Racial Policy Attitudes: Racism, Ideology, and Affirmative Action in America.” Public Opinion Quarterly 66 (2): 145–76.
Federico, Christopher M., and Tagar, Michal R.. 2014. “Zeroing in on the Right: Education and the Partisan Expression of Authoritarianism in the United States.” Political Behavior 36 (3): 581603.
Federico, Christopher M., Weber, Christopher R., Ergun, Damla, and Hunt, Corrie. 2013. “Mapping the Connections between Politics and Morality: The Multiple Sociopolitical Orientations Involved in Moral Intuition.” Political Psychology 34 (4): 589610.
Feldman, Stanley. 1988. “Structure and Consistency in Public Opinion: The Role of Core Beliefs and Values.” American Journal of Political Science 32 (2): 416–40.
Feldman, Stanley. 2003. “Enforcing Social Conformity: A Theory of Authoritarianism.” Political Psychology 24 (1): 4174.
Feldman, Stanley. 2013. “Political Ideology.” In The Oxford Handbook of Political Psychology (Second Edition), Eds. Huddy, Leonie, Sears, David O., and Levy, Jack S., 591626. New York: Oxford University Press.
Feldman, Stanley, and Huddy, Leonie. 2014. “Not so Simple: The Multidimensional Nature and Diverse Origins of Political Ideology.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (3): 312–13.
Feldman, Stanley, and Johnston, Christopher. 2014. “Understanding the Determinants of Political Ideology: Implications of Structural Complexity.” Political Psychology 35 (3): 337–58.
Feldman, Stanley, and Stenner, Karen. 1997. “Perceived Threat and Authoritarianism.” Political Psychology 18 (4): 741–70.
Feldman, Stanley, and Zaller, John. 1992. “The Political Culture of Ambivalence: Ideological Responses to the Welfare State.” American Journal of Political Science 36 (1): 268307.
Fleishman, John A. 1988. “Attitude Organization in the General Public: Evidence for a Bidimensional Structure.” Social Forces 67 (1): 159–84.
Frank, Thomas. 2004. What’s the Matter with Kansas? How Conservatives Won the Heart of America. New York: Holt.
Fredrickson, Barbara L. 2001. “The Role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology: The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions.” American Psychologist 56 (3): 218–26.
Gaines, Brian J., Kuklinski, James H., Quirk, Paul J., Peyton, Buddy, and Verkuilen, Jay. 2007. “Same Facts, Different Interpretations: Partisan Motivation and Opinion on Iraq.” Journal of Politics 69 (4): 957–74.
Gelman, Andrew. 2008. Red State, Blue State, Rich State, Poor State: Why Americans Vote the Way They Do. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Gelman, Andrew, and Hill, Jennifer. 2007. Data Analysis Using Regression and Multilevel/Hierarchical Models. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gelman, Andrew, Aaron, Nate Silver , Edlin 2012. “What is the Probability Your Vote Will Make a Difference?Economic Inquiry 50 (2): 321326.
Gerber, Alan S., Huber, Gregory A., Doherty, David, and Dowling, Conor M.. 2011. “The Big Five Personality Traits in the Political Arena.” Annual Review of Political Science 14: 265–87.
Gerber, Alan S., Huber, Gregory A., Doherty, David, Dowling, Conor M., and Ha, Shang E.. 2010. “Personality and Political Attitudes: Relationships across Issue Domains and Political Contexts.” American Political Science Review 104 (1): 111–33.
Gerth, H., and Mills, C. W.. 1948/1970. From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. London: Routledge.
Gilens, Martin. 1999. Why Americans Hate Welfare. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Gilens, Martin. 2012. Affluence and Influence: Economic Inequality and Political Power in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Goldberg, Lewis R. 1990. “An Alternative ‘Description of Personality’: The Big-Five Factor Structure.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 59 (6): 12161229.
Golec, Agnieszka. 2002. “Need for Cognitive Closure and Political Conservatism: Studies on the Nature of the Relationship.” Polish Psychological Bulletin 33 (4): 512.
Golec, Agnieszka, and Federico, Christopher M.. 2004. “Understanding Responses to Political Conflict: Interactive Effects of the Need for Closure and Salient Conflict Schemas.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 87 (6): 750–62.
Goren, Paul. 2004. “Political Sophistication and Policy Reasoning: A Reconsideration.” American Journal of Political Science 48 (3): 462–78.
Goren, Paul. 2005. “Party Identification and Core Political Values.” American Journal of Political Science 49 (4): 881–96.
Goren, Paul. 2013. On Voter Competence. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gosling, Samuel D., Rentfrow, Peter J., and Swann, William B.. 2003. “A Very Brief Measure of the Big-Five Personality Domains.” Journal of Research in Personality 37 (6): 504–28.
Graham, Jesse, Haidt, Jonathan, and Nosek, Brian A.. 2009. “Liberals and Conservatives Rely on Different Sets of Moral Foundations.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 96 (5): 1029–46.
Graham, Jesse, Haidt, Jonathan, Koleva, Sena, Motyl, Matt, Iyer, Ravi, Wojcik, Sean P., and Ditto, Peter H.. 2013. “Moral Foundations Theory: The Pragmatic Validity of Moral Pluralism.” Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 47: 55130.
Green, Donald, Palmquist, Bradley, and Schickler, Eric. 2002. Partisan Hearts and Minds. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Greenberg, Jeff, Pyszczynski, Tom, Solomon, Sheldon, Rosenblatt, Abram, Veeder, Mitchell, Kirkland, Shari, and Lyon, Deborah. 1990. “Evidence for Terror Management Theory II: The Effects of Mortality Salience on Reactions to those Who Threaten or Bolster the Cultural Worldview.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 58 (2): 308–18.
Greenstein, Fred I. 1969. Personality and Politics: Problems of Evidence, Inference, and Conceptualization. Chicago: Markham Publishing Company.
Groenendyk, Eric. 2013. Competing Motives in the Partisan Mind: How Loyalty and Responsiveness Shape Party Identification and Democracy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Haider-Markel, Donald P., and Joslyn, Mark R.. 2008. “Beliefs about the Origins of Homosexuality and Support for Gay Rights: An Empirical Test of Attribution Theory.” Public Opinion Quarterly 72 (2): 291310.
Haidt, Jonathan. 2012. The Righteous Mind: Why Good People Are Divided by Politics and Religion. New York: Pantheon Books.
Haidt, Jonathan, and Joseph, Craig. 2007. “The Moral Mind: How Five Sets of Innate Intuitions Guide the Development of Many Culture-Specific Virtues, and Perhaps Even Modules.” In The Innate Mind (Volume 3), Eds. Carruthers, Peter, Lawrence, Stephen, and Stich, Stephen, 367–92. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hainmueller, Jens, and Hiscox, Michael J.. 2007. “Educated Preferences: Explaining Attitudes Toward Immigration in Europe.” International Organization 61 (2): 399442.
Hanmer, Michael J., and Kalkan, Kerem Ozan. 2013. “Behind the Curve: Clarifying the Best Approach to Calculating Predicted Probabilities and Marginal Effects from Limited Dependent Variable Models.” American Journal of Political Science 57 (1): 263–77.
Hannagan, Rebecca J., and Hatemi, Peter K.. 2008. “The Threat of Genes: A Comment on Evan Charney’s ‘Genes and Ideologies.’Perspectives on Politics 6 (2): 329–35.
Harmon-Jones, Eddie. 2007. “Asymmetrical Frontal Cortical Activity, Affective Valence, and Motivational Direction.” In Social Neuroscience: Integrating Biological and Psychological Explanations of Social Behavior, eds. Harmon-Jones, Eddie and Winkielman, Piotr, 137–56. New York: The Guilford Press.
Hartz, Louis. 1955. The Liberal Tradition in America: An Interpretation of American Political Thought since the Revolution. New York: Harcourt, Brace.
Hayes, Danny, and Lawless, Jennifer L.. 2016. Women on the Run: Gender, Media, and Political Campaigns in a Polarized Era. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Heider, Fritz. 1958. The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Helzer, Erik G., and Pizarro, David A.. 2011. “Dirty Liberals! Reminders of Physical Cleanliness Influence Moral and Political Attitudes.” Psychological Science 22 (4): 517–22.
Hetherington, Marc J. 2001. “Resurgent Mass Partisanship: The Role of Elite Polarization.” American Political Science Review 95 (3): 619–31.
Hetherington, Marc, and Suhay, Elizabeth. 2011. “Authoritarianism, Threat, and Americans’ Support for the War on Terror.” American Journal of Political Science 55 (3): 546–60.
Hetherington, Marc J., and Weiler, Jonathan D.. 2009. Authoritarianism and Polarization in American Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hibbing, John R., Smith, Kevin B., and Alford, John R.. 2014a. Predisposed: Liberals, Conservatives, and the Biology of Political Differences. New York: Routledge.
Hibbing, John R., Smith, Kevin B., and Alford, John R.. 2014b. “Differences in Negativity Bias Underlie Variations in Political Ideology.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (3): 297307.
Hiel, Alain V., and Mervielde, Ivan. 2004. “Openness to Experience and Boundaries in the Mind: Relationships with Cultural and Economic Conservative Beliefs.” Journal of Personality 72 (4): 659–86.
Higgins, E. Tory. 1996. “Knowledge Activation: Accessibility, Applicability, and Salience.” In Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles, eds. Tory Higgins, E. and Kruglanski, Arie W., 133–68. New York: The Guilford Press.
Higgins, E. Tory. 1998. “Promotion and Prevention: Regulatory Focus as a Motivational Principle.” Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 30: 146.
Hill, Seth J., and Tausanovitch, Chris. 2015. “A Disconnect in Representation? Comparison of Trends in Congressional and Public Polarization.” The Journal of Politics 77 (4): 10581075.
Hillygus, D. S., Jackson, Natalie, and Young, M.. 2014. “Professional Respondents in Non-probability Online Panels.” In Online Panel Research: A Data Quality Perspective, eds. Callegaro, Mario, Baker, Reg, Bethlehem, Jelke, Göritz, Anja S., Krosnick, Jon A., and Lavrakas, Paul J., 219–37. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Hodson, G., and Costello, K.. 2007. “Interpersonal Disgust, Ideological Orientations, and Dehumanization as Predictors of Intergroup Attitudes.” Psychological Science 18 (8): 691–8.
Hogg, Michael A. 2007. “Uncertainty–Identity Theory.” Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 39: 69126.
Huckfeldt, Robert. 2014. “Networks, Contexts, and the Combinatorial Dynamics of Democratic Politics.” Advances in Political Psychology 35 (S1): 4368.
Huckfeldt, Robert, Johnson, Paul E., and Sprague, John. 2004. Political Disagreement: The Survival of Diverse Opinions within Communication Networks. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Huckfeldt, Robert, and Kohfeld, Carol W.. 1989. Race and the Decline of Class in American Politics. Champaign: University of Illinois Press.
Huddy, Leonie, Mason, Lilliana, and Aarøe, Lene. 2015. “Expressive Partisanship: Campaign Involvement, Political Emotion, and Partisan Identity.” American Political Science Review 109 (1): 117.
Inbar, Yoel, Pizarro, David A., Knobe, Joshua, and Bloom, Paul. 2009. “Disgust Sensitivity Predicts Intuitive Disapproval of Gays.” Emotion 9 (3): 435–9.
Isen, Alice M. 1987. “Positive Affect, Cognitive Processes and Social Behavior.” In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 20, ed. Berkowitz, L., 203–53. : Academic Press.
Iversen, Torben. 2005. Capitalism, Democracy, and Welfare. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Iversen, Torben, and Soskice, David. 2001. “An Asset Theory of Social Policy Preferences.” American Political Science Review 95 (4): 875–94.
Iyengar, Shanto, and Hahn, Kyu S.. 2009. “Red Media, Blue Media: Evidence of Ideological Selectivity in Media Use.” Journal of Communication 59 (1): 1939.
Iyengar, Shanto, Hahn, Kyu S., Krosnick, Jon A., and Walker, John. 2008. “Selective Exposure to Campaign Communication: The Role of Anticipated Agreement and Issue Public Membership.” The Journal of Politics 70 (1): 186200.
Iyengar, Shanto, Sood, Gaurav, and Lelkes, Yphtach. 2012. “Affect, Not Ideology: A Social Identity Perspective on Polarization.” Public Opinion Quarterly 76 (3): 405–31.
Iyengar, Shanto, and Westwood, Sean J.. 2014. “Fear and Loathing across Party Lines: New Evidence on Group Polarization.” American Journal of Political Science 59 (3): 690707.
Iyer, Ravi, Koleva, Spassena, Graham, Jesse, Ditto, Peter, and Haidt, Jonathan. 2012. “Understanding Libertarian Morality: The Psychological Dispositions of Self-Identified Libertarians.” PLoS One 7 (8): e42366.
Jacobson, Gary C. 2010. “Perception, Memory, and Partisan Polarization on the Iraq War.” Political Science Quarterly 125 (1): 3156.
Jacoby, William G. 2014. “Is there a Culture War? Conflicting Value Structures in American Public Opinion.” American Political Science Review 108 (4): 754–71.
Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie. 2009. “To Provide or Protect: Motivational Bases of Political Liberalism and Conservatism.” Psychological Inquiry 20 (23): 120–8.
Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie, Sheikh, Sana, and Baldacci, Kate G.. 2008. “Mapping Moral Motives: Approach, Avoidance, and Political Orientation.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 44 (4): 1091–9.
Johnston, Christopher D. 2011. The Motivated Formation of Economic Preferences (Order No. 3474556). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (897963495). Retrieved from
Johnston, Christopher D. 2013. “Dispositional Sources of Economic Protectionism.” Public Opinion Quarterly 77 (2): 574–85.
Johnston, Christopher D., Newman, Benjamin J., and Velez, Yamil. 2015. “Ethnic Change, Personality, and Polarization over Immigration in the American Public.” Public Opinion Quarterly 79 (3): 662–86.
Johnston, Christopher D., and Wronski, Julie. 2015. “Personality Dispositions and Political Preferences across Hard and Easy Issues.” Political Psychology 36 (1): 3553.
Jost, John T. 2006. “The End of the End of Ideology.” American Psychologist 61 (7): 651–70.
Jost, John T., Federico, Christopher M., and Napier, Jaime L.. 2009. “Political Ideology: Its Structure, Functions, and Elective Affinities.” Annual Review of Psychology 60: 307–37.
Jost, John T.. 2013. “Political Ideologies and Their Social Psychological Functions.” In The Oxford Handbook of Political Ideologies, eds. Freeden, Michael, Sargent, Lyman Tower, and Stears, Marc, 232–50. New York: Oxford University Press.
Jost, John T., Jack Glaser, Arie W. Kruglanski, , and Sulloway, Frank J.. 2003. “Political Conservatism as Motivated Social Cognition.” Psychological Bulletin 129 (3): 339–75.
Jost, John T., Nam, H. H., Amodio, David M., and Van Bavel, Jay J.. 2014. “Political Neuroscience: The Beginning of a Beautiful Friendship.” Advances in Political Psychology 35 (S1): 342.
Jost, John T., Nosek, Brian A., and Gosling, Samuel D.. 2008. “Ideology: Its Resurgence in Social, Personality, and Political Psychology.” Perspectives on Psychological Science: A Journal of the Association for Psychological Science 3 (2): 126–36.
Judd, Charles M., Krosnick, Jon A., and Milburn, Michael A.. 1981. “Political Involvement and Attitude Structure in the General Public.” American Sociological Review 46 (5): 660–9.
Kahan, Dan M. 2015. “What Is the ‘Science of Science Communication’?Journal of Science Communication 14 (3): 112.
Kahan, Dan M., and Braman, Donald. 2006. “Cultural Cognition and Public Policy.” Yale Law Policy Review 24: 147–70.
Kahan, Dan M., Peters, Ellen, Dawson, Erica C., and Slovic, Paul. 2013. “Motivated Numeracy and Enlightened Self-Government.” Yale Law School, Public Law Working Paper.
Kahneman, Daniel, and Tversky, Amos. 1979. “Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk.” Econometrica 47 (2): 263–92.
Kam, Cindy D. 2006. “Political Campaigns and Open-Minded Thinking.” Journal of Politics 68 (4): 931–45.
Kam, Cindy D. 2012. “Risk Attitudes and Political Participation.” American Journal of Political Science 56 (4): 817–36.
Kam, Cindy D., and Simas, Elizabeth N.. 2010. “Risk Orientations and Policy Frames.” Journal of Politics 72 (2): 381–96.
Kanai, Ryota, Feilden, Tom, Firth, Colin, and Rees, Geraint. 2011. “Political Orientations Are Correlated with Brain Structure in Young Adults.” Current Biology 21 (8): 677–80.
Katz, Daniel. 1960. “The Functional Approach to the Study of Attitudes.” Public Opinion Quarterly 24 (2): 163204.
Keltner, Dachner, and Lerner, Jennifer S.. 2010. “Emotion.” In Handbook of Social Psychology, eds. Fiske, Susan T., Gilbert, Daniel T., and Lindzey, Gardner, 317–52. : John Wiley and Sons.
Kemmelmeier, Markus. 1997. “Need for Closure and Political Orientation among German University Students.” The Journal of Social Psychology 137 (6): 787–9.
Kemmelmeier, Markus. 2007. “Political Conservatism, Rigidity, and Dogmatism in American Foreign Policy Officials: The 1966 Mennis Data.” The Journal of Psychology 141 (1): 7790.
Kerns, John G., Cohen, Jonathan D., MacDonald III, Angus W., Cho, Raymond Y., Andrew Stenger, V., and Carter, Cameron S.. 2004. “Anterior Cingulate Conflict Monitoring and Adjustments in Control.” Science 303: 1023–6.
Kinder, Donald R., and Kam, Cindy D.. 2010. Us Against Them: Ethnocentric Foundations of American Opinion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kinder, Donald R., and Sears, David O.. 1981. “Prejudice and Politics: Symbolic Racism Versus Racial Threats to the Good Life.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 40 (3): 414–31.
Kluegel, James R., and Smith, Eliot R.. 1986. Beliefs about Inequality: Americans’ Views of What Is and What Ought to Be. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
Knoll, Benjamin R., and Shewmaker, Jordan. 2015. “‘Simply Un-American’: Nativism and Support for Health Care Reform.” Political Behavior 37 (1): 87108.
Kossowska, Malgorzata, and Hiel, Alain V.. 2003. “The Relationship between Need for Closure and Conservative Beliefs in Western and Eastern Europe.” Political Psychology 24 (3): 501–18.
Kriesi, Hanspeter, Grande, Edgar, Lachat, Romain, Dolezal, Martin, Bornschier, Simon, and Frey, Timotheos. 2006. “Globalization and the Transformation of the National Political Space: Six European Countries Compared.” European Journal of Political Research 45 (6): 921–56.
Krosnick, Jon A., and McGraw, Kathleen M.. 2001. “A Comparison of the Random Digit Dialing Telephone Survey Methodology with Internet Survey Methodology as Implemented by Knowledge Networks and Harris Interactive.” Unpublished Manuscript.
Krosnick, Jon A., and McGraw, Kathleen M.. 2002. “Psychological Political Science Versus Political Psychology True to Its Name: A Plea for Balance.” In Political Psychology, ed. Monroe, Kristen Renwick, 7994. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Krosnick, Jon A., and Chang, Linchiat.
Kruglanski, Arie W. 1989. Lay Epistemics and Human Knowledge: Cognitive and Motivational Bases. New York: Plenum Press.
Kruglanski, Arie W. 2004. The Psychology of Closed Mindedness. New York: Psychology Press.
Kruglanski, Arie W., Pierro, Antonio, Mannetti, Lucia, and Grada, Eraldo De. 2006. “Groups as Epistemic Providers: Need for Closure and the Unfolding of Group-Centrism.” Psychological Review 113 (1): 84100.
Kruglanski, Arie W., Shah, James Y., Pierro, Antonio, and Mannetti, Lucia. 2002. “When Similarity Breeds Content: Need for Closure and the Allure of Homogeneous and Self-Resembling Groups.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 83 (3): 648–62.
Kruglanski, Arie W., and Webster, Donna M.. 1996. “Motivated Closing of the Mind: ‘Seizing’ and ‘Freezing.’Psychological Review 103 (2): 263–83.
Lakoff, George. 2002. Moral Politics: How Conservatives and Liberals Think. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Landau, Mark J., Solomon, Sheldon, Greenberg, Jeff, Cohen, Florette, Pyszczynski, Tom, Arndt, Jamie, Miller, Claude H., Ogilvie, Daniel M., and Cook, Alison. 2004. “Deliver Us from Evil: The Effects of Mortality Salience and Reminders of 9/11 on Support for President George W. Bush.” Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 30 (9): 1136–50.
Lane, Robert E. 1962. Political Ideology: Why the American Common Man Believes What He Does. Oxford: Free Press of Glencoe.
Lasswell, Harold D. 1930. Psychopathology and Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lasswell, Harold D. 1936. Politics: Who Gets What, When, How. New York: Whittlesey House.
Lavine, Howard G., Johnston, Christopher D., and Steenbergen, Marco R.. 2012. The Ambivalent Partisan: How Critical Loyalty Promotes Democracy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lavine, Howard, Burgess, Diana, Snyder, Mark, Transue, John, Sullivan, John L., Haney, Beth, and Wagner, Stephen H.. 1999. “Threat, Authoritarianism, and Voting: An Investigation of Personality and Persuasion.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 25 (3): 337–47.
Lavine, Howard, Lodge, Milton, and Freitas, Kate. 2005. “Threat, Authoritarianism, and Selective Exposure to Information.” Political Psychology 26 (2): 219–44.
Lavine, Howard, Lodge, Milton, Polichak, James, and Taber, Charles. 2002. “Explicating the Black Box through Experimentation: Studies of Authoritarianism and Threat.” Political Analysis 10 (4): 343–61.
Layman, Geoffrey. 2001. The Great Divide: Religious and Cultural Conflict in American Party Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.
Layman, Geoffrey C., and Carsey, Thomas M.. 2002. “Party Polarization and ‘Conflict Extension’ in the American Electorate.” American Journal of Political Science 46 (4): 786802.
Lazarus, Richard S. 1991. Emotion and Adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press.
LeDoux, Joseph. 1998. The Emotional Brain: The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Lee, Frances E. 2009. Beyond Ideology: Politics, Principles, and Partisanship in the US Senate. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lenz, Gabriel S. 2012. Follow the Leader? How Voters Respond to Politicians’ Policies and Performance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lerner, Jennifer S., and Keltner, Dacher. 2001. “Fear, Anger, and Risk.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81 (1): 146–59.
Levendusky, Matthew. 2009. The Partisan Sort: How Liberals Became Democrats and Conservatives Became Republicans. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lieberman, Matthew D. 2007. “Social Cognitive Neuroscience: A Review of Core Processes.” Annual Review of Psychology 58: 259–89.
Lipset, Seymour M. 1959. “Democracy and Working-Class Authoritarianism.” American Sociological Review 24 (4): 482501.
Lipset, Seymour M. 1996. American Exceptionalism: A Double-Edged Sword. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Lodge, Milton, and Taber, Charles S.. 2013. The Rationalizing Voter. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ludeke, Steven, Tagar, Michal R., and DeYoung, Colin G.. 2016. “Not as Different as We Want to Be: Attitudinally Consistent Trait Desirability Leads to Exaggerated Associations between Personality and Sociopolitical Attitudes.” Political Psychology 37 (1): 125–35.
Luhtanen, Riia, and Crocker, Jennifer. 1992. “A Collective Self-Esteem Scale: Self-Evaluation of One’s Social Identity.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 18 (3): 302–18.
Lupia, Arthur, and McCubbins, Mathew D.. 1998. The Democratic Dilemma: Can Citizens Learn What They Need to Know? New York: Cambridge University Press.
Luttig, Matthew D., and Lavine, Howard. 2015. “Issue Frames, Personality, and Political Persuasion.” American Politics Research 44 (3): 448–70.
Malka, Ariel, Soto, Christopher J., Inzlicht, Michael, and Lelkes, Yphtach. 2014. “Do Needs for Security and Certainty Predict Cultural and Economic Conservatism? A Cross-national Analysis.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 106 (6): 1031–51.
Mansfield, Edward D., and Mutz, Diana C.. 2009. “Support for Free Trade: Self-Interest, Sociotropic Politics, and Out-Group Anxiety.” International Organization 63 (3): 425–57.
Marcus, George E., Sullivan, John L., Theiss-Morse, Elizabeth, and Wood, Sandra L.. 1995. With Malice Toward Some: How People Make Civil Liberties Judgments. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mason, Lilliana. 2015a. “‘I Disrespectfully Agree’: The Differential Effects of Partisan Sorting on Social and Issue Polarization.” American Journal of Political Science 59 (1): 128–45.
Mason, Lilliana. 2015b. “Party Polarization Is Making Us More Prejudiced.” In Political Polarization in American Politics, eds. Hopkins, Daniel J. and Sides, John, 5560. New York: Bloomsbury.
McCarty, Nolan, Poole, Keith T., and Rosenthal, Howard. 2006. Polarized America: The Dance of Ideology and Unequal Riches. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
McClosky, Herbert. 1958. “Conservatism and Personality.” American Political Science Review 52 (1): 2745.
McClosky, Herbert, and Zaller, John. 1984. The American Ethos: Public Attitudes Toward Capitalism and Democracy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
McCrae, Robert R. 1996. “Social Consequences of Experiential Openness.” Psychological Bulletin 120 (3): 323–37.
McCrae, Robert R. 2015. “A More Nuanced View of Reliability: Specificity in the Trait Hierarchy.” Personality and Social Psychology 19 (2): 97112.
McCrae, Robert R., and Costa, Paul T.. 1999. “A Five-Factor Theory of Personality.” In Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research, eds. Pervin, Lawrence A. and John, Oliver P.. New York: Guilford Press, 139–53.
McCrae, Robert R., and Costa, Paul T.. 2003. Personality in Adulthood: A Five-Factor Theory Perspective. New York: The Guilford Press.
McDermott, Rose, Fowler, James H., and Smirnov, Oleg. 2008. “On the Evolutionary Origin of Prospect Theory Preferences.” The Journal of Politics 70 (2): 335–50.
McFarland, Sam G. 2005. “On the Eve of War: Authoritarianism, Social Dominance, and American Students’ Attitudes Toward Attacking Iraq.” Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 31 (3): 360–7.
McFarland, Sam G., Ageyev, Vladimir S., and Djintcharadze, Nadya. 1996. “Russian Authoritarianism Two Years after Communism.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 22 (2): 210–17.
McGraw, A. Peter, and Tetlock, Philip E.. 2005. “Taboo Trade-Offs, Relational Framing, and the Acceptability of Exchanges.” Journal of Consumer Psychology 15 (1): 215.
McLean, Scott P., Garza, John P., Wiebe, Sandra A., Dodd, Michael D., Smith, Kevin B., Hibbing, John R., and Espy, Kimberly A.. 2014. “Applying the Flanker Task to Political Psychology: A Research Note.” Political Psychology 35 (6): 831–40.
Mehrabian, Albert. 1996. “Analysis of the Big-Five Personality Factors in Terms of the PAD Temperament Model.” Australian Journal of Psychology 48 (2): 8692.
Meltzer, Allan H., and Richard, Scott F.. 1981. “A Rational Theory of the Size of Government.” Journal of Political Economy 89 (5): 914–27.
Miller, Patrick R. 2011. “The Emotional Citizen: Emotion as a Function of Political Sophistication.” Political Psychology 32 (4): 575600.
Moene, Karl O., and Wallerstein, Michael. 2001. “Inequality, Social Insurance, and Redistribution.” American Political Science Review 95 (4): 859–74.
Mondak, Jeffery J. 2010. Personality and the Foundations of Political Behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mondak, Jeffery J., and Halperin, Karen D.. 2008. “A Framework for the Study of Personality and Political Behaviour.” British Journal of Political Science 38 (2): 335–62.
Mutz, Diana C. 2006. Hearing the Other Side: Deliberative Versus Participatory Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Nail, Paul R., and McGregor, Ian. 2009. “Conservative Shift among Liberals and Conservatives Following 9/11/01.” Social Justice Research 22 (2–3): 231–40.
Nie, Norman, Verba, Sidney, and Petrocik, John. 1976. The Changing American Voter. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Norris, Catherine J., Gollan, Jackie, Berntson, Gary G., and Cacioppo, John T.. 2010. “The Current Status of Research on the Structure of Evaluative Space.” Biological Psychology 84 (3): 422–36.
Nyhan, Brendan, and Reifler, Jason. 2015a. “Does Correcting Myths about the Flu Vaccine Work? An Experimental Evaluation of the Effects of Corrective Information.” Vaccine 33 (3): 459–64.
Nyhan, Brendan, and Reifler, Jason. 2015b. “The Role of Information Deficits and Identity Threat in the Prevalence of Misperceptions.” Unpublished Manuscript.
Olver, James M., and Mooradian, Todd A.. 2003. “Personality Traits and Personal Values: A Conceptual and Empirical Integration.” Personality and Individual Differences 35 (1): 109–25.
Osborne, Danny, and Sibley, Chris G.. 2012. “Does Personality Matter? Openness Correlates with Vote Choice, but Particularly for Politically Sophisticated Voters.” Journal of Research in Personality 46 (6): 743–51.
Oxley, Douglas R., Smith, Kevin B., Alford, John R., Hibbing, Matthew V., Miller, Jennifer L., Scalora, Mario, Hatemi, Peter K., and Hibbing, John R.. 2008. “Political Attitudes Vary with Physiological Traits.” Science 321: 1667–70.
Parker, Christopher S., and Barreto, Matt A.. 2014. Change They Can’t Believe In: The Tea Party and Reactionary Politics in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Parks-Leduc, Laura, Feldman, Gilad, and Bardi, Anat. 2015. “Personality Traits and Personal Values: A Meta-Analysis.” Personality and Social Psychology Review 19 (1): 329.
Peffley, Mark A., and Hurwitz, Jon. 1985. “A Hierarchical Model of Attitude Constraint.” American Journal of Political Science 29 (4): 871–90.
Pentland, Alex. 2014. Social Physics: How Good Ideas Spread. New York: Penguin.
Perlstein, Rick. 2008. Nixonland: The Rise of a President and the Fracturing of America. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Peterson, Bill, Doty, Richard, and Winter, David. 1993. “Authoritarianism and Attitudes Toward Contemporary Social Issues.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 19 (2): 174–84.
Phillips, Kevin P. 1969. The Emerging Republican Majority. New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House.
Pierro, A., and Kruglanski, A. W.. 2006. “Validation of a Revised Need for Cognitive Closure Scale.” Unpublished Data. Universita Di Roma, La Sapienza.
Pietri, Evava S., Fazio, Russell H., and Shook, Natalie J.. 2013. “Weighting Positive Versus Negative: The Fundamental Nature of Valence Asymmetry.” Journal of Personality 81 (2): 196208.
Pollock, Philip H., Lilie, Stuart A., and Vittes, M. E.. 1993. “Hard Issues, Core Values and Vertical Constraint: The Case of Nuclear Power.” British Journal of Political Science 23 (1): 2950.
Pyszczynski, Thomas, Greenberg, Jeff, Solomon, Sheldon, Arndt, Jamie, and Schimel, Jeff. 2004. “Why Do People Need Self-Esteem? A Theoretical and Empirical Review.” Psychological Bulletin 130 (3): 435468.
Quattrone, George A., and Tversky, Amos. 1988. “Contrasting Rational and Psychological Analyses of Political Choice.” American Political Science Review 82 (3): 719–36.
Rank, Mark R., and Hirschl, Thomas A.. 1999. “The Likelihood of Poverty across the American Adult Life Span.” Social Work 44 (3): 201–16.
Rank, Mark R., and Hirschl, Thomas A.. 2005. “Likelihood of Using Food Stamps during the Adulthood Years.” Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 37 (3): 137–46.
Rehm, Philipp. 2009. “Risks and Redistribution: An Individual-Level Analysis.” Comparative Political Studies 42 (7): 855–81.
Riemann, Rainer, Grubich, Claudia, Hempel, Susanne, Mergl, Susanne, and Richter, Manfred. 1993. “Personality and Attitudes Towards Current Political Topics.” Personality and Individual Differences 15 (3): 313–21.
Roccas, Sonia, Sagiv, Lilach, Schwartz, Shalom H., and Knafo, Ariel. 2002. “The Big Five Personality Factors and Personal Values.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 28 (6): 789801.
Roets, Arne, and Alain Van, Hiel. 2007. “Separating Ability from Need: Clarifying the Dimensional Structure of the Need for Closure Scale.” Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 33 (2): 266–80.
Roets, Arne, and Hiel, Alain Van. 2011. “Item Selection and Validation of a Brief, 15-Item Version of the Need for Closure Scale.” Personality and Individual Differences 50 (1): 90–4.
Rokeach, Milton. 1960. The Open and Closed Mind. New York: Basic Books.
Samuels, David, and Zucco, Cesar. 2014. “The Power of Partisanship in Brazil: Evidence from Survey Experiments.” American Journal of Political Science 58 (1): 212–25.
Sanford, Nevitt. 1966. Self and Society: Social Change and Individual Development. New York: Atherton Press.
Sargent, M. J. 2004. “Less Thought, More Punishment: Need for Cognition Predicts Support for Punitive Responses to Crime.” Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 30 (11): 1485–93.
Schatz, Robert T., Staub, Ervin, and Lavine, Howard. 1999. “On the Varieties of National Attachment: Blind Versus Constructive Patriotism.” Political Psychology 20 (1): 151–74.
Scheve, Kenneth, and Slaughter, Matthew J.. 2004. “Economic Insecurity and the Globalization of Production.” American Journal of Political Science 48 (4): 662–74.
Scheve, Kenneth, and Slaughter, Matthew J.. 2006. “Public Opinion, International Economic Integration, and the Welfare State.” In Globalization and Self-Determination: Is the Nation-State Under Siege? Eds. Cameron, David R., Ranis, Gustav, and Zinn, Annalisa, 5194. New York: Routledge.
Schoen, Harald, and Schumann, Siegfried. 2007. “Personality Traits, Partisan Attitudes, and Voting Behavior. Evidence from Germany.” Political Psychology 28 (4): 471–98.
Schreiber, Darren, Fonzo, Greg, Simmons, Alan N., Dawes, Christopher T., Flagan, Taru, Fowler, James H., and Paulus, Martin P.. 2013. “Red Brain, Blue Brain: Evaluative Processes Differ in Democrats and Republicans.” PLoS One 8 (2): e52970.
Schudson, Michael. 1998. The Good Citizen: A History of American Civic Life. New York: The Free Press.
Schuessler, Alexander A. 2000. A Logic of Expressive Choice. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Schwartz, Shalom H. 1992. “Universals in the Content and Structure of Values: Theoretical Advances and Empirical Tests in 20 Countries.” Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 25 (1): 165.
Schwartz, Shalom H.. 1994. “Are there Universal Aspects in the Structure and Contents of Human Values?Journal of Social Issues 50 (4): 1945.
Schwartz, Shalom H.. 2007a. “Universalism Values and the Inclusiveness of Our Moral Universe.” Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology 38 (6): 711–28.
Schwartz, Shalom H.. 2007b. “Value Orientations: Measurement, Antecedents and Consequences across Nations.” In Measuring Attitudes Cross-nationally: Lessons from the European Social Survey, eds. Jowell, Roger, Roberts, Carline, Fitzgerald, Rory, and Eva, Gillian, 161–93. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Schwartz, Shalom H., Caprara, Gian V., and Vecchione, Michele. 2010. “Basic Personal Values, Core Political Values, and Voting: A Longitudinal Analysis.” Political Psychology 31 (3): 421–52.
Sears, David O. 1993. “Symbolic Politics: A Socio-psychological Theory.” In Explorations in Political Psychology, eds. Iyengar, Shanto and McGuire, William J., 113–49. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Sears, David O., and Funk, Carolyn L.. 1991. “The Role of Self-Interest in Social and Political Attitudes.” Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 24 (1): 191.
Sears, David O., Lau, Richard R., Tyler, Tom R., and Allen, Harris M.. 1980. “Self-Interest Vs. Symbolic Politics in Policy Attitudes and Presidential Voting.” American Political Science Review 74 (3): 670–84.
Settle, Jaime E., Dawes, Christopher T., Christakis, Nicholas A., and Fowler, James H.. 2010. “Friendships Moderate an Association between a Dopamine Gene Variant and Political Ideology.” The Journal of Politics 72 (4): 1189–98.
Shafer, Byron E., and Claggett, William J.. 1995. The Two Majorities: The Issue Context of Modern American Politics. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Shapiro, Robert Y. and Jacobs, Lawrence. 2010. “Simulating Representation: Elite Mobilization and Political Power in Health Care Reform.” The Forum 8 (1).
Sherman, David A., Nelson, Leif D., and Steele, Claude M.. 2000. “Do Messages about Health Risks Threaten the Self? Increasing the Acceptance of Threatening Health Messages Via Self-Affirmation.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 26 (9): 1046–58.
Shook, Natalie J., and Fazio, Russell H.. 2009. “Political Ideology, Exploration of Novel Stimuli, and Attitude Formation.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 45 (4): 995–8.
Shultziner, Doron. 2013. “Genes and Politics: A New Explanation and Evaluation of Twin Study Results and Association Studies in Political Science.” Political Analysis 21 (3): 350–67.
Sinclair, Betsy. 2012. The Social Citizen: Peer Networks and Political Behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Sinn, Hans W. 1995. “A Theory of the Welfare State.” Scandinavian Journal of Economics 97: 495526.
Skitka, Linda J., and Bauman, Christopher W.. 2008. “Moral Conviction and Political Engagement.” Political Psychology 29 (1): 2954.
Smith, Kevin, Alford, John R., Hatemi, Peter K., Eaves, Lindon J., Funk, Carolyn, and Hibbing, John R.. 2012. “Biology, Ideology, and Epistemology: How do We Know Political Attitudes Are Inherited and Why Should We Care?American Journal of Political Science 56 (1): 1733.
Smith, Kevin B., Oxley, Douglas, Hibbing, Matthew V., Alford, John R., and Hibbing, John R.. 2011a. “Disgust Sensitivity and the Neurophysiology of Left-Right Political Orientations.” PLoS One 6 (10): e25552.
Smith, Kevin B., Oxley, Douglas, Hibbing, Matthew V., Alford, John R., and Hibbing, John R.. 2011b. “Linking Genetics and Political Attitudes: Reconceptualizing Political Ideology.” Political Psychology 32 (3): 369–97.
Smith, Mark A. 2007. The Right Talk: How Conservatives Transformed the Great Society into the Economic Society. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Smith, M. Brewster, Bruner, Jerome S., and White, Robert W.. 1956. Opinions and Personality. New York: John Wiley.
Sniderman, Paul M. 1975. Personality and Democratic Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Sniderman, Paul M., Brody, Richard A., and Tetlock, Philip E.. 1991. Reasoning and Choice: Explorations in Political Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sniderman, Paul M., Petersen, Michael B., Slothuus, Rune, and Stubager, Rune. 2014. Paradoxes of Liberal Democracy: Islam, Western Europe, and the Danish Cartoon Crisis. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Sniderman, Paul M., and Stiglitz, Edward H.. 2012. The Reputational Premium: A Theory of Party Identification and Policy Reasoning. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Snyder, Mark, and DeBono, Kenneth G.. 1985. “Appeals to Image and Claims about Quality: Understanding the Psychology of Advertising.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 49 (3): 586.
Somin, Ilya. 2006. “Knowledge about Ignorance: New Directions in the Study of Political Information.” Critical Review 18 (13): 255–78.
Somin, Ilya. 2013. Democracy and Political Ignorance: Why Smaller Government Is Smarter. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Stangor, Charles, and Leary, Scott P.. 2006. “Intergroup Beliefs: Investigations from the Social Side.” Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 38: 243–81.
Stegmueller, Daniel. 2013. “The Dynamics of Income Expectations and Redistribution Preferences.” Annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago, IL.
Stenner, Karen. 2005. The Authoritarian Dynamic. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Stokes, Donald E. 1963. “Spatial Models of Party Competition.” American Political Science Review 57 (2): 368–77.
Stroud, Natalie J. 2008. “Media Use and Political Predispositions: Revisiting the Concept of Selective Exposure.” Political Behavior 30 (3): 341–66.
Sullivan, John L., Piereson, James, and Marcus, George E.. 1982. Political Tolerance and American Democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Sunstein, Cass R. 2009. 2.0. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Taber, Charles S., and Lodge, Milton. 2006. “Motivated Skepticism in the Evaluation of Political Beliefs.” American Journal of Political Science 50 (3): 755–69.
Tajfel, Henri, and Turner, John C.. 1979. “An Integrative Theory of Intergroup Conflict.” In The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations, eds. Austin, W. G. and Worchel, S., 3347. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Terrizzi, John A., Shook, Natalie J., and Ventis, W. L.. 2010. “Disgust: A Predictor of Social Conservatism and Prejudicial Attitudes Toward Homosexuals.” Personality and Individual Differences 49 (6): 587–92.
Tesler, Michael. 2012. “The Spillover of Racialization into Health Care: How President Obama Polarized Public Opinion by Racial Attitudes and Race.” American Journal of Political Science 56 (3): 690704.
Tesler, Michael. 2016. Post-racial or Most-Racial? Race and Politics in the Obama Era. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Tesler, Michael, and Sears, David O.. 2010. Obama’s Race: The 2008 Election and the Dream of a Post-racial America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Tetlock, Philip E. 1986. “A Value Pluralism Model of Ideological Reasoning.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 50 (4): 819–27.
Thórisdóttir, Hulda, and Jost, John T.. 2011. “Motivated Closed-Mindedness Mediates the Effect of Threat on Political Conservatism.” Political Psychology 32 (5): 785811.
Thórisdóttir, Hulda, Jost, John T., Liviatan, Ido, and Shrout, Patrick E.. 2007. “Psychological Needs and Values Underlying Left-Right Political Orientation: Cross-National Evidence from Eastern and Western Europe.” Public Opinion Quarterly 71 (2): 175203.
Tom, Sabrina M., Fox, Craig R., Trepel, Christopher, and Poldrack, Russell A.. 2007. “The Neural Basis of Loss Aversion in Decision-Making Under Risk.” Science 315 (5811): 515–18.
Tomkins, Silvan S. 1963. “Left and Right: A Basic Dimension of Ideology and Personality.” In The Study of Lives, ed. White, R. W., 388411. New York: Atherton Press.
Tomz, Michael, and Sniderman, Paul M.. 2005. “Brand Names and the Organization of Mass Belief Systems.” Unpublished Manuscript.
Trapnell, Paul D., and Wiggins, Jerry S.. 1990. “Extension of the Interpersonal Adjective Scales to Include the Big Five Dimensions of Personality.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 59 (4): 781–90.
Treier, Shawn, and Sunshine Hillygus, D.. 2009. “The Nature of Political Ideology in the Contemporary Electorate.” Public Opinion Quarterly 73 (4): 679703.
Turner, John C., Hogg, Michael A., Oakes, Penelope J., Reicher, Stephen D., and Wetherell, Margaret S.. 1987. Rediscovering the Social Group: A Self-Categorization Theory. Basil Blackwell.
Van Hiel, Alain, Mervielde, Ivan, and De Fruyt, Filip. 2004. “The Relationship between Maladaptive Personality and Right Wing Ideology.” Personality and Individual Differences 36 (2): 405–17.
Van Hiel, Alain, Onraet, Emma, and De Pauw, Sarah. 2010. “The Relationship between Social-Cultural Attitudes and Behavioral Measures of Cognitive Style: A Meta-analytic Integration of Studies.” Journal of Personality 78 (6): 1765–800.
Van Hiel, A., Pandelaere, M., and Duriez, B.. 2004. “The Impact of Need for Closure on Conservative Beliefs and Racism: Differential Mediation by Authoritarian Submission and Authoritarian Dominance.” Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 30 (7): 824–37.
Vavreck, Lynn, and Rivers, Douglas. 2008. “The 2006 Cooperative Congressional Election Study.” Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties 18 (4): 355–66.
Verhulst, Brad, Eaves, Lindon J., and Hatemi, Peter K.. 2012. “Correlation Not Causation: The Relationship between Personality Traits and Political Ideologies.” American Journal of Political Science 56 (1): 3451.
Vigil, Jacob M. 2010. “Political Leanings Vary with Facial Expression Processing and Psychosocial Functioning.” Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 13 (5): 547–58.
Walsh, Katherine C. 2012. “Putting Inequality in Its Place: Rural Consciousness and the Power of Perspective.” American Political Science Review 106 (3): 517–32.
Weber, Christopher R., and Federico, Christopher M.. 2013. “Moral Foundations and Heterogeneity in Ideological Preferences.” Political Psychology 34 (1): 107–26.
Weber, Max. 2002. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism: And Other Writings. New York: Penguin.
Webster, Donna M., and Kruglanski, Arie W.. 1994. “Individual Differences in Need for Cognitive Closure.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67 (6): 1049–62.
Weeden, Jason, and Kurzban, Robert. 2014. The Hidden Agenda of the Political Mind: How Self-Interest Shapes Our Opinions and Why We Won’t Admit It. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Wells, Chris, Reedy, Justin, Gastil, John, and Lee, Carolyn. 2009. “Information Distortion and Voting Choices: The Origins and Effects of Factual Beliefs in Initiative Elections.” Political Psychology 30 (6): 953–69.
Wilson, Glenn D. 1973. The Psychology of Conservatism. New York: Academic Press.
Winter, Nicholas J. 2008. Dangerous Frames: How Ideas about Race and Gender Shape Public Opinion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Young, Jason, Thomsen, Cynthia J., Borgida, Eugene, Sullivan, John L., and Aldrich, John H.. 1991. “When Self-Interest Makes a Difference: The Role of Construct Accessibility in Political Reasoning.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 27 (3): 271–96.
Zaller, John. 1992. The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Zaller, John, and Feldman, Stanley. 1992. “A Simple Theory of the Survey Response: Answering Questions Versus Revealing Preferences.” American Journal of Political Science 36 (3): 579616.