Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2019
  • Online publication date: July 2019

19 - More and Less Organization

from Conclusion

Summary

The modern world is highly organized. Much organization occurs within formal organizations, to the extent that the extensive study of formal organizations has overshadowed other forms of organization. But organization happens not only within, but also outside the context of formal organizations. We define ‘organization’ as a decided order, and we see some decisions as more fundamental than others and have dubbed these decisions ‘organizational elements’. We distinguish five such elements: membership, rules, monitoring, sanctions, and hierarchy. Individuals or organizations can use organizational elements to organize other individuals or organizations, even if they do not belong to the same organization. But organizers do not necessarily use all elements, and all settings are not organized by all elements. In fact, many social settings are only partially organized – even formal organizations. We use the concepts of social relationships and formal organization to specify what we mean by organization and organizational elements and compare organizational elements with other ways in which social relationships develop. We describe the differences between organization and other origins of social order such as institutions and networks. The chapter ends with an overview of the following chapters.

Ahrne, G. & Brunsson, N. (2008) Meta-Organizations. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Ahrne, G. & Brunsson, N. (2011) Organization outside Organizations: The Significance of Partial Organization. Organization 18(1): 83104.
Ahrne, G. & Brunsson, N. (2014) The Travel of Organization. In Drori, G. S., Höllerer, M. A., & Walgenbach, P. (eds.), Global Themes and Local Variations in Organization and Management. London: Routledge. 3951.
Bromley, P. & Meyer, J. (2015) Hyper-Organization. Global Organizational Expansion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Brunsson, N. (2009) Reform as Routine. Organizational Change and Stability in the Modern World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Chandler, A. (1977) The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business. Cambridge, MA: Belknap.
Davis, G. (2013) After the Corporation. Politics and Society 41(2): 283308.
Davis, G. (2017) Organization Theory and the Dilemmas of a Post-Corporate Economy. Research in the Sociology of Organizations 48B: 311–22.
den Hond, F., de Bakker, F. G. A., & Smith, N. (2015) Social Movements and Organizational Analysis. In Diani, M. & della Porta, D. (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Social Movements. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 291305.
Geijer, E. G. (1980) Om vår tids inre samhällsförhållanden. Historiska skrifter i urval och med kommentarer av Thorsten Nybom. Stockholm: Tidens förlag.
Hall, P. A. & Soskice, D. (2003) Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Meyer, D. S. & Tarrow, S. G. (1998) A Movement Society: Contentious Politics for a New Century. In Meyer, D. S. & Tarrow, S. G. (eds.), The Social Movement Society: Contentious Politics for a New Century. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. 128.
Meyer, J. (1996) Otherhood, the Promulgation and Transmission of Ideas of the Modern Organizational Environment. In Czarniawska, B. & Sevon, G. (eds.), Translating Organizational Change. New York: Walter de Gruyter. 241–52.
Ostrom, E. (1990) Governing the Commons. The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pallesen, T. (2011) Privatization. In Christensen, T. & Lægreid, P. (eds.), The Ashgate Research Companion to New Public Management. Farnham: Ashgate. 251–64.
Perrow, C. (1991) A Society of Organizations. Theory and Society 20(6): 725–62.
Roed Nielsen, K. (2018) Crowdfunding through a partial organization lens – The co-dependent organization. European Management Journal 36:6: 695707.
Strandqvist, K. (2018) From a Free Market to a Pure Market. The History of Organizing the Swedish Pipe and Tube Market. In Brunsson, N. & Jutterström, M. (eds.), Organizing and Reorganizing Markets. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 232–48.
Tarschys, D. (1983) Den offentliga revolutionen. 2nd edition. Stockholm: Liber.
Thompson, G. F. (2003) Between Hierarchies and Markets. The Logic and Limits of Network Forms of Organization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tocqueville, A. (1961) Democracy in America. Volume 2. New York: Schocken Books.