Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Cited by 136
  • Hans Noel, Georgetown University, Washington DC
Cambridge University Press
Online publication date:
June 2014
Print publication year:
Online ISBN:

Book description

Political Ideologies and Political Parties in America puts ideology front and center in the discussion of party coalition change. Treating ideology as neither a nuisance nor a given, the analysis describes the development of the modern liberal and conservative ideologies that form the basis of our modern political parties. Hans Noel shows that liberalism and conservatism emerged as important forces independent of existing political parties. These ideologies then reshaped parties in their own image. Modern polarization can thus be explained as the natural outcome of living in a period, perhaps the first in our history, in which two dominant ideologies have captured the two dominant political parties.


Winner, 2014 Leon Epstein Outstanding Book Award, Political Organizations and Parties Section, American Political Science Association


'The final point above is also true of the entire book: Political Ideologies and Political Parties in America is a must-read for scholars of American political parties, indeed for scholars of American politics in general. It will most certainly affect the ongoing academic conversations in these areas as scholars read and think about Noel’s work.'

Mark D. Brewer - University of Maine, Orono

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Save to Kindle
  • Save to Dropbox
  • Save to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


Works Cited
Abramowitz, Alan. 2011. The Disappearing Center: Engaged Citizens, Polarization, and American Democracy. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Abramowitz, Alan 2012. “Grand Old Tea Party: Partisan Polarization and the Rise of the Tea Party Movement.” In Steep: The Precipitous Rise of the Tea Party, eds. Lawrence Rosenthal and Christine Trost. Berkeley: University of California Press, 195–211.
Abramowitz, Alan and Saunders, Kyle. 1998. “Ideological Realignment in the U.S. Electorate.” Journal of Politics. 60 634–652.
Abramowitz, Alan and Saunders, Kyle 2005. “Why Can’t We All Just Get Along? The Reality of a Polarized America.” The Forum. 3.
Achen, Chris and Bartels, Larry. 2002. “Blind Retrospection: Electoral Responses to Droughts, Flu, and Shark Attacks.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, MA.
Achen, Chris and Bartels, Larry 2004. “Musical Chairs: Pocketbook Voting and the Limits of Democratic Accountability.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association. Chicago, IL.
Adams, Greg. 1997. “Abortion: Evidence of an Issue Evolution.” American Journal of Political Science. 41 718–737.
Adorno, T.W., Frenkel-Brunswik, Else, Levinson, D.J., and Sanford, R.N.. 1950. The Authoritarian Personality. New York: Harper.
Albert, James and Chib, Siddhartha. 1993. “Bayesian Analysis of Binary and Polychotomous Response Data.” Journal of the American Statistical Association. 88 669–679.
Aldrich, John. 1983. “A Downsian Spatial Model with Party Activism.” The American Political Science Review. 77 974–990.
Aldrich, John 1995. Why Parties? The Origin and Transformation of Political Parties in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Aldrich, John, Berger, Mark M., and Rohde, David. 1999. “The Historical Variability in Conditional Party Government.” Paper delivered at the Conference on the History of Congress, Stanford University.
Aldrich, John and Rohde, David. 1999. “The Consequences of Party Organization in the House: Theory and Evidence on Conditional Party Government.” Paper presented at the Conference on Congress and the President in a Partisan Era. Texas A&M University, Feb. 5–6, 1999.
Alford, John R., Funk, Carolyn L., and Hibbing, John R.. 2005. “Are Political Orientations Genetically Transmitted?American Political Science Review. 99 (May): 153–168.
American Political Science Association, Committee On Political Parties. 1950. “Toward a More Responsible Two-Party System.” American Political Science Review 44 3.
American Whig Review. 1850. “Southern Views of Emancipation and the Slave Trade.” American Whig Review. (April) 331–347.
Amodio, D.M., Jost, J.T., Master, S.L., and Yee, C.M.. 2007. “Neurocognitive Correlates of Liberalism Conservatism.” Nature Neuroscience. 10 1246–1247.
Ansolabehere, Stephen, Snyder, James M. Jr., and Stewart, Charles III. 2001. “The Effects of Party and Preferences on Congressional Roll-Call Voting.” Legislative Studies Quarterly. 26: 4, 533–572.
Ansolebehere, Stephen, Snyder, James M. Jr., and Stewart, Charles III. 2001. “Candidate Positioning in U.S. House Elections.” American Journal of Political Science. 45 136–159.
Apter, David E. 1964. “Introduction: Ideology and Discontent.” Ideology and Discontent. Apter, D.E., ed. New York: The Free Press, 15–46.
Arrow, Kenneth J. 1951. Social Choice and Individual Values. 1st ed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Axelrod, Robert. 1997. “Advancing the Art of Simulation in the Social Sciences.” Simulating Social Phenomena. Conte, R., Hegselmann, R., and Terna, P., eds. Berlin: Springer Verlag. 21–40.
Bailey, Michael. 2007. “Comparable Preference Estimates across Time and Institutions for the Court, Congress and Presidency.” American Journal of Political Science. 51, 3 (July) 433–448.
Bailey, Michael and Chang, Kelly. 2001. “Comparing Presidents, Senators, and Justices: Inter-institutional Preference Estimation.” Journal of Law, Economics and Organization. 17 477–506.
Bailey, Michael and Malzman, Forrest. 2008. “Does Legal Doctrine Matter? Unpacking Law and Policy Preferences on the U.S. Supreme Court.” American Political Science Review. 102, 3 (August) 369–384.
Bailey, Michael, Mummolo, Jonathan, and Noel, Hans. 2012. “The Tea Party and Congressional Representation: Tracking the Influence of Activists, Groups and Elites.” American Politics Research 20 10: 1–3.
Baker, Frank. 1992. Item Response Theory. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Baron, David P. and Ferejohn, John A.. 1989. “Bargaining in Legislatures.” American Political Science Review. 83 1181–1206.
Bartels, Larry. 2000. “Partisanship and Voting Behavior, 1952–1996.” American Journal of Political Science. 44 35–50.
Bartels, Larry. 2005. “Economic Inequality and Democratic Representation.” Working paper.
Bass, Jack and De Vries, Walter. 1995. The Transformation of Southern Politics: Social Change and Political Consequence Since 1945. Athens: University of Georgia Press.
Baumgartner, Frank and Jones, Bryan D.. 1993. Agendas and Instability in American Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Baumgartner, Frank and Jones, Bryan D. 2009. Agendas and Instability in American Politics: Second Edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Bawn, Kathleen. 1998. “Congressional Party Leadership: Utilitarian versus Majoritarian Incentives.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 23 2: 221–245.
Bawn, Kathleen 1999. “Constructing ‘Us’: Ideology, Coalition Politics, and False Consciousness.” American Journal of Political Science 43 303–334.
Bawn, Kathleen, Cohen, Martin, Karol, David, Maskt, Seth, Noel, Hans, and Zaller, John. 2012. “A Theory of Parties: Groups, Policy Demanders and Nominations in American Politics.” Perspectives on Politics 10, 3 (September): 571–597.
Beard, Charles A. 1929. The American Party Battle. New York: The MacMillan company
Beinart, Peter. 2006. “Religious Experience.” The New Republic. February 20, .
Beman, Samuel. 1850. “Impost: A Stupdendous Deception.” The United States Democratic Review (November): 439–447.
Benoit, Kenneth. 2006. “Duverger’s Law and the Study of Electoral Systems.” French Politics 4, 1: 69–83.
Berelson, Bernard R., Lazarsfeld, Paul F., and McPhee, William N.. 1954. Voting: A Study of Opinion Formation in a Presidential Campaign. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Benhabib, Seyla. 1996. Democracy and Difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Bernstein, Barton J. and Leib, Franklin A.. 1968. “Progressive Republican Senators and American Imperialism, 1898–1916: A Reappraisal,” Mid-America. 163–205.
Bessette, Joseph. 1994. The Mild Voice of Reason: Deliberative Democracy and American National Government. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Blocker, Jack S. Jr. 1989. American Temperance Movements: Cycles of Reform. Boston: Twayne Publishers.
Boas, Franz. 1906. “Commencement Address at Atlanta University, May 31, 1906.” Atlanta University Leaflet, No. 19 (S.l: s.n.).
Boas, Franz 1911. The Mind of Primitive Man. New York: MacMillan.
Bond, Jon R. and Fleisher, Richard. 2000. Polarized Politics: Congress and the President in a Partisan Era. Washington, DC: CQ Press.
Bonica, Adam. 2010. “Mapping the Ideological Marketplace: Unifying Ideological Measurement with Campaign Finance Records.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Political Methodology, Des Moines, IA, July 2010.
Brady, David and Epstein, David. 1997. “Intraparty Preferences, Heterogeneity, and the Origins of the Modern Congress: Progressive Reformers in the House and Senate, 1890–1920.” Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization 13 26–49.
Brady, Henry, Kay Lehman Schlozman, and Sidney Verba. 1999. “Prospecting for Participants: Rational Expectations and the Recruitment of Political Activists.” American Political Science Review. 93, 1: 153–168.
Buckley, William F. 1951. God and Man at Yale. Chicago: Regnery.
Buenker, John D., Burnham, John C. and Crunden, Robert M.. 1977. Progressivism. Cambridge: Schenkman Publishing Company.
Burchfield, R.W. 2004. Fowler’s Modern English Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Burke, Edmund. 1973. Reflections of the Revolution in France. New York: Anchor Books.
Campbell, Angus, Converse, Philip E., Miller, Warren E. and Stokes, Donald E.. 1960. The American Voter. New York: Wiley.
Campbell, David E. and Putnam, Robert. 2011. “Crashing the Tea Party,” The New York Times. August 16, 2011. p. A23.
Carmines, Edward G. and Stimson, James A.. 1986. “On the Structure and Sequence of Issue Evolution.” The American Political Science Review. 80 901–920.
Carmines, Edward G. and Stimson, James A. 1989. Issue Evolution: Race and the Transformation of American Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Carsey, Thomas and Layman, Geoffrey. 1999. “Changing Parties or Changing Attitudes? Uncovering the Partisan Change Process.” Paper presented at the 1999 Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, IL.
Chafe, William H. 1980. Civilities and Civil Rights: Greensboro, North Carolina, and the Black struggle for equality. New York: Oxford University Press.
Charney, Evan. 2008a. “Genes and Ideologies.” Perspectives on Politics. 6 2 (June): 299–319.
Charney, Evan 2008b. “Politics, Genetics, and ‘Greedy Reductionism’.” Perspectives on Politics. 6 2 (June): 337–343.
Charney, Evan 2009. “Physiology may not be (political) destiny.” PsyCrit (February).
Charney, Evan 2011. “Political Science and Behavior Genetics: Rethinking Foundational Assumptions.” Biology and Politics: The Cutting Edge. Ed. Albert Somit and Steven A. Peterson.
Chomsky, Noam and Herman, Edward S.. 1988. Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media. New York: Pantheon.
Chong, Dennis. 1991. Collective Action and the Civil Rights Movement. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Chong, Dennis 2000. Rational Lives: Norms and Values in Politics and Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Clark, William and Golder, Matt. 2006. “Rehabilitating Duverger’s Theory: Testing the Mechanical and Strategic Modifying Effects of Electoral Laws.” Comparative Political Studies. 39: 679–708.
Clinton, Hillary. 1996. It Takes a Village and other Lessons Children Teach Us. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Clinton, Joshua, Jackman, Simon, and Rivers, Simon. 2004. “The Statistical Analysis of Legislative Behavior: A Unified Approach.” American Political Science Review. 98, 2: 355–370.
Cohen, G.A. 1995. Self-Ownership, Freedom and Equality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cohen, Joshua and Rogers, Joel. 1986. On Democracy. New York: Penguin.
Cohen, Marty. 2005. Moral Victories: Cultural Conservatism and the Creation of a New Republican Congressional Majority. Doctoral Dissertation, UCLA.
Cohen, Marty, Karol, David, Noel, Hans and Zaller, John. 2008. The Party Decides: Presidential Nominations Before and After Reform. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Cohen, Marty and Zaller, John. 2013. “The Effect of Candidate and Party Extremism In U.S. Presidential Elections.” Working Paper.
Coker, Joe L. 2007. Liquor in the Land of the Lost Cause: Southern White Evangelicals and the Prohibition Movement. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky.
Coleman, John L. 1996. Party Decline in America: Policy, Politics, and the Fiscal State. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Commanger, Henry Steele. 1967. Lester Ward and the Welfare State. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
Congressional Record. 1970. Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 91st Congress. 116, 2 (May 11): 14912.
Congressional Record 1999. Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 106th Congress. 145, 46 (March 23): 5307.
Constantini, Edmond and Craik, Kenneth H.. 1980. “Personality and Politicians: California Party Leaders, 1960–1976.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 38 641.
Converse, Philip. 1964. “The Nature of Belief Systems in Mass Publics.” Ideology and Discontent. Apter, D., eds. New York: Free Press.
Cook, Philip J. Paying the Tab: The Costs and Benefits of Alcohol Control. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Cox, Gary. 1990. “Centripetal and Centrifugal Incentives in Electoral Systems.” American Journal of Political Science. 34 (November): 902–935.
Cox, Gary 1997. Making Votes Count: Strategic Coordination in the World’s Electoral Systems. Political Economy of Institutions and Decisions. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Cox, Gary and McCubbins, Mathew. 1993. Legislative Leviathan. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Cox, Gary and McCubbins, Mathew 2006. Setting the Agenda. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cox, Gary W. and Poole, Keith T.. 2002. “On Measuring Partisanship in Roll-Call Voting: The U.S. House of Representatives, 1877–1999.” American Journal of Political Science. 46 477–489.
Croly, Herbert. 1909. The Promise of American Life. New York: The Macmillan Company.
Cropsey, Joseph. 1965. “Conservatism and Liberalism.” Left, Right and Center: Essays on Liberalism and Conservatism in the United States. Goldwin, R.A., ed. Chicago: Public Affairs Conference Center.
Dalton, Russell J. 1996. Citizen Politics: Public Opinion and Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies. 2nd ed. Chatham: Chatham House Publishers.
Daniels, Norman. 1979. “Wide Reflective Equilibrium and Theory Acceptance in Ethics.” Journal of Philosophy. 76, 5 (May): 256–282.
Davis, David Brion. 1967. Ante-Bellum Reform. New York: HarperCollins.
Den Hartog, Chris and Monroe, Nathan W. 2011. Agenda Setting in the U.S. Senate. New York: Cambridge University Press.
DiMaggio, Paul, Evans, John, and Bryson, Bethany. 1996. “Have America’s Social Attitudes become More Polarized.” American Journal of Sociology. 102 (November): 690–755.
DiStaso, John. 1992. “Merrill Taps Scamman, Strome and a Thomson.” The Union Leader. (December 31).
Downs, Anthony. 1957. An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.
Doyle, Gabe. 2009. “Singular ‘They’ and the many Reasons why It’s Correct.” Motivated Grammar. 9/10/09. Retrieved from .
Elliott, Mark Emory. 2006. Color-Blind Justice: Albion Tourgee and the Quest for Racial Equality from the Civil War to Plessy v. Ferguson. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Epstein, Richard A. 1999. “Privacy Please: Thinking about a Troublesome Concept.” National Review. (September 27): 46–49.
Eskin, Blake and The Editors of George Magazine. 1998. The Book of Political Lists. New York: Villard.
Featherstone, Liza. 2004. Selling Women Short: The Landmark Battle for Workers’ Rights at Wal-Mart. New York: Basic Books.
Feinstein, Brian and Schickler, Eric. 2008. “Platforms and Partners: The Civil Rights Realignment Reconsidered.” Studies in American Political Development. 22 1–31.
Filene, Peter G. 1970. “An Obituary for `The Progressive Movement,’” American Quarterly. 22, 1 (Spring): 20–34
Fishkin, James. 1991. Democracy and Deliberation: New Directions for Democratic Reform. New Haven: Yale University Press
Fishkin, James and Laslett, Peter, eds. 2003. Debating Deliberative Democracy. Malden: Blackwell
Fiorina, Morris P. 2005. Culture War? The Myth of a Polarized America. New York: Pearson Longman.
Flanagan, Maureen. 2006. America Reformed: Progressives and Progressivisms, 1890s–1920s. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Foner, Eric. 1980. Politics and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press.
Foner, Eric 1995. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party Before the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press.
Frank, Thomas. 2004. What’s the Matter With Kansas: How Conservatives Won the Heart of America. New York: Henry Holt.
Friedman, Milton. 1962. Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Friedman, Milton and Schwartz, Anna. 1971. A Monetary History of the United States. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Frymer, Paul. 1999. Uneasy Alliances. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Fuchs, Dieter and Klingemann, Hans-Dieter. 1990. “The Left-Right Schema.” In Continuities in Political Action: A Longitudinal Study of Political Orientations in Three Western Democracies. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Galloway, Robert. 2005. Why Wal-Mart Works: And Why That Drives Some People C-r-a-z-y. G.P. LLC.
Garth, Thomas Russell. 1931. Race Psychology: A Study of Racial Mental Differences. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Gelman, Andrew. 2008. Red State, Blue State, Rich State, Poor State: Why Americans Vote the Way They Do. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Gelman, Andrew, Carlin, John B., Stern, Hal S., and Rubin, Donald B.. 1995. Bayesian Data Analysis. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall.
Gerring, John. 1997. “Ideology: A Definitional Analysis.” Political Research Quarterly. 50, 4: 957–994.
Gerring, John. 1998. Party Ideologies in America: 1828–1996. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gienapp, William E. 1988. The Origins of the Republican Party, 1852–1856. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gilens, Martin. 2004. “Inequality and Democratic Representation: Who Gets What They Want From Government.” Working paper.
Gilmore, Glenda. 1996. Gender and Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896–1920. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Goldberg, Jonah. 2005. “What Is a ‘Conservative’? We’re Comfortable with Contradiction.” National Review Online. May 11, 2005.
Goldwater, Barry. 1960. The Conscience of a Conservative. New York: MacFadden.
Goodman, Nelson. 1955. Fact, Fiction and Forecast. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gossett, Thomas F. 1997. Race: The History of an Idea in America. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gould, Lewis L. 2001. America in the Progressive Era, 1890–1914. New York: Longman Publishing Group.
Green, John C. and Herrnson, Paul S., eds. 2002. Responsible Partisanship?: The Evolution of American Political Parties Since 1950. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
Green, John, Palmquist, Bradley, and Schickler, Eric. 2005. Partisan Hearts and Minds. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Greenberg, Jeff and Jonas, Eva. 2003. “Psychological Motives and Political Orientation – The Left, the Right and the Rigid: Comment on Jost et al.” Psychological Bulletin. 129 (May): 376–382.
Greenwald, Robert. 2005. Wal-Mart: The High Cost of Low Price. B.N. Films.
Grofman, Bernard and Taagepera, Rein. 1985. “Rethinking Duverger’s Law: Predicting Effective Number of Parties in Plurality and PR Systems – Parties Minus Issues Equals One.” European Journal of Political Research. 13: 341–352.
Groseclose, Tim, Levitt, Steve, and Snyder, James M. Jr. 1999. “Comparing Interest Group Scores across Time and Chambers: Adjusted ADA Scores For The U.S. Congress.” American Political Science Review. 93 33–50.
Groseclose, Tim and Snyder, James M. Jr. 2001. “Estimating Party Influence on Roll Call Voting: Regression Coefficients vs. Classification Success.” American Political Science Review. 95 689–698.
Guitta, Olivier. 2006. “Cartoon Jihad: Muslim Brotherhood’s Project for Dominating the West.” The Weekly Standard. February 20.
Gutmann, Amy and Thompson, Dennis. 2004. Why Deliberative Democracy? Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Habermas, Jürgen. 1981. Theory of Communicative Action Volume One: Reason and the Rationalization of Society. Translated by Thomas A. McCarthy. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
Habermas, Jürgen 1992. On the Pragmatics of Communication. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Hartz, Louis. 1991. Liberal Tradition in America: An Interpretation of American Political Thought Since the Revolution. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Head, Simon. 2004. “Inside the Leviathan.” The New York Review of Books. December 16.
Heaney, Michael and Rojas, Fabio. 2009 “Technology, Structure, and Heterogeneity among American Antiwar Organizations. Research in the Sociology of Organizations. 26: 221–247.
Heaney, Michael and Rojas, Fabio 2011. “The Partisan Dynamics of Contention: Demobilization of the Antiwar Movement in the United States, 2007–2009.” Mobilization: An International Journal. 16, 1: 41–54.
Heston, Charlton. 1999. “Winning the Cultural War.” Speech delivered February 16, 1999, Austin Hall, Harvard Law School. Retrieved from Online Speech Bank: .
Hetherington, Marc. 2001. “Resurgent Mass Partisanship: The Role of Elite Polarization.” American Political Science Review. 95 619–631.
Hinich, Melvin J. and Munger, Michael C.. 1994. Ideology and the Theory of Political Choice. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Hix, Simon. 1999. “Dimensions and Alignments in European Union Politics: Cognitive Constraints and Partisan Responses,” European Journal of Political Research. 35, 1: 69–106.
Hofstadter, Richard, Miller, William and Aaron, Daniel. 1959. The American Republic. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
Holt, Michael F. 1999. The Rise and Fall of the American Whig Party: Jacksonian Politics and the Onset of the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press.
Inglehart, Ronald. 1984. “The Changing Structure of Political Cleavages in Western Society.” Electoral Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies: Realignment or Dealignment? R.Dalton, J., Flanagan, S.C., and Beck, P.A., eds. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Inglehart, Ronald and Klingemann, Hans-Dieter. 1976. “Party Identification, Ideological Preference and the Left-Right Dimension among Western Mass Publics.” In Party Identification and Beyond: Representations of Voting and Party Competition, ed. Ian Budge, Ivor Crewe and Dennis Farlie. London: John Wiley Sons.
Israel, Jerry. 1971. Progressivism and the Open Door: America and China, 1905–1921. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Jacobson, Gary C. 2000. “Party Polarization in National Politics: The Electoral Connection.” Polarized Politics: Congress and the President in a Partisan Era. Bond, J.R. and Fleisher, R., eds. Washington: CQ Press.
Jacobson, Gary C. 2004. “Explaining the Ideological Polarization of the Congressional Parties since the 1970s.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Conference, American Political Science Association meeting, Washington, D.C.
Jacobson, Gary C. 2011. “The President, the Tea Party, and Voting Behavior in 2010: Insights from the Cooperative Congressional Election Study.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of American Political Science Association, Seattle, WA.
James, Scott. 1997. “A Theory of Presidential Commmitment and Opportunism.” UCLA ms.
Jay, Anthony. 2001. Oxford Dictionary of Political Quotations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Johnson, Donald Bruce and Porter, Kirk H, eds. 1973. National Party Platforms: 1840–1972. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Jost, John T., Jack Glaser, Kruglanski, Arie W., and Sulloway, Frank J.. 2003. “Political Conservatism as Motivated Social Cognition.” Psychological Bulletin. 129 (May): 339–375.
Karol, David. 2009. Party Position Change in American Politics: Coalition Management. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kellerman, Mike. 2005. “Estimating Ideal Points in the British House of Commons Using Early Day Motions.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Conference, Location.
Key, V.O., Jr. 1949. Southern Politics in State and Nation. New York: Vintage Books.
Key, V.O., Jr. 1952. Politics, Parties, and Pressure Groups. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company.
Keyes, Ralph. 2006. The Quote Verifier: Who Said What, Where, and When. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin.
King, Desmond and Smith, Rogers. 2011. Still a House Divided: Race and Politics in Obama’s America. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
King, Gary, Murray, Christopher J.L., Salomon, Joshua A., and Tandon, Ajay. 2003. “Enhancing the Validity and Cross-Cultural Comparability of Survey Research.” American Political Science Review. 97: 191–207.
King, Gary and Wand, Jonathan. Forthcoming. “Comparing Incomparable Survey Responses: New Tools for Anchoring Vignettes.” Political Analysis.
Kingdon, John W. 1984. Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies. Boston: Little, Brown.
Kirk, Russell. 1953. The Conservative Mind. Washington, DC: Regnery.
Klausen, Jytte. 2006. “Rotten Judgment in the State of Denmark.” Salon, February 8.
Klineberg, Otto. 1951. Race and Psychology. New York: UNESCO.
Koger, Gregory. 2010. Filibustering: A Political History of Obstruction in the House and Senate. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Krehbiel, Keith. 1993. “Where’s the Party?British Journal of Political Science. 23 235–266.
Krutz, Glen S. 2000. “Congressional Leaders and the Winnowing of Legislation.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Conference, Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, IL.
Lakoff, George. 2006. Moral Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lawrence, Eric. D., Maltzman, Forrest, and Smith, Steven S.. 1999. “Who Wins? Party Effects in Legislative Voting.” Paper presented at the 1999 Midwest Political Science Association Conference, Chicago, IL.
Layman, Geoffrey C., Carsey, Thomas M., Green, John C., Herrera, Richard, and Cooperman, Rosalyn. 2010. “Activists and Conflict Extension in American Party Politics,” American Political Science Review. 104, 2: 324–346.
Layman, Geoffrey, Herrera, R., Carsey, Thomas, and Green, John. 2003. “The New Party Professionals? An Initial Look at National Convention Delegates in 2000 and over Time.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Conference, Society of Political Methodology annual meeting. Tallahassee, FL.
Lee, Frances E. 2010. Beyond Ideology: Politics, Principles, and Partisanship in the U. S. Senate. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Leuchtenburg, William E. 1952. “Progressivism and Imperialism: The Progressive Movement and American Foreign Policy, 1898–1916.” The Mississippi Valley Historical Review. 39, 3: 483–504.
Levendusky, Matt. 2009. The Partisan Sort. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Levendusky, Matt, Pope, Jeremy, and Jackman, Simon. 2005. “Measuring District Level Preferences with Implications for the Analysis of U.S. Elections.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Conference, Southern Political Science Associate Meeting, Atlanta, GA.
Levy, David W. 1985. Herbert Croly of the New Republic. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Liberman, Mark and Pullum, Geoffrey K.. 2006. Far from the Madding Gerund and Other Dispatches from Language Log. Sherwood: William, James & Company.
Lijphart, Arend. 1984. Democracies: Patterns of Majoritarian and Consensus Government in Twenty-One Countries. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Lijphart, Arend. 1999. Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Link, Arthur S. 1954. Woodrow Wilson and the Progressive Era, 1910–1917. Norwalk: The Easton Press.
Link, Arthur S. and McCormick, Richard L.. 1983. Progressivism. Arlington Heights: Arlan Davidson.
Lipset, Seymour Martin and Rokkan, Stein. 1967. “Cleavage Structures, Party Systems, and Voter Alignments: An Introduction.” In Party Systems and Voter Alignments: Cross-National Perspectives, ed. Seymour Martin Lipset and Stein Rokkan. New York: The Free Press.
Locke, John. 1960. Two Treatises of Government. New York: The New American Library.
Londregan, John. 2000. “Estimating Legislators’ Preferred Points.” Political Analysis. 8 35–56.
Lowndes, Joseph. 2004. The Southern Origins of Modern Conservatism: 1945–1976. Dissertation, Political Science, New School, New York.
Luker, Kristin. 1984. Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Making of America. 2005. Ithaca: Cornell University Library.
Mannheim, Karl. 1955. Ideology and Utopia. New York: Brace and Company.
Marshall, Bryan W. 1999. Leadership Strategies and the Endogenous Effects of Partisanship in the House of Representatives: A Longitudinal Analysis of Special Rules. City: Michigan State University – Political Institutions and Public Choice. East Lansing, MI.
Marshall, Paul. 2006. “The Mohammed Cartoons: Western Governments Have Nothing to Apologize For.” The Weekly Standard. February 13.
Martin, Andrew D. and Quinn, Kevin M.. 2002. “Dynamic Ideal Point Estimation via Markov Chain Monte Carlo for the U.S. Supreme Court, 1953–1999.” Political Analysis. 10 134–153.
Masket, Seth E. 2009. No Middle Ground. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Masket, Seth E. and Noel, Hans. 2012. Serving Two Masters: Using Referenda to Assess Partisan versus Dyadic Legislative Representation. Political Research Quarterly. (Published online March 2, 2011).
May, John D. 1965. “Democracy, Organization, Michels.” The American Political Science Review. 59 417–429.
Mayhew, David R. 1974. Congress: The Electoral Connection. New Haven, London: Yale University Press.
Mayhew, David R. 2002. Electoral Realignments: A Critique of an American Genre. New Haven: Yale University Press.
McCarty, Nolan M., Poole, Keith T., and Rosenthal, Howard. 2001. “The Hunt for Party Discipline in Congress.” The American Political Science Review. 95: 673–687.
McCarty, Nolan, Poole, Keith T., and Rosenthal, Howard. 2006. Polarized America: The Dance of Ideology and Unequal Riches. Boston: MIT Press.
McCloskey, Herbert. 1958. “Conservatism and Personality.” American Political Science Review. 52 (March): 27–45.
McKee, James B. 1993. Sociology and the Race Problem: The Failure of a Perspective. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
McKelvey, Richard. 1976. “Intransitivities in Multi-dimensional Voting Models and Some Implications for Agenda Control.” Journal of Economic Theory. 18 (January): 1–22.
McRae, Kenneth D. 1986. Conflict and Compromise in Multilingual Societies: Belgium. Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.
McFadden, Daniel. 1973. “Conditional Logit Analysis of Qualitative Choice Behavior.” Frontiers in Econometrics. Ed. Zarembka, P.. New York: Academic Press.
McGirr, Lisa. 2002. Suburban Warriors: The Origins of the New American Right. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
McMahon, Kevin. 2005. Reconsidering Roosevelt on Race: How the Presidency Paved the Road to Brown. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Merrill, Samuel III and Adams, James. 2001. “Computing Nash equilibria in probabilistic, multiparty spatial models with nonpolicy components.” Political Analysis. 9 : 347–361.
Miller, Gary and Schofield, Norman. 2003. “Activists and Partisan Realignment in the United States.” American Political Science Review. 97, 2: 245–260.
Morone, James A. 2004. Hellfire Nation: The Politics of Sin in American History. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Muirhead, Russell. 2006. “A Defense of Party Spirit.” Perspectives on Politics. 4, 713–727.
Murphy, Reg and Gulliver, Hal. 1971. Southern Strategy. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
Myrdal, Gunnar. 1944. An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy. New York: Harper & Row.
Nash, George H. 1996. The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America since 1945. Wilmington, DE: Intercollegiate Studies Institute.
The Nation. 2006. “The Cartoon Bomb.” The Nation, February 27.
National Review. 2006. “Culture War.” National Review, February 27.
National Review 1955. “Our Mission Statement,” National Review Online, November 19.
The New-Englander. 1850. “The Hand of God in the Gold Region.” The New-Englander. (February): 80–89.
The New York Times. 1852. “South Carolina.” The New York Times, May 7.
Nie, Norman, Verba, Sidney, and Petrocik, John. 1976. The Changing American Voter. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Noel, Hans. 2001. “Issue-based vs. Ideology-based Spatial Competition: Racial Intolerance and the Right in 16 Democracies.” Paper prepared for the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington, DC.
Noel, Hans 2012a. “The Coalition Merchants: The Ideological Roots of the Civil Rights Realignment.” Journal of Politics. 74, 1: 156–173.
Noel, Hans 2012b. “Which Long Coalition: The Creation of the Anti-Slavery Coalition.” Party Politics. Published online February 27. DOI: 10.1177/1354068811436031.
Nordlinger, Jay. 2004. “The New Colossus.” National Review, April 19.
North, Douglass C. 1990. Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Okrent, Daniel. 2010. Last Call: The Rise and Fall of Prohibition. New York: Scribner.
Oxford University Press. 1979. The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Oxley, D.R., Smith, K.B., Alford, J.R., Hibbing, M.V., Miller, J.L., Scalora, M., Hatemi, P.K., and Hibbing, J.R.. “Political Attitudes Vary with Physiological Traits.”Science. 321, 5896 (September 19): 1667–1670.
Patty, John. 2006. Conditional Partisanship: Looking for Partisan Effects on Roll Call Votes in the U.S. House.
Pegram, Thomas R. 1998. Battling Demon Rum. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee.
Peress, Michael. Forthcoming. “Estimating Proposal and Status Quo Locations using Voting and Cosponsorship Data.” Journal of Politics.
Perrin, Andrew J., Tepper, Steven J., Caren, Neal and Morris, Sally. 2011 “Cultures of the Tea Party.” Contexts. 10 2 (May) 74–75.
Petrocik, John. 1987. “Realignment: New Party Coalitions and the Nationalization of the South.” Journal of Politics. 49: 347–375.
Pole, J.R. 1978. The Pursuit of Equality in American History. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Polsby, Nelson W. and Wildavsky, Aaron B.. 1968. Presidential Elections: Strategies of American Electoral Politics. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
Poole, Keith. 1999. “NOMINATE: A Short Intellectual History.” The Political Methodologist. 9, 1: 2–5.
Poole, Keith 2000. “Non-Parametric Unfolding of Binary Choice Data.” Political Analysis. 8 211–237.
Poole, Keith and Rosenthal, Howard. 1997. Congress: A Political-Economic History of Roll Call Voting. New York: Oxford University Press.
Poole, Keith T. and Rosenthal, Howard. 1991. “Patterns of Congressional Voting.” American Journal of Political Science. 35 228–278.
Poole, Keith T. and Rosenthal, Howard 2007. Ideology and Congress. London: Transaction Publishers.
Portis, Edward Bryan, Gundersen, Adolf G., Shively, Ruth Lessl, eds. 2000. Political Theory and Partisan Politics. New York: State University of New York Press.
Rauchway, Eric. 1997. “Willard Straight and the Paradox of Liberal Imperialism.” Pacific Historical Review. 66, 3 (August): 363–397.
Rawls, John. 1958. “Justice as Fairness.” Philosophical Review. 67 (April): 164–194.
Rawls, John 1971. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge: Belknap.
Rawls, John 1995. Political Liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press.
Rawls, John 2001. Justice as Fairness: A Restatement. Cambridge: Belknap Press.
Ritter, Gretchen. 1997. Goldbugs and Greenbacks: The Antimonopoly Tradition and the Politics of Finance in America, 1865–1896. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Riker, William. 1962. The Theory of Political Coalitions. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Riker, William 1982. Liberalism Against Populism: A Confrontation between the Theory of Democracy and the Theory of Social Choice. Prospect Heights: Waveland Press.
Riker, William 1989. “Heresthetic and Rhetoric in the Spatial Model.” Advances in the Spatial Theory of Voting. Enelow, J. and Hinich, M., eds. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Rivers, Doug. 2003. “Identification of Multidimensional Spatial Voting Models.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Conference, American Political Science Association.
Roche, John P. 1961. “The Founding Fathers: A Reform Caucus in Action.” American Political Science Review. 55, 4: 799–816.
Rohde, David W. 1991. Parties and Leaders in the Postreform House. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Rongy, A.J. 1933. Abortion: Legal or Illegal? New York: The Vanguard Press.
Rosenblum, Nancy L. 2008. On the Side of Angels: An Appreciation of Parties and Partisanship. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Santorum, Rick. 2005. It Takes a Family: Conservatism and the Common Good. Wilmington, DE: Intercollegiate Studies Institute.
Scammon, Richard M. and Wattenberg, Ben J.. 1971. The Real Majority: An Extraordinary Examination of the American Electorate. New York: Coward, McCann and Georghegan, Inc.
Schattschneider, E.E. 1942. Party Government. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Schattschneider, E.E. 1960. The Semisovereign people. Hinsdale: The Dryden Press.
Schickler, Eric. 2012. “New Deal Liberalism and Racial Liberalism in the Mass Public, 1937–1968.” UC Berkeley Manuscript.
Schickler, Eric and Caughey, Devin. 2011. “Public Opinion, Organized Labor, and the Limits of New Deal Liberalism, 1936–1945.” Studies in American Political Development. 25: 162–189.
Schickler, Eric and Jenkins, Jeffery A.. 2000. “In Search of Party Effects: Measuring Party Homogeneity and Unity across Time.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Conference, Society for Political Methodology, Tallahassee, FL.
Schickler, Eric, Pearson, Kathryn, and Feinstein, Brian. 2010. “Congressional Parties and Civil Rights Politics from 1933–1972.” The Journal of Politics. 72, 3: 672–689.
Schickler, Eric and Rich, Andrew. 1997. “Controlling the Floor: Parties as Procedural Coalitions in the House.” American Journal of Political Science. 41 1340–1375.
Schlesinger, Arthur. 1949. The Vital Center: The Politics of Freedom. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.
Schofield, Norman, and Miller, Gary. 2007. “Elections and Activist Coalitions in the United States.” American Journal of Political Science. 51: 518–531.
Schofield, Norman and Sened, Itai. 2005. “Multiparty Competition in Israel, 1988–1996.” British Journal of Political Science. 35 635–663.
Schreiber, Darren, Fonzo, Greg, Simmons, Alan N., Dawes, Christopher T., Flagan, Taru, Fowler, James H., Paulus, Martin P.. 2013. “Red Brain, Blue Brain: Evaluative Processes Differ in Democrats and Republicans.” PLoS ONE. 8, 2: e52970. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052970.
Schwartz, Thomas. 1989. Why Parties? UCLA manuscript.
Sears, David O., Lau, Richard R., Tyler, Tom R., and Allen, Harris M. Jr. 1980. “Self-Interest vs. Symbolic Politics in Policy Attitudes and Presidential Voting.” American Political Science Review. 74 (September): 670–684.
Shor, Boris, Berry, Christopher, and McCarty, Nolan. 2010. “A Bridge to Somewhere: Mapping State and Congressional Ideology on a Cross-Institutional Common Space.” Legislative Studies Quarterly. 35 417–448.
Sinclair, Barbara. 1995. Legislators, Leaders, and Lawmaking. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Sinclair, Barbara 2000. “Do Parties Matter?” Essays on the History of Congress. and, D.W.B.McCubbins, M.D., eds. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.
Sitkoff, Harvard. 1971. “Harry Truman and the Election of 1948: The Coming of Age of Civil Rights in American Politics.” Journal of Southern History. 37 597–616.
Smith, George Horsley and Davis, Richard P.. 1947. “Do the Voters Want the Parties Changed?Public Opinion Quarterly. 11: 236–243.
Smith, Steven S. 2000. “Positive Theories of Congressional Parties.” Legislative Studies Quarterly. XXV 193–215.
Snyder, James M. 1992. “Committee Power, Structure Induced Equilibrium, and Roll Call Votes.” American Journal of Political Science. 36: 1–30.
Snyder, James M., Jr. and Groseclose, Tim. 2000. “Estimating Party Influence on Congressional Roll-Call Voting.” American Journal of Political Science. 44, 2: 187–205.
Southern, David W. 2005. The Progressive Era and Race: Reaction and Reform 1900–1917. Wheeling: Harlan Davidson.
Stenner, Karen. 2005. The Authoritarian Dynamic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Stewart, Charles III. 1999. “The Inefficient Secret: Organizing for Business in the U.S. House of Representatives, 1789–1861.” Paper delivered at the American Political Science Association annual meeting, Atlanta, GA.
Stocking, George W., Jr. 1994. “The Turn-of-the-Century Concept of Race.” Modernism/Modernity. 1, 1: 4–16.
Stoll, Heather. 2011. “Dimensionality and the Number of Parties in Legislative Elections.” Party Politics. 17, 3: 405–430.
Sullivan, Andrew. 2005. “Crisis of Faith.” The New Republic, May.
Sullivan, Andrew 2006. The Conservative Soul: How We Lost It, How to Get It BackNew York: HarperCollins.
Sumner, William Graham. 1883. The Absurd Effort to Make the World Over. New York: Harper and Bros.
Sumner, William Graham 1883. What Social Classes Owe to Each Other. New York: Harper and Bros.
Sundquist, James L. 1983. Dynamics of the Party System: Alignment and Realignment of Political Parties in the United States. Washington: Brookings Institution.
Theriault, Sean M. 2006. “Party Polarization in the U.S. Congress: Member Replacement and Member Adaptation.” Party Politics. 12 (July): 483–503.
Toppo, Greg. 2005. “Education Dept. Paid Commentator to Promote Law.” USA Today, January 7.
Train, Kenneth. 1986. Qualitative Choice Analysis. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Treier, Shawn and Jackman, Simon. 2002. “Beyond Factor Analysis: Modern Tools for Social Measurement.” Paper prepared for the Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, IL.
Tsebelis, George. 1990. Nested Games. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
The United States Democratic Review. 1850. “Land and Labor Reform.” The United States Democratic Review. (October): 291–304.
The United States Democratic Review 1850. “The New Navigation Acts.” The United States Democratic Review. (January): 60–72.
The United States Democratic Review 1850Stability of the Union.” The United States Democratic Review. (January): 1–17.
Wall Street Journal. 1972. “The Heart of Women’s Lib.” (October 6); ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The Wall Street Journal (1889–1995): 12.
Wall Street Journal 1973. “Abortion and Privacy.” (January 26); ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The Wall Street Journal (1889–1995): 12.
Wall Street Journal 1974. “Fetuses and Research.” (April 30); ProQuest Historical Newspapers The Wall Street Journal (1889–1993): 22.
Wall Street Journal 1980. “The Social Issue.” (October 13); ProQuest Historical Newspapers The Wall Street Journal (1889–1993): 18.
Wall Street Journal 1981. “An Abortion Non-Battle.” (June 4); ProQuest Historical Newspapers The Wall Street Journal (1889–1993): 26.
Wall Street Journal 1989. “The Adoption Option.” (July 7); ProQuest Historical Newspapers The Wall Street Journal (1889–1993): A8.
Wall Street Journal 2006. “Clash of Civilization.” The Wall Street Journal, February 11.
Ward, Lester. 1883. Dynamic Sociology, Vol. 1. New York: D. Appleton and Company.
Ward, Lester 1897. Dynamic Sociology, Vol. 2. New York: D. Appleton and Company.
Ward, Lester 1903. Pure Sociology: A Treatise on the Origin and Spontaneous Development of Society. New York: Macmillan.
Ward, Lester 1906. Applied Sociology: A Treatise on the Conscious Improvement of Society by Society. Boston: Ginn & Company.
Wattenberg, Martin. 1984. The Decline of American Political Parties. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Wattenberg, Martin 1991. The Rise of Candidate-Centered Politics: Presidential Elections of the 1980s. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Wattenberg, Martin 1996. The Decline of American Political Parties: 1952–1994. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Weingast, Barry. 1979. “A Rational Choice Perspective on Congressional Norms.” American Journal of Political Science. 23, 2.
Weingast, Barry 1998. “Political Stability and Civil War: Institutions, Commitment and American Democracy.” Analytic Narratives. Bates, R.H., Greif, A., Levi, M., Rosenthal, J.-L., and Weingast, B.R., eds. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Weisberg, Jacob. 2006. “Warming to Gore: The Loser of the 2000 Election May Yet Be the Winner.” Slate, May 31.
White, Theodore H. 1965. The Making of the President 1964. New York: Athenum Publishers.
Whitten, Guy and Palmer, Glenn. 1996. “Heightening Comparativists’ Concern for Model Choice: Voting Behavior in Great Britain and the Netherlands.” American Journal of Political Science. 40 231–260.
Williams, R. Hal. 1978. Years of Decision: American Politics in the 1890s. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Williamson, Vanessa, and Skocpol, Theda. 2012. The Tea Party and the Remaking of Republican Conservatism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wolbrecht, Christina. 2000. The Politics of Women’s Rights: Parties, Positions, and Change. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Young, Alison. 1983. The Reselection of MPs. London: Heinemann Educational Books.
Young, Iris Marion. 2000. Inclusion and Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Younge, Gary. 2006. “The Right to Be Offended.” The Nation, February 27.
Zaller, John. 2004. “Floating Voters in U.S. Presidential Elections, 1948–2000.” Studies in Public Opinion : Attitudes, Nonattitudes, Measurement Error, and Change. Sniderman, P., and Saris, W., eds. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Zaller, John R. 1992. The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.