2003. “Revisiting the Security/Identity Puzzle in Russo-Estonian Relations,” Journal of Peace Research, 40(5): 573–591.
2000. “The Muslim Minority of Greek Thrace.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Bergen.
2003. Ethnic Rivalry and Quest for Macedonia, 1870–1913. Boulder, Colo.: East European Monographs.
2012. “Urban Space and Bulgarian-Greek Antagonism in Thrace, 1870–1912,” presented at the The Balkans: From Academic Field to International Politics Workshop, a joint workshop by Ecole Française d’Athènes and British School of Athens, (Athens, 17–19 April). Available at: .
Ai Agoreuseis tou Ellinikou Koinovouliou, 1909–1956 [The Greek Parliament Speeches]. 1957. Vol. 3. Athens: Ethnikos Kirix.
2006. A Shameful Act: The Armenian Genocide and the Question of Turkish Responsibility, trans. . New York: Henry Holt.
2009. “Muslim Representation in the Three Ottoman Vilayets of Macedonia: Administration and Military Power (1878–1908),” Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 29 (December): 443–54.
2007. “Continuity and Change in the Regimes of Ethnicity in Austria, Germany, USSR/Russia, and Turkey: Varieties of Ethnic Regimes and Hypotheses for Change,” Nationalities Papers, 35(1, March): 23–49.
2011. “Regimes of Ethnicity: Comparative Analysis of Germany, the Soviet Union/Post-Soviet Russia, and Turkey,” World Politics, 61(1, January): 115–164.
1997. “Rethinking Assimilation Theory for a New Era of Migration,” International Migration Review, 31(4): 826–874., and .
2003. Remaking the American Mainstream: Assimilation and Contemporary Immigration. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press., and .
2003. The Size of Nations. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT University Press., and .
2003. “Fractionalization.” Journal of Economic Growth, 8 June: 155–194., , , , and .
1994. Nationalism. London: Edward Arnold.
2005. “Koinonikes sygkrouseis kai politikes symperifores stin periohi tis Kastorias, 1922–1949” [Social Conflicts and Political Behaviors in the Area of Kastoria, 1922–1949]. Ph.D. dissertation, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.
2001. Irredentis Ethnic Conflict and International Politics. Wesport, Conn., and London: Praeger.
2005. “Nationalist Legacies and European Trajectories in the Balkans: Post-Communist Liberalization and Turkish Minority Politics in Bulgaria,” Southeast Europe and Black Sea Studies, 5(1): 87–109.
2007. “Development, Discrimination and Reverse Discrimination: The Effects of EU Integration and Regional Change on the Muslims of Southeast Europe,” in and (eds.), Islam in Europe: Diversity, Identity, and Influence. New York: Cambridge University Press.
1983. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism. New York: Verso.
1967. Issues of Political Development. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall., , and .
1997. “Draft on Albania (1939),” in (ed.), Kosovo: In the Heart of the Powder Keg. Boulder, Colo.: East European Monographs, 435–448.
1995. Comparing the Policy of Aboriginal Assimilation: Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
1928. “Italy, Jugoslavia and Lilliputia,” Foreign Affairs, 6(2): 191–202.
1982. Nations before Nationalism. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
1966. “Social Class, Political Class, Ruling Class,” in and (eds.), Class, Status and Power. New York: Free Press, 201–210.
1996. Parties and Democracy in the Post-Soviet Republics: The Case of Estonia. Aldershot, UK: Darmouth Publishing.
1964. Moscow: Miklukho-Maklai Ethnological Institute at the Department of Geodesy and Cartography of the State Geological Committee of the Soviet Union.
1996. “Fan Noli, Albania and the Soviet Union,” East European Quarterly, 30(2): 153–169.
2004. “Greater Albania: The Albanian State and the Question of Kosovo, 1912–2001,” in and , Ideologies and National Identities: The Case of Twentieth-Century Southeastern Europe. Budapest: Central European University Press, 235–253.
1945. League of Nations and National Minorities: An Experiment, trans. . Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
2000. “The Albanians of Kosovo and Macedonia: Ethnic Identity Superseding Religion,” Nationalities Papers, 28(1): 67–92.
“Bahrain Hints at Iranian Role over Country’s Shia Uprising,” 2011. Guardian, 21 March. Available at: .
1984. The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics. Ithaca, N.Y., and London: Cornell University Press.
1995. “Nationalism in Southeastern Europe,” in (ed.), Nationalism and Nationalities in the New Europe. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 107–121, 207–208.
2006. “The Politics of National Homogeneity,” in (ed.), War and Change in the Balkans. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 30–43.
1950. Macedonia: Its Place in Balkan Power Politics. London and New York: Royal Institute of International Affairs/Oxford University Press.
1968. Intervention and Revolution: America’s Confrontation with Insurgent Movements around the World. New York: New American Library/World Publishing.
2011. Empire of Humanity: A History of Humanitarianism. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
1995. “The Domestic and International Consequences of Citizenship in the Soviet Successor States,” Europe-Asia Studies, 47(5): 731–763.
1970. The League of Nations and the Great Powers: The Greek-Bulgarian Incident, 1925. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
1998 . Ethnic Groups and Boundaries. Prospect Heights, Ill.: Waveland Press.
1996. Murder in Our Midst: The Holocaust, Industrial Killing, and Representation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
1991. Kosovo i Metohija u srpsko-arbanaškim odnosima [Kosovo and Metohija in Serb-Albanian Relations]. Priština: Jedinstvo.
“Kosovo and Metohija: A Historical Survey.” Available at: .
1992. Greater Serbia: From Ideology to Aggression. Zagreb: Croatian Information Centre. (ed.).
2009. Responsibility to Protect: The Global Effort to End Mass Atrocities. Cambridge: Polity Press.
1969. Nation-Building and Citizenship: Studies of Our Changing Social Order. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books.
2004. The Rights of Others. New York: Cambridge University Press.
1999. Estonia’s Northeastern Periphery in Politics: Socio-Economic and Ethnic Dimensions. Tartu: Dissertationes Geographicae Universitatis Tartuensis.
2001. “Ethnic Mobilization in Flux: Revisiting Peripheriality and Minority Discontent in Estonia,” Space & Polity, 5(1): 5–26.
2002. “Borders and Orders in Europe: Limits of Nation- and State-Building in Estonia, Macedonia and Moldova,” Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, 18(4): 51–74., and .
2000. “Muslim Identity in the Balkans before the Establishment of Nation States,” Nationalities Papers, 28(1): 13–28.
2007. “Vladko Maček and the Croat Political Right, 1928–1941,” Contemporary European History, 16(2): 203–213.
1978. “Minority Nationalist Movements and Theories of Political Integration,” World Politics, 30(3): 325–344.
2011. “A-MAR (All-Minorities at Risk): Addressing the Selection Bias Issue.” Unpublished manuscript., , , , , , , and .
1997. “The Situation of the Albanian Minority in Yugoslavia. Memorandum presented to the League of Nations (1930),” in (ed.), Kosovo: In the Heart of the Powder Keg. Boulder, Colo.: East European Monographs, 361–399., , and .
2000. The History of Poland. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.
2002. Maps and Politics. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press.
2005. The Marketing of Rebellion: Insurgents, Media, and International Activism. New York: Cambridge University Press.
2010. Atlas des nations sans état en Europe: peuples minoritaires en quête de reconnaissance. Fouenant: Yoran Embanner.
1986. Knjiga o Kosovu (Book on Kosovo). Belgrade. Available at: .
1906. Macedonia: Its Races and Their Future. London: Metheun.
1991. Ethnicity and Nationalis Theory and Comparison. New Delhi and Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage.
1997. Theft of an Idol. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
2000. Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire: The Functioning of a Plural Society. New York: Holmes & Meir., and .
1980. On History, Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press.
2008. “Canadian Government Apologizes for Abuse of Indigenous People,” Washington Post, 12 June: A01.
1996. The International Dimensions of Internal Conflict. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. (ed.).
1997. Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. (ed.).
2004. The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939–March 1942. London: William Heinemann., and
1992. Citizenship and Nationhood in France and Germany. Cambridge, Mass., and London: Harvard University Press.
1993. “National Minorities, Nationalizing States, and External Homelands in the New Europe. Notes toward a Relational Analysis,” Reihe Politikwissenschaft No. 11. Institut für Höhere Studien.
1996. Nationalism Reframed: Nationhood and the National Question in the New Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press.
1998. “Migrations of Ethnic Unmixing in the ‘New Europe,’” International Migration Review 32(4, Winter): 1047–1065.
2003. States, Nations, and Borders: The Ethics of Making Boundaries. New York: Cambridge University Press., and (eds.).
2009. “Territorial Conflict and Ethnic Cleansing.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago.
1997. Italian Foreign Policy in the Interwar Period, 1918–1940. Westport, Conn.: Praeger.
2007. Understanding Proto-Insurgencies. National Security Research Division, RAND Corporation.
1998. “Why They Fight: Hypotheses on the Causes of Contemporary Deadly Conflict,” Security Studies, 7(3): 1–50., and .
2001. Trends in Outside Support for Insurgent Movements. National Security Research Division, RAND Corporation., , , , and .
2009. Reflections on the Revolution in Europe: Immigration, Islam, and the West. New York: Doubleday.
1990. “Rethinking Sovereignty in a Shrinking, Fragmented World,” in and (eds.), Contending Sovereignties. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 13–44.
1997. “The Politics of Integration and Assimilation vis-à-vis the Slavo-Macedonian Minority of Inter-war Greece: From Parliamentary Inertia to Metaxist Repression,” in and (eds.), Ourselves and Others: The Development of a Greek Macedonian Cultural Identity since 1912. Mackridge, Oxford, and New York: Berg, 59–78.
2006. Who Intervenes? Ethnic Conflict and Interstate Crisis. Columbus: Ohio State University Press., , and .
1914. Report of the International Commission to Inquire into the Causes and Conduct of the Balkan Wars. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace..
2010. “Why Do Ethnic Groups Rebel? New Data and Analysis,” World Politics 62(1): 87–119., , and .
2001. “Symposium: Cumulative Findings in the Study of Ethnic Politics,” APSA-CP 12. (ed.).
1985. Turning the Tide: U.S. Intervention in Central America and the Struggle for Peace. Boston: South End Press.
1993/1994. “Humanitarian Intervention,” Boston Review, 18: 3–6.
2006. Twice a Stranger: The Mass Expulsions That Forged Modern Greece and Turkey. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
2008. “Behind the Veil: The Reform of Islam in Inter-War Albania or the Search for A ‘Modern’ and ‘European’ Islam,” in and (eds.), Islam in Inter-war Europe. New York: Columbia University Press, 128–155.
2002. Minorities in Greece: Aspects of a Plural Society. London: C. Hurst. (ed.).
1828. Greek Revolution: Compiled from Official Documents of the Greek Government. New York: William W. Reed.
1972. “Nation-Building or Nation-Destroying?” World Politics, 24(3): 319–355.
1973. “The Politics of Ethnonationalism,” Journal of International Affairs 27(1): 1–21.
1976. “United Nations Peacekeeping and Peacemaking and the Cyprus Question,” Western Political Quarterly, 29(3): 457–473..
1997. “The Expulsion of the Albanians: Memorandum presented in Belgrade on 7 March 1937,” in (ed.), Kosovo: In the Heart of the Powder Keg. Boulder, Colo.: East European Monographs, 400–424.
1992. Yugoslavia: A Country Study. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. (ed.).
1966. The Greek Struggle in Macedonia 1897–1913. Thessaloniki: Institute for Balkan Studies.
1987. Five Point Peace Plan. Address to the U.S. Congressional Human Rights Caucus. Available at: ..
1995. The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
forthcoming. Resisting Occupation: Mass Literacy and the Creation of Durable National Loyalties. New York: Cambridge University Press.
2012. “The Promethean Dilemma: Third-Party State-Building in Occupied Territories,” Ethnopolitics, 1 (March): 85–93., and .
1991. Choosing Sides: Alignment and Realignment in the Third World. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.
2002. “The Roots of Revisionism: Fascist Italy, 1922–39,” Security Studies, 11(4): 125–159.
1997. “Ethnicity Matters: Transnational Ethnic Alliances and Foreign Policy Behavior,” International Studies Quarterly, 41(1): 171–184., and ,
2008. Le piège du Kosovo. Paris: Non Lieu.
1965. Nationalism and Social Communication. Cambridge, Mass.: Technology Press.
1963. Nation-Building. New York: Atherton Press., and (eds.).
2004. Xinjiang: China’s Muslim Far Northwest. London and New York: RoutledgeCurzon.
1995. Hellada kai Meionotetes: to systema Diethnous Prostasias ton Ethnon [Greece and Minorities: The League of Nation’s International Protection System]. Athens: Nefeli.
1991. The Contested Country: Yugoslav Unity and Communist Revolution, 1919–1953. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
2003. “(Dis)Integrating Yugoslavia: King Alexander and Interwar Yugoslavism,” in (ed.), Yugoslavism: Histories of a Failed Idea, 1918–1992. London: C. Hurst, 136–156.
2010. Nikola Pašić and Ante Trubić: The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. London: Haus Publishing.
2003. America’s Role in Nation-Building: From Germany to Iraq. Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation., , , , , , , and .
2005. The UN’s Role in Nation-Building: From the Congo to Iraq. Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation., , , , , , and .
2007. The Beginner’s Guide to Nation-Building. Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation., , , and .
2004. “Preparing Leaders for Nationbuilding,” Military Review, 84 (May/June): 24–26.
1998. The Myth of the Global Corporation. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press., , and .
1998. “By the Numbers: Ethnic Groups in the World,” Scientific American Magazine, September.
2006. “Desperate Times, Desperate Measures: The Causes of Civilian Victimization in War,” International Security, 30(4): 152–195.
2008. Targeting Civilians in War. >Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
1974. Serbia, Nikola Pašić, and Yugoslavia. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.
1983. The First Yugoslavia. Search for a Viable Political System. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press.
1921. La question d’orient: depuis ses origines jusqu’a la Paix de Sèvres (1920). Paris: Alcan.
2010. Crime of Numbers: The Role of Statistics in the Armenian Question (1878–1918). New Brunswick, N.J., and London: Transaction Publishers.
2001. Albania and the Albanians: Selected Articles and Letters, 1903–1944, ed. . London: Center for Albanian Studies and I. B. Tauris.
2005. The Xinjiang Conflict: Uyghur Identity, Language Policy, and Political Discourse. Washington, D.C.: East-West Center Washington.
2003. Ethnic Groups and Population Changes in Twentieth-Century Central-Eastern Europe: History, Data, and Analysis. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe.
1969. The Memoirs of Prota Matija Nenadović. Oxford: Clarendon Press. (ed.).
1973. Building States and Nations: Analyses by Region. Vol. 2. Beverly Hills, Calif., and London: Sage Publications., and (eds.).
2000. “External Interventions and the Duration of Civil Wars,” Policy Research Working Paper 2433, Washington, D.C.: The World Bank Development Research Group, Public Economics., and .
1940. He Hestoria Exinta Hronon me eikones kai documenta [The History of Sixty Years with Pictures and Documents]. Hania, Greece: “Efedrikou Agonos.”
1997. Kosovo: In the Heart of the Powder Keg. Boulder, Colo.: East European Monographs.
1960. From Empire to Nation. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
1997. Turkish and Other Muslim Minorities in Bulgaria. New York: Routeledge.
2008. Great Britain and the Creation of Yugoslavia: Negotiating Balkan Nationality and Identity. London: Tauris Academic Studies.
2008. Fear of Enemies and Collective Action. New York: Cambridge University Press.
1998. “Commitment Problems and the Spread of Ethnic Conflict,” in and (eds.), The International Spread of Ethnic Conflict: Fear, Diffusion, and Escalation. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 114–126.
2003. “Ethnic Structure and Cultural Diversity by Country,” Journal of Economic Growth, 8 (June): 195–222.
2003. “Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War,” American Political Science Review, 97(1, February): 75–90., and .
2011. “Sons of the Soil, Migrants, and Civil War,” World Development, 39(2): 199–211., and .
1993. “Accounting for Genocide after 1945: Theories and Some Findings,” International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, 1(2): 79–106.
1968 . Thirteenth Address, Addresses to the German Nation, ed. . New York: Harper Torchbooks.
2010. Turkey, Islam, Nationalism, and Modernity: A History, 1789–2007. New Haven, Conn., and London: Yale University Press.
2004. The Purpose of Intervention: Changing Beliefs about the Use of Force. Ithaca, N.Y., and London: Cornell University Press.
1995. “‘An Evil for All Concerned’: Great Britain and Minority Protection after 1919,” Journal of Contemporary History, 30(3): 533–551.
2007. “King Zog, Albania’s Interwar Dictator,” in (ed.), Balkan Strongmen: Dictators and Authoritarian Rulers of Southeast Europe. West Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue University Press, 19–49.
2008. Greece: A Jewish History. Princeton, N.J., and Oxford: Princeton University Press.
2008. Strong Borders, Secure Nation: Cooperation and Conflict in China’s Territorial Disputes. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
1997. “Albania’s Golgotha: Indictment of the Exterminators of the Albanian People (1913),” in (ed.), Kosovo: In the Heart of the Powder Keg. Boulder, Colo.: East European Monographs, 332–360.
1973. The Question of Palestine, 1914–1918: British-Jewish-Arab Relations. New York: Schocken Books.
2000. The Lexus and the Olive Tree. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
2007. The World Is Flat, 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century. New York: Picador/Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
1999. Linguistic Emblems and Emblematic Languages: On Language as Flag in the Balkans (Kenneth E. Naylor Memorial Lecture Series in South Slavic Linguistics, No. 1). Department of Slavic and East European Languages and Literatures, Ohio State University.
2001. “Languages and Ethnicity in Balkan Politics: Macedonian, Bulgarian, and Albanian” (Meeting Report No. 215). East European Studies (EES) News, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. January–February.
2004. “State of the Union: Nation-Building 101,” Atlantic Monthly, January/February.
2006. Nation-Building: Beyond Afghanistan and Iraq. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press. (ed.).
1997. We Now Know: Rethinking the Cold War. New York: Oxford University Press.
1994/1995. “Ethnic Nationalism and International Conflict: The Case of Serbia,” International Security, 19(3, Winter): 132–168..
2004. The Myth of Ethnic War: Serbia and Croatia in the 1990s. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press..
2005. Borders and Border Politics in a Globalizing World. Lanham, Md.: SR Books., and (eds.).
1998 . Načertanije. Beograd: Studio 104.
2006. “Identity and Conflict: Ties That Bind and Differences That Divide,” European Journal of International Relations, 12(1): 53–87., and .
1963. “The Integrative Revolution: Primordial Sentiments and Politics in the New States,” in (ed.), Old Societies and New States: The Quest for Modernity in Asia and Africa. New York: Free Press of Glencoe.
1955. “An Attempt to Internationalize Salonika, 1912–1913,” Jewish Social Studies, 17(2): 105–120., , , and .
1983. Nations and Nationalism. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
1940. O Ellinikos Stratos kata tous Valkanikous Polemous tou 1912–1913 [The Greek Army during the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913]. Vol. A. Athens: Army History Directorate..
1958. O Ellinikos Stratos kata ton Proton Pagosmion Polemon, 1914–1918 [The Greek Army during World War I, 1914–1918]. Vol. 1. Athens: Army History Directorate..
2002. The Balkan Wars: Conquest, Revolution, and Retribution from the Ottoman Era to the Twentieth Century. New York: Basic Books.
2007. Case Study Research: Principles and Practices. New York: Cambridge University Press.
1999. I eugenis mas tyflosis. Exoteriki Politiki kai “Ethnika Themata” apo tin Itta tou 1897 eos ti Mikrasiatiki Katastrofi [Our Noble Blindness. Foreign Policy and “National Issues” from the 1897 Defeat to the Asia Minor Catastrophe]. Athens: Vivliorama.
2011. Constructing Grievance: Ethnic Nationalism in Russia’s Republics. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
2008. “Oi mousoulmanikoi plitismoi stin Ellada (1912–1923): antilipseis kai praktikes tis ellinikis dioikisis, sheseis me hristianous gigeneis kai prosfyges” [The Muslim Population in Greece (1912–1923): Views and Practices of the Hellenic Administration, Relations with Indigenous Christians and Refugees]. Ph.D. dissertation, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.
1970. Beyond the Melting Pot. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press., and .
1998. Dispersing the Ghetto: The Relocation of Jewish Immigrants across America. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
2007. “Transnational Dimensions of Civil War,” Journal of Peace Research, 44(3): 293–309.
2001 . The Balkans: Nationalism, War, and the Great Powers, 1804–1999. New York: Penguin Books.
1993. “Ethnic Segmentation, Western Education, and Political Outcomes: Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Society,” Poetics Today, 14(3): 507–538.
1997. “Linking Risky Dyads: An Evaluation of the Relations between Enduring Rivalries,” in and (eds.), Enforcing Cooperation: Risky States and Intergovernmental Management of Conflict. London: Macmillan, 132–160., and .
1989. A History of Modern Tibet, 1913–1951: The Demise of the Lamaist State. Berkeley: University of California Press.
2006. “The United States, Tibet, and the Cold War,” Journal of Cold War Studies, 8(3): 145–164.
2004. A Tibetan Revolutionary: The Political Life and Times of Bapa Phuntso Wangye. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press., , and .
1964. Assimilation in American Life: The Role of Race, Religion and National Origins. New York: Oxford University Press.
1996. “Social Cleavages and National ‘Awakening’ in Ottoman Macedonia,” East European Quarterly, 29(4): 409–425.
2005. “Preachers of God and Martyrs of the Nation: The Politics of Murder in Ottoman Macedonia in the Early Twentieth Century,” Balkanologie, 9(1–2): 31–43
1920. Albania. No. 17. London: H. M. Stationery Office..
1993. Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
2010. “Third-Party Intervention and the Escalation of State-Minority Conflicts,” International Studies Quarterly, 54(4, December): 1143–1174.
1984. “Ethnographic Maps of the Kosova Region from 1730–1913,” in and (eds.), Studies on Kosova. Boulder, Colo.: East European Monographs.
1987. The Making of Modern Tibet. London: Zed Books.
1999. Nations without States: Political Communities in a Global Age. Cambridge: Polity Press.
2006. Secret History: The CIA’s Classified Account of Its Operations in Guatemala, 1952–1954. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.
1993. Minorities at Risk: A Global View of Ethnopolitical Conflicts. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace.
2008. “The Age of Nonpolarity: What Will Follow U.S. Dominance,” Foreign Affairs, 87(3): 44–56.
1995. “The Albanian League of Prizren 1878–1881,” Kosova, 5: 7–9.
2008. “Out of the Ruins of the Ottoman Empire: Reflections on the Ottoman Legacy in South-eastern Europe,” Middle Eastern Studies, 44(5): 715–734.
2008. The Foundations of Ethnic Politics: Separatism of States and Nations in Eurasia and the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2011. “Interstate Relations, Perceptions, and Power Balance: Explaining China’s Nation-Building Policies, 1949–1965,” paper presented at the 2011 ISA Annual Convention, Montreal, Canada (16–19 March 2011)., and .
2001. Preparation for a Revolution: The Young Turks, 1902–1908. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
1987. “The Etiology of Genocides,” in and (eds.), Genocide and the Modern Age: Etiology and Case Studies of Mass Death. New York: Greenwood Press, 41–59.
2003. “No Lessons Learned from the Holocaust? Assessing Risks of Genocide and Political Mass Murder since 1955,” American Political Science Review, 97(1): 57–73.
2001. Last Witnesses: Reflections on the Wartime Internment of Japanese Americans. New York: Palgrave.
2008. “De/constructing a ‘Legacy in Stone’: Of Interpretative and Historiographical Problems Concerning the Ottoman Cultural Heritage in the Balkans,” Middle Eastern Studies, 44(5): 695–713.
2004. Hellinoservikes Sheseis 1913–1918 [Greek-Serbian Relations 1913–1918]. Thessaloniki: Vanias.
2005. “Forcible Relocation from Greek Macedonia during the First World War.” Available at: .
1984. “Specification Tests for the Multinomial Logit Model,” Econometrica, 52(5): 1219–1240., and .
2005. The Six Month Kingdom: Albania 1914, ed. , and . London: I. B. Tauris in association with the Centre for Albanian Studies.
1975. Internal Colonialism: The Celtic Fringe in British National Development, 1536–1966. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
1987. Principles of Group Solidarity. Berkeley: University of California Press.
2000. Containing Nationalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
1938. The Diplomacy of the Balkan Wars: 1912–1913. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
1990. “Secessionist Minorities and External Involvement,” International Organization, 44(3): 341–378.
1991. The Self-Determination of Minorities in International Politics. London: Frank Cass.
2004. Another Philosophy of History and Selected Political Writings, trans. and ed. and . Indianapolis, Ind.: Hackett Publishing.
2008. “Preparing the Battlefield: The Bush Administration Steps Up Its Secret Moves against Iran,” The New Yorker, 7 July.
2005. Nation-Building: A Key Concept for Peaceful Conflict Transformation?London: Pluto Press.
2003. Crossing the Aegean: An Appraisal of the 1923 Compulsory Population Exchange between Greece and Turkey. New York: Berghahn Books.
1990. Industry and Empire: From 1750 to the Present Day. London: Penguin.
1991. Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality. New York: Cambridge University Press.
2012. Responsibility to Protect: From Principle to Practice. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam Press., and (eds.).
1952. “Trends in Social Stratification: A Case Study,” American Sociological Review, 17(6): 679–686.
1985. Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley: University of California Press.
1988. Kosovsko Pitanje. Zagreb: Globus.
1986. The Armenian Genocide in Perspective. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers. (ed.).
2009. The Politics of Citizenship in Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press..
2000 . Social Preconditions of National Revival in Europe: A Comparative Analysis of the Social Composition of Patriotic Groups among the Smaller European Nations. New York: Columbia University Press.
1968. Political Order in Changing Societies. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.
2011. “Ottoman Perceptions of and Reactions to the Greek War of Independence.” Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University.
1993. The Truth on Kosova. Tirana: Academy of Sciences of the Republic Albania..
1975. Idols of the Tribe. New York: Harper & Row.
1998. Ethnopolitics in the New Europe. Boulder, Colo., and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers., and .
2009. Srpsko-albanski odnosi u Kosovskom vilajetu 1878–1912 [Serbo-Albanian Rellations in the Kosovo Vilajet/Area]. Belgrade: Zavod za udžbenike.
2010. Uredjenje oslobodjenih oblasti Srbije 1912–1914 [The Arrangement of the Liberated Areas of Serbia]. Belgrade: Istorijski institut SANU.
2005. Deca careva, pastorcad kraljeva: nacionalne manjine u Kraljevini Jugoslaviji 1918–1941 [The Children of the Emperors, the Stepchildren of the Kings: Minorities in the Kingdom of SCS 1918–1941]. Belgrade: Istorijski institut SANU.
1988. The Balkans in International Relations, trans. and . Basingstoke: Macmillan.
1966 . The Jews and Minority Rights (1898–1919). New York: AMS Press.
1991. Russia’s Balkan Entanglements, 1806–1914. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1965. The Balkans. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall., and .
1977. The Establishment of the Balkan National States, 1804–1920. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press., and .
2004. “A Bargaining Theory of Minority Demands: Explaining the Dog That Didn’t Bite in 1990s Yugoslavia,” International Studies Quarterly 48(4): 729–754.
2007. Ethnic Bargaining: The Paradox of Minority Empowerment. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
2011. “Fighting the ‘Enemy Within’: State Responses toward Externally Leveraged Minorities,” paper presented at the 2011 annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Seattle, Washington (1–4 September 2011). Previous versions of this paper were presented at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington, D.C. (2–5 September 2010) and the GW Comparative Politics Workshop, Washington, D.C. (10 September 2010)., and .
2005. Selecting by Origin: Ethnic Migration in the Liberal State. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
2009. “Uyghurs in the Central Asian Republics: Past and Present,” in and (eds.), China, Xinjiang and Central Asia: History, Transition and Crossborder Interaction into the 21st Century. London and New York: Routledge.
1993. Balkan Ghosts: A Journey through History. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
1972 . Etnografski spisi [Ethnographic Handwritings]. Belgrade: Prosveta.
1997. Fields of Wheat, Hills of Blood: Passages to Nationhood in Greek Macedonia, 1870–1990. Chicago, Ill., and London: University of Chicago Press.
2010. “Makarioi oi katehontes tin gin.” Gaioktitikoi Shediasmoi pros Apallotriosi Syneidiseon sti Makedonia, 1880–1909 [“Blessed are they who shall possess the Earth.” Land-Ownership Plans for Expropriating Consciences in Macedonia, 1880–1909]. Athens: Vivliorama.
1931. Agrotika: Ereuna epi tis Oikonomikis kai Koinonikis Morfologias en Elladi kai en tais Geitonikais Slavikais Horais [Agrarian Studies: An Inquiry into the Economic and Social Morphology in Greece and in the Neighboring Slavic Countries]. Athens: Ethnikon Typographeion.
2008. Cambridge History of Turkey: Turkey in the Modern World. Vol. 4. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (ed.)
2009. “Millets in Nation-States: The Case of Greek and Bulgarian Muslims, 1912–1923,” Nationalities Papers, 37(2): 177–201.
2001. Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
2008. “Dominant Ethnicity: From Minority to Majority,” Nations and Nationalism, 14(4): 743–767., and .
1993. Nationalism. Oxford and Cambridge, Mass.: Wiley-Blackwell.
1993. The Other Balkan Wars. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
2001. Nomads in the Sedentary World. London: Curzon Press., and (eds.).
2002. “Conflict Prevention in Estonia: The Role of the Electoral System,” Security Dialogue, 33(2): 193–208., and .
2008. “The Five-Day War: Managing Moscow after the Georgia Crisis,” Foreign Affairs, 87: 62–11.
1999/2000. “Diaspora Politics: Ethnic Linkages, Foreign Policy, and Security in Eurasia.” International Security, 24(3): 108–138., and .
2000. “Making the Most of Statistical Analyses: Improving Interpretation and Presentation,” American Journal of Political Science, 44(2): 347–361., , and .
1993. “Russians in the Baltic States: To Be or Not to Be?” Journal of Baltic Studies, 24(2): 174, , and .
1994. Enlightenment, Nationalism, Orthodoxy: Studies in the Culture and Political Thought of South-Eastern Europe. Aldershot and Brookfield, Vt.: Variorum.
1989. “Accommodation and Adjustment to Ethnic Demands: The Mediterranean Framework,” Journal of Ethnic Studies, 17(2): 45–70.
1999. Orphans of the Cold War: America and the Tibetan Struggle for Survival. New York: Public Affairs.
2004. “Human Ecology and Civil War.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago.
1964. Nationalism and Communism in Macedonia. Thessaloniki: Institute for Balkan Studies.
1945. The Idea of Nationalism: A Study in Its Origins and Background. New York: Macmillan.
2003. The Myth of Greater Albania. New York: New York University Press.
1987. Brigands with a Cause: Brigandage and Irredentism in Modern. Greece 1821–1912. New York: Oxford University Press.
2003. I “peran” Ellas kai oi “alloi” Ellines: To Synhrono Elliniko Ethnos kai oi Eteroglossoi Synoikoi Hristianoi (1800–1912) [The Greece of “Beyond” and the “Other” Greeks]. Thessaloniki: Vanias.
2000. “Interstate Integration in the Post-Soviet Space. The Role of the Russian Diasporas,” in and (eds). Building Security in the New States of Eurasia: Subregional Cooperation in the Former Soviet space. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E.Sharpe.
1985. Introduction, Translation, Notes, in Marx – Engels: I Ellada, I Tourkia kai to Anatoliko Zitima [Marx – Engels: Greece, Turkey and the Eastern Question]. Athens: Gnosis.
1994. Evesthites Isorropies. Ellada kai Alvania ston 20o Aiona [Sensitive Balances. Greece and Albania in the 20th Century]. Thessaloniki: Paratiritis.
2006. Population Exchange in Greek Macedonia: The Rural Settlement of Refugees 1922–1930. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
1997. Oi Meionotites sta Meta-Kommounistika Valkania: Politikes toy Kentrou kai Meionotikes Apantiseis [Minorities in Post-Communist Balkans: Center’s Policies and Minority Responses]. Athens: “Nea Synora” – A. A. Livani.
2002. I Sigrotisi ton Kraton sta Valkania, 19os aionas [The Establishment of States in the Balkans, 19th Century]. Athens: “Nea Synora” – A. A. Livani.
1948. “Macedonia: A Study in Political Geography.” Ph.D. dissertation, Clark University.
1974 . “The Geopolitics of the Balkans,” in and (eds.), The Balkans in Transition: Essays on the Development of Balkan Life and Politics since the Eighteenth Century. Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1–55.
2009. To “Makedoniko” tis Thrakis [The “Macedonian Question” of Thrace]. Athens: Vivliorama.
2000. “Partitioned Nation: Hungarian Minorities in Central Europe,” in (ed.), The New European Diasporas: National Minorities and Conflict in Eastern Europe. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 19–80.
2004. Kosovo: Facing the Court of History. Amherst, N.Y.: Humanity Books.
2001. The Limits of Humanitarian Intervention: Genocide in Rwanda. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.
2008. “The Moral Hazard of Humanitarian Intervention: Lessons from the Balkans,” International Studies Quarterly, 52(1, March): 49–80.
2006. Gambling on Humanitarian Intervention: Moral Hazard, Rebellion, and Internal War. New York: Routledge., and (eds.).
1995. Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights. Oxford and New York: Clarendon Press.
2012. Multiculturalism: Success, Failure, and the Future. Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute.
1932. The Exchange of Minorities: Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey. New York: Macmillan.
1986. Hegemony and Culture: Politics and Religious Change among the Yoruba. Chicago, Ill., and London: University of Chicago Press.
1995. “Marginality: A Microperspective,” Rationality and Society, 7(1): 31–57.
1998. Identity in Formation: The Russian-Speaking Populations in the Near Abroad. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
2001. “Secessionist Rebellion in the former Soviet Union.” Comparative Political Studies, 34(8): 839–861.
1998. The International Spread of Ethnic Conflict: Fear, Diffusion, and Escalation. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press., and .
2000. Yugoslavia as History: Twice There Was a Country. New York: Cambridge University Press.
1974. Greece and the Great Powers, 1914–1917. Thessaloniki: Institute for Balkan Studies.
1993. “Nationalism and Its Alternatives in the International Arena: The Jewish Question at Paris, 1919,” Journal of Contemporary History, 28: 511–531.
1999. “‘Conquering the Souls’: Nationalism and Greek Guerrilla Warfare in Ottoman Macedonia, 1904–1908,” Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies, 23: 195–221.
2008. The Macedonian Question: Britain and the Southern Balkans: 1939–1949. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
1998. Ionian Vision: Greece in Asia Minor, 1919–1922. London: Hurst.
2009. Neoclassical Realism, the State, and Foreign Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press., , and (eds.).
2007. “Albania and King Zog: Independence, Republic and Monarchy 1908–1939,” Slavonic and East European Review, 85(1): 160–164.
1997. The Origins of the Cultural Revolution. New York: Columbia University Press.
1988. The Cement of the Universe: A Study in Causation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
2002. Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World. Toronto: Random House.
2002. Historical Atlas of Central Europe. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
1998. Kosovo: A Short History. New York: HarperPerennial.
2000. The New European Diasporas: National Minorities and Conflict in Eastern Europe. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press. (ed.).
1999. Atatürk. London: John Murray.
2005. The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2010. “Islam at the EU Border: Explaining the Policies of Greece and Bulgaria toward Muslims in the Past Three Decades,” presentation at the Constantine Karamanlis Chair in Hellenic and Southeastern European Studies, Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Cambridge, Mass. (22 April 2010). The paper was also presented at the 21st Symposium of the Modern Greek Studies Association, Vancouver, Canada (15–17 October 2009)., and .
1975. Albania and the Albanians. London: Archon Books.
2001. Affirmative Action Empire: Nations and Nationalism in the Soviet Union, 1923–1939. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
1999. Making Race and Nation: A Comparison of the United States, South Africa, and Brazil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1982. Meletes kai Keimena gia tin Periodo 1909–1940 [Studies and Documents on the Period 1909–1940]. Athens: Sakkoulas.
1983. Stillborn Republic: Social Coalitions and Party Strategies in Greece, 1922–1936. Berkeley: University of California Press.
2003. “Oi Ethnikes Meionotites” [The National Minorities], in (ed.), Historia tis Elladas tou 20ou aiwna [History of Greece of the 20th Century]. Vol. B2. Athens: Vivliorama, 9–35.
1997. “Minorities and the League of Nations in Interwar Europe,” Daedalus, 126(2, Human Diversity, Spring): 47–63.
2001. The Balkans: From the End of Byzantium to the Present Day. London: Phoenix Press.
2004. Salonica, City of Ghosts. New York: HarperCollins.
2009. No Enchanted Palace: The End of Empire and the Ideological Origins of the United Nations. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
1995. Death and Exile: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 1821–1922. Princeton, N.J.: Darwin Press.
1994. “The Political Regulation of National and Ethnic Conflict.” Parliamentary Affairs, 47(1): 94–115., and .
2010. Arrested Histories: Tibet, the CIA, and Memories of a Forgotten War. Durham, N.C., and London: Duke University Press.
1979. Chinese Communist Power and Policy in Xinjiang, 1949–1977. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.
2008. “The Pandora’s Box of Sovereignty,” Los Angeles Times, 13 August., and .
2001. The Tragedy of Great Power Politics. New York: W. W. Norton.
1970. Ignatiev and the Establishment of the Bulgarian Exarchate, 1864–1872: A Study in Personal Diplomacy. New York: Arno Press.
1986. “Provocation or Nationalis A Critical Inquiry into the Armenian Genocide of 1915,” in (ed.), The Armenian Genocide in Perspective. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.
1995. Russians beyond Russia: The Politics of National Identity. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs.
1998. “The War on Statistics: Traditional Recipes for the Preparation of the Macedonian Salad,” East European Quarterly, 32(1): 9–21.
2003. Metakiniseis slavofonon plithysmon. O polemos ton statistikon [Slavophone Population Novement. The War of Statistics]. Athens: Kritiki.
2005. “National Identity versus Minority Language: The Greek and Bulgarian Experience in the 20th Century,” in (ed.), Language and Identities in Historical Perspective. Pisa: Pisa University Press.
1917. The Memoirs of a Balkan Diplomatist. London: Cassell.
1991. “A Framework for Comparative Study of Minority-Group Aspirations,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 81(4): 581–604., and .
2007. States, Nations, and the Great Powers: The Sources of Regional War and Peace. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1927. “Albania and Her Protectress,” Foreign Affairs, 5(3, April): 438–445.
2007. Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang. New York: Columbia University Press.
2002. Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups Around the World. Vols. 1–4. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.
The Jerusalem of the Balkans: Salonica 1856–1919. The Jewish Museum of Thessaloniki. Available at: .
2006. “Peripheries, State Capacity, and Great Power Politics: Accounting for Secession from the Ottoman Empire”, paper presented at the 11th Annual World Convention of the Association for the Study of Nationalities, Columbia University (22–25 March).
2008. “Assimilation and Its Alternatives: The Making of Co-Nationals, Refugees, and Minorities.” Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University.
2010. “Assimilation and Its Alternatives: Caveats in the Study of Nation-Building Policies,” in and (eds.), Rethinking Violence: States and Non-state Actors in Conflict. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
2011. “Balkan Nation-Building Policies: Ottoman Legacy or Replication?” paper presented at the PONARS Eurasia Bishkek workshop (Kyrgyzstan, 11–16 June 2011).
2012. “Ottoman, Nationalist, and Communist Legacies in the Balkans,” in (ed.), Balkans: Contributions to History, Culture and Civilization. Constanţa, Romania: Ovidius University Press.
2012. “Which Land Is Our Land? Explaining Variation in Border Claims,” paper presented at the 17th Annual ASN World Convention, Harriman Institute, Columbia University (April)., and .
2001. Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth Century Europe. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
2003. “Ethnic Prejudices and Discrimination: The Case of Kosovo,” in and (eds.), Understanding the War in Kosovo. Portland, Ore.: Frank Cass, 53–76.
1930 . The Mountain Wreath: An Historical Happening Towards the Close of the 17th Century, trans. . London: Allen & Unwin.
2004. “Estonian Identity Formations and Threat Framing in the Post–Cold War Era Source,” Journal of Peace Research, 41(6): 733–750., and .
1925. “Racial Migrations in the Balkans during the Years 1912–1924,” Geographical Journal, 66(4, October): 315–331.
1946. Greeks and Bulgarians: A Historical Outline. Sofia: Hristo G. Danov Publishers.
1999. A History of the Balkans, 1804–1945. London and New York: Longman.
2000. “Europe and the Balkans in a Historical Perspective, 1804–1945,” Journal of Southern Europe and the Balkans, 2(2): 141–148.
2004. Albania and King Zog: Independence, Republic and Monarchy, 1908–1939. Vol. 1. London and New York: Centre for Albanian Studies in Association with I. B. Tauris.
1962. The Balkan Exchange of Minorities and Its Impact upon Greece. Paris: Mouton.
1988. The Politics of Terror: The Macedonian Revolutionary Movements, 1893–1903. Durham, N.C., and London: Duke University Press.
2001. Resistance and Rebellion: Lessons from Eastern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2002. Understanding Ethnic Violence: Fear, Hatred, and Resentment in Twentieth-Century Eastern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2002. The Yugoslav Experience of Serbian National Integration. New York: Columbia University Press.
2002. “Understanding Processes of Ethnic Control: Segmentation, Dependency and Cooptation in Post-Communist Estonia,” Nations and Nationalism 8(4): 505–529., and .
1999. “Party Politics in the Baltic States: Social Bases and Institutional Context,” East European Politics and Society, 13(1): 148–189., and .
2008. “The Paradox of Perceptions: Interpreting the Ottoman Past through the National Present,” Middle Eastern Studies, 44(5): 661–675.
1987. Život Srba na Kosovu, 1812–1912 [Life of the Serbs in Kosovo, 1812–1912]. Belgrade: Književne novine.
1993a. “Nationalism, the Mass Army and Military Power,” International Security, 18(2): 80–124.
1993b. “The Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict,” Survival, 35(1, Spring): 27–47.
2003. “The Colonial Origins of Ethnic Cleavages: The Case of Linguistic Divisions in Zambia,” Comparative Politics, 35(2): 127–146.
2004. “Measuring Ethnic Fractionalization in Africa,” American Journal of Political Science, 48(4): 849–863.
2003. “Macedonians and Albanians as Yugoslavs,” in (ed.), Yugoslavism: Histories of a Failed Idea, 1918–1992. London: Hurst, 115–135.
1997. “The Kosovo Albanians: Ethnic Confrontation with the Slav State,” in and (eds.), Muslim Identity and the Balkan State. New York: New York University Press., and .
2007. “Serbian Radicalism 1881–1903: Political Thought and Practice,” Balcanica, 38: 173–189.
1968. Eastern Question: The Last Phase, a Study in Greek-Turkish Diplomacy. Thessaloniki: Institute for Balkan Studies.
2011. “A New Integration Project for Eurasia: The Future in the Making,” Izvestia, 4 October. Available at: .
2005 . The Ottoman Empire, 1700–1922. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2002. State Identities and the Homogenisation of Peoples. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1996. Eesti üleminekuperioodi valimiste (1989–1993) võrdlev uurimine [Elections in Estonia during the Transition Period: A Comparative Study 1989–1993]. Tallinn: Rahvusvaliste ja Sotsiaaluuringute Instituut (Institute of International and Social Studies).
2006. The Three Yugoslavias: State-Building and Legitimation, 1918–2005. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
2008. “A Rose by Any Other Name: Neoclassical Realism as the Logical and Necessary Extension of Structural Realism,” Security Studies, 17(2): 80–124.
1991. “The Re-establishment of Estonian Independence,” Journal of Baltic Studies, 22(3): 251–258.
1973. “Independence of Irrelevant Alternatives,” Econometrica, 41(5): 987–991.
2000. Civil War and Foreign Powers. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
2002. “Third-Party Interventions and the Duration of Intrastate Conflicts,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 46(1): 55–73.
1996. “What Is a Nation?” in and (eds.), Becoming National: A Reader. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 41–55.
2011. Shattering Empires: The Clash and Collapse of the Ottoman and Russian Empires 1908–1918. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1998. “The Uighurs of the Kazakhstan Borderlands: Migration and the Nation,” Nationalities Papers 26(3): 511–530.
2009. A Tragedy of Democracy: Japanese Confinement in North America. New York: Columbia University Press.
1991. “Soviet Federalism and Ethnic Mobilization,” World Politics 43: 196–232.
2007. Where Nation–States Come From: Institutional Change in the Age of Nationalism. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
2003. Frontiers and Ghettos: State Violence in Serbia and Israel. Berkeley: University of California Press.
1994. Words for Understanding Ethnic Estonians. Tallinn: Kommunaalprojekt Ltd.
1998. “Neoclassical Realism and Theories of Foreign Policy,” World Politics, 51(1): 144–172.
1994. “Conflict or Compromise in the Baltic States?” RFE/RL Research Report 3 (28)., and .
1964. International Aspects of Civil Strife. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
2007. Ethnafipnisi kai ethnogenesi. Orlofika kai elliniki istoriografia [National Awakening and Nation-Building: The Orlov Revolt and Greek Historiography]. Athens: Vivliorama.
1996. “Nationalism and Statecraft in Southeastern Europe (1750–1923).” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pittsburgh.
2001. Nationalism, Globalization, and Orthodoxy: The Social Origins of Ethnic Conflict in the Balkans. Westport, Conn., and London: Greenwood Press.
1985 . The Government of Poland, trans. . Indianapolis, Ind.: Hackett.
2008. “Slovak Perceptions of the Ottoman Legacy in Eastern Europe,” Middle Eastern Studies, 44(5): 735–749.
1997. “Explaining the International Relations of Secessionist Conflicts: Vulnerability vs. Ethnic Ties,” International Organization, 51(4): 721–753.
2002. “Discrimination in International Relations: Analyzing External Support for Ethnic Groups,” Journal of Peace Research, 39(1): 27–50.
2000. “Determining the Causes of Irredentism: Logit Analyses of Minorities at Risk Data from the 1980s and 1990s,” Journal of Politics, 62(4): 1126–1144., and .
2008. For Kin and Country: Xenophobia, Nationalism, and War. New York: Columbia University Press., and .
2006. “The Former ‘Southlands’ in Serbia: 1918–1947,” Hungarian Quarterly, 181: 111–124.
2009. Rebels without Borders: Transnational Insurgencies in World Politics. Ithaca, N.Y., and London: Cornell University Press.
2006. “Refugees and the Spread of Civil War,” International Organization, 60(2, April): 335–366., and .
2001. “Do Ethnic and Non-ethnic Civil Wars Have the Same Causes? A Theoretical and Empirical Inquiry (Part 1),” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 45(3): 259–282.
2009. “Explaining the Demand for Sovereignty.” Unpublished manuscript., and .
1984. The High Walls of Jerusalem: A History of the Balfour Declaration and the Birth of the British Mandate for Palestine. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
1996. Losing Control? Sovereignty in an Age of Globalization. New York: Columbia University Press.
1998. Globalization and Its Discontents: Essays on the New Mobility of People and Money. New York: New Press.
2002. Global Networks, Linked Cities. New York: Routledge.
2003. Understanding Globalization: The Social Consequences of Political, Economic, and Environmental Change. New York: Rowman and Littlefield.
1963. “Khrushchev’s Image Inside China,” China Quarterly, 14 (April/June): 212–217.
2004. “Unanswered Threats: A Neoclassical Realist Theory of Underbalancing,” International Security, 29(2): 159–201.
2006. Unanswered Threats: Political Constraints on the Balance of Power. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
1941. “The Legal Status of Albania,” American Political Science Review, 35(2, April): 311–317.
1962 . Eastern Europe between the Wars, 1918–1941. Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books.
1999. The Dragon in the Land of Snows: A History of Modern Tibet since 1947. London: Pimlico.
1974 . “The Ottoman View of the Balkans,” in and (eds.), The Balkans in Transition: Essays on the Development of Balkan Life and Politics since the Eighteenth Century. Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 56–80.
2011. Migration, Refugee Policy, and State Building in Postcommunist Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press.
1967. The Albanian National Awakening 1878–1912. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
1986. “State-Making and Nation-Building,” in (ed.), States in History. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 228–263.
1991. National Identity. London: Penguin.
2001. Estonia: Independence and European Integration. London and New York: Routledge.
2005. The Baltic States and Their Region: New Europe or Old?Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi B.V. (ed.).
1997. “Rethinking Russia’s Post-Soviet Diaspora: The Potential for Political Mobilization in Eastern Ukraine and North-east Estonia,” Europe-Asia Studies, 49(5): 845–864., and .
2001. “Citizenship and the Politics of People-Building,” Citizenship Studies, 5(1): 73–96.
2003. Stories of Peoplehood: The Politics and Morals of Political Membership. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1991. “Alliances, Balance, and Stability,” International Organization, 45(1): 121–142.
1991. Myths of Empire. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
2000. From Voting to Violence: Democratization and Nationalist Conflict. New York: Norton.
1999. Civil Wars, Insecurity, and Intervention. New York: Columbia University Press., and .
2003. The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569–1999. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.
2008. The Red Prince: The Secret Lives of a Habsburg Archduke. New York: Basic Books/Random House.
2010. Bloodlands: Europe between Hitler and Stalin. New York: Basic Books/Random House.
2009. State Collapse and Reconstruction in the Periphery: Political Economy, Ethnicity and Development in Yugoslavia, Serbia and Kosovo. Oxford: Berghahn Books.
1996. Twenty-five Lectures on Modern Balkan History: The Balkans in the Age of Nationalism. Available at: .
1994. The Sovereign State and Its Competitors. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
1957. “Antecedents to the Balkan Revolutions of the Nineteenth Century,” The Journal of Modern History, 29(4): 335–348.
1927. “Italy, Yugoslavia and Albania,” Journal of the Royal Institute of International Affairs, 6(3): 170–178.
2002. “Change of Regime – Continuity of Elites? The Case of Estonia,” East European Politics and Societies, 16(1): 223–248., and .
2010. Macedonian Identities through Time: Interdisciplinary Approaches. Thessaloniki: Epikentro., , and (eds.).
2005. “Seeing the Albanians through Serbian Eyes: The Inventors of the Tradition of Intolerance and Their Critics, 1804–1939,” European History Quarterly, 35(3): 465–492.
1961. Balfour Declaration. New York: Simon and Schuster.
2005. “Nation Building,” in and (eds.), Beyond Intractability. Conflict Research Consortium, University of Colorado. Available at: .
1975. “Bitter Lessons: How We Failed in Cyprus,” Foreign Policy, 19: 34–78.
2000. “The Declining Authority of States,” in and (eds.), The Global Transformation Reader: An Introduction to the Global Debate. Cambridge: Polity Press, 148–155.
2006. The Order of Genocide: Race, Power, and War in Rwanda. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
1977. Southeastern Europe under Ottoman Rule, 1354–1804. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press.
1993. The Revenge of the Past: Nationalism, Revolution, and the Collapse of the Soviet Union. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.
2001. A State of Nations: Empire and Nation-Making in the Age of Lenin and Stalin. New York: Oxford University Press., and .
2011. A Question of Genocide: Armenians and Turks at the End of the Ottoman Empire. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press., , and (eds.).
1971. Albania: The Rise of a Kingdom. London: Allen & Urwin.
2002. Understanding Ethnic Conflict: The International Dimension, 2nd ed. New York: Longman., and .
2009. How International Relations Affect Civil Conflict: Cheap Signals, Costly Consequences. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield.
1975. The Formation of National States in Western Europe. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. (ed.).
1992. Coercion, Capital and European States. Cambridge, Mass., and Oxford: Blackwell Press.
1994. “States and Nationalism in Europe 1492–1992,” Theory and Society, 23: 131–146.
1983. The Balkan City, 1400–1900. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press.
1997. Imagining the Balkans. New York: Oxford University Press.
1979. Jugoslavija i balkanske drzave 1918–1923 [Yugoslavia and the Balkan States 1918–1923]. Belgrade: Institut za savremenu istoriju.
2003. The Geography of Ethnic Violence. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
1955. Peasants, Politics, and Economic Change in Yugoslavia. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.
2003. CLARIFY: Software for Interpreting and Presenting Statistical Results. Version 2.1. Stanford University, University of Wisconsin, and Harvard University. Available at: ., , and .
1997. “Russia’s ‘Ethnic Revival’: The Separatist Activism of Regional Leaders in a Postcommunist Order,” World Politics, 49(2): 212–249.
2010. “Yugoslavism between the World Wars: Indecisive Nation Building,” Nationalities Papers, 38(2, March): 227–244.
1980. The Balkan Wars, 1912–1913, trans. , ed. and . New York: Monad Press.
2001. Kataskevazontas Tautotites gia tous Mousoulmanous tis Thrakis [Constructing Identities for the Muslims of Thrace]. Athens: Kritiki.
2007. “The Pending Modernisation of Islam in Greece: From Millet to Minority Status,” Südosteuropa, 55(4): 354–372.
2012. Old and New Islam in Greece: From Historical Minorities to Immigrant Newcomers. Leiden, the Netherlands, and Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
1999. The European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia. New York: Taylor & Francis., , and (eds.).
2005. “Contextualising ‘Turkification’: Nation-Building in the Late Ottoman Empire, 1908–18,” Nations and Nationalism, 11(4): 613–636.
2011. The Making of Modern Turkey Nation and State in Eastern Anatolia, 1913–1950. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2004. Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the Twentieth Century. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
1981. The Ethnic Phenomenon. New York: Elsevier.
1994. “Hypotheses on Nationalism and War,” International Security, 18(4): 5–39..
1998. “The Role of a Minority’s Reference State in Ethnic Relations,” Archives Européennes de Sociologie, 39(Spring): 110–146.
2004. I Elliniki parousia sti Notia Servia apo tous Valkanikous polemous eos to Mesopolemo [The Hellenic Presence in South Serbia from the Balkan Wars to the Interwar Period]. Thessaloniki: Anatropi.
2001. “Territorial Disputes and the Probability of War, 1816–1992,” Journal of Peace Research, 38(2): 123–138., and .
1919. Greece before the Peace Congress of 1919: A Memorandum Dealing with the Rights of Greece. New York: Oxford University Press.
1995. “Slavic Colonial Policy in the Albanian Territories between the Two World Wars (1918–1941),” Kosova, 5: 15–18.
1999. “Garašanin’s Načertanije: Ideological Basis of Greater Serbia’s Program,” Kosova, 7: 49–55.
1998. Between Serb and Albanian: A History of Kosovo. London: C. Hurst.
1956. Italian Foreign Policy under Mussolini. New York: Devin-Adair.
1998. “Consequences of the Demographic and Social Re-arrangements to the Vlach-speaking Element of Greek Macedonia (1923–1926),” Revue des Etudes Sud-Est Europeennes, Danube-Balkans-Mer Noire Tome, 36(1–4): 155–171.
1992. Ekpaideuse kai Ethnikismos sta Valkania. He Periptose tis Voreiodytikes Makedonias 1870–1904 [Education and Nationalism in the Balkans. The Case of North-Western Macedonia 1870–1904]. Athens: Paraskinio.
1994. Piges gia tin Istoria tes Makedonias. Politike kai ekpaideuse 1875–1907 [Sources for the History of Macedonia. Politics and Education 1875–1907]. Athens: Paraskinio.
2005. Oikotrofeia kai ypotrofies ste Makedonia (1903–1913). Tekmiria Istorias [Boarding Schools and Scholarships in Macedonia (1903–1913). Historial Evidence]. Athens: Gutenberg.
1985. “Alliance Formation and the Balance of World Power,” International Security, 9(4): 3–43.
1987. The Origins of Alliances. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
1988. “Testing Theories of Alliance Formation: The Case of Southwest Asia,” International Organization, 42(2): 275–316.
1997. “Why Alliances Endure or Collapse,” Survival, 39(1): 156–179.
2009. Reputation and Civil War: Why Separatist Conflicts Are So Violent. New York: Cambridge University Press.
1979. Theory of International Politics. New York: McGraw-Hill.
2002. “Reflections of Tibet,” New Left Review, 14 (March/April): 79–111.
1976. Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France, 1870–1914. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.
1997. “Hierarchy amidst Anarchy: A Transaction Costs Approach to International Security Cooperation,” International Studies Quarterly, 41: 321–340.
1978. Economy and Society. Vol. 1. Trans. and ed. and . Berkeley: University of California Press.
1995. Germany, Hitler, and World War II. New York: Cambridge University Press.
1971. “The Macedonian Syndrome: An Historical Model of International Relations and Political Development,” World Politics, 23(4): 665–683.
1996. “Bad Neighbors, Bad Neighborhoods: An Inquiry into the Causes of Refugee Flows,” International Security, 17(1): 5–42.
2007. Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA. New York: Anchor Books.
1963. “Sinkiang and the Soviet Union,” China Quarterly, 16: 56–61.
1951. Maps and Politics: A Review of Ethnographic Cartography of Macedonia. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.
1998. Border Identities: Nation and State at International Frontiers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press., and .
2002. Nationalist Exclusion and Ethnic Conflict: Shadows of Modernity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2012. Waves of War: Nationalism, State Formation, and Ethnic Exclusion in the Modern World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1919. Notes on the Diplomatic History of the Jewish Question: With Texts of Protocols, Treaty Stipulations and Other Public Acts and Official Documents. London: Ballantyne.
1962. Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.
1992. The Power of Maps. New York: Guilford Press. (with ).
2004. “Unwelcome Neighbors: Shared Ethnicity and International Conflict during the Cold War,” International Studies Quarterly, 48: 197–223.
2006. Diplomacy and Displacement: Reconsidering the Turco-Greek Exchange of Populations, 1922–1934. New York: Routledge.
2008. “Fighting the Spectres of the Past: Dilemmas of Ottoman Legacy in the Balkans and the Middle East,” Middle Eastern Studies, 44(5): 677–693., and .
2005. “The Priest’s Robe and the Rebel’s Rifle: Communal Conflict and the Construction of National Identity in Ottoman Macedonia, 1878–1908.” Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton University.
1993. The Rising Tide of Cultural Pluralism. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. (ed.).
1969. “Albanian Nationalism,” in and (eds.), Nationalism in Eastern Europe. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 55–92.
1994. Albania: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: GPO for the Library of Congress., and (eds.).
2008. Violence: Six Sideways Reflections. London: Profile Books.
2004. Turkey: A Modern History, 3rd ed. London: I. B. Tauris.