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Religion, Learning and Science in the 'Abbasid Period

Book description

The five centuries of the 'Abbasid period (eighth to thirteenth centuries AD) were the golden age of Arabic literature. They saw the appearance not only of poetry and belles-lettres (which are covered in a previous volume), but also of an extensive body of writings concerned with subjects ranging from theology and law to history and the natural sciences. This volume of The Cambridge History of Arabic Literature surveys the most important of these writings, including the literature of Sunnism and Shi'ism, Arabic philosophy, Sufism, Islamic law, grammar, lexicography, administration, historiography, mathematics, astronomy, astrology, geography, alchemy and medicine. It contains separate chapters on six of the greatest scholars of the Middle Ages, as well as on the Arabic literature of the Christians and Jews who lived under the rule of the 'Abbasid caliphate, and includes a study of one of the great cultural movements of the period, the translations from Greek into Arabic.

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Page 1 of 2

  • 1 - Sunnī theology
    pp 1-15
  • View abstract
    The closest equivalent to "theology" in Arabic is kalam. It is not an exact translation, however, so the author begin by defining what is meant by "Muslim theology". The first steps towards rationalizing the faith were taken by fiqh, Muslim jurisprudence. This chapter discusses the formation of a third set of theological schools, classically known as the mutakallimun specialists in kalam and Muslim theology. Ashcarites derive their name from the nisbah of the school's founder, Abul-Hasan Alib. Ismail al-Ashari. The main sources on which Sunni theology indisputably drew can be limited to four: the Quran, the Sunnah, qiyas and ijma. The frame of the ummah or community, conforms to that of the five "pillars" of Islam, namely shahadah, salah, zakah, sawm, and hajj. The movement which Ibn Taymiyyah initiated diverged along two different paths towards Wahhabism, on the one hand, and towards the modernist reformism called the Salafiyyah on the other.
  • 2 - Shīʿī theological literature
    pp 16-32
  • View abstract
    The pioneers of Shii theology seem to have begun to propagate theological views during the middle of the second/eighth century. The early Shii theologians appear to have been adherents of the sixth imam, Jafar al-Sadiq, and his son Musa al-Kazim, the seventh imam. Apart from the more extreme Traditions on the imamate, the theological traditions presented by al-Kulayni in al-Usul min al-kafi could almost be described as belonging to the mainstream discussions of Islamic theology. The strictly theological doctrines of the early Shii theologians had once been in the vanguard, but ideas had moved on and it was now the Mutazilah who had the leadership in Islamic theology. They were eager to bring about a synthesis between Shiism and general Mutazilite doctrines. Towards the end of the Abbasid caliphate in Baghdad, Shii theology received renewed impetus with the emergence of two distinguished theologians, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi and his disciple Ibn Mutahhar al-Hilli.
  • 3 - Ibāḍī theological literature
    pp 33-39
  • View abstract
    The general conditions which allowed the Abbasids to establish their power in the core of the Islamic world were also exploited by the Ibadis to establish states in parts of its periphery. The nature of Ibadi literature as exists from the period of zuhur may only be understood in the light of the fact that the tradition remained oral. The fifth/eleventh and sixth/twelfth centuries also saw a major emergence of Ibadism as a madhhab. Unfortunately, Ibadism in Uman became increasingly split by a doctrinal dispute over the issues that had led to civil war and which still underlay current political alliances. Thus Ibadism went into political decline in an explosion of scholarship that transformed its fiqh into a school comparable to the four schools of Sunni Islam and put its theology into the strait-jacket of Islamic orthodoxy. The Ibadis entered their political twilight at the end of Abbasid times with their theology refurbished but their political ideology intact.
  • 4 - Quranic exegesis
    pp 40-55
  • View abstract
    Exegesis forms one of the most extensive branches of Arabic prose literature. The definition of "revelation" gave Islam its distinct hue, while the identification as the source of knowledge of either tradition, reason or intuition produced broad exegetical approaches. The historical exegesis set out from written texts and the variant readings which Goldziher analysed fall into distinct groups. A type of tafsir unmentioned by Goldziher would make the Quran the source of regulations nowhere referred to in the texts, indeed, contradicting regulations that are there. While not designed as a manual of history, the Quran constantly uses history as an argument. Tradition once more attributed to Ibn Abbas the merit of initiating the linguistic method of exegesis and especially of exploiting the dazzling poetic treasures of the nation. Only theology which knows of a self-subsisting creator acting under no compulsion and capable of producing trans-rational effects can satisfactorily explain such anomalies.
  • 5 - The prose literature of Ṣufism
    pp 56-75
  • View abstract
    The prose literature of Islamic mysticism, or Sufism, during the Abbasid era is rich and varied. Sufi writers favoured definitive and descriptive works, guidance and reference manuals, epistolary and instructional treatises and biographies and hagiographies. The Quran inspired early Sufi writing in its alleged allusion to a preeternal covenant between God and man, the re-enactment of which filled the mystic with extreme enthusiasm. Works designed to instruct by moralizing took the form of testaments and brief admonitions, narratives and short accounts, problems and issues, examples of virtue, with ethics and etiquette providing a running theme. The cult of venerating the saints received an early boost in al-Tirmidhi's Khatm al-wilayah. Converts to Sufism had known and appreciated love and its beauty, which they now transferred to the Divine. Al-Tirmidhi's writings provided much impetus for practical devotion to saints and prophets, but it was Muhyi l-DIn b. al-Arabi's highly Unitarian views that gave permanence to the Logos principle implied therein.
  • 6 - Philosophical literature
    pp 76-105
  • View abstract
    Arabic philosophic writing is a form of Arabic literature. There was a tradition of philosophic literature, especially the literary styles of Plato, Aristotle and Plotinus, but also those of the Greek commentators, that was learned and imitated by philosophers writing in Arabic. In al-Farabi's introduction to his Talkhis Nawamis Aflatun, people find a more elaborate statement of Plato's method of writing. The relation between the philosopher and the city is the theme of a series of philosophic writings in Arabic and Persian, which are literary in the strict sense, that is, stories which make use of the basic methods of poetry and rhetoric: imitation and examples. Ibn Tufayl sets aside al-Farabi's writings on logic and concentrates on his "philosophic" writings, which he describes as "plagued with doubts". The account of Ibn Sina presents him as the only writer who has succeeded in avoiding slipping or tripping, and the only philosopher with whom Ibn Tufayl can find no fault.
  • 7 - Arabic lexicography
    pp 106-117
  • View abstract
    In the process of sifting and classifying the vocabulary of Arabic, all kinds of lists were drawn up which have been detailed in Sezgin's Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums. In his long preface, al-Azhari confirms that lexicography has come of age: his list of authorities, sources and teachers is a virtual history of the discipline, accompanied by some devastating criticisms of his predecessors. The tradition of alphabetical order by first radical is continued in al-Maqayis and its shorter version al-Mujmal, both by Ahmad b. Faris. With the Lisan al-Arab of Ibn Manzur, people reach the end of lexicographical progress. The place of lexicography in Islamic culture as a whole has yet to be adequately studied. There are certain similarities in motivation, which might repay investigation, between Islam, as a kind of supranationalism, and the nationalism which is known to have stimulated the creation of European dictionaries.
  • 8 - Arabic grammar
    pp 118-138
  • View abstract
    Having reached its peak of descriptive adequacy virtually at birth, Arabic grammar often seems little more than an endless discussion and restatement of the same immutable facts. Grammatical speculation went on before Sibawayhi is obvious, but our only evidence for it is in the Kitab itself. It is permissible to speak of the "creation" of grammar because grammatical speculation before Sibawayhi was not coherent, exhaustive or authoritative. Under the patronage of the Abbasid caliphs Arabic grammar soon acquired a pedagogical character it was never to shake off. In the resulting competition between grammarians at the Baghdad court, two rival "schools" evolved, labelled "Basran" and "Kufan". By the fourth/tenth century the penetration of logical concepts into grammar is unmistakable, though still limited, or better, controlled by the needs of the grammarians. However, there are still changes ahead before grammar can be regarded as having reached its formal perfection.
  • 9 - Islamic legal literature
    pp 139-154
  • View abstract
    The earliest juristic writings on Islamic law people possess date from the beginning of the second/eighth century. The Quran is the most important original source of Islamic law. The sunnah, derived from the behaviour of Muhammad and of his Companions, is the second original source of Islamic law. The main difference between the Shiis and the Sunnis was the political argument of who should succeed Muhammad as head of the Islamic community. The writings of the early jurists and founders of the schools of fiqh represent diffuse collections of tradition and the independent opinions of the authors. Classical Islamic law divides jurisprudence into the study of usul and of furu al-fiqh. Muhammad b. Jarir al-Tabari's works on tafsir and ikhtilaf mark the end of originality in the theory of the development of Islamic law. Fatawa represent a statement of the law on matters not covered by the compendia and, in particular, relate to new situations that have arisen.
  • 10 - Administrative literature
    pp 155-167
  • View abstract
    By the end of the Umayyad period, the government bureaucracy, organized as a group of diwans or government departments concerned with finance, official correspondence and the mustering and payment of the army, was already well formed. A contributory strand in the development of Islamic geographical writing was that of the road book or gazetteer, a topographical survey of the main routes of the empire with details of the staging-posts and rest-houses along them and of actual distances. The legal and administrative aspects of land measurement and of irrigation cannot easily be separated from the actual science and technology involved. Hence it is not surprising that, from now onwards, the genre of manuals of kitabah finds its finest flowering within the Egyptian context. The genre of medieval Arabic literature, although limited in its surviving extent and fated to have a development in Persian and Turkish literature, can legitimately be included in a survey of administrative literature.
  • 11 - Arabic biographical writing
    pp 168-187
  • View abstract
    Biography is one of the most extensive areas of Arabic literature. Its earliest, and characteristic form, is the biographical dictionary, although biographical writing early developed a variety of other forms. The first general biographical dictionary which includes people of eminence in every branch of life and from every country after the age of the Companions and the Successors is the Wafayat al-azyan wa-anba abna al-zaman. The Arabic biographical dictionaries are essential for the study of Islamic civilization; they represent in fact the "greatest untapped source of information on the medieval Middle East". An early example of an individual biography other than that of the Prophet is the life of Yamin al-Dawlah Mahmud of Ghaznah, entitled al-Kitab al-Yamini, by AbuDl-Nasar Muhammad al-Utbi. Legal biographical anecdotes fall into a class of their own, since here the interaction of personalities must develop within the artificial constraints of the juridical situation.
  • 12 - History and historians
    pp 188-233
    • By Claude Cahen, Université de la Sorbonne Nouvelle, Paris III
  • View abstract
    The origins of Arab-Muslim historiography are difficult to date exactly; it is evident only that they cannot be separated from those of the other literary and cultural genres of the first two centuries of Islam. For pre-Islamic history, the starting-point was of course to be found in the Quran, but it did not provide the material for a full exposition of what was regarded as more or less common knowledge. The most important writer of the period, however, was undeniably Izz al-Din b. al-Athir, certainly one of the greater Arab-Muslim historians. Byzantine historiography, the heir to ancient history, did not of course pass through the youthful phase experienced by Arab historiography at its traditional stage. A broad comparison is thus to no purpose except as between classical and post-classical centuries. The period considered here comes to an end with the rise of the Mamluk regime and the Mongol empire.
  • 13 - Faṭimid history and historians
    pp 234-247
  • View abstract
    This chapter isolates the historical literature and mentions other genres when historical material is found in them. It also includes Sunni historical sources of both the Fatimid and later periods that have a bearing on Fatimid history. The first stage in Fatimid history is the "Period of Concealment". It is so-called because the imams of that period were in hiding. It begins in 148/765, the date of the Shii imam Jacfar al-Sadiq's death, and ends in 297/909, the year of the declaration of the Fatimid caliphate in North Africa by the caliph-imam Ubaydullah al-Mahdi. The time and authorship of the celebrated medieval Islamic encyclopaedia, the Rasail Ikhwan al-Safa, are in dispute. The time of the Fatimid caliph al-Hakim was a turbulent one. The caliph Maadd al-Mustansir kept in constant correspondence with the Sulayhid ruler dais. The Tayyibi dawah of the Yemen concentrated on the Haraz region, but soon lost political power.
  • 14 - Mathematics and applied science
    pp 248-273
  • View abstract
    The Arabs took an encyclopaedic view of knowledge, as the Greeks had done, and in an attempt to codify contemporaneous knowledge, they composed several valuable classifications of the sciences. Among the works that had been translated into Arabic by about the end of the third/ninth century were all the writings that were to have a decisive effect upon the origin and growth of Arabic mathematics. The students of the physical sciences in Islam were far fewer than the students of mathematics, astronomy, alchemy and medicine. Moreover, ways for achieving a large measure of control were to be found in Arabic machines: automatic switching, feed-back control, closed-loop systems, and so on. It is therefore postulated that European mechanical technology benefited from Arabic engineering in three ways: components and techniques, control systems, and the potent idea of self-regulating machinery.
  • 15 - Astronomy
    pp 274-289
    • By David A. King, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main
  • View abstract
    This chapter discusses the different categories of Islamic astronomical literature, the variety of which reflects the keen interest of Muslim scholars in astronomy for over a millennium. It also focusses on the traditional folk astronomy of the Arabian peninsula, which was already well established if not documented by the time of the Prophet Muhammad. A distinct Islamic flavour was added to this pre-Islamic folk astronomy by the fact that the times of Muslim prayer were defined astronomically and the direction of Muslim prayer was defined geographically. The earliest Islamic works relating to mathematical astronomy, that is, planetary astronomy and spherical astronomy, were based on Indian and Sasanid works. Another category of Islamic astronomical literature can be labelled kutub al-hayah, and consists of general expositions of the principles underlying astronomical theory. A large category of Islamic astronomical literature deals with instruments for timekeeping and for solving other problems of spherical astronomy.
  • 16 - Astrology
    pp 290-300
  • View abstract
    Astrology has had a deep and pervasive influence on the thought and culture of the Arabs and Persians. It has also had effects on Arabic literature in that many metaphors and other tropes are based on the ideas and technical terminology of astrology. The earliest Arabic text relating to astrology that people know of happens to deal with celestial omens ultimately descended from the Old Babylonian texts included in Enuma Anu Enlil. Arabic astrology continued to be impressively influential during the reign of al-MaDmun, though the initial surge of translation activity diminished considerably. The third/ninth-century translators worked far more industriously in the field of astronomy than in that of astrology. The most impressive astrologer writing in Arabic in the third/ninth century, however, was Abu Mashar Jafar b. Muhammad al-Balkhi. The descendants of Abu Sahl continued to practise astrology at the Abbasid court during the third/ninth century; al-Hasan b. Sahl is the one most frequently quoted by later astrologers.
  • 17 - Geographical and navigational literature
    pp 301-327
  • View abstract
    The earliest surviving piece of Arabic literature which may fairly be described as an original geographical work is al-Masalik wa l-mamalik of Ibn Khurradadhbih, who was writing during the reign of the caliph al-Mutamid. Al-Mansur ordered astronomical tables to be put into Arabic and Muhammad b. Ibrahim al-Fazari undertook the task, making from them a book which astronomers called "the great Sindhind". The geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih, addressing his dedicatee, makes a brief and obscure statement which might be interpreted to mean that he translated Ptolemy into Arabic. Mathematics and astronomy became the preserve of a separate technical literature, while places and people became drawn towards the domain of adab general culture. The "Post-Classical" geographical writers, any more than their predecessors, are not readily classifiable. Arabic navigational literature, as known at present, forms a small corpus of highly specialized but extremely interesting writings on the fringe of the literary world.
  • 18 - The literature of Arabic alchemy
    pp 328-341
  • View abstract
    There are a number of artisanal crafts, predating the rise of alchemy, which demand varying degrees of empirical knowledge. These include the manufacture of perfumes, glass, ceramics, inks, pigments and dyes. The term "aurifiction" applies to methods used for simulating gold. Aurifaction, the attempt to produce gold from base metals is commonly regarded as synonymous with alchemy. Although the surviving literature is fragmentary and often of unknown authorship, it is clear that in the West alchemy came into being in Hellenistic Egypt. Joseph Needham has shown that Arabic alchemy contains elements that were absent from Greek alchemy but an essential feature of its Chinese counterpart. From the Book of Secrets people receive the impression of a powerful mind much more interested in practical chemistry than in theoretical alchemy. Although alchemical books continued to be written in the Arab world during the eighth/fourteenth and ninth/fifteenth centuries, there were fewer notable authors than in earlier times.
  • 19 - Arabic medical literature
    pp 342-363
  • View abstract
    In less than a century, and after the accumulation of medical material, Arab physicians displayed a conspicuous activity in the learning and teaching of medicine. During the fifth and sixth/tenth and eleventh centuries, when Arabic medicine reached its maturity, people notice a rise in the standards of medical tuition, professionalism and specialism. Aphoristic remarks are among the common features of medieval Arabic medical literature in their emphasis on medicine as a service to the community and on the physician's ethical behavior. Abu Ali Yahya b. Isa b. Jazlah was the first among the Arab physicians to produce a synoptic medical work. Ophthalmology was one of the first medical specialties. The eye had received the attention of almost all physicians, and thus became included in all the encyclopaedic medical works. As far as paediatric literature is concerned, the first among the Arab physicians to write a separate treatise on this subject was Abu Jafar Ahmad b. Ibrahim b. al-Jazzar.
  • 20 - Al-Kindī
    pp 364-369
  • View abstract
    Abu Yusuf Yaqub b. Ishaq al-Kindi flourished in particular in the reign of al-Muctasim. The programme of philosophical study adopted by al-Kindi is that of sixth-century Alexandria. As the Graeco-Arabic translation movement was gathering momentum around him, al-Kindi was moved by the appearance in Arabic of Euclid, Ptolemy, and other mathematical classics to tackle the legacy of Aristotle. The Theology of Aristotle that has come down to people, as a book by Aristotle, is a chance collection of pages from the Kindi-circle Plotinus. The philosophy of al-Kindi and his circle is distinguished by certain idiosyncrasies of style and thought. Al-Kindfs insistence on creation from nothing sets him apart from the mainstream of later falsafah. Some of al-Kindi's occasional remarks on reason and revelation hint at the source of his quarrel with the mutakallimun. Al-Kindi's campaign to expand the scope of Muslim education did not achieve its aim.
  • 21 - Al-Rāzī
    pp 370-377
  • View abstract
    Medieval authors have left confused and contradictory biographical accounts of Abu Bakr Muhammad b. Zakariyya al-Razi, the most original physician-philosopher among the Arabic-speaking peoples. A lost book on religious criticism, Fi Makhariq al-anbiya, is attributed to al-Razi. According to him, religions breed enmity between people, and lead to wars and destruction. He devoted a large book, Fi l-Shukuk ala Jalinus, so far unpublished, to the criticism of precepts in twenty-eight of Galen's books, beginning with al-Burhan, and ending with al-Nabd al-kabir. He wrote about 200 works on medicine, philosophy, alchemy and other subjects. Clinical observations concerning illnesses which affected al-Razi himself are recorded in al-Hawi. Ibn al-Nadim and Ibn abi Usaybiah mention al-Jami al-kabir in al-Razi's bibliography, adding that it consists of twelve parts. This book emphasizes an early date of specialization in Arabic pharmacology. The medical works of al-Razi had a great influence on the teaching of medicine in the Latin West.
  • 22 - Al-Fārābī
    pp 378-388
  • View abstract
    Unlike the changes which Muslim names frequently underwent in the Latin West, the last name of Abu Nasr Muhammad b. Muhammad b. Tarkhan b. Awzalugh al-Farabi was barely altered, and it is as "Alfarabi" that it has been common to refer to him. He commented on many of Aristotle's books, particularly his logical treatises, and his own summaries and more independent compositions show great familiarity with the Stagirite's thought in all its dimensions. Al-Farabi's knowledge of Plato was more limited, though Plato's Republic and Laws play critical roles in his own political philosophy. Al-Farabi's task was to naturalize philosophy in Islam in a convincing manner, while at the same time not compromising philosophy itself. Al-Farabi's teachings, even when cautious, bear signs of the incipient challenge philosophy presented to the orthodox guardians of the faith. Al-Farabi is particularly critical of kalam methodology. Al-Farabi may well have known that there was little certainty to most of his political or metaphysical teachings.
  • 23 - Ibn Sīnā
    pp 389-404
  • View abstract
    Ibn Sina is outstanding among Arabic authors for the unusually warm reception which he has been given in Europe. The secret of his success is to be found in the way that his writings synthesize all the most original features of Muslim philosophy. In his classification of the sciences Ibn Sina largely followed Aristotle. Taking the degree of abstraction of their subject-matter as his classificatory criterion, he distinguished three scientific classes, namely, the physical, the mathematical, and the metaphysical sciences. Like the neo-Platonists, Ibn Sina conceived the way to the Deity as a dual process of ascent and descent. It is manifestly apparent from the doctrine that Ibn Sina synthesized Aristotelianism, neo-Platonism, Iranian Gnosticism, Islam and religious concepts. Ibn Sina's metaphysical system was founded on the concept of emanation. His theory on the theme of the flying man is regarded by one virtually uniform tradition of thought as a precedent for Cartesian subjectivism.

Page 1 of 2

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