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Religion, Learning and Science in the 'Abbasid Period

Book description

The five centuries of the 'Abbasid period (eighth to thirteenth centuries AD) were the golden age of Arabic literature. They saw the appearance not only of poetry and belles-lettres (which are covered in a previous volume), but also of an extensive body of writings concerned with subjects ranging from theology and law to history and the natural sciences. This volume of The Cambridge History of Arabic Literature surveys the most important of these writings, including the literature of Sunnism and Shi'ism, Arabic philosophy, Sufism, Islamic law, grammar, lexicography, administration, historiography, mathematics, astronomy, astrology, geography, alchemy and medicine. It contains separate chapters on six of the greatest scholars of the Middle Ages, as well as on the Arabic literature of the Christians and Jews who lived under the rule of the 'Abbasid caliphate, and includes a study of one of the great cultural movements of the period, the translations from Greek into Arabic.

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Page 1 of 2


  • 1 - Sunnī theology
    pp 1-15
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139424912.003
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The closest equivalent to "theology" in Arabic is kalam. It is not an exact translation, however, so the author begin by defining what is meant by "Muslim theology". The first steps towards rationalizing the faith were taken by fiqh, Muslim jurisprudence. This chapter discusses the formation of a third set of theological schools, classically known as the mutakallimun specialists in kalam and Muslim theology. Ashcarites derive their name from the nisbah of the school's founder, Abul-Hasan Alib. Ismail al-Ashari. The main sources on which Sunni theology indisputably drew can be limited to four: the Quran, the Sunnah, qiyas and ijma. The frame of the ummah or community, conforms to that of the five "pillars" of Islam, namely shahadah, salah, zakah, sawm, and hajj. The movement which Ibn Taymiyyah initiated diverged along two different paths towards Wahhabism, on the one hand, and towards the modernist reformism called the Salafiyyah on the other.
  • 2 - Shīʿī theological literature
    pp 16-32
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139424912.004
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The pioneers of Shii theology seem to have begun to propagate theological views during the middle of the second/eighth century. The early Shii theologians appear to have been adherents of the sixth imam, Jafar al-Sadiq, and his son Musa al-Kazim, the seventh imam. Apart from the more extreme Traditions on the imamate, the theological traditions presented by al-Kulayni in al-Usul min al-kafi could almost be described as belonging to the mainstream discussions of Islamic theology. The strictly theological doctrines of the early Shii theologians had once been in the vanguard, but ideas had moved on and it was now the Mutazilah who had the leadership in Islamic theology. They were eager to bring about a synthesis between Shiism and general Mutazilite doctrines. Towards the end of the Abbasid caliphate in Baghdad, Shii theology received renewed impetus with the emergence of two distinguished theologians, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi and his disciple Ibn Mutahhar al-Hilli.
  • 3 - Ibāḍī theological literature
    pp 33-39
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139424912.005
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The general conditions which allowed the Abbasids to establish their power in the core of the Islamic world were also exploited by the Ibadis to establish states in parts of its periphery. The nature of Ibadi literature as exists from the period of zuhur may only be understood in the light of the fact that the tradition remained oral. The fifth/eleventh and sixth/twelfth centuries also saw a major emergence of Ibadism as a madhhab. Unfortunately, Ibadism in Uman became increasingly split by a doctrinal dispute over the issues that had led to civil war and which still underlay current political alliances. Thus Ibadism went into political decline in an explosion of scholarship that transformed its fiqh into a school comparable to the four schools of Sunni Islam and put its theology into the strait-jacket of Islamic orthodoxy. The Ibadis entered their political twilight at the end of Abbasid times with their theology refurbished but their political ideology intact.
  • 4 - Quranic exegesis
    pp 40-55
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139424912.006
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Exegesis forms one of the most extensive branches of Arabic prose literature. The definition of "revelation" gave Islam its distinct hue, while the identification as the source of knowledge of either tradition, reason or intuition produced broad exegetical approaches. The historical exegesis set out from written texts and the variant readings which Goldziher analysed fall into distinct groups. A type of tafsir unmentioned by Goldziher would make the Quran the source of regulations nowhere referred to in the texts, indeed, contradicting regulations that are there. While not designed as a manual of history, the Quran constantly uses history as an argument. Tradition once more attributed to Ibn Abbas the merit of initiating the linguistic method of exegesis and especially of exploiting the dazzling poetic treasures of the nation. Only theology which knows of a self-subsisting creator acting under no compulsion and capable of producing trans-rational effects can satisfactorily explain such anomalies.
  • 5 - The prose literature of Ṣufism
    pp 56-75
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139424912.007
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The prose literature of Islamic mysticism, or Sufism, during the Abbasid era is rich and varied. Sufi writers favoured definitive and descriptive works, guidance and reference manuals, epistolary and instructional treatises and biographies and hagiographies. The Quran inspired early Sufi writing in its alleged allusion to a preeternal covenant between God and man, the re-enactment of which filled the mystic with extreme enthusiasm. Works designed to instruct by moralizing took the form of testaments and brief admonitions, narratives and short accounts, problems and issues, examples of virtue, with ethics and etiquette providing a running theme. The cult of venerating the saints received an early boost in al-Tirmidhi's Khatm al-wilayah. Converts to Sufism had known and appreciated love and its beauty, which they now transferred to the Divine. Al-Tirmidhi's writings provided much impetus for practical devotion to saints and prophets, but it was Muhyi l-DIn b. al-Arabi's highly Unitarian views that gave permanence to the Logos principle implied therein.
  • 6 - Philosophical literature
    pp 76-105
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139424912.008
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Arabic philosophic writing is a form of Arabic literature. There was a tradition of philosophic literature, especially the literary styles of Plato, Aristotle and Plotinus, but also those of the Greek commentators, that was learned and imitated by philosophers writing in Arabic. In al-Farabi's introduction to his Talkhis Nawamis Aflatun, people find a more elaborate statement of Plato's method of writing. The relation between the philosopher and the city is the theme of a series of philosophic writings in Arabic and Persian, which are literary in the strict sense, that is, stories which make use of the basic methods of poetry and rhetoric: imitation and examples. Ibn Tufayl sets aside al-Farabi's writings on logic and concentrates on his "philosophic" writings, which he describes as "plagued with doubts". The account of Ibn Sina presents him as the only writer who has succeeded in avoiding slipping or tripping, and the only philosopher with whom Ibn Tufayl can find no fault.
  • 7 - Arabic lexicography
    pp 106-117
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139424912.009
  • View abstract
    Summary
    In the process of sifting and classifying the vocabulary of Arabic, all kinds of lists were drawn up which have been detailed in Sezgin's Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums. In his long preface, al-Azhari confirms that lexicography has come of age: his list of authorities, sources and teachers is a virtual history of the discipline, accompanied by some devastating criticisms of his predecessors. The tradition of alphabetical order by first radical is continued in al-Maqayis and its shorter version al-Mujmal, both by Ahmad b. Faris. With the Lisan al-Arab of Ibn Manzur, people reach the end of lexicographical progress. The place of lexicography in Islamic culture as a whole has yet to be adequately studied. There are certain similarities in motivation, which might repay investigation, between Islam, as a kind of supranationalism, and the nationalism which is known to have stimulated the creation of European dictionaries.
  • 8 - Arabic grammar
    pp 118-138
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139424912.010
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Having reached its peak of descriptive adequacy virtually at birth, Arabic grammar often seems little more than an endless discussion and restatement of the same immutable facts. Grammatical speculation went on before Sibawayhi is obvious, but our only evidence for it is in the Kitab itself. It is permissible to speak of the "creation" of grammar because grammatical speculation before Sibawayhi was not coherent, exhaustive or authoritative. Under the patronage of the Abbasid caliphs Arabic grammar soon acquired a pedagogical character it was never to shake off. In the resulting competition between grammarians at the Baghdad court, two rival "schools" evolved, labelled "Basran" and "Kufan". By the fourth/tenth century the penetration of logical concepts into grammar is unmistakable, though still limited, or better, controlled by the needs of the grammarians. However, there are still changes ahead before grammar can be regarded as having reached its formal perfection.
  • 9 - Islamic legal literature
    pp 139-154
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139424912.011
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The earliest juristic writings on Islamic law people possess date from the beginning of the second/eighth century. The Quran is the most important original source of Islamic law. The sunnah, derived from the behaviour of Muhammad and of his Companions, is the second original source of Islamic law. The main difference between the Shiis and the Sunnis was the political argument of who should succeed Muhammad as head of the Islamic community. The writings of the early jurists and founders of the schools of fiqh represent diffuse collections of tradition and the independent opinions of the authors. Classical Islamic law divides jurisprudence into the study of usul and of furu al-fiqh. Muhammad b. Jarir al-Tabari's works on tafsir and ikhtilaf mark the end of originality in the theory of the development of Islamic law. Fatawa represent a statement of the law on matters not covered by the compendia and, in particular, relate to new situations that have arisen.
  • 10 - Administrative literature
    pp 155-167
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139424912.012
  • View abstract
    Summary
    By the end of the Umayyad period, the government bureaucracy, organized as a group of diwans or government departments concerned with finance, official correspondence and the mustering and payment of the army, was already well formed. A contributory strand in the development of Islamic geographical writing was that of the road book or gazetteer, a topographical survey of the main routes of the empire with details of the staging-posts and rest-houses along them and of actual distances. The legal and administrative aspects of land measurement and of irrigation cannot easily be separated from the actual science and technology involved. Hence it is not surprising that, from now onwards, the genre of manuals of kitabah finds its finest flowering within the Egyptian context. The genre of medieval Arabic literature, although limited in its surviving extent and fated to have a development in Persian and Turkish literature, can legitimately be included in a survey of administrative literature.
  • 11 - Arabic biographical writing
    pp 168-187
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139424912.013
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Biography is one of the most extensive areas of Arabic literature. Its earliest, and characteristic form, is the biographical dictionary, although biographical writing early developed a variety of other forms. The first general biographical dictionary which includes people of eminence in every branch of life and from every country after the age of the Companions and the Successors is the Wafayat al-azyan wa-anba abna al-zaman. The Arabic biographical dictionaries are essential for the study of Islamic civilization; they represent in fact the "greatest untapped source of information on the medieval Middle East". An early example of an individual biography other than that of the Prophet is the life of Yamin al-Dawlah Mahmud of Ghaznah, entitled al-Kitab al-Yamini, by AbuDl-Nasar Muhammad al-Utbi. Legal biographical anecdotes fall into a class of their own, since here the interaction of personalities must develop within the artificial constraints of the juridical situation.
  • 12 - History and historians
    pp 188-233
    • By Claude Cahen, Université de la Sorbonne Nouvelle, Paris III
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139424912.014
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The origins of Arab-Muslim historiography are difficult to date exactly; it is evident only that they cannot be separated from those of the other literary and cultural genres of the first two centuries of Islam. For pre-Islamic history, the starting-point was of course to be found in the Quran, but it did not provide the material for a full exposition of what was regarded as more or less common knowledge. The most important writer of the period, however, was undeniably Izz al-Din b. al-Athir, certainly one of the greater Arab-Muslim historians. Byzantine historiography, the heir to ancient history, did not of course pass through the youthful phase experienced by Arab historiography at its traditional stage. A broad comparison is thus to no purpose except as between classical and post-classical centuries. The period considered here comes to an end with the rise of the Mamluk regime and the Mongol empire.
  • 13 - Faṭimid history and historians
    pp 234-247
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139424912.015
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter isolates the historical literature and mentions other genres when historical material is found in them. It also includes Sunni historical sources of both the Fatimid and later periods that have a bearing on Fatimid history. The first stage in Fatimid history is the "Period of Concealment". It is so-called because the imams of that period were in hiding. It begins in 148/765, the date of the Shii imam Jacfar al-Sadiq's death, and ends in 297/909, the year of the declaration of the Fatimid caliphate in North Africa by the caliph-imam Ubaydullah al-Mahdi. The time and authorship of the celebrated medieval Islamic encyclopaedia, the Rasail Ikhwan al-Safa, are in dispute. The time of the Fatimid caliph al-Hakim was a turbulent one. The caliph Maadd al-Mustansir kept in constant correspondence with the Sulayhid ruler dais. The Tayyibi dawah of the Yemen concentrated on the Haraz region, but soon lost political power.
  • 14 - Mathematics and applied science
    pp 248-273
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139424912.016
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The Arabs took an encyclopaedic view of knowledge, as the Greeks had done, and in an attempt to codify contemporaneous knowledge, they composed several valuable classifications of the sciences. Among the works that had been translated into Arabic by about the end of the third/ninth century were all the writings that were to have a decisive effect upon the origin and growth of Arabic mathematics. The students of the physical sciences in Islam were far fewer than the students of mathematics, astronomy, alchemy and medicine. Moreover, ways for achieving a large measure of control were to be found in Arabic machines: automatic switching, feed-back control, closed-loop systems, and so on. It is therefore postulated that European mechanical technology benefited from Arabic engineering in three ways: components and techniques, control systems, and the potent idea of self-regulating machinery.
  • 15 - Astronomy
    pp 274-289
    • By David A. King, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139424912.017
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter discusses the different categories of Islamic astronomical literature, the variety of which reflects the keen interest of Muslim scholars in astronomy for over a millennium. It also focusses on the traditional folk astronomy of the Arabian peninsula, which was already well established if not documented by the time of the Prophet Muhammad. A distinct Islamic flavour was added to this pre-Islamic folk astronomy by the fact that the times of Muslim prayer were defined astronomically and the direction of Muslim prayer was defined geographically. The earliest Islamic works relating to mathematical astronomy, that is, planetary astronomy and spherical astronomy, were based on Indian and Sasanid works. Another category of Islamic astronomical literature can be labelled kutub al-hayah, and consists of general expositions of the principles underlying astronomical theory. A large category of Islamic astronomical literature deals with instruments for timekeeping and for solving other problems of spherical astronomy.
  • 16 - Astrology
    pp 290-300
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139424912.018
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Astrology has had a deep and pervasive influence on the thought and culture of the Arabs and Persians. It has also had effects on Arabic literature in that many metaphors and other tropes are based on the ideas and technical terminology of astrology. The earliest Arabic text relating to astrology that people know of happens to deal with celestial omens ultimately descended from the Old Babylonian texts included in Enuma Anu Enlil. Arabic astrology continued to be impressively influential during the reign of al-MaDmun, though the initial surge of translation activity diminished considerably. The third/ninth-century translators worked far more industriously in the field of astronomy than in that of astrology. The most impressive astrologer writing in Arabic in the third/ninth century, however, was Abu Mashar Jafar b. Muhammad al-Balkhi. The descendants of Abu Sahl continued to practise astrology at the Abbasid court during the third/ninth century; al-Hasan b. Sahl is the one most frequently quoted by later astrologers.
  • 17 - Geographical and navigational literature
    pp 301-327
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139424912.019
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The earliest surviving piece of Arabic literature which may fairly be described as an original geographical work is al-Masalik wa l-mamalik of Ibn Khurradadhbih, who was writing during the reign of the caliph al-Mutamid. Al-Mansur ordered astronomical tables to be put into Arabic and Muhammad b. Ibrahim al-Fazari undertook the task, making from them a book which astronomers called "the great Sindhind". The geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih, addressing his dedicatee, makes a brief and obscure statement which might be interpreted to mean that he translated Ptolemy into Arabic. Mathematics and astronomy became the preserve of a separate technical literature, while places and people became drawn towards the domain of adab general culture. The "Post-Classical" geographical writers, any more than their predecessors, are not readily classifiable. Arabic navigational literature, as known at present, forms a small corpus of highly specialized but extremely interesting writings on the fringe of the literary world.
  • 18 - The literature of Arabic alchemy
    pp 328-341
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139424912.020
  • View abstract
    Summary
    There are a number of artisanal crafts, predating the rise of alchemy, which demand varying degrees of empirical knowledge. These include the manufacture of perfumes, glass, ceramics, inks, pigments and dyes. The term "aurifiction" applies to methods used for simulating gold. Aurifaction, the attempt to produce gold from base metals is commonly regarded as synonymous with alchemy. Although the surviving literature is fragmentary and often of unknown authorship, it is clear that in the West alchemy came into being in Hellenistic Egypt. Joseph Needham has shown that Arabic alchemy contains elements that were absent from Greek alchemy but an essential feature of its Chinese counterpart. From the Book of Secrets people receive the impression of a powerful mind much more interested in practical chemistry than in theoretical alchemy. Although alchemical books continued to be written in the Arab world during the eighth/fourteenth and ninth/fifteenth centuries, there were fewer notable authors than in earlier times.
  • 19 - Arabic medical literature
    pp 342-363
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139424912.021
  • View abstract
    Summary
    In less than a century, and after the accumulation of medical material, Arab physicians displayed a conspicuous activity in the learning and teaching of medicine. During the fifth and sixth/tenth and eleventh centuries, when Arabic medicine reached its maturity, people notice a rise in the standards of medical tuition, professionalism and specialism. Aphoristic remarks are among the common features of medieval Arabic medical literature in their emphasis on medicine as a service to the community and on the physician's ethical behavior. Abu Ali Yahya b. Isa b. Jazlah was the first among the Arab physicians to produce a synoptic medical work. Ophthalmology was one of the first medical specialties. The eye had received the attention of almost all physicians, and thus became included in all the encyclopaedic medical works. As far as paediatric literature is concerned, the first among the Arab physicians to write a separate treatise on this subject was Abu Jafar Ahmad b. Ibrahim b. al-Jazzar.
  • 20 - Al-Kindī
    pp 364-369
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139424912.022
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Abu Yusuf Yaqub b. Ishaq al-Kindi flourished in particular in the reign of al-Muctasim. The programme of philosophical study adopted by al-Kindi is that of sixth-century Alexandria. As the Graeco-Arabic translation movement was gathering momentum around him, al-Kindi was moved by the appearance in Arabic of Euclid, Ptolemy, and other mathematical classics to tackle the legacy of Aristotle. The Theology of Aristotle that has come down to people, as a book by Aristotle, is a chance collection of pages from the Kindi-circle Plotinus. The philosophy of al-Kindi and his circle is distinguished by certain idiosyncrasies of style and thought. Al-Kindfs insistence on creation from nothing sets him apart from the mainstream of later falsafah. Some of al-Kindi's occasional remarks on reason and revelation hint at the source of his quarrel with the mutakallimun. Al-Kindi's campaign to expand the scope of Muslim education did not achieve its aim.
  • 21 - Al-Rāzī
    pp 370-377
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139424912.023
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Medieval authors have left confused and contradictory biographical accounts of Abu Bakr Muhammad b. Zakariyya al-Razi, the most original physician-philosopher among the Arabic-speaking peoples. A lost book on religious criticism, Fi Makhariq al-anbiya, is attributed to al-Razi. According to him, religions breed enmity between people, and lead to wars and destruction. He devoted a large book, Fi l-Shukuk ala Jalinus, so far unpublished, to the criticism of precepts in twenty-eight of Galen's books, beginning with al-Burhan, and ending with al-Nabd al-kabir. He wrote about 200 works on medicine, philosophy, alchemy and other subjects. Clinical observations concerning illnesses which affected al-Razi himself are recorded in al-Hawi. Ibn al-Nadim and Ibn abi Usaybiah mention al-Jami al-kabir in al-Razi's bibliography, adding that it consists of twelve parts. This book emphasizes an early date of specialization in Arabic pharmacology. The medical works of al-Razi had a great influence on the teaching of medicine in the Latin West.
  • 22 - Al-Fārābī
    pp 378-388
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139424912.024
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Unlike the changes which Muslim names frequently underwent in the Latin West, the last name of Abu Nasr Muhammad b. Muhammad b. Tarkhan b. Awzalugh al-Farabi was barely altered, and it is as "Alfarabi" that it has been common to refer to him. He commented on many of Aristotle's books, particularly his logical treatises, and his own summaries and more independent compositions show great familiarity with the Stagirite's thought in all its dimensions. Al-Farabi's knowledge of Plato was more limited, though Plato's Republic and Laws play critical roles in his own political philosophy. Al-Farabi's task was to naturalize philosophy in Islam in a convincing manner, while at the same time not compromising philosophy itself. Al-Farabi's teachings, even when cautious, bear signs of the incipient challenge philosophy presented to the orthodox guardians of the faith. Al-Farabi is particularly critical of kalam methodology. Al-Farabi may well have known that there was little certainty to most of his political or metaphysical teachings.
  • 23 - Ibn Sīnā
    pp 389-404
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139424912.025
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Ibn Sina is outstanding among Arabic authors for the unusually warm reception which he has been given in Europe. The secret of his success is to be found in the way that his writings synthesize all the most original features of Muslim philosophy. In his classification of the sciences Ibn Sina largely followed Aristotle. Taking the degree of abstraction of their subject-matter as his classificatory criterion, he distinguished three scientific classes, namely, the physical, the mathematical, and the metaphysical sciences. Like the neo-Platonists, Ibn Sina conceived the way to the Deity as a dual process of ascent and descent. It is manifestly apparent from the doctrine that Ibn Sina synthesized Aristotelianism, neo-Platonism, Iranian Gnosticism, Islam and religious concepts. Ibn Sina's metaphysical system was founded on the concept of emanation. His theory on the theme of the flying man is regarded by one virtually uniform tradition of thought as a precedent for Cartesian subjectivism.

Page 1 of 2


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Die Natur- und Geheimwissenschaften im Islam (Handbuch der Orientalistik, 1 Abt., Ergānzungsband VI, ii), Leiden and Cologne, 1972.
Walzer, R.Greek into Arabic, Oxford, 1962.
Yāqūt, al-ḤamawīIrshād al-arīb ilā maʿrifat al-adīb, ed. D. S., Margoliouth, London, 19231931; A. Rifāʿī, Cairo, 1936–8.
Muʿjam al-buldān, ed. F., Wūstenfeld, Leipzig, 1869.
al-Ziriklī, Khayr al-Dīnal-Aʿlām, Cairo, 19541959.
1 SUNNĪ THEOLOGY
ʿĀdil, al-ʿAwwāʾal-Kalām wa-ʾl-falsafah, Damascus, 1964.
Allard, M.Le Problème des attributs divins dans la doctrine d'al-Ašʿarī, Beirut, 1965.
Alonso, M.Teología de Averroes: estudiosy documentos, Madrid, 1967.
al-Āmidī, Sayf al-DīnGhāyat al-marām fī ʿilm al-kalām, ed. Ḥasan Maḥmud ʿAbd, al-Laṭīf, Cairo, 1971.
Anawati, G. C. “Culture humaine et science religieuse. La place du Kalām (théologie musulmane) dans l'organisation du savoir”, IBLA, VII, Tunis, 1944.
Arberry, A. J.Revelation and Reason in Islam, London, 1957.
Asín Palacios, M.Abenhāzam de Córdoba y su historia crítica de las ideas religiosas, Madrid, 19271932.
al-Baghdādī, ʿAbd al-QāhirKitāb Uṣūl al-dīn, Istanbul, AH 1346.
Ess, J. van “The logical structure of Islamic theology” in G. E., von Grunebaum (ed.), Logic in Classical Islamic Culture, Wiesbaden, 1970.
Gardet, L. and Anawati, G. C.Introduction ā la théologie musulmane, Paris, 1948.
Grunebaum, G. E. vonTheology and Law in Islam, Wiesbaden, 1971.
Horowitz, S.Ūber den Einfluss der griechischen Philosophie auf die Entwicklung des Kalam, Breslau, 1909.
Horten, M.Muhammedanische Glaubenslehre. Die Catechismen des Fadālī und des Sanūsī ūbersetzt und erläutert, Bonn, 1916.
Macdonald, D. B.Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory, London, 1972.
McCarthy, R.The Theology of al-Ašʿarī, Beirut, 1953.
Nader, A.Bibliographie concernant le kalam”, Bulletin de Philosophie Médiévale, xv, 1973.
Niewohner, F.Bibliographie d'ouvrages en langues européennes concernant le kalam”, Bulletin de Philosophie Médiévale, XVI–XVII, 19741975.
Pareja, F. M. “Historia de la espiritualidad musulmana” in Juan, Flors (ed.), Historia de la Espiritualidad, Barcelona, n.d.
al-Shahrastānī, Asch-Sckahrastāni's Religionspartheien und Philosophen-Schulen, trans. T., Haarbrūcker, Halle, 18501851.
Stieglecker, H.Die Glaubenslehren des Islam, Munich, 1959.
Sweetman, W. J.Islam and Christian Theology, London, 1967.
Wensinck, A. J.The Muslim Creed: its Genesis and Historical Development, Cambridge, 1932.
Les Preuves de l'existence de Dieu dans la théologie musulmane, Amsterdam, 1936.
al-Ẓawāhirī, M. al-Ḥusaynial-Taḥqīq al-tāmm fīʿilm al-kalām, Cairo, 1939.
Zbinden, E.Die Djinn des Islam, Bern, 1953.
2 SHĪʿT THEOLOGICAL LITERATURE
al-Ashʿarī, Abū ʾl-Ḥlasan ʿAlī b. IsmāʿīlKitāb Maqālāt al-Islāmiyyīn, ed. H., Ritter, Wiesbaden, 1963.
al-Ashʿarī, Saʿd b. ʿAbdullāh al-QummīKitāb al-Maqālāt wa-ʾl-firaq, ed. Muḥammad Jawād, Mashkūr, Tehran, 1963.
al-Faḍl b. Shādhān, al-Naysāburīal-Iḍāḥ, ed. Jalāl al-Dīn al-Ḥusaynī, al-Urmawī, Tehran, 1972.
al-Ḥillī, al-ʿAllāmah al-Ḥasan b. Yūsuf b. al-Muṭahharal-Bāb al-ḥādīʿashar, Tehran, AH 1370;
trans. W., Miller, A Treatise on the Principles of the Shīʿite Theology, London, 1958.
Kashf al-murād fī sharḥ tajrīd al-iʿtiqād, being a commentary on Naṣir al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī's Tajrīd al-iʿtiqād, Qumm, AH 1377.
Ibn, BābawayhiRisālat al-Iʿtiqādāt in al-Ḥillī, al-Bāb al-ḥādī ʿashar, Tehran, AH 1370;
trans. A. A. A., Fyzee, A Shīʿite Creed, Oxford, 1942.
Ibn, BābawayhiKamāl al-dīn wa-tamām al-niʿmah, ed. ʿAlī Akbar, al-Ghaffārī, Tehran, AH 1395.
Ibn, BābawayhiKitāb al-Tawḥīd, ed. Hāshim, al-Ḥusaynī, Tehran, AH 1387.
al-Kashshī, Abū ʿAmr Muḥammad b. ʿUmarRijāl al-Kashshī, in the recension of Muḥammad b. Ḥasan al-Ṭūsi, Ikhtiyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, ed. al-Muṣṭafā, ḤasanMashhad, AH 1348.
al-Kulaynī, Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūbal-Uṣūl min al-kāfī, ed. ʿAlī Akbar, al-Ghaffārī, Tehran, AH 1388.
al-Mufīd, Abū ʿAbdullāh Muḥammad b. MuḥammadAwāʾil al-maqālāt fī ʾl-madhāhib al-mukhtārāt, ed. ʿAbbāsqulī S., Wajdī, Tabrīz, AH 1371.
al-Mufīd, Abū ʿAbdullāh Muḥammad b. Muḥammadal-Fuṣūl al-ʿasharah fī ʾl-ghaybah, Najaf, 1951.
al-Mufīd, Abū ʿAbdullāh Muḥammad b. MuḥammadKitāb al-Irshād fī maʿrifat ḥujaj Allāh ʿalā ʾl-ʿibād, ed. Kāẓim al-Mūsawī, al-Miyāmiwī, Tehran, AH 1377;
trans. I. K. A., Howard, The Book of Guidance into the Lives of the Twelve Imams, London, 1981.
al-Mufīd, Abū ʿAbdullāh Muḥammad b. MuḥammadKitāb Sharḥ ʿaqāʾid al-Ṣadūq, or Taṣḥīḥ al-iʿtiqād, ed. ʿAbbāsqulī S., Wajdī (printed in same volume as Awāʾil al-maqālāt), Tehran, AH 1371.
al-Murtaḍā, al-Sharīf Abū ʾl-Qāsim ʿAlī b. al-ḤusaynJumal al-ʿilm wa-ʾl-ʿamal, Najaf, AH 1387.
al-Murtaḍā, al-Sharīf Abū ʾl-Qāsim ʿAlī b. al-ḤusaynKitāb al-Shāfī fī ʾl-imāmah, Tehran, AH 1301.
al-Murtaḍā, al-Sharīf Abū ʾl-Qāsim ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusaynal-Uṣūl al-iʿtiqādiyyah in Nafāʾis al-makhṭūṭāt, 11, ed. Muḥammad Ḥasan, Āl-Yāsīn, Baghdad, 1954.
al-Najāshī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlīKitāb al-Rijāl, Tehran, n.d.
al-Nawbakhtī, Abū ʾl-Muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. MūsāFiraq al-Shīʿah, ed. H., Ritter, Istanbul, 1931.
al-Qummī, Abū ʾl-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. IbrāhīmTafsīr al-Qummī, ed. Ṭayyib al-Mūsawī, al-Jazāʾirī, Najaf, AH 1386.
al-Ṭūsī, Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad b. al-ḤasanFihrist kutub al-Shīʿah, ed. A., Sprenger and Mawlāwī ʿAbd, al-Ḥaqq, Calcutta, 1835.
al-Ṭūsī, Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad b. al-ḤasanKitāb al-Ghaybah, Tabrīz, AH 1322.
al-Ṭūsī, Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad b. al-ḤasanTalkhīs al-Shāfī, ed. al-Ḥasan al-Mūsawī, al-Kharsān, Najaf, 1963.
al-Ṭūsī, Naṣīr al-DīnSharḥ al-Muḥaṣṣal in Fakhr al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿUmar, al-Rāzī, Kitāb al-Muḥaṣṣal, Cairo, AH 1322.
al-Ṭūsī, Naṣīr al-DīnTajrīd al-iʿtiqād in al-Ḥillī, Kashf al-murād, Qumm, AH 1377.
3 IBĀḌĪ THEOLOGICAL LITERATURE
Cook, M.Early Muslim Dogma, Cambridge, 1981.
Cuperly, P.L'Ibadisme au XIIème siècle. La Aqida de Abu Sahl Yahya”, IBLA, CXLIII, CXLIV, 1979.
Cuperly, P.Muḥammad Atfayyaš et sa Risāla šâflya fi baʿḍ tawāriḫ ahl wādi Mizāb,” IBLA, CXXX, 1972.
Ennami, A. K.A description of new Ibāḍī manuscripts from North Africa”, Journal of Semitic Studies, XV, 1970.
Ess, J. vanUntersuchungen einiger ibāḍitischen Handschriften”, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlāndischen Gesellschaft, CXXVI, 1976.
Lewicki, T.Les historiens, biographes et traditionnistes Ibāḍites – wahbites de l'Afrique du Nord du VIIIe au XVIe siècle”, Folia Orientalia, III, 1961.
Lewicki, T.La répartition géographique des groupements Ibāḍites dans l'Afrique du Nord au moyen-Age”, Rocznik Orientalistyczny, XXI, 1957.
Moreno, M. M.Note de teologica Ibāḍita”, Annali dell'Istituto Orientale di Napoli, NS III, 1949.
Motylinski, A. de C.Bibliographie du Mzab”, Bulletin de Correspondence Africaine, III, 1885.
Rubinacci, R.La Puritā Rituale secondo gli Ibāḍiti”, Annali dell'Istituto Orientale di Napoli, NS VI, 1957.
Schacht, J.Bibliothèques et manuscrits abadites”, Revue Africaine, C, 1956.
Schwartz, W.Die Anfänge der Ibāḍiten in Nordafrika (Studien zum Minderheitenproblem im Islam, VIII,), Wiesbaden, 1983.
Schwartz, W.Ǧihād unter Muslimen (Studien zum Minderheitenproblem im Islam, VI, part 2), Wiesbaden, 1980.
Smith, G. R. and Wilkinson, J. C.The Omani manuscript collection at Muscat”, Arabian Studies, IV, 1978.
Wilkinson, J. C.Bio-bibliographical background to the crisis period in the Ibāḍī Imāmate of Oman”, Arabian Studies, III, 1976.
Wilkinson, J. C.Ibāḍī Ḥadīth: an essay on normalization”, Der Islam, LXII, 1985.
Wilkinson, J. C.The Imamate Tradition of Oman, Cambridge, 1987.
4 QURANIC EXEGESIS
Abbott, N.Studies in Arabic Literary Papyri, 11, Qurʾānic Commentary and Tradition, Chicago, Oriental Institute Publications, LXXVI, 1967.
Abū ʿUbaydah, Maʿmar b. al-MuthannāMajāz al-Qurʾān, ed. F., Sezgin, Cairo, 19541962.
al-Bayḍāwī, ʿAbdullāh b. ʿUmar, Anwār al-tazīl wa-asrār al-taʾwīl, Cairo, 1887.
Birkeland, H.Old Muslim Opposition against Interpretation of the Koran, Oslo, 1955.
al-Bukhārī, Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīlal-Ṣaḥīḥ, Cairo, 1896.
Burton, J.The Collection of the Qurʾān, Cambridge, 1977.
Burton, J.The origin of the Islamic penalty for adultery”, Transactions of the Glasgow University Oriental Society, XXVI, 1978.
al-Dānī, Abū ʿAmr ʿUthmān b. SaʿīdKitāb al-Muqniʿ, ed. O., Pretzl, Istanbul, 1932.
al-Dhahabī, Muḥammad H.al-Tafsīr wa-ʾl-mufassirūn, Cairo, 1976.
al-Farrāʾ, Abū Zakariyyāʾ Yaḥyā b. ZiyādMaʿāni al-Qurʾān, Beirut, 1955, 1980.
Gātje, H.Koran und Koranexegese, Zūrich, 1971.
Goldziher, I.Die Richtungen der Islamischen Koranauslegungen, Leiden, 1921, 1952.
Horst, H.Zur Ūberlieferung im Korankommentar aṭ-Ṭabarīs,” Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlāndischen Gesellschaft, CIII, 1953.
Ibn al-ʿArabī, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. ʿAbdullāhAḥkām al-Qurʾān, Cairo, 1957.
Ibn al-ʿArabī, Muḥyī ʾl-Dīn abū ʿAbdullāh Muḥammad b. ʿAlīThe Bezels of Wisdom [Fuṣūṣ al-ḥikam], trans. R. W. J., Austin, London, 1980.
Ibn al-ʿArabī, Muḥyī ʾl-Dīn abū ʿAbdullāh Muḥammad b. ʿAlīTafsīr al-shaykh, Cairo, 1866.
Ibn ʿAṭiyyah, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq, Kitāb al-Jāmiʿ al-muḥarrar al-ṣaḥīḥ al-wajīz tafsīr al-Qurʾān al-ʿazīz (introduction only); see A. Jeffery, below.
Ibn Ḥayyān, Muḥammad b. Yūsuf, al-Baḥr al-Muḥīṭ, Riyāḍ, 1969.
Ibn Qutaybah, ʿAbdullāh b. MuslimKitāb Taʾwīl mukhtalif al-ḥadīth, Cairo, 1966.
al-Jaṣṣāṣ, Abū Bakr Aḥmad b. ʿAlīAḥkām al-Qurʾān, Cairo, 1928.
Jeffery, A.Kitāb al-Maṣāḥif [Abū Bakr b. abī Dāʾūd], Cairo, 1936.
Jeffery, A.Materials for the History of the Text of the Qurʾān, Leiden, 1937.
Jeffery, A.Two Muqqadimahs on the Quʾān Sciences, Cairo, 1954, 1972.
Mālik b., Anasal-Muwaṭṭaʾ, Cairo, 1929.
Muqātil b., SulaymānTafsīr al-khams miʾ at āyah min al-Qurʾān, ed. Isaiah, Goldberg, Shfaram, 1980.
Muslim b., al-ḤajjājṢaḥīḥ, Cairo, 1911.
al-Naysābūrī, Niẓām al-Dīn al-Ḥasan b. MuḥammadGharāʾ ib al-Qurʾān wa-raghāʾ ib al-furqān (marg. Ṭabarī, Tafsīr), Būlāq, 1910.
Nöldeke, T.Geschichte des Qorans, Leipzig 19091919, I and II ed. Fr., Schwally; III, ed. G., Bergstrāsser and O., Pretzl, Hildesheim, 1961.
al-Qummī, ʿAlī b. IbrāhīmTafsīr al-Qummī, Beirut, 1968.
al-Qurṭubī, Muḥammad b. Aḥmadal-Jāmiʿ li-aḥkām al-Qurʾān, Cairo, 1952.
al-Rāzī, Fakhr al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿUmarMafātīḥ al-ghayb, Tehran, n.d.
Rippin, A.Ibn ʿAbbās's al-Lughāt fīʾl-Qurʾān”, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, XLIV, 1, 1981.
Stauth, G.Die Überlieferung des Korankommentars Muǧāhid b. Ǧabrs, Giessen, 1969.
al-Suyūṭī, Jalāl al-Dīnal-Durr al-Manthūr fī tafsīr al-Maʾthūr, Cairo, 1896.
al-Suyūṭī, Jalāl al-Dīnal-Itqān fī ʿulūm al-Qurʾān, Cairo, 1935.
al-Suyūṭī, Jalāl al-DīnTafsīr al-Jalālayn, Cairo, 1924.
al-Ṭabarī, Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad b. JarīrJāmiʿ al-Bayān ʿan taʾwīl āy al-Qurʾān, Būlāq, 1905; ed. M., Shakir, 1955.
al-Ṭabarsī, al-Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan, Majmaʿ al-bayān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān, Qumm, 1914.
al-Thaʿālibī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, al-Jawāhir al-ḥisān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān, Algiers, 1905.
al-#x1E6C;ūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan, al-Tibyān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān, Beirut, 1957.
Wansbrough, J.Qurʾanic Studies, Oxford, 1977.
al-Zamakhsharī, Maḥmūd b. ʿUmaral-Kashshāf ʿan ḥaqāʾiq al-tanzīl, Cairo, 1948.
al-Zarkashī, Badr al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAbdullāhKitāb al-Burhān fī ʿulūm al-Qurʾān, Cairo, 1957.
Zayd, M.al-Naskh fīʾl-Qurʾān al-Karīm, Cairo, 1963.
5 THE PROSE LITERATURE OF ṢUFISM
ʿAbdullāh al-Anṣārī, al-HarawīManāzil al-sāʾirīn, ed. L., de Beaurecueil, Cairo, 1954.
ʿAbdullāh al-Anṣārī, al-HarawīMunājāt wa-naṣāʾiḥ, Berlin, 1924.
ʿAfīfī, Abū al-ʿAlāʾal-Malāmatiyyah wa-ʾl-ṣūfiyyah wa-ahl al-futuwwah, Cairo, 1364/ 1945.
Arberry, A. J.Sufism: An Account of the Mystics of Islam, New York, 1950.
ʿAṭṭār, Farīd al-DīnTadhkirat al-awliyāʾ, ed. R. A., Nicholson, Leiden, 1905;
trans. A. J., Arberry, Muslim Saints and Mystics: Episodes from the Tadkhirat al-Awliyaʾ, London, 1966.
al-Ḥallāj, ManṣūrAkhbār …, ed. L., Massignon and Paul, Kraus, Paris, 1936.
Ḥamīrī, Muḥammad b. abī ʾl-QāsimDurrat al-asrār, Tunis, AH 1304.
al-Ḥujwīrī, ʿAlīKashf al-mahjūb, trans. R. A., Nicholson, London, 1959.
Ibn ʿAṭāʾallāh, al-Sakandarīal-Ḥikam al-ʿAṭāʾiyyah wa-ʾl-Munājāt al-ilāhiyyah, Damascus, n.d.; trans. V., Danner, Leiden, 1973.
Ibn ʿAṭāʾallāh, al-SakandarīLaṭāʾ if al-minan, Tunis, AH 1304.
Ibn ʿAṭāʾallāh, al-SakandarīTāj al-ʿarūs wa-qamʿ al-nufūs, Cairo, AH 1304.
Ibn ʿAṭāʾallāh, al-Sakandarīal-Tanwīr fī isqāṭ al-tadbīr, Cairo, 1390/1970.
al-Iṣfahānī, Abū Nuʿaym AḥmadḤilyat al-awliyāʾ, Cairo, 13511357/19321937.
al-Jīlī, ʿAbd al-Karīmal-Insān al-kāmil fī maʿrifat al-awāʾil wa-ʾl-awākhir, Cairo, 1292/1875.
al-Kalābādhī, Abū Bakr M.al-Taʿarruf li-madhhab ahlal-taṣawwuf ed. A. J., Arberry, Cairo, 1352/1933; ed. Maḥmūd, al-Nawawī, Cairo, 1388/1969.
al-Makkī, Abū ṬālibQūt al-qulūb fī muʿāmalat al-Maḥbūb, Cairo, 1310/1933.
Massignon, LouisEssai sur les origines du lexique technique de la mystique musulmane, Paris, 1959.
al-Nabhānī, IsmāʿīlJāmiʿ Karāmāt al-awliyāʾ, Cairo, 1929.
Nicholson, R. A.Studies in Islamic Mysticism, London, 1914 and Cambridge, 1967.
al-Qushayrī, ʿAbd al-Karīmal-Risālah al-Qushayriyyah, Cairo, AH 1284; ed. ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm, Maḥmūd, Cairo, n.d.
al-Sarrāj, ʿAbdullāhKitāb al-Lumaʿ fīʾl-taṣawwuf, Leiden, 1914; ed. ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm, Maḥmud and Ṭāhā ʿAbd al-Bāqī, Surūr, Cairo, 1380/1960.
al-Shaʿrānī, ʿAbd al-Wahhābal-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, Cairo, AH 1305.
Smith, MargaretReadings from the Mystics of Islam, London, 1972.
al-Tirmidhī, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Ḥakīm, Kitāb Khatm al-wilāyah, ed. H. I., Yaḥyā, Beirut, 1965.
Trimingham, J. SpencerThe Sufi Orders in Islam, Oxford, 1971.
6 PHILOSOPHICAL LITERATURE
Anon. Qiṣṣat Salāmān wa-Absāl, condensed by Naṣīr al-Dīn b. al-Ḥusayn, al-Ṭūsī in Sharḥay al-Ishārāt, Cairo, 1325/1907, 11;
trans. H., Corbin in Avicenna and the Visionary Recital, New York, 1960, part 1, section 21.
Badawī, ʿAbd al-RaḥmānHistoire de la Philosophie en Islam, Paris, 1972.
Charlton, W.Is philosophy a form of literature?”, British Journal of Aesthetics, XIV, 1974.
Charlton, W.Moral beauty and overniceness”, British Journal of Aesthetics, XX, 1980.
Hourani, George F.Ibn Sīnā's ‘Essay on the Secret of Destiny’”, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, XXIX, 1966.
Ḥunayn b., Isḥāq al-ʿIbādīQiṣṣat Salāmān wa-Absāl (trans, from the Greek), in Tisʿ rasāʾil, Istanbul, 1298/1881;
trans. H., Corbin in Avicenna and the Visionary Recital, New York, 1960, part 1, section 20.
Ibn Bājjah, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. al-ṢāʾghFīʾttiṣāl al-ʿaql bi-ʾl-insān in Majid, Fakhry (ed.), Rasāʾil Ibn Bājjah al-Ilāhiyyah, Beirut, 1968;
ed. and trans. Miguel Asín, Palacios, Al-Andalus, VII, 1942.
Ibn al-Nafis, ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn ʿAlī b. abī ʾl-Ḥazmal-Risālat al-Kāmiliyyah fī ʾl-Sīrah al-Nabawiyyah, ed. and partially trans. M., Meyerhof and J., Schacht, Oxford, 1968.
Ibn Ṭufayl, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-MalikḤayy ibn Yaqẓān, ed. and trans. L., Gauthier, Beirut, 1936; trans. S. Ockley, London, 1708, repr. 1711; trans. L. E. Goodman, New York, 1972.
Leamon, O.Does the interpretation of Islamic philosophy rest on a mistake?”, International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, XII, 1980.
Lerner, R., and Mahdi, M., eds. Medieval Political Philosophy: A Sourcebook, Ithaca, New York, 1971, part 1.
Mahdi, M. “Averroës on Divine Law and Human Wisdom” in J., Cropsey (ed.), Ancients and Moderns, New York, 1964.
Mahdi, M. “Averroës on Divine Law and Human Wisdom” in J., Cropsey (ed.), Ibn Khaldun's Philosophy of History, Chicago, 1964.
Mahdi, M. “Islamic theology and philosophy”, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edn, 1974.
Mahdi, M.Remarks on the Theologus Autodidactus of Ibn al-Nafis”, Studia Islamica, XXXI, 1970.
Natanson, M., and Johnstone, H. W., eds. Philosophyy Rhetoric and Argumentation, Pennsylvania, 1965.
Pines, S. (translator's introduction) “The philosophic sources of the Guide of the Perplexed” in Moses, Maimonides, The Guide of the Perplexed, trans. S., Pines, introductory essay by Leo Strauss, Chicago, 1963.
Sharif, M. M., ed. A History of Muslim Philosophy, Wiesbaden, 19631966.
Strauss, Leo “How Fārābī read Plato's Laws” in What is Political Philosophy? and Other Studies, Glencoe, Ill., 1959, section 5.
Strauss, Leo “On a forgotten kind of writing” in What is Political Philosophy? and Other Studies, Glencoe, Ill., 1959, section 2.
Strauss, LeoPersecution and the Art of Writing, Glencoe, Ill., 1952.
al-Suhrawardī, Shihāb al-Dīn Yaḥyā b. ḤabashQiṣṣat al-ghurbah al-gharbiyyah, ed. H., Corbin, Oeuvres philosophiques et mystiques de … Sohrawardi (Opera Metaphysica et Mystica, 11, i), Tehran, 1952;
trans. W. M., Thackston, The Mystical and Visionary Treatises of … Suhrawardi, London, 1982.
7 ARABIC LEXICOGRAPHY
al-Azharī, Muḥammad b. AḥmadTahdhīb al-lughah, ed. A. S. M., Hārūn et al., Cairo, 19641967.
Blachère, R. “Al-Ǧawharî et sa place dans l'évolution de la lexicographic arabe” in E., Paret (ed.), Analecta, Damascus, 1975.
Diem, W.Das Kitāb al-Ǧîm des Abū ʿAmr aš-Šaibānî. Ein Beitrag zur arabischen Lexikographie, Munich, 1968.
al-Fīrūzābādī, Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūbal-Qāmūs al-muḥit wa-ʾl-qābūs al-wasīṭ al-jāmiʿ li-mā maḍā min lughat al-ʿArab shamāṭīṭ, Cairo, 1952.
Gätje, H.Arabische Lexikographie: ein historischer Überblick”, Historiographia Linguistica, XII, 1985.
Ghaly, M. M. S.Arabic dictionaries, an annotated, comprehensive bibliography”, Mélanges de l'Institut dominicaine d'études orientales du Caire, X, 1970; XII, 1974.
Haywood, J. A.Arabic Lexicography: its History and its Place in the General History of Lexicography, Leiden, 1965.
Ibn Durayd, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasanal-Jamharah fīʾ-lughah, Hyderabad, AH 13451352; repr. Beirut, n.d; ed. Ramzi Baalbaki, Beirut, 19871988.
Ibn Fāris, Aḥmad b. ZakariyyāʾMuʿjam maqāyīs al-lughah, ed. A. S. M., Hārūn, Cairo, AH 13661371.
Ibn Manẓūr, Muḥammad b. MukarramLisān al-ʿArab, Būlāq, AH 1300-8; another edn, Beirut, 19551956.
Ibn Sīdah, Abū ʾl-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Ismāʿilal-Muḥkam wa-ʾl-muḥīṭ al-aʿẓam, ed. M., al-Saqqāʾ and Ḥusayn, Naṣṣār, Cairo, 19581973.
al-Mukhaṣṣaṣ fī ʾl-lughah, Cairo, AH 1316–21; repr. with index of quotations (shawāhid) by A. S. M. Hārūn, Beirut, AH 1386.
al-Jawharī, Abū Naṣr Ismāʿil b. ḤammādTāj al-lughah wa-ṣiḥāḥ al-ʿarabiyyah, ed. A. A. G., ʿAṭṭār, Cairo, 1956.
al-Khalīl b., AḥmadKitāb al-ʿAyn, 1, ed. A., Darwīsh, Baghdad, 1967; 11, ed. M. al-Makhzūmī, Baghdad, 1981.
Kraemer, J.Studien zur altarabischen Lexikographie nach Istanbuler und Berliner Handschriften”, Oriens, VI, 1953.
Krenkow, F.The beginnings of Arabic lexicography till the time of al-Jauharī, with special reference to the work of Ibn Duraid”, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (centenary suppl.), 1924.
Lane, E. W.An Arabic-English Lexicon Derived from the Bestand Most Copious Eastern Sources, London, 18631877; repr. New York, 19551956; Beirut, 1968; Tehran, n.d.; London, 1984.
Marçais, W. “La lexicographic arabe”, Articles et Conferences, Paris, 1961.
Rundgren, F. “La lexicographic arabe” in P., Fronzaroli (ed.), Studies in Semitic Lexicography, Florence, 1973.
Vix, H.Survey of useful Arabic reference materials”, al-ʿArabiyyah, XII, 1979.
Wild, S.Das Kitāb al-ʿain und die arabische Lexikographie, Wiesbaden, 1965.
al-Zabīdī, Abū ʾl-Fayḍ Muḥammad MurtaḍāTāj al-ʿarūs min jawāhir al-qāmūs, Cairo, AH 1306–7; Kuwait, 1965–.
al-Zamakhsharī, Abū ʾl-Qāsim Maḥmud b. ʿUmarAsās al-balāghah, Cairo, 1960.
8 ARABIC GRAMMAR
al-Astarābādhī, Raḍī ʾl-Dīn MuḥammadSharḥ Kāfiyat Ibn al-Ḥājib, Istanbul, 1275/18571858.
Bakalla, M. H.Arabic Linguistics: an Introduction and Bibliography, London, 1983.
Bobzin, H., and Versteegh, C. H. M. (Kees) (eds.) “Studies in the history of Arabic grammar”, Zeitschrift für Arabische Linguistik, XV, 1985.
Bohas, G., and Guillaume, J.-P.Etudes des théories des grammairiens arabes, 1, Morphologie et phonologie, Damascus, 1984.
Carter, M. G.An Arab grammarian of the eighth century A.D.”, Journal of the American Oriental Society, XCIII, 1973.
Carter, M. G.Arab Linguistics, an Introductory Classical Text with Translation and Notes (Ibn Ājurrūm), Amsterdam, 1981.
Carter, M. G.Les origines de la grammaire arabe”, Revue des Etudes Islamiques, XL, 1972.
Carter, M. G.When did the Arabic word naḥw first come to denote grammar?”, Language and Communication, V, 1985.
Diem, W.Bibliographie: Sekundārliteratur zur einheimischen arabischen Grammatikschreibung”, Historiographia Linguistica, VIII, 1981.
Elamrani- Jamal, A.Logique aristotélicienne et grammaire arabe, étude et documents, Paris, 1983.
al-Fārisī, Abū ʿAlīKitāb al-Īḍāḥ, ed. H. S., Farhoud, Cairo, 1969.
Haarmann, U. “Religiöses Recht und Grammatik im klassischen Islam” in W., Voigt (ed.), XVIII Deutscher Orientalistentag, Wiesbaden, 1974.
Howell, M.S.Grammar of the Classical Arabic Language, Hyderabad, 18861911.
Ibn al-Anbārī, Abū ʾl-Barakāt ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammadal-Inṣāf fī masāʾil al-khilāf. Die grammatischen Streitfragen der Basrer und Kufer, ed. G., Weil, Leiden, 1913.
Ibn al-Anbārī, Abū ʾl-Barakāt ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. MuḥammadLumaʿ al-adillah fī uṣūl al-naḥw, ed. A., Amer, Stockholm, 1963.
Ibn Bābashādh, Ṭāhir b. Aḥmadal-Muqaddimah al-muḥsibah, ed. A. ʿAbd, al-Karīm, Kuwait, 1977.
Ibn Fāris, Abū ʾl-Ḥusayn AḥmadKitāb al-Ṣāḥibī fī fiqh al-lughah, ed. M., Chouémi, Beirut, 1963.
Ibn Hishām, Jamāl al-Dīn ʿAbdullāh b. YūsufQaṭr al-nadā wa-ball al-ṣadā. La Pluie de rosée, étanchement de soif trans. A., Goguyer, Leiden, 1887.
Ibn Jinnī, Abū ʾl-Fatḥ ʿUthmānKhaṣāʾ iṣ al-ʿarabiyyah, ed. M. A., al-Najjār, Cairo, 19521956.
Ibn Maḍāʾ, al-Qurṭubīal-Radd ʿalā ʾl-nuḥāh, ed. S., Ḍayf, Cairo, 1968.
Ibn Mālik, Jamāl al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAbdullāhTashīl al-fawāʾid, ed. M. K., Barakāt, Cairo, 1968.
Ibn Mālik, Jamāl al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAbdullāhLa ʾAlfiyyah d'Ibn Mālik, suivi du Lāmiyyah du même auteur, ed. and trans. A., Goguyer, Beirut, 1888.
Ibn al-Sarrāj, Muḥammad b. al-Sarīal-Mūjaz fī ʾl-naḥw, ed. M., Chouémi, and B., Damerji, Beirut, 1965.
Ibn al-Sarrāj, Muḥammad b. al-Sarīal-Uṣūl fīʾl-naḥw, ed. A. H., al-Fatlī, Najaf, 1973.
Ibn Yaʿīsh, Abū ʾl-Baqāʾ Yaʿīsh b. ʿAlīSharḥ al-Mufaṣṣal, ed. G., Jahn, Leipzig, 18821886.
al-Iṣfahānī, Lughdahal-Mukhtaṣar fīʾl-naḥw, ed. ʿA., al-Fatlī in Mawrid, III, 1974.
al-Mubarrad, Abū ʾl-ʿAbbās Muḥammad b. YazīdKitāb al-Muqtaḍab, ed. M. A. K., ʿUḍaymah, Cairo, 19631968.
Sībawayhi, Abū Bishr ʿAmr b. ʿUthmānLe Livre de Sībawaih, traité de grammaire arabe, ed. H., Derenbourg, Paris, 18811889, repr. Hildesheim, 1970.
Sībawayhi, Abū Bishr ʿAmr b. ʿUthmānSibawaihi's Buch ūber die Grammatik, trans. G., Jahn, Berlin, 18951900; repr. Hildesheim, 1969.
Sībawayhi, Abū Bishr ʿAmr b. ʿUthmānKitāb Sībawayhi, Būlāq, 18981900; repr. Baghdad, 1965.
Troupeau, G.Lexique-Index du Kitāb de Sībawayhi, Paris, 1976.
Versteegh, C. H. M.Greek Elements in Arabic Linguistic Thinking, Leiden, 1977.
Versteegh, C. H. M.Current bibliography on the history of Arabic grammar”, Zeitschrift fūr Arabische Linguistik, XII, 1984.
al-Zajjājī, Abū ʾl-Qāsimal-Īḍāḥ fī ʿilal al-naḥw, ed. M., al-Mubārak, Cairo, 1959.
al-Zajjājī, Abū ʾl-Qāsimal-Jumal, ed. M. Ben, Cheneb, Paris, 1957.
al-Zamakhsharī, Abū ʾl-Qāsim Maḥmud b. ʿUmaral-Mufaṣṣal, ed. J. P., Broch, Christiania, 1879.
9 ISLAMIC LEGAL LITERATURE
Aghnides, N. P.Mohamedan Theories of Finance, New York, 1916.
Coulson, N. J.A History of Islamic Law, Edinburgh, 1964.
Fyzee, A. A. A.Outlines of Muhammadan Law, ed. D., Pearl, Oxford, 1983.
Liebesny, H. J.The Law of the Near and Middle East, Albany, 1975.
Pearl, D.A Textbook on Muslim Law, London, 1979.
Schacht, J.Introduction to Islamic Law, Oxford, 1964.
Schacht, J.The Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence, Oxford, 1950.
10 ADMINISTRATIVE LITERATURE
Ben Shemesh, A.Taxation in Islam, Leiden, 19581969.
Björkman, W.Beitrāge zur Geschichte der Staatskanzlei im islamischen Āgypten, Hamburg, 1928.
Bosworth, C. E.Abū ʿAbdallāh al-Khwārazmī on the technical terms of the secretary's art: a contribution to the administrative history of mediaeval Islam”, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, XIII, 1969, 113–64.
Bosworth, C. E.An early Arabic Mirror for Princes: Ṭāhir Dhū ʾl-Yamīnain's epistle to his son ʿAbdallāh (206/821)”, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, XXIX, 1970, 25–41.
Løkkegaard, F.Islamic Taxation in the Classic Period, with Special Reference to Circumstances in Iraq, Copenhagen, 1950.
Mez, A.The Renaissance of Islam, Eng. trans. S. Khuda, Bakhsh, Patna, 1937.
Richter, G.Studien zur Geschichte der älteren arabischen Fürstenspiegel, Leipzig, 1932.
Rosenthal, E. I. J.Political Thought in Medieval Islam: an Introductory Outline, Cambridge, 1968.
Sourdel, D.Le Vizirat ʿabbāside de 749 ā 936 (132 ā 324 de l'Hégire), Damascus, 19591960.
11 ARABIC BIOGRAPHICAL WRITING
Auchterlonie, P.Arabic Biographical Dictionaries: a summary guide and bibliography, Durham, 1987.
Bulliet, R. W.The Patricians of Nishapur, Cambridge, Mass., 1972.
Bulliet, R. W.A quantitative approach to medieval Muslim biographical dictionaries”, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, XIII, 1970.
Grunebaum, G. E. vonMedieval Islam: A Study in Cultural Orientation, Chicago, 1946.
Hafsi, IbrahimRecherches sur le genre ‘Ṭabaqāt’ dans la littérature arabe”, Arabica, XXIII, 1976; XXIV, 1977.
Ḥasan, MuḥammadʿAbd al-Ghanīal-Tarājim wa-ʾl-siyar, Cairo, 1955.
Holt, P. M. “Three biographies of al-Ẓāhir Baybars”, Medieval Historical Writing in the Christian and Islamic Worlds, ed. D. O., Morgan, London, 1982.
Morray, D. W.The Genius of Usāmah ibn Munqidh: aspects of Kitāb al-Iʿtibār by Usāmah ibn Munqidh, Durham, 1987.
Pellat, C.Peut-on connaître le taux de natalité au temps du Prophète? A la recherche d'une méthode”, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient XIV, 1971.
Petry, C. F.The Civilian Elite of Cairo in the Eater Middle Ages, Princeton, 1981.
Rosenthal, F. “Die arabische Autobiographie”, Studia Arabica, 1, Rome, 1937.
ʿUṭbah, ʿAbd al-RaḥmānMaʿa ʾl-maktabah al-ʿArabiyyah, Beirut, 1984.
12 HISTORY AND HISTORIANS
Abbott, N.Studies in Arabic Literary Papyri, 1, Historical Texts, Chicago, 1957.
Baumstark, A.Geschichte der syrischen Literatur, Bonn, 1922.
Cahen, C.La Syrie du Nord à l'époque des Croisades, Paris, 1940.
Canard, M.Histoire de la dynastie des Hamdanides, Algiers, 1951.
Daniel, E. I.The anonymous history of the Abbasid family and its place in Islamic historiography”, International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, XIV, 1982.
al-Dūrī, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīzBaḥth fī nashʾ at ʿilm al-taʾ rīkh ʿinda ʾl-ʿArab, Beirut, 1960.
Hunger, H.Geschichte der byzantinischen Literatur, Mūnster, 1978.
Ibn, al-Ṣayrafial-Ishārah ilā man nāla al-wizārah, ed. A., Mukhlis, Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale du Caire, XXV, 1924.
Idris, H. R., La Berbérie Orientale sous les Zirides, Paris, 1962.
Madelung, W.Abū Isḥāq al-Ṣābī on the Alids of Tabaristan and GīlānJournal of Near Eastern Studies, XXVI, 1967.
Madelung, W.The identity of two Yemenite MSS”, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, XXXII, 1973.
Margoliouth, D.Lectures on Arabic Historians, Calcutta, 1930.
Morgan, D. O. (ed.) Medieval Historical Writing in the Christian and Islamic Worlds, London, 1982.
al-Munajjid, Ṣalāḥ al-Dīnal-Muʾ arrikhūn al-Dimashqiyyūn, Cairo, 1956.
al-Muṭahhar, al-MaqdisīKitāb al-Badʾ wa-ʾl-taʾ rīkh, ed. C., Huart, Paris, 18991919.
Rotter, G.Abu Zurʿa al-Dimashqi und das Problem der frühen arabischen Geschichtsschreibung in Syrien”, Die Welt des Orients, VI, 1971.
Rotter, G.Zur Überlieferung einiger historischen Werke Madāʾinīs in Tabaris Annales”, Oriens, XXIII–XXIV, 1974.
Sezgin, F.Abū Miḥnaf: ein Beitrag zur Historiographie der Omayadenzeit, Leiden, 1971.
Talbi, M.L'Emirat Aghlabide, Paris, 1966.
Wūstenfeld, F., Die Chroniken der Stadt Mekka, Leipzig, 18581861.
13 FAṬIMID HISTORY AND HISTORIANS
Becker, C. H.Beiträge zur Geschichte Aegyptens, Strassburg, 1903.
Bryer, D. R. W.The origins of the Druze religion”, Der Islam, LII, 1975; LIII, 1976.
Cahen, ClaudeQuelques chroniques anciennes rélatives aux derniers Fatimides,” Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale du Caire, XXXVI, 1937.
Casanova, P., “Les derniers Fatimides”, Mémoires publiés par les membres de l'Institut Françis d'Archéologie Orientale du Caire, VI, 1897.
Gacek, A.Catalogue of Arabic Manuscripts in the Library of the Institute of Ismaili Studies, London, 19841985.
Goeje, M. J. deMémoire sur les Carmathes du Baḥrain et les Fatimides, Leiden, 1886.
Goriawala, MuʿizzA Descriptive Catalogue of the Fy∧ee Collection of Ismāʿīlī Manuscripts, Bombay, 1965.
Guyard, S.Fragments rélatifs ā la doctrine des Ismaélis, Paris, 1874.
Hamdani, AbbasThe Beginnings of the Ismāʿītī Daʿwa in Northern India, Cairo, 1956.
Hamdānī, Ḥusaynal-Ṣulayḥiyyūn, Cairo, 1955.
Hamdānī, ḤusaynThe history of the Ismāʿīlī Daʿwat and its literature during the last phase of the Fatimid empire,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1932.
Hamdānī, ḤusaynSome unknown Ismāʿīlī authors and their works”, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1933.
Hammer-Purgstall, J. vonThe History of the Assassins, trans. O. C., Wood, 1968, from German original of 1835.
Ḥasan Ibrāhīm, Ḥasan and Ṭāhā, Sharafal-Muʿizz li-dīn Allāh, Cairo, 1947.
Ḥasan Ibrāhīm, Ḥasan and Ṭāhā, SharafʿUbaydullāh al-Mahdī, Cairo, 1947.
Ḥasan b.|Yaʿqūb al-Hamdānī Ṣifat Jazīrat al-ʿArab, ed. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī, al-Akwaʿ al-Ḥiwālī, Beirut, 1983; Riyāḍ, 1984.
Hodgson, M. G. S.The Order of the Assassins, The Hague, 1955.
Hollister, J. N.The Shīʿa of India, London, 1953.
Ḥusayn, Muḥammad KāmilṬāʾifat al-Ismāʿīliyyah, Cairo, 1959.
Ivanow, WladimirA Guide to Ismāʿīlī Literature, London, 1933.
Ismāʿīlī Literature: A Bibliographical Survey, Tehran, 1963.
Kāmil Ḥusayn, M.Fī Adab Miṣr al-Fāṭimiyyah, Cairo, 1963.
Kraus, PaulLa bibliographic Ismaélienne de W. Ivanow”, Revue des Etudes Islamiques, VI, 1932.
Lane-Poole, , Stanley History of Egypt in the Middle Ages, London, 1901.
Lewis, B.The Assassins, London, 1967.
Löfgren, O., and Traini, R.Catalogue of the Arabic Manuscripts in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Vicenza, 19751981.
Madelung, W.Das Imāmat in der frūhen ismailitischen Lehre”, Der Islam, XXXVII, 1961.
Mājid, ʿAbd al-MunʿimNuẓum al-Fāṭimiyyīn wa-rusūmuhum, Cairo, 1955.
Mājid, ʿAbd al-MunʿimẒuhūr khilāfat al-Fāṭimiyyīn wa-suqūṭuhā, Cairo, 1977.
Massignon, L. “Esquisse d'une bibliographic Carmathe”, E. G. Browne Festschrift, London, 1922.
O'Leary, De LacyA Short History of the Fatimid Khalifate, London, 1923.
Poonawala, I. K.Biobibliography of Ismāʿīlī Literature, Malibu, California, 1977.
Quatremère, E.Mémoires historiques sur la dynastie des Khalifes Fatimides”, Journal Asiatique, II, 1836; III, 1837.
Sacy, Silvestre deExposé de la religion des Druzes, Paris, 1838.
Sayyid, Ayman FuʾādMaṣādir taʾrīkh al-Yaman fī ʾlʿ-aṣr al-Islāmī, Cairo, 1974.
Sayyid, Ayman FuʾādLumières nouvelles sur quelques sources de l'histoire Fatimide en Egypte”, Annales Islamologiques, XIII, 1977.
al-Shayyāl, Jamāl al-DīnMajmūʿat al-wathaʾiq al-Fāṭimiyyah, Cairo, 1958.
Stern, S. M.Fatimid Decrees, London, 1964.
Tajdin, NagibA Bibliography of Ismāʿilism, Delmar, New York, 1985.
Wüstenfeld, F.Geschichte der Fatimiden-Chalifen, Göttingen, 1881.
Zāhid, ʿAlīTaʾrīkh-i-Fāṭimiyyīn-i-Miṣr (in Urdu), Hyderabad, 1948.
14 MATHEMATICS AND APPLIED SCIENCE
al-Hassan, Ahmad Y., and Hill, Donald R.Islamic Technology: An Illustrated History, Paris and Cambridge, 1986.
Hill, Donald R.Arabic Water-Clocks, Institute for the History of Arabic Science, Aleppo, 1981.
Hill, Donald R.A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times, London, 1984.
Mieli, A.La Science Arabe, Leiden, 1966.
Nasr, S. H.Science and Civilisation in Islam, Cambridge, Mass., 1968.
Wiedemann, E.Aufsätze zur Arabischen Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Hildesheim and New York, 1970.
15 ASTRONOMY
Caussin, de Perceval “Le livre de la grande table Hakémite, observée par le Sheikh … ebn Iounis …”, Notices et Ex traits des Manuscrits de la Bibliothèque Nationale (Paris), VII, 1804.
Debarnot, M. T.Al-Bīrūnī, Kitāb Maqälīd ʿilm al-hayʾa – La Trigonométrie Sphérique chez les Arabes de l'Est à la fin du Xe siècle, Damascus, 1985.
Goldstein, B. R.Al-Biṭrūjī: On the Principles of Astronomy, New Haven and London, 1971.
Goldstein, B. R.Theory and Observation in Ancient and Medieval Astronomy, London, 1985.
Hartner, W.The Islamic astronomical background to Nicholas Copernicus”, Studia Copernicana, XIII, 1975.
Heinen, A. M.Islamic Cosmology: A Study of as-Suyūṭī's al-Hayʾa al-saniya, Wiesbaden, 1982.
Kennedy, E. S. “The exact sciences in Iran under the Seljuqs and Mongols” in Cambridge History of Iran, V, Cambridge, 1968.
Kennedy, E. S.The digital computer and the history of the exact sciences“, Centaurus, XII, 1967.
Kennedy, E. S. “A survey of Islamic astronomical tables”, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (Philadelphia), XLVI, 1956.
Kennedy, E. S., and Ghanem, I.The Life and Work of Ihn al-Shāṭir: An Arab Astronomer of the Fourteenth Century, Aleppo, 1976.
Kennedy, E. S., and Haddad, F. I.Geographical tables of medieval Islam”, al-Abḥāth, XXIV, 1971.
Kennedy, E. S., and King, D. A.Astronomy in the medieval Maghrib”, Journal for the History of Arabic Science, VI, 1982.
King, D. A.Islamic Astronomical Instruments, London, 1987.
King, D. A.Islamic Mathematical Astronomy, London, 1986.
King, D. A.Mathematical Astronomy in Medieval Yemen, Malibu, California, 1982.
King, D. A.A Survey of the Scientific MS S in the Egyptian National Library, Indiana, 1986.
King, D. A. “Astronomical alignments in medieval Islamic religious architecture”, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1982.
King, D. A.On the astronomical tables of the Islamic Middle Ages”, Studia Copernicana, XIII, 1975.
King, D. A. “Astronomical timekeeping (ʿilm al-mīqāt) in medieval Islam”, Actes du XXIXe Congrès International des Orientalistes, Paris, 1973.
King, D. A. “The astronomy of the Mamluks”, Muqarnas, 1982.
King, D. A., and Saliba, G. (eds.) From Deferment to Equant: Studies in the History of Science in the Ancient and Medieval Near East in Honor of E. S. Kennedy, New York, 1987.
Kunitzsch, P.Untersuchungen zur Sternnomenklatur der Araber, Wiesbaden, 1961.
Livingston, J.Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī's al-Tadhkira: a category of Islamic astronomical literature”, Centaurus, XVII, 19721973.
Mayer, L. A., Islamic Astrolabists and their Works, Geneva, 1956.
Nallino, C. A.al-Battani sive Albatenii Opus Astronomicum (Pubblicazioni del Reale Osservatorio di Brera in Milano, XL), Milan and Rome, 18991907; repr. Frankfurt, 1969.
Neugebauer, O.The astronomical tables of al-Khwārizmī”, Kgl. Danske Vidensk. hist.-fil. Skrifter, 4:2, 1962.
Pingree, D.The fragments of the works of al-Fazārī”, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, XXIX, 1970.
Pingree, D.The fragments of the works of Yaʿqūb ibn Ṭariq”, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, XXVI, 1968.
Pingree, D.The Greek influence on Early Islamic mathematical astronomy”, Journal of the American Oriental Society, XCIII, 1973.
Pingree, D.Indian influence on Sassanian and Early Islamic astronomy and astrology”, Journal of Oriental Research, Madras, XXXIV–V, 19641966.
Savage-Smith, E.Islamicate Celestial Globes, Washington, 1985.
Sayili, A.The Observatory in Islam, Ankara, 1960.
Schmalzl, P.Zur Geschichte des Quadranten bei den Arabern, Munich, 1929.
Schoy, C. “Gnomonik der Araber” in E., von Bassermann-Jordan (ed.), Die Geschichte der Zeitmessung und der Uhren, Berlin and Leipzig, 1923.
Sédillot, J.-J.Traité des instruments astronomiques des Arabes, Paris, 18341835.
Sédillot, L. A.Mémoire sur les instruments astronomiques des arabes”, Mémoires présentés … à l'Académie Royale … de l'Institut de France, I, 1844.
Sédillot, L. A.Prolégomenes des tables astronomiques d'Oloug-Beg, Paris, 1853.
al-Ṣūfī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿUmarKitāb Ṣuwar al-kāwakib al-thābitah, Hyderabad, 1954.
Suter, H.Die astronomischen Tafeln des Muḥammed ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī in der Bearbeitung des Maslama ibn Ahmed al-Madjrīṭī und der latein. Übersetzung des Adelard von Bath”, Kgl. Danske Vidensk. Skrifter, 7. R., Hist. og filos. Afd., 1914, III, part 1.
Tekeli, S.Nasirüddin, Takiyüddin ve Ty cho Brahe'nin Rasat Aletlerinin Mukayesesi”, Ankara Universitesi Dil ve Tarih-Coǧrafya Fakültesi Dergesi, XVI, 1958.
Toomer, G. J.A survey of the Toledan tables”, Osiris, XV, 1968.
Vernet Ginés, J.Contribución al Estudio de la Labor Astronómica de Ibn al-Bannāʾ”, Tetuan, 1952.
16 ASTROLOGY
Carmody, F. J.Arabic Astronomical and Astrological Sciences in Latin Translation, Berkeley-Los Angeles, 1956.
Carmody, F. J.Catalogus Codicum Astrologorum Graecorum, Brussels, 18981954.
Fahd, T.La Divination Arabe, Leiden, 1966.
Kennedy, E. S., and Pingree, D.The Astrological History of Māshāʾ allāh, Cambridge, Mass., 1971.
Steinschneider, M.Die Hebräischen Übersetzungen des Mittelalters und die Juden als Dolmetscher, Berlin, 1893.
17 GEOGRAPHICAL AND NAVIGATIONAL LITERATURE
Abu ʾl-Fidāʾ, Ismāʿīl b. ʿAlīTaqwīm al-buldān, ed. J. T., Reinaud and M., de Slane, Paris, 1840.
al-Bakrī, AbūʿUbayd ʿAbdullah ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Masālik wa-ʾl-mamālik (N.W. Africa), ed. M., de Slane, Algiers, , 1911.
al-Bakrī, AbūMuʿjam mā ʾstaʿjam, ed. M., al-Saqqāʾ, Cairo, 19451949.
Buzurg b., ShahriyärʿAjāʾib al-Hind, ed. P. A., Van der Lith and trans. M., Devic, Leiden, 1883.
Colebrooke, H. T.Algebra with Arithmetic and Mensuration from the Sanskrit, London, 1817.
al-Dimashqī, Shams al-DīnNukhbat al-dahr fī ʿajāʾib al-barr wa-ʾl-baḥr, ed. A., Mehren, St Petersburg, 1886.
de Goeje, M. J.Die Istakhrī-Balkhī Frage”, Zeitschrift der Deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft, XXV, 1871.
Honigmann, E.Die Sieben Klimata, Heidelberg, 1929.
Ibn Baṭṭūṭah, Muḥammad b. ʿAbdullāhTuḥfat al-nuẓẓār fī gharāʾib al-amṣār wa-ʿajāʾib al-asfār, ed. and trans. C., Defrémery and B. R., Sanguinetti, Paris, 18531858.
Ibn Faḍlān, Aḥmad b. ḤammādRisālah, ed. Sāmī, al-Dahhān, Damascus, 1959.
Ibn al-Faqīh, Abū Bakr Aḥmad b. Ibrāhīm al-HamadhānīMukhtaṣar Kitāb al-Buldān, ed. M. J., de Goeje, Leiden, 1885.
Ibn Ḥawqal, Abū ʾl-QāsimṢūrat al-arḍ, ed. M. J., de Goeje, Leiden, 1873; ed. J. H., Kramers, Leiden, 1938.
Ibn Jubayr, Abū ʾl-Ḥusayn Muḥammad b. AḥmadRiḥlah, ed. W., Wright, 1852; trans. R. J. C., Broadhurst, London, 1952.
Ibn Khurrādādhbih, ʿUbaydullāh b. al-QāsimKitāb al-Masālik wa-ʾl-mamālik, ed. M. J., de Goeje, Leiden, 1889.
Ibn Mājid, AḥmadḤäwiyat al-ikhtiṣār fī uṣūl ʿilm al-biḥār, ed. and analysis I., Khūrī, “La Ḥäwiya de Aḥmad bin Maǧid”, Bulletin d'études orientales, XXIV, 1971.
Ibn Mājid, AḥmadKitāb al-Fawāʾid, facsimile text in G., Ferrand, Instructions nautiques et routiers arabes et portugais, I, Paris, 1921; ed. Ibrāhīm, Khūrī, Damascus, 1971.
Ibn, Rustih, Kitāb al-Aʿlāq al-nafīsah, ed. M. J., de Goeje, Leiden, 1892.
Ibn Saʿīd, Abū ʾl-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. MūsāBasṭ al-arḍ fī-ṭūl wa-ʾl-ʿarḍ, ed. J. Vernet, Ginés, Tetuan, 1958.
al-Idrīsī, Muḥammad b. MuḥammadNuzhat al-mushtāq fī ʾkhtiräq al-āfāq, ed. A., Bombaci, U., Rizzitano, R., Rubinacci and L. Veccia, Vaglieri, Naples-Rome, 1970–(in progress).
al-Iṣṭakhrī, Ibrāhīm b. Muḥammadal-Masālik wa-ʾl-mamālik, ed. M. J., de Goeje, Leiden, 1870; ed. Muḥammad Jābir ʿAbd al-ʿAl, ai-Ḥīnī, Cairo, 1961.
al-Khwārazmī, Muḥammad b. MūsāKitāb Ṣūrat al-arḍ, ed. H., von Mžik, Leipzig, 1926.
Krachkovsky, I. J.Arabskaya geografičeskaya literatūra, Moscow-Leningrad, 1957;
trans. SṢalāḥ al-Dīn ʿUthmān, Hāshim, Taʾrīkh al-adab al-jughräfī al-ʿarabī, Cairo, 19631965.
Kramers, J. H. “Geography and commerce” in Sir T., Arnold and A., Guillaume (eds.), The Legacy of Islam, Oxford, 1931.
al-Masʿūdī, Abu ʾl-Ḥasan ʿAlīMurūj al-dhahab, ed. and trans. A. C. Barbier, de Maynard and Pavet, de Courteille, Paris, 18611877.
al-Masʿūdī, Abu ʾl-Ḥasan ʿAlīal-Tanbīh wa-ʾl-ishrāf, ed. M. J., de Goeje, Leiden, 18931894.
Miquel, A.La Géographie humaine du monde musulman jusqu'au milieu du IIe siècle, Paris and The Hague, 1973, 1975, 1980.
al-Muqaddasī, Shams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbdullāh Muḥammad b. AḥmadAḥsan al-taqäsīm fī maʿrifat al-aqālīm, ed. M. J., de Goeje, Leiden, 1887, 1906.
Nallino, C. A.Al-Ḫuwârizmî e il suo rifacimento della Geografia di Tolomeo”, Atti della R. Accademia dei Lincei, CCXCI, 1894.
Ptolemy, Almagest, trans. G. J., Toomer, London, 1984.
Ptolemy, Claudii Ptolemei Geographia, ed. C. F. A., Nobbe, Leipzig, 18881893.
al-Qazwīnī, Zakariyyāʾ b. MuḥammadAjāʾib al-makhlūqàt wa-āthār al-bilād, ed. F., Wüstenfeld, Göttingen, 1848.
Ṣafī ʾl-Dīn, ʿAbd al-Muʾmin al-BaghdādīMarāṣidal-iṭṭilāʿ, ed. T., Juynboll (Lexicon geographicum), Leiden, 18521864.
Ṣāʿid, al-AndalusīṬabaqät al-umam, ed. L., Cheikho, Beirut, 1912.
Suhräb, Ibn SaräbiyünʿAjāʾib al-aqālīm al-sabʿah ilā nihāyat al-ʿimārah, ed. H., von Mžik, Leipzig, 1930.
Sulaymän, al-MahrīʿUmdah, text in G., Ferrand, Instructions nautiques et routiers arabes et portugais, II, Paris, 1925.
al-ʿUmarī, Shihāb al-Dīn b. FaḍlullāhMasālik al-abṣār fī mamālik al-amṣār, partial ed. (N. Africa and Spain) H. H. ʿAbd, al-Wahhāb, Tunis, n.d.; and (Mali) Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn al-Munajjid, Beirut, 1963.
al-Yaʿqūbī, Aḥmad b. abī YaʿqūbKitāb al-Buldān, ed. M. J., de Goeje, Leiden, 1892.
Yäqüt, al-ḤamawīKitāb al-Mushtarik waḍʿan wa-ʾl-muftariq ṣuqʿan, ed. F., Wüstenfeld, Göttingen, 1846.
18 THE LITERATURE OF ARABIC ALCHEMY
Burckhardt, T.Alchemy – Science of the Cosmos, Science of the Soul, trans. W., Stoddart, Baltimore, 1971.
Geber, , The Works of Geber, trans. R., Russell, London, 1678; new edn, E. J., Holmyard, London and Toronto, 1928.
Holmyard, E. J.Alchemy, Harmondsworth, 1957.
Kraus, P.Jäbir b. Ḥayyän, I, Cairo, 1943; II, Cairo, 1942.
Naṣr, ḤusaynIslamic Science: An Illustrated Study, London, 1976.
Needham, J.Science and Civilization in China, V, part 2, Cambridge, 1974.
Needham, J.The elixir concept and chemical medicine in East and West”, Journal of the Chinese University of Hong Kong, II, 1974.
al-Rāzī, Al-Rāzī's Buch Geheimnis der Geheimnisse, trans, and annot. J., Ruska, Berlin, 1937
Sherwood Taylor, F.The Alchemists, Founders of Modern Chemistry, New York, 1949; London, 1951.
19 ARABIC MEDICAL LITERATURE
al-Anṭākī, Dāwūdal-Tadhkirah, Cairo, AH 1325.
Browne, E. G.Arabian Medicine, Cambridge, 1921.
Browne, E. G.Chahār Maqālah, Cambridge, 1921.
Campbell, D.Arabian Medicine, London, 1926.
Elgood, C. L.A Medical History of Persia and the Eastern Caliphate, Cambridge, 1951.
Ghaliongi, P.Questions on Medicine for Scholars, Cairo, 1980.
al-Haylah, M. H.Siyāsat al-ṣibyān wa-tadbīruhum, Tunis, 1968.
Ḥunayn b. Isḥāq al-ʿIbādī Kitāb al-Masāʾil fiī ʾl-ʿayn: Livre des questions sur l'oeil de Honein b. Ishaq, ed. P., Sbath and M., Meyerhof, Cairo, 1938.
Ḥunayn b. Isḥāq al-ʿIbādī ʿAshr maqälät, Hyderabad, 1964.
Meyerhof, M.Las operaciones de cataracta de ʿAmmār b. ʿAlī al-Mauṣilī, Barcelona, 1937.
Meyerhof, M.Ṭabarī's Paradise of Wisdom”, Isis, XVI, 1931.
al-Sāmarrāʾī, KamālMukhtaṣar Taʾrīkh al-ṭibb al-ʿarabī, Baghdad, 1984–.
Schacht, J. and Meyerhof, M.The Controversy between Ibn Buṭlān and Ibn Riḍwän, Cairo, 1973.
Ṣiddīqī, M. Z.Firdaws al-ḥikmah, Berlin, 1929.
Ullmann, M.Islamic Medicine, Edinburgh, 1978.
20 AL-KINDĪ
Altmann, A., and Stern, S. M.Isaac Israeli, London, 1958.
Atiyeh, G. N.Al-Kindi: The Philosopher of the Arabs, Rawalpindi, 1966.
Endress, G.Proclus Arabus, Beirut and Wiesbaden, 1973.
Ivry, A. L.Al-Kindi's Metaphysics, Albany, 1974.
al-Kindī, Abū Yūsuf Yaʿqūb b. IsḥaqRasāʾil al-Kindī al-falsafiyyah, ed. M. A. Abū, Rīdah, Cairo, 19501953.
Rescher, N.Al-Kindi: An Annotated Bibliography, Pittsburgh, 1964.
Rosenthal, F. “Al-Kindi and Ptolemy”, Studi Orientalistici in Onore di Giorgio Levi della Vida, II, Rome, 1956.
Zimmermann, F. W. “The origins of the so-called Theology of Aristotle” in J., Kraye, W. F., Ryan and C. B., Schmitt (eds.), Pseudo-Aristotle in the Middle Ages, London, 1986.
21 AL-RĀZĪ
Channing, J.Rhazes de variolis et morbilis, Arabice et Latine, London, 1766.
Hau, F. R.Taqrīr al-Rāzī ḥawla ʾl-zukām al-muzmin ʿinda tafattuḥ al-ward”, Journal for the History of Arabic Science, I, 1977.
Heym, G.Al-Rāzī and alchemy”, Ambix, I, 1938.
Iskandar, A. Z.A Catalogue of Arabic Manuscripts on Medicine and Science in the Wellcome Historical Medical Library, London, 1967.
Iskandar, A. Z.Ar-Rāzī on examining physicians: K. Miḥnat al-Ṭabīb”, al-Mashriq, LIV, 1960.
Iskandar, A. Z.Rhazes' K. al-Murshid aw al-fuṣūl (The Guide or Aphorisms), with texts selected from his medical writings”, Revue de l'Institut des Manuscrits Arabes, VII, 1961.
Iskandar, A. Z.A study of ar-Rāzī's medical writings, with selected texts and English translations’ (Oxford doctoral diss., 1959).
Koning, P. deTraité sur le calcul dans les reins et dans la vessie par Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn Zakarīyā al-Rāzī, trans, and text, Leiden, 1896.
Koning, P. deTrois Traités d'anatomie arabes, trans. and text, Leiden, 1903.
Kraus, P.Epître de Bērūnī contenant la répertoire des ouvrages de Muḥammad b. Zakarīyā ar-Rāzī, Paris, 1936.
Kraus, P.Raziana I”, Orientalia, IV, 1935.
Kraus, P.Raziana II”, Orientalia, V, 1936.
Kraus, P.Rasāʾil Falsafiyyah li-Abī Bakr Muḥammad b. Zakariyyāʾ al-Rāzī, Cairo, 1939.
Leclerc, L.Histoire de la médecine arabe, Paris, 1876.
Mohaghegh, M.Fīlsūf-i-Rayy Muhammad Ibn-i-Zakarīyā-i-Rāzī, Tehran, 1970 (Persian; preface and introduction in English).
Nadjmabadi, M.Bibliographie de Rhades “Aboubakr Mohammad Ibn Zakarria Razi”, celèbre médecin et philosophe iranien, Tehran, 1960 (Persian).
Partington, J. R.The chemistry of Rāzī”, Ambix, I, 1938.
al-Rāzī, Abü Bakr Muḥammad b. Zakariyyāʾal-Kitāb al-Manṣūrī fī ʾl-ṭibb, ed. G., Colin and H. P. J., Renaud, Rabat, 1941.
22 AL-FĀRĀBĪ
Arberry, A. J.Farabi's canons of poetry”, Rivista degli Studi Orientali, XVII, 1938.
Davidson, H.Alfarabi and Avicenna on the active intellect”, Viator, III, 1972
Dunlop, D. M.Al-Fārābī's Eisagoge”, Islamic Quarterly, III, 1956.
Dunlop, D. M.Al-Fārābī's introductory risālah on logic”, Islamic Quarterly, II, 1956.
Dunlop, D. M.Al-Fārābī's introductory sections on logic”, Islamic Quarterly, II, 1955.
Dunlop, D. M.Al-Fārābī's paraphrase of the Categories of Aristotle”, Islamic Quarterly, V, 1959.
al-Fārābī, Abū Naṣr Muḥammad b. MuḥammadFalsafat Aflāṭūn, ed. and trans. F., Rosenthal and R., Walzer, London, 1943.
al-Fārābī, Abū Naṣr Muḥammad b. MuḥammadThe Fuṣūl al-Modanī: Aphorisms of the Statesman, ed. and trans. D. M., Dunlop, Cambridge, 1961.
al-Fārābī, Abū Naṣr Muḥammad b. MuḥammadIḥṣāʾ al-ʿulūm (Catalogo de las Ciencias), ed. and trans. A. González, Palencia, Madrid, 1953.
al-Fārābī, Abū Naṣr Muḥammad b. Muḥammadal-Jamʿ bayna raʾyay al-ḥakīmayn Aflāṭūn al-ilāhī wa-Arisṭūtālīs, ed. and trans. F., Dieterici, in Alfārābī's Philosophische Abhandlungen, Leiden, 1890 (text), 1892 (trans.).
al-Fārābī, Abū Naṣr Muḥammad b. MuḥammadKitāb al-Alfāẓ al-mustaʿmalah fī ʾl-manṭiq, ed. Muhsin, Mahdi, Beirut, 1968.
al-Fārābī, Abū Naṣr Muḥammad b. MuḥammadKitāb al-Ḥurūf ed. Muhsin, Mahdi, Beirut, 1969.
al-Fārābī, Abū Naṣr Muḥammad b. MuḥammadKitāb al-Millah wa-nuṣüṣ ukhrā, ed. Muhsin, Mahdi, Beirut, 1968.
al-Fārābī, Abū Naṣr Muḥammad b. MuḥammadKitāb al-Siyäsah al-madaniyyah, ed. Fawzī, Najjār, Beirut, 1964.
al-Fārābī, Abū Naṣr Muḥammad b. Muḥammadal-Madīnah al-fāḍilah, ed. F., Dieterici, Leiden, 1895.
al-Fārābī, Abū Naṣr Muḥammad b. MuḥammadRisälah fī ʾl-ʿAql, ed. M., Bouyges, Beirut, 1938.
al-Fārābī, Abū Naṣr Muḥammad b. MuḥammadTaḥṣīl al-saʿädah, Hyderabad, 1345/1926.
al-Fārābī, Abū Naṣr Muḥammad b. MuḥammadTalkhīṣ Nawämīs Aflāṭūn: Compendium Legis Piatonis, ed. and trans. F., Gabrieli, London, 1952.
Galston, M.A re-examination of “Al-Fārābī's neoplatonism”, Journal of the History of Philosophy, XV, 1977.
Madkour, IbrahimLa Place d'al-Fārābī dans l'école philosophique musulmane, Paris, 1934
Mahdi, MuhsinAlfarabi against Philoponus”, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, XXVI, 1967.
Mahdi, Muhsin “Remarks on Alfarabi's Attainment of Happiness” in G. F., Hourani (ed.), Essays on Islamic Philosophy and Science, Albany, 1975.
Mahdi, Muhsin (trans.) Alfarabi's Philosophy of Plato and Aristotle, Glencoe, 1962.
Rescher, N.Al-Fārābī: An Annotated Bibliography, Pittsburgh, 1962.
Steinschneider, M.Al-Farabi, St Petersburg, 1869; repr. Amsterdam, 1966.
Strauss, Leo “Farabi's Plato” in S., Lieberman (ed.), Louis Ginsberg Jubilee Volume, New York, 1945.
Walzer, R. (ed. and trans.) Al-Farabi on the Perfect State, Oxford, 1985.
Zimmermann, F. W. (trans.) Al-Farabi's Commentary and Short Treatise on Aristotle's De Interpretatione, Oxford, 1981.
23 IBN SĪNĀ
Alonso, M.La ‘Al-anniyya’ de Avicena y el problema de la esencia y existencia”, Pensamiento, XIV, 1958.
Anawati, G. C.Bibliographie de la philosophie médiévale en terre d'Islam pour les années 1959–1969”, Bulletin de Philosophie Médiévale, X–XII, 19681970.
Anawati, G. C.Essai de Bibliographie Avicennienne, Cairo, 1950.
Cruz Hernández, M.La Metafísica de Avicena, Granada, 1949.
Cruz Hernández, M.Algunos aspectos de la existencia de Dios en la filosofia de Avicena”, Al-Andalus, XII, 1947.
Cruz Hernández, M. “El avicenismo de Duns Escoto”, De Doctrina Ioannis Duns Scoti: Acta Congressus Scotistici Internationalis (Oxford-Edinburgh, 1966), I (Studia Scholastico-Scotistica, 1), Rome, 1968.
Cruz Hernández, M. “La distinción aviceniana de la esencia y la existencia y su interpretación en la filosofía occidental”, Homenaje a Millas-Vallierosa, I, Barcelona, 1954.
Cruz Hernández, M. “Sentido y naturaleze de la prueba aviceniana de la existencia de Dios”, Proceedings of the XIth International Congress of Philosophy (Brussels, 1953), XIV, 1953
Galindo, E.‘L'homme volant’ d'Avicenne et le ‘Cogito’ de Descartes”, IBLA, XXI, 1958.
Gardet, L.La Pensée religieuse d'Avicenne (Ihn Sînâ), Paris, 1951.
Gardet, L.La connaissance suprême de Dieu (maʿrifat Allāh) selon Avicenne”, IBLA, XIV, 1951.
Gilson, E. “Avicenne et les origines de la notion de cause efficiente”, Proceedings of the XIIth International Congress of Philosophy (Venice, 1950), IX, 1960.
Gilson, E.Les sources gréco-arabes de l'augustinisme avicennisant”, Archives d'Histoire Doctrinale et Littéraire du Moyen Age, IV, 19291930.
Goichon, A. M.Lexique de la langue philosophique d'Ibn Sînâ, Paris, 1938.
Gómez Nogales, S.Horizonte de la Metafísica aristotélica, Madrid, 1955.
Gómez Nogales, S.Constitutivos metafísicos del ser según Ibn Ḥazm”, Al-Andalus, XXIX, 1964.
Gómez Nogales, S.La filosofía musulmana y su influjo determinante en el pensamiento medieval de Occidente, Madrid, 1969.
Gómez Nogales, S.Situación actual de las investigaciones sobre filosofía musulmana en Españna”, Dialogo Ecumenico, VIII, 1967.
Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-ḤusaynAnthologie des textes poétiques attribués à Avicenne, eds. and trans. H., Jahier and A., Noureddine, Algiers, 1960.
Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-ḤusaynAsbāb ḥudūth al-ḥurūf, trans. K. I., Semaan, Lahore, 1963.
Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusaynal-Ilāhiyyāt, Cairo, 1960.
Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusaynal-Ishārāt ilā ʿilm fasād aḥkām al-nujūm, summarized by A. F. M., Mehren in “Vues d'Avicenne sur l'astrologie” in Homenaje a D. Francisco Codera, Saragossa, 1904.
Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusaynal-Ishārāt wa-ʾl-tanbīhāt, ed. S., Dunyā, Cairo, 1960.
Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-ḤusaynKitāb al-Nafs, ed. F., Raḥmān, London, 1959.
Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-ḤusaynManṭiq al-mashriqiyyīn, Cairo, 1910.
Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-ḤusaynMaqälah fī ʾl-Nafs in S., Landauer (ed. and trans.), “Die Psychologie des Ibn Sīnā”, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, XXIX, 1875.
Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusaynal-Qānūn fī ʾl-ṭibb, Cairo, 1877.
Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-ḤusaynRisālat al-Aḍḥawiyyah fī ʿUmr al-maʿād, ed. and trans. F., Lucchetta, Padua, 1969.
Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-ḤusaynRisälat Ḥayy b. Yaqẓän, ed. and trans. A. M., Goichon, Paris, 1959.
Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-ḤusaynRisālat al-ḥudūd, in A. M., Goichon (ed. and trans.), Introduction à Avicenne: son Epître des définitions, Paris, 1933.
Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-ḤusaynRisālat al-Ṭayr, in A. F. M., Mehren (ed. and trans.), Traités Mystiques … d'Avicenne, Leiden, 1891.
Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusaynal-Shifāʾ, ed. I., Madkour, Cairo, 19521975.
Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusaynal-Urjūzah fī ʾl-ṭibb, ed. and trans. H., Jahier and A., Noureddine, Paris, 1956.
Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-ḤusaynʿUyūn al-ḥikmah, in A., Badawī (ed.), Mémorial Avicenne, 5: Avicennae fontes sapientiae, Cairo, 1954.
Mahdavi, Y.Bibliographie d'Ibn Sina, Tehran, 1954.
Marmura, M. E.Avicenna's psychological proof of prophecy”, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, XXII, 1963.
Teicher, J.Gundissalino e l'Agostinismo avicennizzante”, Rivista di Filosofia Neo-scolastica, XXVI, 1934.
Vajda, G.Bibliographie d'Ibn Sina” (Abstracta Islamica), Revue des Etudes Islamiques, XXII, 1954.
Wickens, G. M. (ed.) Avicenna: Scientist and Philosopher. A Millenary Symposium, London, 1952.
24 AL-BĪRŪNĪ AND THE SCIENCES OF HIS TIME
al-Bīrūnī, Abū ʾl-Rayḥān Muḥammad b. Aḥmadal-Athār al-bāqiyah ʿan al-qurūn al-khäliyah, Arabic text in Chronologie Orientalischer Völker, ed. E., Sachau, Leipzig, 1878; English trans. E. Sachau, London, 1879; Persian trans, by Akbar Danāseresht, Tehran, 1974, contains additional material not known to Sachau.
Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-ḤusaynGhurrat al-zījāt, ed. N. A., Baloch, Sind, 1973.
Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-ḤusaynIfrād al-maqāl fī amr al-ẓilāl, Hyderabad, 1948.
Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusaynal-Jamāhir fī maʿrifat al-jawāhir, ed. F., Krenkow, Hyderabad, AH 1355.
Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-ḤusaynKitāb al-Ṣaydanah fī ʾl-ṭibb, ed. M., Said and R., Ilahi, Karachi, 1973.
Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-ḤusaynKitāb Tasṭīḥ al-ṣuwar wa-tabṭīḥ al-kuwar in A., Saidan (ed.), Dirāsāt, IV, 1977.
Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusaynal-Qānūn al-Masʿūdī, Hyderabad, 19541956.
Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-ḤusaynRasāʾil al-Bīrūnī, Hyderabad, 1948.
Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusaynal-Tafhīm lī-awāʾil ṣināʿat al-tanjīm, printed in facsimile and trans. R., Wright, Elements of Astrology, London 1934.
Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-ḤusaynTaḥdīd nihāyat al-amākin li-taṣḥīḥ masāfāt al-masākin, ed. P., Bulghakov, Majallat Maʿhad al-Makhṭūṭāt al-ʿArabiyyah, 1962.
Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-ḤusaynTaḥqīq mā li-ʾl-Hind …, ed. E., Sachau, London, 1888;
Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn trans. E., Sachau, Alberuni's India, London, 1914.
Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-ḤusaynTamhīd al-mustaqarr li-taḥqiq maʿnā al-mamarr, Hyderabad, 1948.
Boilot, D. J.L'oeuvre d'al-Beruni. Essai bibliographique”, Mélanges de l'Institut Dominicain d'Etudes Orientales, II, 1955; III, 1956.
Ibn, al-Athīral-Kāmil fī-taʾrīkh, Beirut, 19651966.
Kennedy, E. S. “al-Bīrūnī's Masudic Canon”, Studies in the Islamic Exact Sciences, Beirut, 1983.
Kennedy, E. S.A Commentary upon Bīrūnī'ss Kitāb Taḥdīd al-Amākin, Beirut, 1973.
Kennedy, E. S.Late medieval planetary theory”, Isis, LVII, 1966.
al-Munajjid, Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn “al-Bīrūnī wa-ʾl-lughah al-ʿArabiyyah”, Al-Bīrūnī Commemoration Volume, Karachi, 1979.
Saliba, G.Arabic astronomy and Copernicus”, Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften, I, 1984.
Saliba, G. “al-Bīrūnī”, Dictionary of the Middle Ages, II, New York, 1983.
Saliba, G.A Damascene astronomer proposes a non-Ptolemaic astronomy”, Journal for the History of Arabic Science, IV, 1980.
Saliba, G.The development of astronomy in medieval Islamic society”, Arab Studies Quarterly, IV, 1982.
Saliba, G.The first non-Ptolemaic astronomy at the Maraghah School”, Isis, LXX, 1979.
Saliba, G.The original source of Quṭb al-Dīn al-Shīrāzī's Planetary Model”, Journal for the History of Arabic Science, III, 1979.
Togan, A. Z. V. (ed.) Bīrūnī's Picture of the World (partial ed. of Taḥdid nihāyat al-amākin), Delhi, 1938.
25 AL-GHAZĀLĪ
al-Aʿṣam, A.al-Faylasūf al-Ghazālī, Beirut, 1974.
Asín Palacios, M.La Espiritualidad de Algazel y su Sentido cristiano, Madrid, 19341940.
Badawī, ʿAbd al-RaḥmānMuʾallafāt al-Ghazālī, Kuwait, 1977.
Dunyā, S., al-Ḥaqīqah fī naẓar al-Ghazālī, Cairo, 1965.
al-Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid MuḥammadAyyuhä ʾl-walad. Arabic text with French trans. by T., al-Ṣabbāgh, Beirut, 1951.
al-Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid MuḥammadFaḍāʾ iḥ al-Bāṭiniyyah, ed. ʾA., Badawī, Cairo, 1964.
al-Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid MuḥammadFayṣal al-tafriqah bayn al-Islām wa-ʾl-Zandaqah, ed. S., Dunyā, Cairo, 1961.
al-Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid MuḥammadIḥyāʾ ʿulūm al-dīn, 5 vols. Vol. v is supplementary containing al-Ghazālī's al-Imlāʾ ʿalā Ishkālāt al-Iḥyāʾ with other works by other authors, Beirut, n.d.
al-Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid MuḥammadIljām al-ʿawāmm ʿan ʿilm al-kalām, Cairo, AH 1351.
al-Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammadal-Iqtiṣād fī ʾl-iʿtiqäd, Cairo, AH 1320.
al-Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammadal-Maqāṣid al-asnā fī sharḥ maʿānī asmāʾ Allāh al-ḥusnā, ed. F. A., Shehadi, Beirut, 1971.
al-Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid MuḥammadMaqāṣid al-falāsifah, ed. S., Dunyā, Cairo, 1961.
al-Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid MuḥammadMiḥakk al-naẓar fī ʾl-manṭiq, ed. M. B., al-Naʿsānī, Beirut, 1966.
al-Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid MuḥammadMishkāt al-anwār, ed. A., ʿAffifi, Cairo, 1964;
al-Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad trans. W. H. T., Gairdner, The Niche for Lights, London, 1924.
al-Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid MuḥammadMiʿyar al-ʿilm, ed. S., Dunyā, Cairo, 1961.
al-Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid MuḥammadMīzān al-ʿamal, Beirut, 1979.
al-Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammadal-Munqidh min al-ḍalāl, ed. ʿA., Maḥmūd, Cairo, 1964.
al-Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammadal-Mustaṣfā, Cairo, AH 1322.
al-Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammadal-Qisṭās al-mustaqīm, ed. V. S., al-Yasūʿī, Beirut, 1959.
al-Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid MuḥammadTahāfut al-falāsifah, ed. M., Bouyges, Beirut, 1962;
al-Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad trans. S. A., Kamilī, Incoherence of the Philosophers, Lahore, 1958.
al-Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammadal-Tibr al-masbūk fī naṣīḥat al-mulūk, trans, into Arabic from the original Persian in 595/1199; ed. M. M., Abū al-ʿUlā, Cairo, 1967;
al-Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad trans. F. R. C., Bagley, Ghazālī's Book of Counsel for Kings, London, 1964.
Jabre, F.Essai sur le lexique de Ghazālī, Beirut, 1970.
Jabre, F.La Notion de la Maʿrifa chez Ghazālī, Beirut, 1958.
Laoust, H.La Politique de Ghazālī, Paris, 1970.
Maḥmūd, Z. N. (ed.) Abū Ḥāmid al-Ghazālī fī ʾl-dhikrā al-miʾ awiyyah al-tāsiʿah li-mīlādih, Cairo, 1962.
Obermann, J.Der Philosophische und Religiöse Subjektivismus Ghazalis, Leipzig, 1921.
Othmän, A. I.The Concept of Man … in the Writings of al-Ghazālī, Cairo, 1960.
Smith, Margaretal-Ghazālī the Mystic, London, 1944.
al-ʿUthmān, ʿA.Sīrat al-Ghazālī wa-aqwāl al-mutaqaddimīn fīh, Damascus, 1961.
Watt, W. M.The Faith and Practice of al-Ghazālī, London, 1953.
Watt, W. M.Muslim Intellectual: A Study of al-Ghazālī, Edinburgh, 1963.
Wensinck, A. J.La Pensée de Ghazālī, Paris, 1940.
26 CHRISTIAN ARABIC LITERATURE IN THE ʿABBASID PERIOD
Allard, M.Les chrétiens à Bagdad”, Arabica, IX, 1962.
Cheikho, L.al-Makhṭūṭāt al-ʿArabiyyah li-katabat al-naṣrāniyyah, Beirut, 1924.
Cheikho, L.Les savants arabes chrétiens en Islam, 622–1300, ed. Camille, Héchaimé, Patrimoine Arabe Chrétien, 5, Jounieh and Rome, 1983.
Cheikho, L.al-Tawārīkh al-naṣrāniyyah fī ʾl-ʿarabiyyah”, al-Mashriq, XII, 1909.
Graf, G.Exegetische Schriften zum Neuen Testament in arabischer Sprache bis zum 14. Jahrhundert”, Biblische Zeitschrift, XXI, 1933.
Ḥaddād, RashīdLa Trinité divine chez les théologiens arabes (750–1050), Paris, 1985.
Ḥaddād, Rashīd “Al-Wajh al-naṣrānī li-ʾl-thaqāfah al-ʿarabiyyah”, al-Waḥdah, XIV, Sidon, 1975.
Nasrallah, J.Histoire du mouvement littéraire dans l'église melchite, III (AD 969–1250), Louvain and Paris, 1983.
Samir, Kh. “Bibliographie du dialogue islamo-chrétien”, part 1: Du 7e au 10e siècle; part 2: 11e au 12e siècle; part 3: Elie de Nisibe (975–1046); part 4: Addenda et corrigenda aux auteurs arabes chrétiens des 11e au 12e siècle; part 5: Girgi moine de Saint-Siméon en 1217, Islamochristiana, I, II, III, V, VII, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1979> 1981
Samir, Kh. “Liberté religieuse et propagation de la foi chez les théologiens arabes chrétiens du IXe siècle et en Islam”, Tantur Yearbook 1980–81, Jerusalem, 1982.
Samir, Kh.Madkhal ilā ʾl-turāth al-ʿarabī ʾl-masīḥī”, al-Masarrah, LXVII, 1981;
Samir, Kh. reprinted in augmented form in Theological Review, V, 1982;
Samir, Kh.Ṣadīq al-Kāhin, XXIII, 1983.
Samir, Kh. “Une théologie arabe pour l'Islam”, Tantur Yearbook 1979–1980, Jerusalem, 1981.
Samir, Kh. “La tradition arabe chrétienne. Etat de la question, problèmes et besoins”, Actes du premier congrès international d'études arabes chrétiennes (Goslar, septembre, 1980) in Khalil, Samir (ed.), Orientalia Christiana Analecta, Rome, 1982.
Samir, Kh.al-Turäth al-ʿarabī ʾl-masīḥī ʾl-qadīm wa-tafaʿuluh maʿa ʾl-fikr al-ʿarabī ʾl-islāmī”, Islamochristiana, VIII, 1982.
Samir, Kh.L'unicité absolue de Dieu. Regards sur la pensée chrétienne arabe”, Lumière et Vie, CLXIII, 1983.
Samir, Kh. (ed.) Actes du deuxième congrès international d'études arabes chrétiennes (Oosterhesselen, septembre, 1984), Orientalia Christiana Analecta, Rome, 1986.
Troupeau, G.La littérature arabe chrétienne du Xe au XIIe siècle”, Cahiers de Civilisation Médiévale, XIV, 1971.
27 JUDAEO-ARABIC LITERATURE
Abraham b. Mūsā b., MaymūnCommentary on Genesis and Exodus, ed. with a Hebrew trans, by E., Wiesenberg, Letchworth, 1959.
Abraham b. Mūsā b., MaymūnKifāyat al-ʿābidīn; partial ed. S., Rosenblatt, The Highways to Perfection of Abraham Maimonides, New York, 1927; Baltimore, 1938; part 2, ed. N. Dana, Ramat Gan, 1989.
Abū ʾl-Ḥasan Yehüdäh, ha-Lēvīal-Ḥujjah wa-ʾl-dalīl fī naṣr al-dīn al-dhalīl, ed. D. H., Baneth, Jerusalem, 1977.
Baḥya b., Paqudaal-Hidäyah ilā farāʾ iḍ al-qulūb, ed. A. S., Yahuda, Leiden, 1912.
Blau, J. “Jüdische Literatur” in H., Gätje (ed.), Grundriss der Arabischen Philologie, II, Wiesbaden, 1987, 394–99.
Blau, J. (ed.) Judaeo-Arabic Literature: Selected Texts, Jerusalem, 1980.
Dāwūd b. Joshua, MaimonidesMurshid ilā al-Tafarrud, Qōbeṣ ʿal Yad, XI, 1984.
al-Fāsī, Däwüd b. AbrahamThe Kitāb Jāmiʿ al-Alfāz of David b. Abraham al-Fāsī, ed. S., Skoss, New Haven, 19361945.
Fenton, P. B.Möreh ha-pěrīšūt, Jerusalem, 1987.
Goldziher, I.Mélanges Judéo-Arabes”, Revue des Etudes Juives, XLIII–L, 18981905.
Halkin, A. S. “Judaeo-Arabie literature” in L. W., Schwartz (ed.), Great Ages and Ideas of the Jewish People, New York, 1956.
Halkin, A. S. “Judaeo-Arabic literature” in L., Finkelstein (ed.), The Jews, New York, 1960.
Hirschfeld, H.Arabic Chrestomathy in Hebrew Characters, London, 1892.
Hirschfeld, H.The Arabic portion of the Cairo Genizah at Cambridge”, Jewish Quarterly Review, XV–XX, 19031908.
Hoerning, R.Six Karaite Manuscripts of Portions of the Hebrew Bible in Arabic Characters, London, 1889.
Ibn Ghiyäth, Isḥaq b. YehüdähCommentary on Ecclesiastes, Ḥames Megillöt, Jerusalem, 1962.
Ibn Ḥayyüj, Abū Zakariyyäʾ Yaḥyā b. DāwūdLe Livre des Parterres Fleuris, ed. J., Derenbourg, Paris, 1886.
Ibn Janäḥ, Abū ʾl-Walīd Marwān Yönah, The Book of Hebrew Roots, ed. A., Neubauer, Oxford, 1875.
Marx, A. “Some notes on the use of Hebrew type in non-Hebrew books” in Biographical Essays: A Tribute to Wilberforce Eames, New York, 1924, 381–408.
Mösheh b., ʿEzraKitāb al-Muḥāḍarah wa-ʾl-mudhākarah, ed. A. S., Halkin, Jerusalem, 1975
Mūsā b., MaymūnDalālat al-ḥāʾirīn, ed. with French trans. S., Munk, Paris, 18561866; new edn with Hebrew trans. Y. Qäfiḥ, Jerusalem, 1972.
Nětanʾel b., al-FayyūmīBustān al-ʿuqūl, ed. Y., Qäfiḥ, Jerusalem, 1954.
al-Qirqisānī, Yaʿqüb b. IsḥäqKitāb al-Anwār wa-ʾl-marāqib, ed. L., Nemoy, New York, 19391943.
Saʿadyah, GaʾönKitāb al-Amānāt, ed. S., Landauer, Leiden, 1880.
Saʿadyah, GaʾönKitāb Jāmiʿ al-ṣalawät wa-ʾl-tasābīḥ, ed. S., Assaf, I., Davidson and I., Joel, Jerusalem, 1941.
Steinschneider, M.Die Arabische Literatur der Juden, Frankfurt am Main, 1902; repr. Hildesheim, 1964.
ʿUbaydulläh b. Abraham b. Mūsā b., Maymünal-Maqālah al-Ḥawḍiyyah, ed. P. B., Fenton as Obadyah Maimonides' Treatise of the Pool, London, 1981.
Vassel, E.La Littérature populaire des Israélites tunisiens, Paris, 19041907.
Yehüdäh b., QurayshJehuda ben Kureisch, Epistola de Studii Targum Utilitate, ed. J. J. L., Bargès and D. B., Goldberg, Paris, 1857.
28 THE TRANSLATION OF GREEK MATERIALS INTO ARABIC
Badawi, AbdurrahmanLa Transmission de la Philosophie Grecque au Monde Arabe, Paris, 1968.
Dunlop, D. M.Arab Civilisation to A.D. 1500, London, 1971.
Fakhry, MajidA History of Islamic Philosophy, New York, 1983.
Goodman, L. E.The Case of the Animals vs. Man before the King of the Jinn, New York, 1978.
Goodman, L. E.Ibn Tufayl's Hayy Ibn Yaqzan, 2nd edn, Los Angeles, 1983.
Hitti, P. K.History of the Arabs, London, 1956.
Madkour, IbrahimL'Organon d'Aristote dans le monde Arabe, Paris, 1969.
Maimonides, MosesGuide for the Perplexed, trans. M., Friedländer, London, 1925.
Peters, F. E.Allah's Commonwealth, New York, 1973.
Peters, F. E.Aristotle and the Arabs, New York, 1968.
Peters, F. E.The Harvest of Hellenism, New York, 1970.
Rosenthal, FranzThe Classical Heritage in Islam, London, 1975.
Walzer, R.Greek into Arabic, Oxford 1962.
29 DIDACTIC VERSE
al-Aḥdab, IbrāhīmFarāʾ iḍ al-laʾālī, Beirut, AH 1312.
Arberry, A. J. “The Sira in verse” in George, Makdisi (ed.), Arabic and Islamic Studies in honour of Hamilton A. R. Gibb, Leiden, 1965.
al-Fākhūrī, ḤannāFunūn al-adab al-ʿArabī: al-fann al-taʿlīmī; al-ḥikam wa-ʾl-amthāl, Cairo, c. 1956.
Grunebaum, G. E. vonOn the origin and development of Arabic muzdawij poetry”, Journal of Büläq Near Eastern Studies, III, 1944.
al-Hamdānī, al-ḤasanṢifat Jazīrat al-ʿArab, ed. D. H., Müller, Leiden, 18841891.
Ḥijāb, Muḥammad NabīhMaʿālim al-shiʿr wa-aʿlāmuh fī ʾl-ʿaṣr al-ʿAbbāsī al-awwal, Cairo, 1973.
Ibn al-Athīr, Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīnal-Mathal al-sāʾir, Būlāq, AH 1282.
Ibn Mālik, Jamāl al-Dīn MuḥammadAlfiyyah (Sharḥ Ibn ʿAqīl), ed. Fr., Dieterici, Leipzig, 1851.
Ibn al-Muʿtazz, ʿAbdullāhUrjüzah”, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, XL, 1886; XLI, 1887.
Khulüṣī, ṢafāʾFann al-taqṭīʿ al-shiʿri wa-ʾl-qäfiyah, Beirut, 1977.
al-Maqqarī, Aḥmad b. MuḥammadNafḥ al-ṭīb, ed. R., Dozy et al., Leiden, 18551861.
al-Maqrīzī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlīal-Khiṭaṭ, Büläq, AH 1270.
al-Maydānī, Abü ʾl-Faḍl AḥmadMajmaʿ al-amthäl, ed. Muḥammad Muḥyī ʾl-Dīn ʿAbd, al-Ḥamīd, Cairo, 1955.
Raʾūf, ʿImād ʿAbd al-Salāmal-Athār al-khaṭṭiyjah fī ʾl-maktabah al-Qādiriyjah fī Jāmiʿ al-Shajkh ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī, Baghdad, n.d.
Shawqī, Aḥmadal-Shawqiyyät, ed. M. S., al-ʿUryān, IV, Cairo, 1373/1956.
Somogyi, J. deA qasida on the destruction of Baghdad by the Mongols”, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, VIII, 19331935.
al-Ṣūlī, Abī Bakr Muḥammad b.|YaḥyāKitāb al-Awrāq, ed. J., Heyworth-Dunne, London, 1936.
Wahbah, MagdiA Dictionary of Literary Terms (English-French-Arabic), Beirut, 1974, s.v. “Didactic”.