Skip to main content
×
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 4
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Siegel, Alexandra A. and Tucker, Joshua A. 2018. The Islamic State’s information warfare. Journal of Language and Politics, Vol. 17, Issue. 2, p. 258.

    Ali, Rubaba Barra, A. Federico Berg, Claudia Damania, Richard Nash, John and Russ, Jason 2015. Highways to Success or Byways to Waste: Estimating the Economic Benefits of Roads in Africa. p. 85.

    Criado, Henar 2011. Bullets and votes: Public opinion and terrorist strategies. Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 48, Issue. 4, p. 497.

    Krieger, Tim and Meierrieks, Daniel 2011. What causes terrorism?. Public Choice, Vol. 147, Issue. 1-2, p. 3.

    ×
  • Print publication year: 2008
  • Online publication date: July 2010

7 - The Political, Economic, and Organizational Sources of Terrorism

Summary

This chapter organizes the conjectures from a rationalist literature on terrorist organizations, analyzing the strategic issues that they face and the consequences of their actions. From this perspective, terrorism is seen as one of a set of rebel tactics that is chosen in response to changes in five factors: funding, popular support, competition against other rebel groups, the type of regime against which they are fighting, and counterinsurgency tactics. However, once groups adopt terrorist tactics over other, more traditional, tactics of insurgency, terrorism becomes self-perpetuating. This is especially true when the use of terrorist tactics coincides with a shift into underground modes of organization.

The value added by this literature, in conjunction with some standard econometric analyses, is that it helps to identify the relevant actors, to reckon their utilities and payoffs, and to highlight different factors that affect when/where/and against whom terrorists strike. However, because the studies under review are not, by and large, written as part of a coherent, self-aware literature, a summary of the conjectures offered in the literature will not lead to an internally consistent body of testable hypotheses. Instead, we use the literature as a jumping off point to suggest a series of broad hypotheses that should serve as a foundation for future theoretical analysis and statistical testing. The emphasis here will be on developing hypotheses to understand why, where, and when civilians are likely to become victims in rebellions.

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Terrorism, Economic Development, and Political Openness
  • Online ISBN: 9780511754388
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511754388
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
×
References
Abadie, Alberto, and Gardeazabal, Javier. 2003. “The Economic Costs of Conflict: A Case Study of the Basque Country.” American Economic Review 93:113–132.
Ayman, al-Zawahiri. 2001. “Knights Under the Prophet's Banner.” Al-Sahraq al-Awsat (London), December 2. Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) translation available at http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/ayman_bk.html.
Arquilla, John, and Ronfeldt, David. 2002. “Netwar Revisited: The Fight for the Future Continues.” Low Intensity Conflict & Law Enforcement 11:178–189.
Azam, Jean-Paul, and Hoeffler, Anke. 2002. “Violence Against Civilians in Civil Wars: Looting or Terror.” Journal of Peace Research 39:461–85.
Atran, Scott. 2003. “Genesis of Suicide Terrorism.” Science 299: 1534–1539.
Bell, J. Bowyer. 1990. “Revolutionary Dynamics: The Inherent Inefficiencies of the Underground.” Terrorism and Political Violence 2:193–211.
BellBowyer, J.. 2002. “The Organization of Islamic Terror: The Global Jihad.” Journal of Management Inquiry 11:261–266.
Bergesen, Albert J., and Lizardo, Omar 2004. “International Terrorism and the World-System.” Sociological Theory 22:38–52.
Berrebi, Claude. 2003. “Evidence About the Link Between Education, Poverty and Terrorism Among Palestinians.” Princeton University Industrial Relations Section Working Paper No. 477 (September).
Blomberg, S. Brock, Gregory, D. Hess, and Orphanides, Athanasios. 2004. “The Macroeconomic Consequences of Terrorism.” Journal of Monetary Economics 51:1007–32.
Blomberg, S. Brock, Gregory, D. Hess, and Weerapana, Akila. 2004. “Economic Conditions and Terrorism.” European Journal of Political Economy 20: 463–478.
Bloom, Mia M. 2005. Dying to Kill. New York: Columbia University Press.
Bloom, Mia M.. 2004.”Palestinian Suicide Bombing: Public Support, Market Share, and Outbidding.” Political Science Quarterly 119:61–88.
Brauer, Jergen, Gómez-Sorzano, Alejandro, and Sethuraman, Sankar. 2004. “Decomposing Violence: Political Murder in Colombia, 1946–1999.”European Journal of Political Economy 20:447–461.
Brynjar, Lia, and Kjok, Ashild. 2001. “Islamist Insurgencies, Diasporic Support Networks, and Their Host States: The Case of the Algerian GIA in Europe 1993–2000.” FFI/Rapport 2001/03789.
Brynjar, Lia, and Hegghamme, Thomas. 2004. “Jihadi Strategic Studies: The Alleged Al Qaida Policy Study Preceding the Madrid Bombings.” Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 27:355–375.
Ethan, Bueno de Mesquita. 2005a. “Concilliation, Counterterrorism, and Patterns of Terrorist Violence.” International Organization 59:145–176.
Ethan, Bueno de Mesquita. 2005b. “The Quality of Terror.” American Journal of Political Science 49:515–530.
Burgoon, Brian. 2004. “On Welfare and Terror: Social Welfare Policies and Political-economic Roots of Terrorism.” Amsterdam School for Social Science Research, ASSR Working Paper 04/07.
Chai, Sun-Ki. 1993. “An Organizational Economics Theory of Antigovernment Violence.” Comparative Politics 26:99–110.
Crenshaw, Martha. 1985. “An Organizational Approach to the Analysis of Political Terrorism.” Orbis 29:465–89.
Crenshaw, Martha. 1987. “Theories of Terrorism: Instrumental and Organizational Approaches.” Journal of Strategic Studies 10:13–31.
Crenshaw, Martha. 1990. “The Logic of Terrorism: Terrorist Behavior as a Product of Strategic Choice.” In Origins of Terrorism, ed. Reich, Walter. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 7–24.
Crenshaw, Martha. 1991. “How Terrorism Declines.” Terrorism and Political Violence 3:379–399.
Cullison, Alan. 2004. “Inside Al-Qaeda's Hard Drive.” Atlantic Monthly 294:55–70.
Cuthbertson, Ian M. 2004. “Prisons and the Education of Terrorists.” World Policy Journal 21:15–22.
Davis, Paul K., and Jenkins, Brian Michael. 2002. Deterrence & Influence in Counterterrorism: A Component in the War on Al Qaeda. Santa Monica, C.A.: RAND.
Luis, Calle, and Ignacio, Sánchez-Cuenca. 2004. “La Selección de Víctimas en ETA.” Revista Española de Ciencia Política 10:53–79.
Donatella, della Porta. 1995. Social Movements, Political Violence, and the State: A Comparative Analysis of Italy and Germany. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Enders, Walter, and Sandler, Todd. 2002. “Patterns of Transnational Terrorism, 1970–1999: Alternative Time-Series Estimates.” International Studies Quarterly 46:145–65.
Fanon, Frantz. 1968. The Wretched of the Earth. New York: Grove Press.
Fearon, James. n.d. “Civil War Since 1945: Some Facts and a Theory.” Manuscript, Department of Political Science, Stanford University.
Fearon, James and Laitin, David. 2003. “Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War.” American Political Science Review 97(1): 75–90.
Gurr, Ted Robert. 1990. “Terrorism in Democracies: Its Social and Political Basis.” In Origins of Terrorism, ed. Reich, Walter. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 86–102.
Harris, James. 2005. Terrorism Metrics: A Compilation of Definitions. Arlington, VA: Centra Technology.
Horgan, John, and Taylor, Max. 1997. “The Provisional Irish Republican Army: Command and Functional Structure.” Terrorism and Political Violence 9:1–32.
Hovil, Lucy, and Werker, Eric. 2005. “Portrait of a Failed Rebellion: An Account of Rational, Sub-optimal Violence in Western Uganda.” Rationality and Society 17:5–34.
Hudson, Rex A. 1999. The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism: Who Becomes a Terrorist and Why?Washington, DC: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.
Hudson, Rex A.. 2002. A Global Overview of Narcotics-Funded Terrorist and Other Extremist Groups. Washington, DC: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.
Jackson, Brian A., et al. 2005. Aptitude for Destruction: Organizational Learning in Terrorist Groups and Its Implications for Combating Terrorism. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.
Jordan, Javier, and Horsburgh, Nicola. 2005. “Mapping Jihadist Terrorism in Spain.” Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 28:169–191.
Kalyvas, Stathis. 1999. “Wanton and Senseless? The Logic of Massacres in Algeria.” Rationality and Society 11:243–285.
Kalyvas, Stathis and Ignacio Sánchez-Cuenca. 2005. “Killing Without Dying: The Absence of Suicide Missions.” In Gambetta, Diego (ed.) Making Sense of Suicide Missions (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 209–32.
Kaplan, Edward H., Mintz, Alex, Mishal, Shaul, and Samban, Claudio. 2005. “What Happened to Suicide Bombings in Israel? Insights from a Terror Stock Model.” Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 28:225–235.
Kenney, Michael. 2007. From Pablo to Osama: Trafficking and Terrorist Networks, Government Bureaucracies, and Competitive Adaptation. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Kreuger, Alan B., and David D. Laitin. “Kto Kogo?: A Cross-Country Study of the Origins and Targets of Terrorism,” chapter 5 this volume.
Krueger, Alan B., and Maleckova, Jitka. 2003. “Education, Poverty and Terrorism: Is There a Causal Connection?Journal of Economic Perspectives 17:119–144.
Kydd, Andrew, and Barbara, F. Walter. 2002. “Sabotaging the Peace: The Politics of Extremist Violence.” International Organization 56:263–96.
La, John. 2004. “Forced Remittances in Canada's Tamil Enclaves.” Peace Review 16(3): 379–385.
Laitin, David D.. 1995. “National Revivals and Violence.” Archives Européennes de Sociologie (Spring 1995), 3–43.
Li, Quan. 2005. “Does Democracy Promote or Reduce Transnational Terrorist Incidents?Journal of Conflict Resolution 49:278–97.
Li, Quan, and Schaub, Drew. 2004. “Economic Globalization and Transnational Terrorism: A Pooled Time-Series Analysis.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 48:230–258.
McCauley, Clark 2002. “Psychological Issues in Understanding Terrorism and the Response to Terrorism,” in Chris, E. Stout (Ed.), The Psychology of Terrorism, Volume III Theoretical Understandings and Perspectives. Westport, CN: Praeger, 3–30.
McGarry, John, and O'Leary, Brendan. 1995. Explaining Northern Ireland: Broken Images. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Menkhaus, Ken. 2004. Somalia: State Collapse and the Threat of Terrorism. Adelphi Paper 364. International Institute for Strategic Studies.
Mickolus, Edward F., Sandler, Todd, Jean, M. Murdock, and Flemming, Peter. 2004. International Terrorism: Attributes of Terrorist Events, 1968–2003 (ITERATE). Dunn Loring, VA: Vinyard Software.
Mishal, Shaul, and Sela, Avraham. 2000. The Palestinian Hamas. New York: Columbia University Press.
Mishal, Shaul, and Sela, Avraham. 2002. “Participation without Presence: Hamas, the Palestinian Authority and the Politics of Negotiated Existence.” Middle Eastern Studies 38:1–26.
Napoleoni, Loretta. 2003. Modern Jihad: Tracing the Dollars Behind the Terror Networks. New York: Pluto Press.
Nesser, Petter. 2004. JIHAD IN EUROPE – A Survey of the Motivations for Sunni Islamist Terrorism in Post-millennium Europe. FFI/Rapport-2004/01146.
Newell, David Allen. 1981. The Russian Marxist Response to Terrorism: 1878–1917. PhD Diss., Stanford University.
Oberschall, Anthony. 1980. “Loosely Structured Collective Conflict: A Theory and an Application.” Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change 3:45–68.
Pape, Robert. 2005. Dying to Win. New York: Random House.
Petersen, Roger Dale. 2001. Resistance and Rebellion: Lessons from Eastern Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Pillar, Paul R. 2004. “Counterterrorism after Al Qaeda.” The Washington Quarterly 27:101–113.
Piombo, Jessica. 2007. “Terrorist Financing and Government Response in East Africa.” In Terrorist Financing in Comparative Perspective, ed. Trinkunas, Harold and Jeanne, K. Giraldo. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Post, Jerrod M. 1990. “Terrorist Psycho-Logic: Terrorist Behavior as a Product of Psychological Forces.” In Origins of Terrorism, ed. Reich, Walter. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 25–42.
Reuter, Christopher. 2004. My Life is a Weapon. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Ricolfi, Luca. 2005. “Palestinians, 1981–2003.” In Making Sense of Suicide Missions, ed., Gambetta, Diego, 77–129. London: Oxford University Press.
Sageman, Marc. 2004. Understanding Terror Networks. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Shapiro, Jacob N. 2005. “Organizing Terror: Hierarchy and Networks in Covert Organizations.” Manuscript, Department of Political Science, Stanford University.
Shapiro, Jacob N.. 2006. “The Terrorist's Challenge: Security, Efficiency, Control.” Manuscript, Department of Political Science, Stanford University.
Shapiro, Jacob N., and David, A. Siegel. 2007. “Underfunding in Terrorist Organizations.” International Studies Quarterly.
Shapiro, Jeremy, and Suzan, Bénédicte. 2003. “The French Experience of Counter-terrorism.” Survival 45:67–98.
Silke, Andrew. 1998. “In Defense of the Realm: Financing Loyalist Terrorism in Northern Ireland – Part One: Extortion and Blackmail.” Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 21:331–361.
Silke, Andrew. 2000. “Drink, Drugs, and Rock'n'Roll: Financing Loyalist Terrorism in Northern Ireland – Part Two.” Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 23:107–127.
Siqueira, Kevin. 2005. “Political and Militant Wings within Dissident Movements and Organizations.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 49:218–236.
Sprinzak, Ehud. 1990. “The Psychopolitical Formation of Extreme Left Terrorism in a Democracy: The Case of the Weathermen.” In Origins of Terrorism, ed. Reich, Walter. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 65–85.
Stern, Jessica. 2003. Terror in the Name of God: Why Religious Militants Kill. New York: HarperCollins.
Tilly, Charles. 2004. “Terror as Strategy and Political Process.” Manuscript, Department of Social Science, Columbia University.
Weinstein, Jeremy M. 2005. “Resources and the Information Problem in Rebel Recruitment.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 49:598–624.
Wickham-Crowley, Timothy P. 1990. “Terror and Guerrilla Warfare in Latin America, 1956–1970.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 32:201–37.
Wieviorka, Michel. 1993. The Making of Terrorism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Wilhelmsen, Julie. 2004. When Separatists Become Islamists: The Case of Chechnya. FFI/RAPPORT 2004/00445.
Zald, Mayer N., and John, D. McCarthy. 1980. “Social Movements and Industries: Competition and Cooperation Among Movement Organizations.” Research in Social Movements, Conflict and Change 3:1–20.
Zimbardo, Philip G. 2004. “A Situationalist Perspective on the Psychology of Evil: Understanding How Good People are Transformed into Perpetrators.” In The Social Psychology of Good and Evil, ed. Arthur, G. Miller. New York: Guilford Press, 21–50.