Skip to main content
×
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: June 2014

Chapter 11 - Balance training

from Section 2 - Therapeutic technology
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation
  • Online ISBN: 9780511995590
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511995590
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
×

References

1. Samelson EJ, Zhang Y, Kiel DP, et al. Effect of birth cohort on risk of hip fracture: age-specific incidence rates in the Framingham Study. Am J Public Health 2002; 92: 858–62.
2. Fuller GF. Falls in the elderly. Am Fam Physician 2000; 61: 2159–68.
3. Hausdorff JM, Rios DA, Edelberg HK. Gait variability and fall risk in community-living older adults: a 1-year prospective study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001; 82: 1050–6.
4. Bloem B, Grimbergen Y, Cramer M, et al. Prospective assessment of falls in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol 2001; 248: 950–8.
5. Alexander BH, Rivara FP, Wolf ME. The cost and frequency of hospitalization for fall-related injuries in older adults. Am J Public Health 1992; 82: 1020–3.
6. Murphy SL. Deaths: final data for 1998. National Vital Statistics Reports, 48(11). National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD, 2000.
7. Englander F, Hodson TJ, Terregrossa RA. Economic dimensions of slip and fall injuries. J Forensic Sci 1996; 41: 733–46.
8. Horak FB, Macpherson JM. Postural orientation and equilibrium. In Shepard J, Rowell L, eds. Handbook of Physiology: Section 12. Exercise: Regulation and Integration of Multiple Systems. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1996; 255–92.
9. Kluzik J, Horak FB, Peterka RJ. Adaptation of postural orientation to changes in surface inclination. Exp Brain Res 2007; 178: 1–17.
10. Winter DA. Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement, 2nd edn. New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience, 1990.
11. Pai Y-C, Naughton BJ, Chang RW. Control of body center of mass momentum during sit-to-stand among young and elderly adults. Gait Posture 1994; 2: 109–16.
12. Horak FB, Nashner LM, Diener HC. Postural strategies associated with somatosensory and vestibular loss. Exp Brain Res 1990; 82: 167–77.
13. Merfeld DM, Yong LR, Oman CM, et al. A multidimensional model of the effect of gravity on the spatial orientation of the monkey. J Vestibul Res 1993; 3: 141–61.
14. Mergner T, Maurer C, Peterka RJ. A multisensory posture control model of human upright stance. Prog Brain Res 2003; 142: 189–201.
15. Horak FB. Clinical measurement of postural control in adults. Phys Ther 1987; 67: 1881–5.
16. Horak FB, Shupert CL, Mirka A. Components of postural dyscontrol in the elderly. Neurobiol Aging 1989; 10: 727–38.
17. King LA, Horak FB. Delaying mobility disability in people with Parkinson disease with a sensorimotor agility exercise program. Phys Ther 2009; 89: 384–93.
18. Gillespie LD, Gillespie WJ, Robertson MC, et al. Interventions for preventing falls in elderly people (Review). Cochrane Library 2007; 4: 1–112.
19. Jacobs JV, Dimitrova DM, Nutt JG, et al. Can stooped posture explain multi-directional postural instability in patients with Parkinson's disease? Exp Brain Res 2005; 166: 78–88.
20. Horak FB, Macpherson JM. Postural orientation and equilibrium. In Shepard J, Rowell L, eds. Handbook of Physiology: Section 12. Exercise: Regulation and Integration of Multiple Systems. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1996; 255–92.
21. Karnath H-O, Ferber S, Dichgans J. The origin of contraversive pushing. Evidence for a second graviceptive system in humans. Neurology 2000; 55: 1298–304.
22. Peterka RJ. Sensorimotor integration in human postural control. J Neurophysiol 2002; 88: 1097–118.
23. Paulus WM, Straube A, Brandt T. Visual stabilization of posture: physiological stimulus characteristics and clinical aspects. Brain 1984; 107: 1143–64.
24. Chiari L, Kluzik J, Lenzi D, et al. Different postural behaviours in normal subjects: sensory strategy or control strategy? ESMAC-SIAMOC Joint Congress, Rome, 2001.
25. Romberg MH. Lehrbuch der Mercenkrankheiten des Menschen. Duncker, Berlin, 1851.
26. Leibowitz HW, Johnson CA, Isabelle E. Peripheral moton detection and refractive error. Science 1972; 177: 1207–8.
27. Mittelstaedt H. The role of the otoliths in perception of the vertical and in path integration. Ann NY Acad Sci 1999; 871: 334–55.
28. Nashner LM. A vestibular postural control model. Kybernetik 1972; 10: 106–10.
29. Nashner LM, Shupert CL, Horak FB, et al. Organization of posture controls: an analysis of sensory and mechanical constraints. Prog Brain Res 1989; 80: 411–18.
30. Peterka RJ, Benolken MS. Role of somatosensory and vestibular cues in attenuating visually-induced human postural sway. In Woollacott M, Horak F, eds. Posture and Gait: Control Mechanisms. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon Books, 1992; 272–5.
31. Soechting JF, Berthoz A. Dynamic role of vision in the control of posture in man. Exp Brain Res 1979; 36: 551–61.
32. Horak FB, Hlavacka F. Somatosensory loss increases vestibulospinal sensitivity. J Neurophysiol 2001; 86: 575–85.
33. Marchand AR, Amblard B. Locomotion in adult cats with early vestibular deprivation: visual cue substitution. Exp Brain Res 1984; 54: 395–405.
34. Nashner LM, Black FO, Wall C III. Adaptation to altered support and visual conditions during stance: patients with vestibular deficits. J Neurosci 1982; 2: 536–44.
35. Cordo PJ, Nashner L. Properties of postural adjustments associated with rapid arm movements. J Neurophysiol 1982; 47: 287–302.
36. Horak FB, Anderson MA. Preparatory postural activity associated with movement. Phys Ther 1980; 60: 580.
37. Crenna P, Frigo C, Massion J, et al. Forward and backward axial synergies in man. Exp Brain Res 1987; 65: 538–48.
38. Oddsson L, Thorstensson A. Fast voluntary trunk flexion movements in standing: motor patterns. Acta Physiol Scand 1987; 129: 93–106.
39. Horak FB, Henry SM, Shumway-Cook A. Postural perturbations: new insights for treatment of balance disorders. Phys Ther 1997; 77: 517–33.
40. Maki BE, McIlroy WE.The role of limb movements in maintaining upright stance: the “change-in-support” strategy. Phys Ther 1997; 77: 488–507.
41. Horak FB, Nashner LM. Central programming of postural movements: adaptation to altered support-surface configurations. J Neurophysiol 1986; 55: 1369–81.
42. Henry SM, Fung J, Horak FB. Control of stance during lateral and anterior/posterior surface translations. IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng 1998; 6: 32–42.
43. Runge CF, Shupert CL, Horak FB, et al. Ankle and hip postural strategies defined by joint torques. Gait Posture 1999; 10: 161–70.
44. Winter DA. Human balance and posture control during human walking. Gait Posture 1995; 3: 193–214.
45. Adkin AL, Frank JS, Jog MS. Fear of falling and postural control in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2003; 18: 496–502.
46. Cumming RG, Salkeld G, Thomas M, et al. Prospective study of the impact of fear of falling on activities of daily living, SF-36 scores, and nursing home admission. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2000; 55: M299–305.
47. Friedman SM, Munoz B, West SK, et al. Falls and fear of falling: which comes first? A longitudinal prediction model suggests strategies for primary and secondary prevention. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002; 50: 1329–35.
48. Lamb SE, Ferrucci L, Volapto S, et al. Risk factors for falling in home-dwelling older women with stroke: the women's health and aging study. Stroke 2003; 34: 494–501.
49. Mak MKY, Pang MYC. Balance confidence and functional mobility are independently associated with falls in people with Parkinson's disease. J Neurol 2009; 256: 742–9.
50. Horak FB, Wrisley DM, Frank J. The balance evaluation systems test (BESTest) to differentiate balance deficits Phys Ther 2009; 89: 484–98.
51. Franchignoni F, Horak F, Godi M, et al. Using psychometric techniques to improve the balance evaluation systems test: the mini-Bestest. J Rehabil Med 2010; 42: 316–24.
52. Duncan PW, Weiner DK, Chandler J, et al. Functional reach: a new clinical measure of balance. J Gerontol 1994; 45: M192–7.
53. Newton RA. Validity of the multi-directional reach test: a practical measure for limits of stability in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2001; 56: M248–52.
54. Stewart MG, Chen AY, Wyatt JR, et al. Cost-effectiveness of the diagnostic evaluation of vertigo. Laryngoscope 1999; 109: 600–5.
55. Simmons RW, Richardson C, Pozos R. Postural stability of diabetic patients with and without cutaneous sensory deficit in the foot. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1997; 36: 153–60.
56. Shumway-Cook A, Horak FB. Assessing the influence of sensory interaction of balance. Suggestion from the field. Phys Ther 1986; 66: 1548–50.
57. Allison L. Balance disorders. In Umphred DA, ed. Neurological Rehabilitation. St. Louis, MO: Mosby-YearBook, Inc., 1995; 802–37.
58. Woollacott M, Shumway-Cook A. Attention and the control of posture and gait: a review of an emerging area of research. Gait Posture 2002; 16: 1–14.
59. Jacobs JV, Nutt JG, Carlson-Kuhta P, et al. Knee trembling during freezing of gait represents multiple anticipatory postural adjustments. Exp Neurol 2009; 215: 334–41.
60. Mancini M, Zampieri C, Carlson-Kuhta P, et al. Anticipatory postural adjustments prior to step initiation are hypometric in untreated Parkinson's disease: an accelerometer-based approach. Eur J Neurol 2009; 16: 1028–34.
61. Horak FB, Jacobs JV, Tran VK, et al. The push and release test: an important clinical postural stability test for patients with Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2004; 19: S170.
62. Shumway-Cook A, Woollacott MH. Motor Control: Theory and Practical Applications. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001; 401: 405–6.
63. Stack E, Ashburn A. Dysfunctional turning in Parkinson's disease. Disabil Rehabil 2008; 30: 1222–9.
64. Powell LE, Myers AM. The activities-specific balance confidence (ABC) scale. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1995; 50A: M28–34.
65. Myers AM, Fletcher PC, Myers AH, et al. Discriminative and evaluative properties of the activities-specific balance confidence (ABC) scale. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1998; 53A: M287–94.
66. Birge SJ. Osteoporosis and hip fracture. Clin Geriatr Med 1993; 9: 69–86.
67. Cumming RF. Epidemiology of medication-related falls in the elderly. Drug Aging 1998; 12: 43–53.
68. Whitney SL, Poole JL, Cass SP. A review of balance instruments for older adults. Am J Occup Ther 1998; 52: 666–71.
69. King LA, St George RJ, Carlson-Kuhta P, et al. Preparation for compensatory forward stepping in Parkinson's disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010; 91: 1332–8.
70. Shumway-Cook A, Gruber W, Baldwin M, et al. The effect of multidimensional exercises on balance, mobility, and fall risk in community-dwelling older adults. Phys Ther 1997; 77: 46–57.
71. Schenkman M, Cutson TM, Kuchibhatla M, et al. Exercise to improve spinal flexibility and function for people with Parkinson's disease – a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 1998; 46: 1207–16.
72. Hirsch MA, Toole T, Maitland CG, et al. The effects of balance training and high-intensity resistance training on persons with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Arch Phys Med Rehab 2003; 84: 1109–17.
73. Toole T, Hirsch MA, Forkink A, et al. The effects of a balance and strength training program on equilibrium in Parkinsonism: a preliminary study. NeuroRehabilitation 2000; 14: 165–74.
74. Ashburn A, Fazakarley L, Ballinger C, et al. A randomized controlled trial of a home based exercise programme to reduce the risk of falling among people with Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2007; 78: 678–84.
75. Falvo MJ, Schilling BK, Earhart GM. Parkinson's disease and resistive exercise: rationale, review, and recommendations. Mov Disord 2008; 23: 1–11.
76. Orr R. Contribution of muscle weakness to postural instability in the elderly. A systematic review. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2010; 46: 183–220.
77. Jacobs JV, Horak FB, Tran VK, et al. An alternative clinical postural stability test for patients with Parkinson's disease. J Neurol 2006; 253: 1404–13.
78. Jessop RT, Horowicz C, Dibble LE. Motor learning and Parkinson disease: refinement of movement velocity and endpoint excursion in a limits of stability balance task. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2006; 20: 459–67.
79. Gyllensten AL, Hui-Chan CW, Tsang WW. Stability limits, single-leg jump, and body awareness in older Tai Chi practitioners. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010; 91: 215–20.
80. Bayouk JF, Boucher JP, Leroux A, et al. Balance training following stroke: effects of task-oriented exercises with and without altered sensory input. Int J Rehabil Res 2006; 29: 51–9.
81. Pavlou M, Lingeswaran A, Davies RA, et al. Simulator based rehabilitation in refractory dizziness. J Neurol 2004; 251: 983–95.
82. Sémont A, Vitte E, Freyss G. Falls in the elderly: a therapeutic approach by optokinetic reflex stimulations. In Vellas B, Toupet M, Rubenstein L, et al., eds. Falls, Balance and Gait Disorders in the Elderly. Paris: Elsevier, 1992; 153–9.
83. Vitte E, Sémont A, Berthoz A. Repeated optokinetic stimulation conditions of active standing facilitates recovery from vestibular deficits. Exp Brain Res 1994; 102: 141–8.
84. Keshner EA, Kenyon RV. Postural and spatial orientation driven by virtual reality. Stud Health Technol Inform 2009; 145: 209–28.
85. Sparto PJ, Furman JM, Whitney SL, et al. Vestibular rehabilitation using a wide field of view virtual environment. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2004; 7: 4836–9.
86. Viirre E, Draper M, Gailey C, et al. Adaptation of the VOR in patients with low VOR gains. J Vestib Res 1998; 8: 331–4.
87. McComas J, Sveistrup H. Virtual reality applications for prevention, disability awareness, and physical therapy rehabilitation in neurology: our recent work. Neurol Report 2002; 1: 55–61.
88. Thornton M, Marshall S, McComas J, et al. Benefits of activityand virtual reality based balance exercise programmes for adults with traumatic brain injury: perceptions of participants and their caregivers. Brain Inj 2005; 19: 989–1000.
89. Oddsson LI, Karlsson R, Konrad J, et al. A rehabilitation tool for functional balance using altered gravity and virtual reality. J Neuroeng Rehabil 2007; 4: 25.
90. Kim JH, Jang SH, Kim CS, et al. Use of virtual reality to enhance balance and ambulation in chronic stroke: a double-blind, randomized controlled study. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2009; 88: 693–701.
91. Whitney SL, Sparto PJ, Hodges LF, et al. Responses to a virtual reality grocery store in persons with and without vestibular dysfunction. Cyberpsychol Behav 2006; 9: 152–6.
92. Cobb SVC. Measurement of postural stability before and after immersion in a virtual environment. Appl Ergn 1999; 30: 47–57.
93. Cobb SVC, Nichols C. Static posture tests for the assessment of postural instability after virtual environment use. Brain Res Bull 1988; 47: 459–64.
94. Buchanan JJ, Horak FB. Vestibular loss disrupts control of head and trunk on a sinusoidally moving platform. J Vestib Res 2001–2002; 11: 371–89.
95. Creath R, Kiemel T, Horak F, et al. Limited control strategies with the loss of vestibular function. Exp Brain Res 2002; 145: 323–33.
96. Jeka JJ. Light touch contact as a balance aid. Phys Ther 1997; 77(5): 476–87.
97. Dickstein R, Shupert CL, Horak FB. Fingertip touch improves postural stability in patients with peripheral neuropathy. Gait Posture 2001; 14: 238–47.
98. Horak FB, Buchanan J, Creath R, et al. Vestibulospinal control of posture. Adv Exp Med Biol 2002; 508: 139–45.
99. Goebel JA, Sinks BC, Parker BE Jr, et al. Effectiveness of head-mounted vibrotactile stimulation in subjects with bilateral vestibular loss: a phase 1 clinical trial. Otol Neurotol 2009; 30: 210–16.
100. Peterka RJ, Wall C III, Kentala E. Determining the effectiveness of a vibrotactile balance prosthesis. J Vestib Res 2006; 16: 45–56.
101. Wall C III, Kentala E. Control of sway using vibrotactile feedback of body tilt in patients with moderate and severe postural control deficits. J Vestib Res 2005; 15: 313–25.
102. Wall C III, Weinberg MS. Balance prostheses for postural control. IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag 2003; 22: 84–90.
103. Dozza M, Horak FB, Chiari L. Auditory biofeedback substitutes for loss of sensory information in maintaining stance. Exp Brain Res 2007; 178: 37–48.
104. Dozza M, Wall C, Peterka RJ, et al. Effects of practicing tandem gait with and without vibrotactile biofeedback in subjects with unilateral vestibular loss. J Vestib Res 2007; 17: 195–204.
105. Dozza M, Chiari L, Peterka RJ, et al. What is the most effective type of audio-biofeedback for postural motor learning? Gait Posture 2011; 34: 313–19.
106. Mak MKY, Hui-Chan CWY. The speed of sit-to-stand can be modulated in Parkinson's disease. Clin Neurophysiol 2005; 116: 780–9.
107. Jacobs JV, Horak FB, Tran VK, et al. Multiple balance tests improve the assessment of postural stability in subjects with Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2006; 77: 322–6.
108. Jobges M, Heuschkel G, Pretzel C, et al. Repetitive training of compensatory steps: a therapeutic approach for postural instability in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2004; 75: 1682–7.
109. Hackney ME, Earhart GM. Health-related quality of life and alternative forms of exercise in Parkinson disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2009; 15: 644–8.
110. Au-Yeung SS, Hui-Chan CW, Tang JC. Short-form Tai Chi improves standing balance of people with chronic stroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2009; 23: 515–22.
111. Chyu MC, James CR, Sawyer SF, et al. Effects of Tai Chi exercise on posturography, gait, physical function and quality of life in postmenopausal women with osteopaenia: a randomized clinical study. Clin Rehabil 2010; 24: 1080–90.
112. Hackney ME, Earhart GM. Tai Chi improves balance and mobility in people with Parkinson disease. Gait Posture 2008; 28: 456–60.
113. Logghe IHJ, Verhagen AP, Rademaker ACHJ, et al. The effects of Tai Chi on fall prevention, fear of falling and balance in older people: a meta-analysis. Prev Med 2010; 51: 222–7.
114. Wolf SL, Barnhart HX, Ellison GL, et al. The effect of Tai Chi Chuan and computerized balance training on postural stability in older subjects. Atlanta FICSIT Group. Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies on Intervention Techniques. Phys Ther 1997; 77: 371–81.
115. Liu H, Frank A. Tai Chi as a balance improvement exercise for older adults: a systematic review. J Geriatr Phys Ther 2010; 33: 103–9.
116. Li JX, Hong Y, Chan KM. Tai Chi: physiological characteristics and beneficial effects on health. Br J Sport Med 2001; 35: 148–56.
117. Wolf SL, Barnhart HX, Kutner NG, et al. Reducing frailty and falls in older persons: an investigation of Tai Chi and computerized balance training. Atlanta FICSIT Group. Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996; 44: 489–97.
118. Jobges M, Heuschkel G, Pretzel C, et al. Repetitive training of compensatory steps: a therapeutic approach for postural instability in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2004; 75: 1682–7.
119. Marigold DS, Eng JJ, Tokuno CD, et al. Contribution of muscle strength and integration of afferent input to postural instability in persons with stroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2004; 18: 222–9.
120. Yelnik AP, Breton FL, Colle FM, et al. Rehabilitation of balance after stroke with multisensorial training: a single-blind randomized controlled study. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2008; 22: 468–76.
121. Mansfield A, Peters AL, Liu BA, et al. Effect of a perturbation-based balance training program on compensatory stepping and grasping reactions in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. PhysTher 2010; 90: 476–91.
122. Protas EJ, Mitchell K, Williams A, et al. Gait and step training to reduce falls in Parkinson's disease. NeuroRehabilitation 2005; 20: 183–90.
123. Jacobs JV, Horak FB. Abnormal proprioceptive-motor integration contributes to hypometric postural responses of subjects with Parkinson's disease. Neuroscience 2006; 141: 999–1009.
124. Lakhani B, Mansfield A, Inness EL, et al. Compensatory stepping responses in individuals with stroke: a pilot study. Physiother Theory Pract 2011; 27: 299–309.
125. King LA, Horak FB. Lateral stepping for postural correction in Parkinson's disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2008; 89: 492–9.
126. Cakit BD, Saracoglu M, Genc H, et al. The effects of incremental speed-dependent treadmill training on postural instability and fear of falling in Parkinson's disease. Clin Rehabil 2007; 21: 698–705.
127. Morris ME, Iansek R, Matyas TA, et al. The pathogenesis of gait hypokinesia in Parkinson's disease. Brain 1994; 117: 1169–81.
128. Thaut MH, McIntosh GC, Rice RR, et al. Rhythmic auditory stimulation in gait training for Parkinson's disease patients. Mov Disord 1996; 11: 193–200.
129. Trombetti A, Hars M, Herrmann FR, et al. Effect of music-based multitask training on gait, balance, and fall risk in elderly people: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 2011; 171: 525–33.
130. Missaoui B, Rakotovao E, Bendaya S, et al. Posture and gait abilities in patients with myotonic dystrophy (Steinert disease). Evaluation on the short-term of a rehabilitation program. Ann Phys Rehabil Med 2010; 53: 387–98.
131. Morris ME, Iansek R, Kirkwood B. A randomized controlled trial of movement strategies compared with exercise for people with Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2009; 24: 64–71.
132. Tamir R, Dickstein R, Huberman M. Integration of motor imagery and physical practice in group treatment applied to subjects with Parkinson's disease. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2007; 21: 68–75.
133. Brauer SG, Morris ME. Can people with Parkinson's disease improve dual tasking when walking? Gait Posture 2010; 31: 229–33.
134. Rochester L, Baker K, Hetherington V, et al. Evidence for motor learning in Parkinson's disease: acquisition, automaticity and retention of cued gait performance after training with external rhythmical cues. Brain Res 2010; 1319: 103–11.
135. Rochester L, Nieuwboer A, Baker K, et al. The attentional cost of external rhythmical cues and their impact on gait in Parkinson's disease: effect of cue modality and task complexity. J Neural Transm 2007; 114: 1243–8.
136. Tennstedt S, Howland J, Lachman M, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of a group intervention to reduce fear of falling and associated activity restriction in older adults. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 1998; 53B: 384–92.
137. Clemson L, Cumming RG, Kendig H, et al. The effectiveness of a community-based program for reducing the incidence of falls in the elderly: a randomized trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 2004; 52: 1487–94.
138. Laufer Y. The effect of walking aids on balance and weight-bearing patterns of patients with hemiparesis in various stance positions. Phys Ther 2003; 83: 112–22.
139. Milczarek JJ, Kirby RL, Harrision ER, et al. Standard and four-footed canes: their effect on the standing balance of patients with hemiparesis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993; 74: 281–5.
140. Ashton-Miller JA, Yeh MW, Richardson JK, et al. A cane reduces loss of balance in patients with peripheral neuropathy: results from a challenging unipedal balance test. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1996; 77: 446–52.
141. Wright DL, Kemp TL. The dual-task methodology and assessing the attentional demands of ambulation with walking devices. Phys Ther 1992; 72: 306–15.
142. Brouwer BJ, Walker C, Rydahl SJ, et al. Reducing fear of falling in seniors through education and activity programs: a randomized trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 2003; 51: 829–34.
143. Qutubuddina AA, Cifu DX, Armistead-Jehleb P, et al. A comparison of computerized dynamic posturography therapy to standard balance physical therapy in individuals with Parkinson's disease: a pilot study. NeuroRehabilitation 2007; 22: 261–5.
144. Black FO, Schupert CL, Horak FB, et al. Abnormal postural control associated with peripheral vestibular disorders. Prog Brain Res 1988; 76: 263–75.