Skip to main content
The Cambridge Ancient History
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Cambridge Ancient History
    • Online ISBN: 9781139054287
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Volume III of The Cambridge Ancient History was first published in 1925 in one volume. The new edition has expanded to such an extent, owing to the immense amount of new information now available, that it has had to be divided into three parts. Volume III Part 1 opens with a survey of the Balkans north of Greece in the Prehistoric period. This is the first time such a survey has been published of this area which besides its intrinsic interest is important for its influence on the cultures of the Aegean and Anatolia. The rest of the book is devoted to the tenth to the eighth centuries B. C. In Greece and the Aegean the main theme is the gradual regeneration from the Dark Age and the emergence of a society in which can be seen the beginnings of the city-state. During the same period in Western Asia and the Middle East the Kingdoms of Assyria and Babylonia rise to power, the Urartians appear, and in Palestine the kingdoms of Israel and Judah flourish. In Egypt the country's fortunes revive briefly under Shoshenq I. The final chapter in this part deals with the languages of Greece and the Balkans and with the invention and spread of alphabetic writing.

    • Aa
    • Aa
Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

Page 1 of 2

  • 1 - The Prehistory of Romania from the earliest times to 1000 B.C.
    pp 1-74
    • By VL. Dumitrescu, Dr docent de I'lnstitut d'Archéologie de l'Université de Bucarest
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    This chapter outlines the prehistory of Romania from the first evidence of human activity to the eve of the first millennium BC, that is the end of Hallstatt A. The period from 1949 to 1975 was the second flourishing stage of Romanian archaeology. Hundreds of settlements and cemeteries from all prehistoric periods were excavated, new cultures were discovered and the ones already known were thoroughly studied. The extensive Palaeolithic excavations were made for the first time and some sites were fully investigated, including the Eneolithic settlements at Hăbăşeşti, Truşeşti, Teiu and Căscioarele, two of the biggest Neo-Eneolithic cemeteries of Europe (Cernavodă and Cernica), the four Bronze Age cemeteries at Monteoru, and the cemetery at Cîrna. At the beginning of the Pleistocene the Romanian plain and the southern part of the Moldovan plateau were still covered by the Pliocene lake. In Romania however, Hallstatt A-B cannot be equated with the beginning of the Iron Age.
  • 2 - The Stone Age in the Central Balkan Area
    pp 75-135
    • By M. Garašanin, Serbian Academy of Arts and Sciences, Belgrade
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    This chapter deals with the prehistory of countries: Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, and Albania. In the central part of the Balkan Peninsula the easiest crossing of the watershed between the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea is at Preševo in south Serbia. The Palaeolithic period, when the first human cultures originated and primitive hunters and food-gatherers existed in small groups, is still insufficiently studied in the Balkan Peninsula. The Neolithic in the Balkans is much better known than the Palaeolithic. In fact, it can be said to be one of the best-studied periods in the prehistory of this particular area. There are quite a large number of archaeologists who justifiably consider the period of the Late Stone Age to be a neolithic revolution and an economic revolution at the same time. In Greece and the western districts of the Balkan Peninsula it has been accepted that the Neolithic period is basically divided into three parts: early, middle and late.
  • 3 - The Eneolithic period in the Central Balkan Area
    pp 136-162
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The Eneolithic period, which came between the Neolithic Age and the age when metal was fully in use, covered a great length of time. In the initial phase of the Eneolithic period only small objects, such as jewellery and tools like needles or awls, were produced for personal use. Later, as techniques improved and knowledge of casting was acquired, larger tools were produced on a massive scale. Migrations of tribes from the Russian steppes, the Pontic basin and the Lower Danube have attracted the attention of archaeologists and linguists to an increasing extent in recent years. One of the characteristic features of the Balkan Eneolithic period is the large size of cultural complexes which consist of a series of regional groups, or of widely-spread groups containing regional variants. Decoration consisting of rippled patterns played a significant role in the formation of groups belonging to the Early Bronze Age in the Balkans.
  • 4 - The Bronze Age in the Central Balkan Area
    pp 163-186
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    As in the Eneolithic period, it is possible to trace various cultural complexes within the diversity of regional groups in the Bronze Age. The principal complexes of the Bronze Age are: the East Balkan complex of Thrace; the Carpatho-Danubian, covering the area between the Stara Planina range and the Carpathians; and the West Balkan complex. On the whole the Bronze Age saw the evolution of the ethnic groups which had emerged during the Eneolithic period and the eventual symbiosis of autochthonous elements and Indo-European elements from the steppes and the Pontic region. In the Early Bronze Age some cultural groups existed in the area of the Central and Western Balkans as well as in parts of the southern Pannonian and Carpathian regions. Recent research has shown that the Vattina group can be divided into three phases: the first two belonging to the Middle Bronze Age and the last to the Late Bronze Age.
  • 5 - The Prehistory of Albania
    pp 187-237
    • By F. Prendi, Archaeological Museum, Tirana
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The Italians discovered the first traces of Palaeolithic life in Albania, and also some cave-dwellings containing Neolithic deposits. It is only in the last thirty-five years that it has been possible to undertake the disciplined and rewarding task of tracing the prehistoric cultures of Albania, and of discovering and studying the culture of the land and its people in the stages of their evolution. Very little is known of Palaeolithic culture in Albania, because that primitive period has not yet been included in organized schemes of research. The Mesolithic period is almost totally unknown. The evolution of Neolithic civilization can be followed in Albania over three periods: Early, Middle and Late Neolithic. A separate cultural development, called Eneolithic, took place as a transitory stage leading from the Neolithic Age to the Bronze Age. According to the archaeological evidence, Albania experienced in the Neolithic and to an even greater extent in the Eneolithic period, a fairly marked growth in productive capacity.
  • 6 - Assyria: Ashur-Dan II to Ashur-Nirari V (954–745 B.C.)
    pp 238-281
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    This chapter traces the political and military development of the Neo-Assyrian empire in chronological order. Although the Babylonian Chronicle Series does not begin until the end of the period, brief notations regarding the direction of campaigns found in one type of eponym list, commonly called the 'Eponym Chronicle' (Cb), are a means of reconstructing the chronology of events for the period for which it is preserved, 841-745. The general outline of the geographical extent of the Neo-Assyrian empire is today reasonably clear. From the beginning of Assyriology, attention focused on the western campaigns of the Assyrian kings because of their relevance to the Biblical world. Ashurnasirpal II, son of Tukulti-Ninurta II, is the first 'great' king of the Neo-Assyrian period. A very clear trend towards decline was observed during the reign of Adad-nirari III and this decline reached its lowest point in the subsequent period, the reigns of Shalmaneser IV (782-773), Ashur-dan III (772-75 5), and Ashur-nirari V (754-745).
  • 7 - Babylonia c. 1000–748 B.C.
    pp 282-313
    • By J. A. , Oriental Institute, Chicago
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    By the year 1000 BC, the political and economic horizons of Babylonia had narrowed considerably. This chapter focuses on the history of the period, giving first the historical background: geographical, ethnic, cultural, and institutional, and then a series of chronological narratives sketching the major phases of the era. In many ways, the Chaldaeans and other foreign tribal groups hold the key to understanding many of the Babylonian political and socioeconomic developments of this age. The relations of the tribal groups, especially Kassites, Aramaeans, and Chaldaeans, to the older Babylonian population can be sketched briefly. In the brief period of ninety years in sharp contrast to the sparse documentation from Babylonia proper, the number of inscriptions on 'Luristan bronzes' reaches its high point. The Assyrian campaigns of 814-811 left northern Babylonia humbled and leaderless. Babylonia as a nation and state did not succumb during this phase of weakness.
  • 8 - Urartu
    pp 314-371
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The discovery of Urartu belongs to the heroic period when European scholars first resurrected the civilization of Assyria in the nineteenth century. General studies of Urartian art, history, and archaeology have followed, in many ways making the student's path easier. The geographical extent of the Urartian kingdom at its zenith in the middle of the eighth century BC was considerable. It has been described as the 'diamond-shaped area between the four lakes of Van, Urmia, Sevan and Cildir'. The Urartians never speak of themselves as ' the people of Urartu' or use the term at all; when their inscriptions first begin some years later, they use either the term Nairi, or the name Biainili. For the Assyrians on the other hand, henceforth the 'Nairi lands' and Urartu become synonymous and interchangeable. Last of all the legacy of Urartu has to be considered. This was extended both to the Orient and to the West.
  • 9 - The Neo-Hittite states in Syria and Anatolia
    pp 372-441
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    After c. 700, occasional references are found in classical authors to notable events in Anatolia and Syria. Since the chronological framework of the history of the Syro-Hittite states is dependent on that of the Assyrian kings and the Neo-Babylonian dynasty, the periods into which it conveniently divides are dictated by the reigns and activities of those monarchs. This is considered in the following phases: the early period, which includes the fall of the Hittite Empire-accession of Ashurnasirpal II; Reigns of Ashurnasirpal II and Shalmaneser III; Successors of Shalmaneser III; Reigns of Tiglath-pileser III, Shalmaneser V and Sargon II; Reigns of Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, and Ashurbanipal; and the Neo-Babylonian Empire, which is the fall of Assyria to Cyrus' conquest of Lydia. The necessity of dovetailing the native and external sources renders it expedient to consider first the outline history and chronology within each chronological division, and then to attempt to synchronize the indigenous evidence with it.
  • 10 - Israel and Judah until the Revolt of Jehu (931–841 B.C.)
    pp 442-487
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The book of Kings normally opens its account of the reign of each king of Israel or Judah with a number of stereotyped formulae, including a synchronism with the regnal year of the ruler of the other kingdom, the age of the king and the length of his reign. In the tenth century, particularly in the time of Solomon, the Israelite kingdom had maintained very close ties with the neighbouring city of Tyre, which at that time controlled the major part of Phoenicia, including the city of Sidon, once more important, whence the Phoenicians in general continued to be referred to in the Old Testament as Sidonians. Phoenicophile dynasty of Omri ended after forty years of power. Jehu's purge is possibly reflected in changes in pottery styles at certain northern sites; certainly from this time there was a decline in the Phoenician elements in Israelite and Judaean culture, and the first evidence of Assyrian influence.
  • 11 - Israel and Judah from Jehu until the Period of Assyrian Domination (841–c. 750 B.C.)
    pp 488-510
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Late in the year of Jehu's purge, it seems likely that the Assyrians first set foot on Israelite territory. From the political point of view Jehu's purge had alienated Israel's former allies, Judah and Phoenicia, many of whose nationals had perished in the slaughter, and, with a weakened internal leadership structure, Jehu was now doubly vulnerable. After Shalmaneser's campaign of 841, when Aram was invaded and Damascus besieged, the Assyrians had been otherwise preoccupied, and Hazael had enjoyed a period of respite. In the southern kingdom, Amaziah continued to reign during the first fifteen years of Jeroboam's period of sole rule. The reign of Uzziah is given relatively brief treatment in Kings, but Chronicles presents him as an active and far-sighted ruler. Level IX at Arad is probably to be dated to Uzziah's time. Under Jeroboam II and Uzziah, the territory of Israel and Judah extended once more almost as far as the boundaries of David's kingdom two centuries earlier.
  • 12 - Cyprus
    pp 511-533
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The history of Cyprus after about 1050 BC is clouded by what is usually called the 'Dark Age' in Greece. Sacred architecture of the Cypro-Geometric period is known also from Ayia Irini, where a rustic temenos was uncovered, an irregular oval in shape, with an altar and a table of offerings for libations. Citium is referred to as Khardihadast (' the New City') in Phoenician inscriptions engraved on bronze bowls and found near Amathus on the south coast of Cyprus, west of Citium. The end of the Cypro-Geometric period, which may be placed about 750 BC finds Cyprus at the beginning of an era of prosperity which was to culminate during the subsequent period. The Mycenaean Greeks had established their political and cultural supremacy in the various kingdoms of the island which were formed after the final stages of Achaean settlement. Only Citium remained outside their rule, with a Phoenician king appointed directly from Tyre.
  • 13 - Egypt: from the Twenty-Second to the Twenty-Fourth Dynasty
    pp 534-581
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Of the eleven kings of the Twenty-second Dynasty attested by the monuments, two, Shoshenq II and Harsiese, probably never ruled independently. Three of the remaining nine bore the name of Shoshenq, three Osorkon, two Takeloth and one Pimay. El-Hība, about thirty km south of Heracleopolis, was also a keypoint in Shoshenq I's strategy for Middle Egypt. It is reasonable to suppose that Shoshenq III, in his long reign, celebrated at least one W-festival: fragments of a commemorative monument have in fact been found at Tanis. The history of the central and eastern Delta from the time of Py's departure until the end of the Twenty-fourth Dynasty is no better documented than that of the western zone. Osorkon III left little mark on Egyptian history. innovation of the Libyan period was the reproduction of earlier styles of art, especially the portrayal of the human body in the mode and dress of the Old and Middle Kingdoms.
  • 14 - The Early Iron Age in the Central Balkan Area, c. 1000–750 B.C.
    pp 582-618
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    This chapter deals with events in the Balkan Peninsula down to c. 700 BC One can say with certainty that the area occupied by the Thracians lay within the eastern part of the Balkans and primarily within the area south of the Stara Planina. One of the divisions of the Iron Age is relevant: Iron Age I (c. 1200/1100-700 B. C) which covers the Dark Age in Greece and the great changes during the transition from the Bronze to the Iron Age. This period corresponds with Reinecke's Bronze Age D/Hallstatt A to the end of Hallstatt B3, and with Mycenaean IIIC1/C2 to the end of Geometric in Greece and in the Aegean. The chapter discusses the archaeological finds and the historical problems under regional headings: the East Balkan region, the Central Balkan region, the West Balkan region, and the North-western Balkan region. It also talks about the metal objects which are characteristic of this period.
  • 15 - Illyris, Epirus and Macedonia in the Early Iron Age
    pp 619-656
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Illyris, Macedonia and Epirus have much more in common with one another than with the Greek peninsula. Their climate on the whole is continental, whereas that of the Greek peninsula is Mediterranean, and their livelihood has depended until very recently on pastoralism and stock-raising rather than on arboriculture, agriculture and maritime trade. Yet their coastal areas approximate to the Mediterranean climate. The olive, for instance, flourishes at Valona and Preveza and in Chalcidice, but it is not found inland of Elbasan, Paramythia and parts of the coastal plain of Macedonia. In peninsular Greece the first two centuries of the Iron Age were impoverished in contrast with the preceding period. The Phrygian period in west Macedonia lasted for some three and a half centuries, and the entry into Thrace and later into Asia Minor was made from a basis of strength.
  • 16 - Central Greece and Thessaly
    pp 657-695
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    In the main eastern zone of central Greece, the physical factors considered would still lead one to expect a landscape of very limited fertility, increasing somewhat as one proceeded northwards. Such an impression is indeed correct in part, although it must be modified by allowing for the climatic differences. It is in the southern extremity of this zone, in Attica and the Megarid, that the physical picture presents itself most clearly, and it does so especially to a traveller coming by land from the Peloponnese. Further north, Boeotia and more especially Thessaly offer greater fertility. But here too other physical factors come into play: those of relief and its attendant climatic effects. Communications, being decidedly a product of the physical structure of Greece, are also briefly considered. In Thessaly, the material evidence is more extensive and prepossessing than might appear at first sight. Pottery evidence is limited in the extreme.
  • 17 - The Peloponnese
    pp 696-744
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Since stock-raising was particularly important in the Dark Age of the Peloponnese, it is desirable to consider its methods. In interpreting the archaeological evidence some knowledge of geographical and ecological conditions in the Peloponnese and more primitive Balkan areas forms a useful guide. West of Argolis, the elevated canton of Arcadia is entered from Argos. Laconia, like Argolis, is rich in highland pasture, grows timber on the central (Mani) peninsula and fine olives, figs, and Mediterranean pine in the south-eastern district. In Corinthia and the Isthmus, except for a Protogeometric grave at Velio, the earliest Iron Age remains are of the Geometric period. When we review the archaeological evidence for Corinthia and the Isthmus in the Early Iron Age, we can see that the terrace area received new settlers in the Submycenaean period and became the centre of Corinthia, analogous to Argos in the Argolid. Most of the literary tradition about Messenia differs from that of Argos.
  • 18a - East Greece
    pp 745-753
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    This chapter reviews the environment in which the Greek settlers found themselves and makes a somewhat inconclusive evaluation of their response on the plane of human geography. The Greek settlements for the most part were planted in bays and at little coastal plains; and it is only on the Halicarnassus peninsula that archaeological investigation has given us any impression of native settlement coexisting with the emerging Greek civilization. The north-east of Caria has the advantage of possessing larger basins of agricultural land that can be approached from up the Maeander valley, and some substantial settlements there date from prehistoric times. The Greek cities of the mainland coast were for the most part well situated to provide for their own needs. The Ionians' addiction to city life and development of its potentialities must have been an important factor in the historical evolution of ancient Greek life.
  • 18b - The Islands
    pp 754-778
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Euboea had little to offer for the history of Greece in the Bronze Age, but there had been major settlements at Chalcis, Lefkandi and Amarynthus and plentiful evidence for occupation elsewhere. There are several references in ancient authors to armed conflict between Eretria and Chalcis and this is now generally placed in the later eighth century. The islands of the Cyclades rise from a comparatively shallow shelf, an extension of the mainland of Attica and of the island Euboea. In the Bronze Age Crete dominated the history of the Aegean world. In later centuries its history was distinguished but idiosyncratic, dependent more on response to intercourse with other lands, Greek and non-Greek, less on the exploitation of its own notable natural resources. Crete is the largest of the Greek islands as close to the shores of Libya as to the Piraeus; this ease of access to the coast of Africa played a part in its history.
  • 19 - The Geometric Culture of Greece
    pp 779-793
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    This chapter summarizes the archaeologist's view of what happened to Greece, the quality of life and how it was affected by those diverse factors which can set a civilization on the move. When turning from agriculture to technology one can face a change in archaeological terminology, from 'Bronze Age' to 'Iron Age', which could easily suggest some form of industrial revolution resulting in that production surplus upon which the economy and population might further grow. The material conditions of life in Geometric Greece might more readily be gauged from homes than from artefacts consigned to graves and sanctuaries. In discussions of Greece in the early Iron Age allowance has repeatedly to be made for two such external stimuli Greece's own Bronze Age past and her relations with the older civilizations of the Near East. Bronze Age art was essentially foreign and the Protogeometric and Geometric Greeks had their own no less subtle and far more lasting idiom to develop.
  • 20a - The Earliest Alphabetic Writing
    pp 794-818
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The Proto-Sinaitic alphabet, allied to Proto-Canaanite writing in Palestine, exemplifies the creation of alphabetic writing, even though the inscriptions on rock or stone reflect a tradition which had originated in some neighbouring country where Egyptians and Canaanites mingled. Proto-Sinaitic writing may have had an influence on both the later Canaanine and South Semitic alphabets. This chapter deals with the slightly later application of the alphabetic principle to cuneiform writing, familiar in Syria, which led there to the Ugaritic alphabetic cuneiform script. Though analogies to Minoan Linear A writing have been pointed out, a number of these signs show vague formal resemblances to Proto-Sinaitic, South Semitic or Phoenician alphabetic letters. A vitally important step for West Semitic was the development of vowel letters. Though South Semitic inscriptions mostly postdate the period, something must be said about South Semitic scripts. These fall into three main groups, North Arabian, South Arabian and Ethiopic.
  • 20b - Greek Alphabetic Writing
    pp 819-833
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The earliest Greek inscriptions come from the city-states which edged both sides of the Aegean, and from their respective colonies; thus the alphabet seems to have spread primarily along the sea trade-routes. It is now clear from excavations that the Euboic Greeks at least had already got their alphabet not later than the mid eighth century, and that North Syria may be the area whence both Greek and Phrygian scripts derive. But in general the Greek alterations and additions to the Semitic alphabet appear to be comparatively few - an economy maintained also by later receivers of the alphabet. The earliest existing Greek inscriptions are public statements; they explain some object, or intention, to a reading public. A specific connexion between Greek and Phrygian centred on Cyme in Aeolis. At the Greek end, Euboea has produced inscribed local Geometric pottery, using the long s, in strata of c. 750 onwards.
  • 20c - Linguistic Problems of the Balkan Area in Late Prehistoric and Early Classical Periods
    pp 834-849
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    This chapter correlates the information which the sources provide with the broad pattern of the results obtained from the limited material in the local ancient languages. The Balkan region in the period seems at first sight to be of bewildering linguistic and ethnic complexity. The principal idioms of the region appear in fact to have been three: Illyrian; Thracian, in a broad sense, or ' Thraco-Dacian'; and Macedonian. The evidence for the use within the Balkan region of idioms which did not belong to one of the three languages or groups just mentioned is exiguous and hard to assess. Phrygian is considered in view of the Greek tradition that Phrygians migrated from the southern Balkans to Anatolia in legendary or early historical times. It is clear that Greeks of the mainland and the Aegean region were in contact with two important groups of tribes each of which they regarded as a single ethnos, the Illyrii and the Thraces.
  • 20d - The Greek Language and the Historical Dialects
    pp 850-865
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    For the period from the beginning of the twelfth century (when the Mycenaean texts fail) to the end of the eighth century BC or later, statements about the Greek language are inferential. On the minimum assumptions the phonemic inventory of a Greek dialect c. 100 BC would have contained sixteen consonantal phonemes and ten pure vowels. Once the changes that distinguished Greek as a whole from other Indo-European languages had been completed there was little change in noun declension that was not the direct result of the phonological developments. Literature, in verse from the time of the Homeric epic and in prose (Ionic) during the fifth century, sheds a limited light on dialect history. The Greeks themselves were apt to describe dialect in two ways, by individual city or by ethnos. One aspect of Greek linguistic history is progressive fragmentation into dialects spoken in ever smaller areas.
  • 20e - Balkan Languages (Illyrian, Thracian and Daco-Moesian)
    pp 866-898
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Applied to language, the name 'Illyrian' is a very ambiguous term. Until recently it was generally admitted that the Thracian linguistic territory covered the whole eastern half of the Balkan peninsula from the Aegean sea, east of the mouth of the Axius, to the upper Tisia and Hierasus north of the Danube. The linguistic evidence available for Thracian remains limited to a couple of inscriptions, a few glosses and a set of Dacian names of plants, besides an impressive amount of onomastic material. In the present state of the knowledge, it is difficult to determine whether Thracian and Daco-Moesian represent two dialects of the same language or constitute two distinct linguistic entities, as Georgiev claims. Their formerly assumed close relation with Phrygian can hardly be maintained. The problem of a possible common substrate of Romanian and Albanian has been linked with the study of Thracian and Daco-Moesian.

Page 1 of 2

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

E.Comşa Données sur la civilisation de Dudeşti’, Prähistorische Zeitschrift 46 (1971) 195–249

R. A.Crossland Immigrants from the North’, The Cambridge Ancient History 1.2 2, 824–75. Cambridge, 1971.

K.Branigan A transitional phase in Minoan metallurgy’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 63 (1968) 185ff

M.Gimbutas Anza ca. 6500–5000 B.C.: A cultural yardstick for the study of Neolithic southeast Europe’, journal of Field Archaeology 1, no. 1/2 (1974) 27ff

N. K.Sandars Later Aegean bronze swords’, American Journal of Archaeology 67 (1963) 119ff

N. K.Sandars The first Aegean swords and their ancestry’, American Journal of Archaeology 65 (1961) 17ff

S. S.Weinberg Excavations at prehistoric Elatea 1959’, Hesperia 31 (1962) 158ff

S. S.Weinberg Neolithic figurines and Aegean interrelations’, American Journal of Archaeology 55 (1951) 121ff

J. A.Brinkman and M. E. A tenth-century kudurru fragment’, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 62 (1972) 91ff

A.Goetze Cilicians’, Journal of Cuneiform Studies 16 (1962) 48ff

O. R.Gurney The Sultantepe tablets’, Anatolian Studies 3 (1953) 15ff

P.Hulin The inscriptions on the carved throne-base of Shalmaneser III’, Iraq 25 (1963) 48ff

A. R.Millard Adad-nirari III, Aram, and Arpad’, Palestine Exploration Quarterly 105 (1973) 161ff

A. R.Millard Fragments of historical texts from Nineveh: Middle Assyrian and later kings’. Iraq 32 (1970) 167ff

D.Oates Balawat (Imgur Enlil): the site and its buildings’, Iraq 36 (1974) 173ff

D.Oates The excavations at Tell al Rimah, 1967’, Iraq 30 (1968) 115ff

A. T.Olmstead Shalmaneser III and the establishment of the Assyrian power’, Journal of the American Oriental Society 41 (1921) 345ff

A. L.Oppenheim The city of Assur in 714 b.c Journal of Near Eastern Studies 19 (1960) 133ff

J. N.Postgate Assyrian texts and fragments’, Iraq 35 (1973) 13ff

E. A.Speiser Southern Kurdistan in the Annals of Ashurnasirpal and today’, Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research 8 (1926–7) 1ff

M.Streck Das Gebiet der heutigen Landschaften Armenien, Kurdistǎn und Westpersien nach den babylonisch-assyrischen Keilinschriften’, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 13 (1898) 57ff; 14 (1899) 103ff; 15 (1900) 257ff

F.Thureau-Dangin Tell Ahmar’, Syria 10 (1929) 185ff

F.Vattioni Epigrafia aramaica’, Augustinianum 10 (1970) 493ff

D. J.Wiseman Assyrian writing boards’, Iraq 17 (1955) 3ff

T. C.YoungJr. The Iranian migration into the Zagros’, Iran 5 (1967) 11ff

W. G.Lambert The reading of the god name d ka.di ’, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 59 (1969) 100ff

R. D.Barnett and N.Gökçe The find of Urartian bronzes at Altintepe near Erzincan’, Anatolian Studies 3 (1953) 121ff

R. D.Barnett and W.Watson Russian Excavations in Armenia’, Iraq 14 (1952) 132ff

R. D.Barnett Further Russian excavations in Armenia (1949–1953)’, Iraq 21 (1959) 1ff

R. D.Barnett The Treasure of Ziwiye’, Iraq 18 (1956) 111ff

J. C.Benedict Two Urartian inscriptions from Azerbaijan’, Journal of Cuneiform Studies 19 (1965) 35ff

C. A.Burney and G. R.Lawson Measured plans of Urartian fortresses’, Anatolian Studies 10 (1960) 177ff

C. A.Burney and G. R.Lawson Urartian reliefs from Adilcevaz, Lake Van, and a rock relief from the Karasu near Birecik’, Anatolian Studies 8 (1958) 211ff

R.Drews The earliest Greek settlements on the Black Sea’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 96 (1976) 18ff

H.Kantor A fragment of a gold appliqué from Ziwiye and some remarks on the artistic traditions of Armenia and Iran during the early first millennium B.C.’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 19 (1960) 1ff

W. G.Lambert The Sultantepe tablets. viii: Shalmaneser in Ararat’, Anatolian Studies 11 (1961) 143ff

B.Meissner Die Eroberung der Stadt Ulḫu auf Sargons achten Feldzug’, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 34 (1922) 113ff

M.Mellink Archaeology in Asia Minor’, American Journal of Archaeology (a) 64 (1960) 57ff; (b) 69 (1965) 133ff; (c) 72 (1968) 125ff; (d) 75 (1971) 161ff; (e) 76 (1972) 165ff; (f) 77 (1973) 169ff; (g) 78 (1974) 105ff; (h) 79 (1975) 201ff; (i) 80 (1976) 261ff; (j) 81 (1977) 289ff

O. W.Muscarella “Ziwiye” and Ziwiye: the forgery of a provenicence’, journal of Field Archaeology 4 (1977) 197ff

O. W.Muscarella The Tumuli at Sé Girdan’, Metropolitan Museum Journal 2 (1969) 5ff

A. R.Williams and K. R.Maxwell-Hyslop Ancient steel from Egypt’, Journal of Archaeological Science 3 (1976) 283ff

D. J.Wiseman A new stele of Aššur-na⊡ir-pal II’, Iraq 14 (1952) 24ff

D. J.Wiseman The vassal treaties of Esarhaddon’, Iraq 20 (1958) 1ff

E. M.Wright The eighth campaign of Sargon II of Assyria (714 B.C.)’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 2 (1943) 173ff

W. F.Albright Syria, the Philistines, and Phoenicia’, in The Cambridge Ancient History 11.2, 507ff. Cambridge, 1975

R. D.Barnett Phrygia and the peoples of Anatolia in the Iron Age’, in The Cambridge Ancient History 11.2, 417ff. Cambridge, 1975

J. M.Birmingham The overland route across Anatolia in the eighth and seventh centuries B.C.’, Anatolian Studies 11 (1961) 185ff

M.Cogan Tyre and Tiglath-Pileser III’, Journal of Cuneiform Studies 25 (1973) 96ff

J. D.Hawkins and A.Morpurgo-Davies On the problems of Karatepe; the Hieroglyphic text’, Anatolian Studies 28 (1978) 103ff

J. D.Hawkins Assyrians and Hittites’, Iraq 36 (1974) 67ff

J.Mellaart Anatolian trade with Europe and Anatolian geography and culture provinces in the Late Bronze Age’, Anatolian Studies 18 (1968) 187ff

A. R.Millard Alphabetic inscriptions on ivories from Nimrud’, Iraq 24 (1962), 41ff

A. R.Millard Some Aramaic epigraphs’, Iraq 34 (1972) 131ff

O.Pelon Rapport préliminaire sur la deuxieme et la troisième campagnes de fouilles à Porsuk-Ulukişla (Turquie) en 1970 et 1971’, Syria 49 (1972) 303ff.

J. E.Reade The Neo-Assyrian court and army: evidence from the sculptures’, Iraq 34 (1972) 87ff

I. J.Winter On the problems of Karatepe; the reliefs and their context’, Anatolian Studies 29 (1979) 115ff

F. M.Cross The oldest MSS from Qumrân’, Journal of Biblical Literature 74 (1955) 147ff

O.Eissfeldt The Hebrew Kingdom’, The Cambridge Ancient History 11.2, 537ff. Cambridge, 1975

89A. C. J.Gadd Babylonia c. 2120–1800 B.C.’, in The Cambridge Ancient History 1. 2, 595ff. Cambridge, 1971

M.Kochavi Khirbet Rabûd = Debir’, Tel Aviv 1 (1974) 2ff

C. C.McCown The density of population in ancient Palestine’, Journal of Biblical Literature 66 (1947) 425ff

N.Na'aman Two notes on the Monolith Inscription of Shalmaneser III from Kurkh’, Tel Aviv 3 (1976) 89ff

J. D.Shenkel Chronology and Recensional Development in the Greek Text of Kings (Harvard Semitic Monographs 1). Cambridge, Mass., 1968

E. R.Thiele The chronology of the kings of Judah and Israel’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 3 (1944) 137ff

D. J.Wiseman The Nimrud tablets, 1953’, Iraq 15 (1953) 135ff

Y.Yadin Megiddo of the kings of Israel’, The Biblical Archaeologist 33 (1970) 66ff

F.Zayadine Note sur l'inscription de la statue d'Amman j.1656’, Syria 51 (1974) 129ff

EmirDjAbd el-Kader . ‘Un orthostate du temple de Hadad à Damas,’ Syria 26 (1949) 191ff

M. C.Astour 841 B.C.: The first Assyrian invasion of Israel’, Journal of the American Oriental Society 91 (1971) 383ff

A.Malamat Organs of statecraft in the Israelite monarchy’, The Biblical Archaeologist 28 (1965) 34ff

A. R.Millard and H.Tadmor Adad-nirari III in Syria. Another stele fragment and the dates of his campaigns’, Iraq 35 (1973) 57ff

E. L.Sukenik Funerary tablet of Uzziah, King of Judah’, Palestine Exploration Quarterly 63 (1931) 217ff

H.Tadmor The Historical Inscriptions of Adad-nirari III’, Iraq 35 (1973) 141ff

I. J.Winter Phoenician and North Syrian ivory carving in historical context’, Iraq 38 (1976) 1ff

J. N.Coldstream Geometric Greece. London, 1977

V. R. d'A.Desborough A group of vases from Amathus’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 77 (1957) 212–19

J.Pouilloux Salamine de Chypre: le site et ses problèmes’, Comptes-rendus de l'Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres 1966, 232–56

J. vonBeckerath The Nile level records at Karnak and their importance for the history of the Libyan period’, Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 5 (1966) 43–55

R.Borger Das Ende des ägyptischen Feldherrn Sib'e = אׄוס’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 19 (1960) 49–53

B. V.Bothmer The Philadelphia–Cairo statue of Osorkon II’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 46 (1960) 3–11

H. K.Jacquet-Gordon The illusory year 36 of Osorkon I’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 53 (1967) 63–8

H.Kees Die Lebensgrundsätze eines Amonspriesters der 22. Dynastie’, Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 74 (1938) 73–87

K. A.Kitchen On the princedoms of Late-Libyan Egypt’, Chronique d'Egypte 52 (1977, no. 103), 40–8

M.Lichtheim The High Steward Akhamenru’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 7 (1948) 163–79

D. B.Redford Studies in relations between Palestine and Egypt during the First Millennium B.C. 11: The Twenty-second Dynasty’, Journal of the American Oriental Society 93 (1973) 3–17

G.Steindorff The statuette of an Egyptian commissioner in Syria’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 25 (1939) 30–3

G. A. D.Tait The Egyptian relief chalice’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 49 (1963) 93–139

E.Uphill The Egyptian sed-festival rites’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 24 (1965) 365–83

N. G. L.Hammond The dating of some burials in tumuli in south Albania’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 66 (1971) 229ff

C. W.Blegen Two Athenian grave-groups of about 900 B.C.’, Hesperia 21 (1952) 279–94

N. G. L.Hammond The main road from Boeotia to the Peloponnese through the Northern Megarid’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 49 (1954) 103–22

R. S.Young Excavations on Mount Hymettos, 1939’, American Journal of Archaeology 44 (1940) 1–9

T. J.Dunbabin The early history of Corinth’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 68 (1948) 59ff

N. G. L.Hammond The Heraeum at Perachora and Corinthian encroachment’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 49 (1954) 93ff

G. E.Bean and J. M.Cook The Halicarnassus peninsula’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 50 (1955) 85–171

D. W. S.Hunt Feudal survivals in Ionia’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 67 (1947) 68–76

C. M.Bowra Two lines of Eumelus’, Classical Quarterly 13 (1963) 145–53

D. W.Bradeen The Lelantine War and Pheidon of Argos’, Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 78 (1947) 223–41

J. K.Brock Excavations in Siphnos’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 44 (1949) 1–80

G.Buchner Recent work at Pithekoussai (Ischia), 1965–71’, Archaeological Reports of the Society for Hellenic Studies 1970–1, 63–7

A. R.Burn The so-called “Trade Leagues” in early Greek history and the Lelantine War’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 49 (1929) 14–37

C.Rolley Bronzes géometriques et orientaux à Délos’, Etudes Déliennes (Bulletin de corṙespondance hellénique suppl. 1, 1973)

J.Boardman Attic Geometric vase scenes, old and new’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 86 (1966) 1–5

D. H. F.Gray Metal-working in Homer’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 74 (1954) 1–15

J.Salmon The Heraeum at Perachora and the early history of Corinth and Megara’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 67 (1972) 159ff

R.Dussaud L'origine de l'alphabet et son évolution première d'après les découvertes de Byblos’, Syria 25 (1946–8) 368ff

H.Sobelman The Proto-Byblian inscriptions: a fresh approach’, Journal of Semitic Studies 6 (1961) 226ff

M.Sznycer L'inscription phénicienne de Tekke près de Cnossos’, Kadmos 18, 1 (1979) 89ff

R. S.Young Old Phrygian inscriptions from Gordion: towards a history of the Phrygian alphabet’, Hesperia 38 (1969) 252ff

RhysCarpenter The Greek alphabet again’, American Journal of Archaeology 42 (1938) 58–69

B.Einarson Notes on the development of the Greek alphabet’, Classical Philology 62 (1967), 1–24

M.Langdon The Dipylon oinochoe again’, American Journal of Archaeology 79 (1975) 139–40

J.Naveh Some Semitic epigraphic considerations on the antiquity of the Greek alphabet’, American Journal of Archaeology 77 (1973) 1ff

J.Chadwick Greek and Pre-Greek’, Transactions of the Philological Society 1969, 80ff

R.Coleman The dialect geography of Ancient Greece’, Transactions of the Philological Society 1963, 58ff

EkremAkurgal . Die Kunst Anatoliens von Homer bis Alexander. Berlin, 1961

W. F.Albright The Phoenician inscriptions of the tenth century B.C. from Byblus’, Journal of the American Oriental Society 67 (1947) 153ff

C.Aldred The Carnarvon statuette of Amūn’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 42 (1956) 3–7

P.Amandry and M.Lejeune Collection Paul Canellopoulos: aryballes corinthiennes’, Bulletin de corṙespondance hellénique 97 (1973) 189–204

J. K.Anderson A topographical and historical study of Achaea’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 49 (1954) 72ff

J. L.Angel Ecology and population in the eastern Mediterranean’, World Archaeology 4 (1972–3)

K.Baer The Libyan and Nubian kings of Egypt: Notes on the chronology of Dynasties XXII to XXVI’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 32 (1973)

R. D.Barnett The Urartian cemetery at Igdyr’, Anatolian Studies 13 (1963) 153ff (summary of B)

R. D.Barnett Karatepe: the key to the Hittite hieroglyphs’, Anatolian Studies 3 (1953) 53ff

R. D.Barnett The Sea Peoples’, in The Cambridge Ancient History 11.2, 359ff. Cambridge, 1975

G. E.Bean and J. M.Cook The Carian Coast iii’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 52 (1957) 58–146

A. J.Beattie An early Laconian lex sacra ’, Classical Quarterly 1 (1951) 46ff

H. K.Beebe Ancient Palestinian dwellings’, The Biblical Archaeologist 31 (1968) 38ff

A. F. L.Beeston Arabian sibilants’, Journal of Semitic Studies 7 (1962) 222ff

B.Bell Climate and the history of Egypt: the Middle Kingdom’, American Journal of Archaeology 79 (1975)

A.Benac , B.Čović and E.Pašalić (eds.) Simpozijum: o teritorijalnom i hronoloskom razgraničenju Ilira u praistorijsko doba (Sur la delimitation territoriale et chronologique des Illyriens à l'époque préhistorique); Naučno Društvo SR Bosne i Hercegovine, Posebna Izdanja, Kn. IV/Centar za Balkanoloska Ispitivanja, Kn. 1). Sarajevo, 1964

S.Benton Further excavations at Aetos’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 48 (1953)

Y.Béquignon Etudes thessaliennes, V’, Bulletin de corṙespondance hellénique 56 (1932) 89–191

A.Biran Tel Dan’, The Biblical Archaeologist 37 (1974) 26ff

A. M.Blackman The stela of Shoshenk, Great Chief of the Meshwesh’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 27 (1941)

C. W.Blegen Excavations at the Argive Heraeum 1925’, American Journal of Archaeology 29 (1925) 413ff

C. W.Blegen Prosymna: Remains of the post-Mycenaean date’, American Journal of Archaeology 43 (1939) 410ff

J.Boardman Artemis Orthia and chronology’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 58 (1963) 1ff

J.Boardman The Khaniale Tekke Tombs II’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 62 (1967)

J.Boardman Painted votive plaques and an early inscription from Aegina’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 49 (1954)

J.Boardman Early Euboean pottery and history’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 52 (1957)

J.Boessneck and A.von den Driesch The excavations at Korucutepe, Turkey, 1968–70: preliminary report, Part IX, The animal remains’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 33 (1974) 109ff

G.Bonfante A note on the Samothracian language’, Hesperia 24 (1955)

J. A.Brinkman Additional texts from the Reigns of Shalmaneser III and Shamshi-Adad V’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 32 (1973) 40ff

J. A.Brinkman Foreign relations of Babylonia from 1600 to 625 B.C.: The documentary evidence’, American Journal of Archaeology 76 (1972) 271ff

R. J.Buck The Aeolic dialect in Boeotia’, Classical Philology 63 (1968) 268ff

C. A.Burney A first season of excavations at the Urartian citadel of Kayahdere’, Anatolian Studies 16 (1966) 55ff

C. A.Burney Urartian fortresses and towns in the Van region’, Anatolian Studies 7 (1957) 37ff

C. A.Burney Urartian irrigation works’, Anatolian Studies 22 (1972) 179ff

D.Callipolitis-Feytmans Tombes de Kallithea en Attique’, Bulletin de corṙespondance hellénique 87 (1963) 404–30

R. A.Caminos Gebel es-Silsilah No. 100’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 38 (1952)

R. A.Caminos An ancient Egyptian donation stela in the Archaeological Museum of Florence (Inv. No. 7207)’, Centaurus 14 (1969)

E. F.Campbell and J. F.Ross The excavation of Shechem and the Biblical tradition’, The Biblical Archaeologist 26 (1963) 2ff

RhysCarpenter The antiquity of the Greek alphabet’, American Journal of Archaeology 37 (1933)

J.Carter The beginnings of narrative art in the Greek Geometric period’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 67 (1972)

P. A.Cartledge Sparta and Lakonia: a Regional History 1300–362 B.C. London, 1979

W.Caskel Libyan und Lihyanisch (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Forschung des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen, Geisteswissenschaften, 4). Cologne, Opladen, 1954

J. L.Caskey and P.Amandry Investigations at the Heraion of Argos, 1949’, Hesperia 21 (1952) 165–221

H. W.Catling Late Minoan vases and bronzes in Oxford’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 63 (1968) 89ff

H.Cazelles , R.Labat and J.Nougayrol Une nouvelle stèle d'Adad-Nirari d'Assyrie et Joas d'Israël’, Comptes-rendus de l'Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres 1969, 106ff

J. N.Coldstream Hero-cults in the age of Homer’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 96 (1976)

J. M.Cook Mycenae 1939–1952: The Agamemnoneion’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 48 (1953) 30–68

R. M.Cook Archaeological argument: some principles’, Antiquity 34 (1960)

R. M.Cook and A. G.Woodhead The diffusion of the Greek alphabet’, American Journal of Archaeology 63 (1959)

F. M.Cross The history of the Biblical text in the light of discoveries in the Judaean desert’, Harvard Theological Review 57 (1964) 281ff

W.Culican Almuñécar, Assur and Phoenician penetration of the West Mediterranean’, Levant 2 (1970) 28ff

S.Dalley An Assyrian stela fragment’, Iraq 38 (1976)

G.Daux Chronique des fouilles en 1957’, Bulletin de corṙespondance hellénique 82 (1958) 644–830 Vaux The Excavations at Tell el-Far'ah and the Site of Ancient Tirzah’, Palestine Exploration Quarterly 88 (1956) 125ff

A.Demsky A proto-Canaanite Abecedary dating from the period of the Judges, and its implications for the history of the alphabet’, Tel Aviv 4 (1977) 14ff

V. R. d'A.Desborough Late burials from Mycenae’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 68 (1973) 87ff

V. R. d'A.Desborough , R. V.Nicholls and M.Popham A Euboean centaur’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 65 (1970)

E.Dhorme Déchiffrement des inscriptions pseudo-hiéroglyphiques de Byblos’, Syria 25 (1946–8) 1ff

A. J.Drewes and R.Schneider Origine et developpement de l'écriture éthiopienne jusqu'à l'é des inscriptions royales d'Axoum’, Annales d'Ethiopie 10 (1976) 95fF

G.Dumézil Idées romaines (Bibliothèque des Sciences Humaines). Paris, 1969

G. E. S.Durbin Iron Age pottery from the provinces of Tokat and Sivas’, Anatolian Studies 21 (1971) 99ff

R.Dussand Dédicace d'une statue d'Osorkon I par Eliba'al, roi de Byblos’, Syria 6 (1925) 101–17

R. H.DysonJr. Problems of protohistoric Iran as seen from Hasanlu’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 24 (1965) 193ff

M. J.Earle The supplementary signs of the Greek alphabet’, American Journal of Archaeology 7 (1903)

G. P.Edwards and R. B. Red letters and Phoenician writing’, Kadmos 13 (1974)

J. J.Finkelstein “Mesopotamia”’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 21 (1962) 73ff

J.Friedrich Chaldische (urartäische) Texte’, in Kleinasiatische Sprachdenkmäler (Berlin, 1932), 40ff

C. J.Gadd Inscribed prisms of Sargon II from Nimrud’, Iraq 16 (1954) 173ff

H.Gallet de Santerre Notes Déliennes: i. De Délos mycénienne à Délos archaïque: l'Artemision’, Bulletin de corṙespondance hellénique 99 (1975) 247–62. Defends continuity

A. H.Gardiner The Dakhleh stela’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 19 (1933)

A. H.Gardiner The gods of Thebes as guarantors of personal property’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 48 (1962)

R.Giveon Two new Hebrew seals and their iconographic background’, Palestine Exploration Quarterly 93 (1961) 38ff

N.Glueck Ezion-geber’, The Biblical Archaeologist 28 (1965) 70ff

A.Goetze Anatolia from Shuppiluliumash to the Egyptian War of Muwatallish’, in The Cambridge Ancient History 11.2, 117ff. Cambridge, 1975

A.Goetze Cuneiform inscriptions from Tarsus’, Journal of the American Oriental Society 59 (1939) 1ff

A.Goetze The linguistic continuity of Anatolia as shown by its proper names’, Journal of Cuneiform Studies 8 (1954) 74ff

E. I.Gordon The Meaning of the ideogram d kaskal.kur = “underground water-course” and its significance for Bronze Age historical geography’, Journal of Cuneiform Studies 21 (1967 [app. 1969]) 70ff

M.Gough Anazarbus’, Anatolian Studies 2 (1952) 85ff

J. R. A.Greig and J.Turner Some pollen diagrams from Greece and their archaeological significance’, Journal of Archaeological Sciences 1 (1974)

J. B.Hainsworth Greek views of Greek dialectology’, Transactions of the Philological Society 1967, 62ff

W. W.Hallo The Road to Emar’, Journal of Cuneiform Studies 18 (1964) 57ff

N. G. L.Hammond The Lycurgean reform at Sparta’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 70 (1950) 42ff

N. G. L.Hammond Tumulus-burial in Albania, the grave circles of Mycenae, and the Indo-Europeans’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 62 (1967)

N. G. L.Hammond The tumulus-burials of Leucas and their connections in the Balkans and northern Greece’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 69 (1974) 129ff

N. G. L.Hammond Alexander's campaign in Illyria’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 94 (1974) 66f

N. G. L.Hammond The Kingdoms of Illyria circa 400–167 B.C.’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 61 (1966) 241ff

J. D.Hawkins A Hieroglyphic Hittite inscription from Porsuk’, Anatolian Studies 19 (1969) 99ff

J. D.Hawkins Building inscriptions of Carchemish’, Anatolian Studies 22 (1972) 87ff

J. D.Hawkins Hieroglyphic Hittite inscriptions of Commagene’, Anatolian Studies 20 (1970) 69ff

J. D.Hawkins Some historical problems of the Hieroglyphic Luwian corpus’, Anatolian Studies 29 (1979) 153ff

J. D.Hawkins The negatives in Hieroglyphic Luwian’, Anatolian Studies 25 (1975) 119ff

J. D.Hawkins The Babil Stele of Ashurnasirpal’, Anatolian Studies 19 (1969) 111ff

W. C.Hayes Writing palette of the High Priest of Amūn, Smendes’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 34 (1948)

W. A.Heurtley and H. L.Lorimer Excavations in Ithaca, i ’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 33 (1932–3) 22–65

W. A.Heurtley and T. C.Skeat The tholos tombs of Marmariane’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 31 (1930–1) 1–55

R. A.Higgins Early Greek jewellery’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 64 (1969)

R. A.Higgins The Elgin jewellery’, British Museum Quarterly 23 (1960–1) 101–7

M.Homsky and S.Moshkovitz The distribution of d1fferent wood species of the Iron Age II at Tel Beer-Sheba’, Tel Aviv 3 (1976) 42ff

P.Hulin New Urartian inscribed stones at Anzaf’, Anatolian Studies 10 (1960) 207f

E. V.Hulse The nature of Biblical“ leprosy ”and the use of alternative medical terms in modern translations of the Bible’, Palestine Exploration Quarterly 107 (1975) 87ff

H.Hunger and S. A.Kaufman A New Akkadian prophecy text’, Journal of the American Oriental Society 95 (1975) 371ff

J. H.Iliffe Some recent acquisitions at Toronto’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 51 (1931)

T.Ishida The Royal Dynasties of Ancient Israel (Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft Bh. 142). Berlin, 1977

S.Iwry New evidence for belomancy in ancient Palestine and Phoenicia’, Journal of the American Oriental Society 81 (1961) 27ff

H. K.Jacquet-Gordon The inscriptions on the Philadelphia–Cairo statue of Osorkon II’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 46 (1960)

M. H.Jameson Excavations at Porto Cheli and vicinity, Preliminary Report i: Halieis 1962–68’, Hesperia 38 (1969) 311ff

J. J.Janssen The smaller Dakhla stela’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 54 (1968) 165–72

L. H.Jeffery Old Smyrna: inscriptions on sherds and small objects’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 59 (1964)

L. H.Jeffery and A.Morpurgo-Davies ΠΟΙΝΙΚΑΣΤΑΣ and ΠΟΙΝΙΚΑΙΕΙΝ: BM 1969.4–2.1, a new archaic inscription from Crete’, Kadmos 9 (1970)

A.Johnston Rhodian readings’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 70 (1975)

V.Karageorghis Note on Sigynnae and Obeloi’, Bulletin de corṙespondance hellénique 94 (1970) 35–44

V.Karageorghis Une tombe de guerrier à Palaepaphos’, Bulletin de corṙespondance hellénique 87 (1963) 265–300

V.Karageorghis Naiskoi de Chypre’, Bulletin de corṙespondance hellénique 94 (1970) 27–33

R.Katičić Ancient Languages of the Balkans. (Trends in Linguistics, State-of-the-Art Reports 4–5). The Hague-Paris, 1976

P.Kiparsky Sonorant clusters in Greek’, Language 43 (1967) 619ff

G. S.Kirk Ships on Geometric vases’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 44 (1949)

K. A.Kitchen Two donation stelae in the Brooklyn Museum’, Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 8 (1969–70) ; with 4 figs

M.Kochavi An ostracon of the period of the Judges from Izbet Sarṭah’, Tel Aviv 4 (1977) 1ff

W. G.Lambert Ancestors, authors, and canonicity’, Journal of Cuneiform Studies 11 (1957) 1ff, 112

W. G.Lambert Literary style in first millennium Mesopotamia’, Journal of the American Oriental Society 88 (1968) 123ff

W. G.Lambert Nebuchadnezzar King of Justice’. Iraq 27 (1965) 1ff

W. G.Lambert The reigns of Aššurna⊡irpal II and Shalmaneser III: an interpretation’, Iraq 36 (1974) 103ff

G. M.Landes The material civilization of the Ammonites’, The Biblical Archaeologist 24 (1961) 66ff

J.Læssøe A statue of Shalmaneser III, from Nimrud’, Iraq 21 (1959)

J.Læssøe Building inscriptions from Fort Shalmaneser, Nimrud’, Iraq 21 (1959) 38ff

L.Lerat Tombes submycéniennes et géometriques à Delphes’, Bulletin de corṙespondance hellénique 61 (1937) 44–52

L.Lerat Fouilles à Delphes, à l'Est du grand sanctuaire (1951–57)’, Bulletin de corṙespondance hellénique 85 (1961) 316–66

J.Liver The wars of Mesha, king of Moab’, Palestine Exploration Quarterly 99 (1967) 14ff

A.Malamat Aspects of the foreign policies of David and Solomon’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies (1963) 1ff

A.Malamat Kingship and council in Israel and Sumer’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 22 (1963) 247ff

M. E. L.Mallowan Carchemish’, Anatolian Studies 22 (1972) 63ff

L.Marangou Bijoux en or: Collection Dolly Goulandris’, Bulletin de corṙespondance hellénique 99 (1975) 365–78. Finds in Skyros

P.KyleMcCarter The early diffusion of the alphabet’, The Biblical Archaeologist 37 (1974) 54ff

P. K.McCarter A Phoenician graffito from Pithekoussai’, American Journal of Archaeology 79 (1975)

G. H.McFadden A Late Cypriote III tomb from Kourion Kaloriziki no. 40’, American Journal of Archaeology 58 (1954) 131–42

A. R.Millard Scriptio Continua in early Hebrew: ancient practice or modern surmise?’, Journal of Semitic Studies 15 (1970) 2ff

A. R.Millard The practice of writing in ancient Israel’, The Biblical Archaeologist 35 (1972) 98ff

A. R.Millard Fragments of historical texts from Nineveh: AshurbanipalIraq 30 (1968) 98ff

J. M.Miller The Elisha Cycle and the accounts of the Omride wars’, Journal of Biblical Literature 85 (1966) 441ff

E.Neufeld Hygiene conditions in ancient Israel (Iron Age)’, The Biblical Archaeologist 34 (1971) 42ff

D.Oates The excavations at Nimrud (Kalḫu), 1962’, Iraq 25 (1963) 6ff

A. T.Olmstead The Assyrian Chronicle’, Journal of the American Oriental Society 34 (1915) 344ff

A. T.Olmstead The calculated frightfulness of Ashur nasir apal’, Journal of the American Oriental Society 38 (1918) 209ff

S.Page A stela of Adad-nirari III and Nergal-ereš from Tell al Rimah’, Iraq 30 (1968) 139ff

M. Z.Pease Pottery from the North Slope’, Hesperia 4 (1935)

T. E.Peet A stela of the reign of Sheshonk IV’. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 6 (1920)

O.Pelon Rapport préliminaire sur la première campagne de fouilles à Porsuk-Ulukişla (Turquie)’, Syria 47 (1970) 279ff

A.Poebel The Assyrian King List from Khorsabad’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 1 (1942) 247ff, 460ff; 2 (1943) 56ff

E.Posner Archives in the Ancient World. Cambridge, Mass., 1972

J. N.Postgate Some remarks on conditions in the Assyrian countryside’, Journal of Economic and Social History of the Orient 17 (1974) 225ff

J. D.Ray Pharaoh Nechepso’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 60 (1974)

D. B.Redford An Interim Report on the second season of work at the temple of Osiris, Ruler of Eternity, Karnak’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 59 (1973) 16–30

C.Roebuck Some aspects of urbanization at Corinth’, Hesperia 41 (1972) 96ff

R.Rolle Urartu und die Reiternomaden’, Saeculum 28 (1977) 291ff

L. H.Sackett , V.Hankey , R. J.Howell , T. W.Jacobsen and M. R.Popham Prehistoric Euboea: contributions toward a survey’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 61 (1966)

H. W. F.Saggs The Nimrud Letters, 1952. Part II: relations with the West’, Iraq 17 (1955) 126ff

H. W. F.Saggs The Nimrud Letters, 1952. Part IV: The Urartian frontier’, Iraq 20 (1958), 128ff

N.Sarna The interchange of the prepositions Beth and Mim in Biblical Hebrew’, Journal of Biblical Literature 78 (1959) 310ff

J.Sauvaget Le plan antique de Damas’, Syria 26 (1949)

A. R.Schulman A problem of Pedubasts’, Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 5 (1966)

J. B.Segal An Aramaic ostracon from Nimrud’, Iraq 19 (1957) 139ff

S.Segert Vowel letters in early Aramaic’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 37 (1978) 111ff

O. R.Sellers The 1957 campaign at Beth-zur’, The Biblical Archaeologist 21 (1958) 71ff

Y.Shiloh The Proto-Aeolic capital. The Israelite “Timorah” (palmette) capital’, Palestine Exploration Quarterly 109 (1977) 39ff

C. C.SiclenIII van The accession date of Amenhotep III and the jubilee’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 32 (1973) 290–300

P.Skehan The Biblical scrolls from Qumran and the text of the Old Testament’, The Biblical Archaeologist 28 (1965) 87ff

R. H.Smith The household lamps of Palestine in Old Testament times’, The Biblical Archaeologist 27 (1964) 1ff

E. L.Smithson The Protogeometric cemetery at Nea Ionia, 1949’, Hesperia 30 (1961)

E. L.Smithson The tomb of a rich Athenian lady, c. 850 B.C.’, Hesperia 37 (1968)

A. M.Snodgrass The hoplite reform and history’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 85 (1965)

A. M.Snodgrass An historical Homeric society’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 94 (1974)

A.Spalinger The year 712 B.C. and its implications for Egyptian history’, Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 10 (1973) 95–101

T.Sulimirski Scythian antiquities in Western Asia’, Artibus Asiae 17 (1954) 282ff

H.Tadmor Philistia under Assyrian rule’, The Biblical Archaeologist 29 (1966) 86ff

H.Tadmor The campaigns of Sargon II of Assur: a chronological historical study’, Journal of Cuneiform Studies 12 (1958) 22ff, 77ff

O. A.Tasyürek A rock relief of Shalmaneser III on the Euphrates’, Iraq 41 (1979) 47ff

O. A.Taşyürek Some inscribed Urartian armour’, Iraq 37 (1975) 151ff

E. R.Thiele Coregencies and overlapping reigns among the Hebrew kings’, Journal of Biblical Literature 93 (1974) 174ff

H. O.Thompson Tell el-Husn – Biblical Beth-shan’, The Biblical Archaeologist 30 (1967) 110ff

H. A.Thompson Activity in the Athenian Agora, 1966–7’, Hesperia 37 (1968) 36–72

E.Uphill The date of Osorkon II's sed-festival’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 26 (1967) 61–2

D.Ussishkin On the dating of some groups of reliefs from Carchemish and Til Barsib’, Anatolian Studies 17 (1967) 181ff

D.Ussishkin The date of the Neo-Hittite enclosure at Karatepe’, Anatolian Studies 19 (1969) 121ff

D.Ussishkin The monuments of the lower palace area in Carchemish. A rejoinder’, Anatolian Studies 26 (1976) 105ff

FriedaVandenabeele Quelques particularity de la civilisation d'Amathonte à l'époque Chypro-Géométrique’, Bulletin de corṙespondance hellénique 92 (1968) 103–14

J.Vandier À propos d'un groupe du Sérapéum de Memphis conserveé au Musée du Louvre’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 35 (1949) 135–8

E.von Schuler Die Kaškäer. Ein Beitrag zur Ethnographic des alten Kleinasien. Berlin, 1965

T. B. L.Webster Homer and Attic Geometric vases’, Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 50 (1955)

J.Whatmough The phonology of Messapic’, Language 3 (1927)

J.Wilkinson Ancient Jerusalem: its water supply and population’, Palestine Exploration Quarterly 106 (1974) 33ff

H. G. M.Williamson Israel in the Books of Chronicles. Cambridge, 1977

D.Winfield The northern routes across Anatolia’, Anatolian Studies 27 (1977) 61ff

D. J.Wiseman A fragmentary inscription of Tiglath-pileser III from Nimrud’, Iraq 18 (1956) 117ff

D. J.Wiseman Assyria and Babylonia, c. 1200–1000 B.C.’, in The Cambridge Ancient History 11. 2 443ff. Cambridge, 1975

D. J.Wiseman The Laws of Hammurabi again’, Journal of Semitic Studies 7 (1962) 161ff

D. J.Wiseman The Nimrud tablets, 1949’, Iraq 12 (1950) 184ff

D. J.Wiseman Two historical inscriptions from Nimrud’, Iraq 13 (1951) 21ff

G. E.Wright A problem of ancient topography: Lachish and Eglon’, The Biblical Archaeologist 34 (1971) 76ff

G. E.Wright Archaeological observations on the period of the Judges and the early Monarchy’, Journal of Biblical Literature 60 (1941) 27ff

G. E.Wright Iron: the date of its introduction into common use in Palestine’, American Journal of Archaeology 43 (1939) 458ff

G. E.Wright Samaria’, The Biblical Archaeologist 22 (1959) 67ff

W. F.Wyatt The prehistory of the Greek dialects’, Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 101 (1970) 557ff

Y.Yadin The fifth season of excavations at Hazor 1968–1969’, The Biblical Archaeologist 32 (1969) 50ff

S.Yeivin Topographic and ethnic notes, III’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 48 (1962)

R. S.Young An Early Geometric grave near the Athenian Agora’, Hesperia 18 (1949)