Skip to main content
The Manufacturing of Markets
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Glachant, Jean-Michel 2014. Governance in Network Industries: Lessons Learnt from New Institutional Economics. Competition and Regulation in Network Industries, Vol. 15, Issue. 2, p. 157.


Book description

Different types of markets exist throughout the world but how are they created? In this book, an interdisciplinary team of authors provide an evolutionary vision of how markets are designed and shaped. Drawing on a series of case studies, they show that markets are far from perfect and natural mechanisms, and propose a new view of markets as social construct, explaining how combinations of economic, political and legal constraints influence the formation and performance of markets. Historical trajectories and interdependencies among institutional dimensions make it difficult to build costless, non-biased co-ordination mechanisms, and there are limitations to public and private attempts to improve the design of markets. The authors show that incomplete and imperfect modes of governance must be improved upon and combined in order for markets to work more efficiently. This timely book will interest practitioners and academics with backgrounds in economics, law, political science and public policy.


'Eric Brousseau and Jean-Michel Glachant have assembled a fascinating set of contributions that discuss the institutional arrangements that contribute to the 'manufacturing' of markets for goods and services … The chapters in this book provide important insights about how these institutional choices have been made in many different contexts, drawing on lessons from economics, political science, organizational behavior, psychology and law. There is much to learn from these chapters for both scholars and policymakers.'

Paul L. Joskow - President, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and Elizabeth and James Killian Professor of Economics, Emeritus, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

Page 1 of 2

Page 1 of 2


Acharya, Viral, and Matthew Richardson, eds. 2009. Restoring Financial Stability: How to Repair a Failed System. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons Publishing.
Admati, Anat, and Paul Pfleiderer. 1991. “Sunshine Trading and Financial Market Equilibrium.” Review of Financial Studies 4(3): 443481.
Adrian, Tobias, and Markus Brunnermeier. 2009. “CoVaR.” Federal Reserve Bank of New York Staff Reports 348.
Adrian, Tobias, and Hyun Song Shin. 2008a. “Liquidity, Monetary Policy and Financial Cycles.” Current Issues in Economics and Finance. Federal Reserve Bank of New York Issues in Economics and Finance 14(1).
Adrian, Tobias, and Hyun Song Shin 2008b. “Liquidity and Financial Contagion.” Banque de France Financial Stability Review Special Issue on Liquidity 81(11): 17.
Adrian, Tobias, and Hyun Song Shin 2008c. “Financial Intermediaries, Financial Stability and Monetary Policy.” Federal Reserve Bank of New York Staff Reports 346.
Aglietta, Michel, and Philippe Moutot. 1993. “Le Risque de Système et Sa Prévention.” Cahiers Economiques et Monétaires de la Banque de France 41: 2153.
Aglietta, Michel, and Laurence Scialom. 2003. “The Challenge of European Integration for Prudential Policy.” LSE Financial Market Group Special Paper 152.
Aglietta, Michel, and Laurence Scialom 2010. “A Systemic Approach to Financial Regulation – A European Perspective.” Economie Internationale (International Economics) 3(123): 3165.
Akerlof, George A. 1970. “The Market for ‘Lemons’: Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 84(3): 488500.
Akerlof, George A., and Robert J. Shiller. 2009. Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for Global Capitalism. Princeton University Press.
Alchian, Armen, and Harold Demsetz. 1972. “Production, Information Costs and Economic Organization.” American Economic Review 62(5): 777795.
Alesina, Alberto, and George-Marios Angeletos. 2005. “Fairness and Redistribution.” American Economic Review 95(4): 960980.
Allison, John R., and Mark A. Lemley. 1998. “Empirical Evidence on the Validity of Litigated Patents.” AIPLA Quarterly Journal 26: 185276.
Allison, John R., Mark A. Lemley, Kimberly A. Moore, and R. Derek Trunkey. 2004. “Valuable Patents.” Georgetown Law Journal 92: 435480.
Anderson, Terry, and Peter Hill. 1990. “The Race for Property Rights.” Journal of Law and Economics 33(1): 177197.
Anderson, Terry, and Peter Hill 2004. The Not So Wild, Wild West: Property Rights on the Frontier. Stanford University Press.
Anderson, Terry, and Gary Libecap. 2009. “The Allocation and Dissipation of Resource Rents: Implications for Fishery Reform.” ICER Working Paper 13/2009.
Anderson, Terry, Ragnar Árnason, and Gary Libecap. 2011. “Efficiency Advantages of Grandfathering Allocations in Rights Based Fishery Management.” Annual Review of Natural Resource Economics 3: 159–179.
Angelini, Paolo. 1998. “An Analysis of Competitive Externalities in Gross Settlement Systems.” Journal of Banking and Finance 22(1): 118.
Antonelli, Christiano. 1994. “Localized Technological Change and the Evolution of Standards as Economic Institutions.” Information Economics and Policy 6(3–4): 195216.
Aoki, Masahiko. 2001. Toward a Comparative Institutional Analysis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Aoki, Masahiko 2011. “Institutions as Cognitive Media Between Strategic Interactions and Individual Beliefs.” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 79(1–2): 2034.
Areeda, Phillip. 1989. “Essential Facilities: An Epithet in Need of Limiting Principles.” Antitrust Law Journal 58: 841854.
Arida, Persio, and Andre Lara-Resende. 1985. “Inertial Inflation and Monetary Reform: Brazil.” In John Williamson, ed. Inflation and Indexation: Argentina, Brazil, and Israel, 2745. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.
Armour, John, and Michael J. Whincop. 2007. “The Proprietary Foundations of Corporate Law.” Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 27(3): 429465.
Árnason, Ragnar. 2002. “A Review of International Experiences with ITQ.” Annex to: Future Options for UK Fishing Management, Report prepared by CEMARE, University of Portsmouth for the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs of the United Kingdom.
Arrow, Kenneth. 1962. “Economic Welfare and the Allocation of Resources for Innovation.” In Nelson, Richard R., ed. The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity: Economic and Social Factors, 609626. New York: Arno Press.
Arruñada, Benito. 2000. “Audit Quality: Attributes, Private Safeguards and the Role of Regulation.” European Accounting Review 9(2): 205224.
Arruñada, Benito 2003. “Property Enforcement as Organized Consent.” Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization 19(2): 401444.
Arruñada, Benito 2010. “Institutional Support of the Firm: A Theory of Business Registries.” Journal of Legal Analysis 2(2): 525576.
Arruñada, Benito 2012. Institutional Foundations of Impersonal Exchange: The Theory and Policy of Contractual Registries. University of Chicago Press.
Arundel, Anthony, and Isabelle Kabla. 1998. “What Percentage of Innovations are Patented? Empirical Estimates for European Firms.” Research Policy 27(2): 127141.
Aulisi, Andrew, Jonathan Pershing, Alexander E. Farrell, and Stacy Van Deveer. 2005. Greenhouse Gas Trading in US States: Observations and Lessons from the OTC NOx Budget Trading Program. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.
Auriol, Emmanuelle, Thomas Flochel, and Stéphane Straub. 2009. “‘La Patria Contratista’: Public Procurement and Rent Seeking in Paraguay.” IDEI mimeo.
Avgouleas, Emilios, Charles Goodhart, and Dirk Schoenmaker. 2010. “Living Wills as a Catalyst for Action.” Duisenberg School of Finance Working Paper 4.
Ayres, Ian, and Eric Talley. 1995. “Solomonic Bargaining: Dividing a Legal Entitlement to Facilitate Coasean Trade.” Yale Law Journal 104 (5): 10271117.
Badaraco, E. P. 1998. “Transformation of the Argentine Electricity Industry.” Mimeo.
Badaraco, E. P. 1999. “Presentation of the Electric Power Sector.” Mimeo.
Baer, Werner, and Curt McDonald. 1998. “A Return to the Past? Brazil’s Privatization of Public Utilities: The Case of the Electric Power Sector.” Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance 38(3): 503523.
Baig, Taimur, and Ilan Goldfajn. 2000. “The Russian Default and the Contagion to Brazil.” IMF Working Paper 00/160.
Bajari, Patrick, and Steven Tadelis. 2001. “Incentives versus Transaction Costs: A Theory of Procurement Contracts.” RAND Journal of Economics 32(3): 387407.
Bajari, Patrick, Stephanie Houghton, and Steve Tadelis. 2007. “Bidding for Incomplete Contracts: An Empirical Analysis.” NBER Working Paper 12051.
Bajari, Patrick, Robert McMillan, and Steve Tadelis. 2009. “Auctions versus Negotiations in Procurement: An Empirical Analysis.” Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization 25(2): 372399.
Baker, John. 1996. “Obituary: Lord Marshall of Goring.” The Independent, February 26.
Baldwin, J. Norman. 1990. “Perceptions of Public versus Private Sector Personnel and Informal Red Tape: Their Impact on Motivation.” The American Review of Public Administration 20(1): 728.
Baliño, Tomás. 1991. “The Argentine Banking Crisis of 1980.” In Vasudevan Sundararajan and Tomás Baliño, eds. Banking Crises: Cases and Issues, 58112. Washington, DC: IMF Publications.
Bambaci, Juliana, Pablo T. Spiller, and Mariano Tommasi. 2007. “The Bureaucracy.” In Pablo T. Spiller and Mariano Tommasi, eds. The Institutional Foundations of Public Policy in Argentina. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Barnes, Peter. 1999. “The Pollution Dividend.” The American Prospect 44: 6167.
Baron, David P., and John A. Ferejohn. 1989. “Bargaining in Legislatures.” American Political Science Review 83(4): 11811206.
Barros, Pedro Pita, and Steffen H. Hoernig. 2004. “Sectoral Regulators and the Competition Authority: Which Relationship Is Best?” CEPR Discussion Paper 4541.
Barzel, Yoram. 1982. “Measurement Cost and the Organization of Markets.” Journal of Law and Economics 25(1): 2748.
Barzel, Yoram 1989. Economic Analysis of Property Rights. Cambridge University Press.
Barzel, Yoram 2002. A Theory of the State: Economic Rights, Legal Rights and the Scope of the State. Cambridge University Press.
Barzel, Yoram 2004. “Quality Standards and the Form of Agreement.” Economic Inquiry 42(1): 113.
Bastos, Carlos Manuel, and Manuel Angel Abdala. 1993. Reform of the Electric Power Sector in Argentina. Buenos Aires: World Bank and the Secretary of Energy of Argentina.
Bates, Robert A., Avner Greif, Margaret Levi, Jean-Laurent Rosenthal, and Barry Weingast. 1998. Analytic Narratives. Princeton University Press.
Baumgartner, Frank R., Christian Breunig, Christoffer Green-Pedersen et al. 2009. “Punctuated Equilibrium in Comparative Perspective.” American Journal of Political Science 53(3): 603620.
Becker, Gary S. 1983. “A Theory of Competition Among Pressure Groups for Political Influence.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 98(3): 371400.
Beckers, Torsten, Andreas Brenck, Maria Heinrich, and Christian von Hirschhausen. 2005. “Public–Private Partnerships in New EU Member Countries of Central and Eastern Europe.” European Investment Bank 10(2): 82111.
Beesley, Michael, and Stephen Littlechild. 1983. “Privatization and Monopoly Power.” Paper submitted to HM Treasury, November.
Bell, Stephanie. 2001. “The Role of the State and the Hierarchy of Money.” Cambridge Journal of Economics 25(2): 149163.
Benston, George, and George Kaufman. 1998. “Deposit Insurance Reform in the FDIC Improvement Act: The Experience to Date.” Economic Perspectives 22(2): 220.
Berman, Harold J. 1983. Law and Revolution: The Formation of the Western Legal Tradition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bernstein, Lisa. 2001. “Private Commercial Law in the Cotton Industry: Creating Cooperation through Rules, Norms, and Institutions.” Michigan Law Review 99(135): 17241755.
Beuve, Jean, Eric Brousseau, and Jérôme Sgard. 2013. “Bureaucracy, Collegiality and Public Decision-Making: The Case of Eighteenth-Century France.” Mimeo, University Paris Panthéon-Sorbonne/University Paris-Dauphine/Sciences-Po.
Bhagwati, Jagdish. 1982. “Directly Unproductive, Profit-Seeking (DUP) Activities.” Journal of Political Economy 90(5): 9881002.
Biglaiser, Gary, and James Friedman. 1994. “Middlemen as Guarantors of Quality.” International Journal of Industrial Organization 12(4): 509531.

Board of Trade Papers (BT 101/43), The National Archives, London.

Bogdanski, Joel, Paulo Springer de Freitas, Ilan Goldfajn, and Alexandre Antonio Tombini. 2001. “Inflation Targeting in Brazil: Shocks, Backward-looking Prices, and IMF Conditionality.” Central Bank of Brazil Working Paper 24.
Bomberger, William A., and Gail E. Makinen. 1983. “The Hungarian Hyperinflation and Stabilization of 1945–1946.” Journal of Political Economy 91(5): 801824.
Bonney, Richard. 2010. “The Apogee and Fall of the French Rentier Regime, 1801–1914.” In Luis Cardoso and Pedro Lains, eds. Paying for the Liberal State: The Rise of Public Finance in Nineteenth Century Europe. Cambridge University Press.
Borio, Claudio. 2004. “Market Distress and Vanishing Liquidity: Anatomy and Policy Options.” BIS Working Paper 158.
Borio, Claudio, and Philip Lowe. 2002. “Asset Prices, Financial and Monetary Stability: Exploring the Nexus.” BIS Working Paper 114.
Borio, Claudio, and Haibin Zhu. 2008. “Capital Regulation, Risk-taking and Monetary Policy: A Missing Link in the Transmission Mechanism?” BIS Working Paper 268.
Borio, Claudio, Craig Furfine, and Philip Lowe. 2001. “Procyclicality of the Financial System and Financial Stability: Issues and Policy Options.” BIS Working Paper 1.
Boyne, George A. 2002. “Public and Private Management: What’s the Difference?Journal of Management Studies 39(1): 97122.
Bozeman, Barry. 1993. “A Theory of Government ‘Red Tape’.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 3(3): 273303.
Brench, Andreas, Thorsten Beckers, Maria Heinrich, and Christian von Hirschhausen. 2005. “Public – Private Partnerships in New EU Member Countries of Central and Eastern Europe.” European Investment Bank 10(2).
Bresnahan, Timothy. 1981. “Departures from Marginal-Cost Pricing in the American Automobile Industry.” Journal of Econometrics 17: 201227.
Bresnahan, Timothy 1987. “Competition and Collusion in the American Automobile Market: The 1955 Price War.” Journal of Industrial Economics 45(4): 457482.
Bresnahan, Timothy 1989. “Empirical Methods for Industries with Market Power.” In Richard Schmalensee and Robert D. Willig, eds. Handbook of Industrial Organization, Vol. II. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Britan, Eduardo, and Pablo Serra. 1998. “Regulation of Privatized Utilities: The Chilean Experience.” World Development 26(6): 945962.
British Parliamentary Papers 1814–15. Vol. V. Report of Select Committee on Manufacture and Sale of Bread.
British Parliamentary Papers 1820. Vol. VII. Second Report of the Commissioners on Weights and Measures.
British Parliamentary Papers 1834. Vol. VII. Report from the Select Committee on the Sale of Corn.
British Parliamentary Papers 1834. Vol. XLIX. Returns from Corn Inspectors.
Bromley, Daniel W. 2009. “Abdicating Responsibility: The Deceits of Fisheries Policy.” Fisheries 34(6): 280302.
Broomhall, George J. S., and John H. Hubback. 1930. Corn Trade Memories: Recent and Remote. Liverpool: Northern Publishing.
Brousseau, Eric. 2002. “The Governance of Transaction by Commercial Intermediaries: An Analysis of the Re-engineering of Intermediation by Electronic Commerce.” International Journal of the Economics of Business 9: 353374.
Brousseau, Eric, and Jean-Michel Glachant. 2011. “Regulators as Reflexive Governance Platforms.” Competition and Regulation in Network Industries 12(3): 194209.
Brousseau, Eric, and Thierry Pénard. 2007. “The Economics of Digital Business Models: A Framework for Analyzing the Economics of Platforms.” Review of Network Economics 6: 81114.
Brousseau, Eric, and Emmanuel Raynaud. 2006. “The Economics of Multilevel Governance.” Paper presented at the 2006 ISNIE Conference, Boulder, University of Colorado.
Brousseau, Eric, and Emmanuel Raynaud 2011. “Climbing the Hierarchical Ladders of Rules: A Life-cycle Theory of Institutional Evolution.” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 79: 6579.
Brousseau, Eric, Pierre Garrouste, and Emmanuel Raynaud. 2011. “Institutional Changes: Alternative Theories and Consequences for Institutional Design.” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 79(1–2): 319.
Brousseau, Eric, Yves Schemeil, and Jerome Sgard. 2010. “Constitutions, States and Development.” Journal of Comparative Economics 38: 253266.
Brunnermeier, Markus, and Lasse H. Pedersen. 2007. “Market Liquidity and Funding Liquidity.” LSE Financial Market Group Discussion Paper 580.
Brunnermeier, Markus, Andrew Crocket, Charles Goodhart, Avinash Persaud, and Hyun Shin. 2009. “The Fundamental Principles of Financial Regulation.” ICMB-CEPR Geneva Reports on the World Economy 11. London: CEPR.
Bruno, Michael, Guido di Tella, Rudiger Dornbusch, and Stanley Fischer, eds. 1988. Inflation Stabilization: The Experience of Israel, Argentina, Bolivia and Mexico. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Bruno, Michael, Stanley Fischer, Elhanan Helpman et al. 1991. Lessons of Economic Stabilization and Its Aftermath. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Buchanan, James. 1965. “An Economic Theory of Clubs.” Econometrica 33: 114.
Buchanan, James 1975. “A Contracting Paradigm of Applying Economic Theory.” American Economic Review 65(May): 225230.
Buchanan, James M., and Gordon Tullock. 1975. “Polluters’ Profits and Political Response: Direct Controls versus Taxes.” American Economic Review 65(1): 139147.
Buchanan, James M., Robert D. Tollison, and Gordon Tullock. 1980. Toward a Theory of the Rent-seeking Society. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.
Budzinski, Oliver. 2009. “An International Multilevel Competition Policy System.” International Economics and Economic Policy 6(4): 367–389.
Budzinski, Oliver, and Arndt Christiansen. 2005. “Competence Allocation in the EU Competition Policy System as an Interest-Driven Process.” Journal of Public Policy 25(3): 313–337.
Bulow, Jeremy, and Paul Klemperer. 1996. “Auctions versus Negotiations.” American Economic Review 86(1): 180194.
Bulow, Jeremy, and Paul Klemperer 2009. “Why Do Sellers (Usually) Prefer Auctions?American Economic Review 99(4): 15441575.
Bulow, Jeremy, and Paul Pfleiderer. 1983. “A Note on the Effect of Cost Changes on Prices.” Journal of Political Economy 91(1): 182185.
Burguet, Roberto, and Yeon-Choo Che. 2004. “Competitive Procurement with Corruption.” RAND Journal of Economics 35(1): 5068.
Burstein, Ariel, Martin Eichenbaum, and Sergio Rebelo. 2005. “Large Devaluations and the Real Exchange Rate.” Journal of Political Economy 113(4): 742784.
Burtraw, Dallas, and David A. Evans. 2009. “Tradable Rights to Emit Air Pollution.” Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 53(2): 5984.
Burtraw, Dallas, and Karen Palmer. 2004. “SO2 Cap-and-Trade Program in the United States: A ‘Living Legend’ of Market Effectiveness.” In Winston Harrington, Richard D. Morgenstern, and Thomas Sterner, eds. Choosing Environmental Policy: Comparing Instruments and Outcomes in the United States and Europe, 4166. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.
Buxbaum, Richard M. 1973. “The Formation of Marketable Share Companies.” In Alfred Conard, ed. Business and Private Organizations, Vol. XIII in the International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck.
Cagan, Phillip. 1956. “The Monetary Dynamics of Hyperinflation.” In Milton Friedman, ed. Studies in the Quantity Theory of Money, 25120. Chicago University Press.
Calabresi, Guido, and A. Douglas Melamed. 1972. “Property Rules, Liability Rules, and Inalienability: One View of the Cathedral.” Harvard Law Review 85(6): 10891128.
Calomiris, Charles, and R. Glen Hubbard. 1995. “Internal Finance and Investment: Evidence from the Undistributed Profits Tax of 1936–37.” Journal of Business 68(4): 443482.
Calomiris, Charles, and Andrew Powell. 2000. “Can Emerging Market Bank Regulators Establish Credible Discipline? The Case of Argentina, 1992–1999.” NBER mimeo.
Calvo, Guillermo, and Carlos Vegh. 1992. “Currency Substitution in Developing Countries: An Introduction.” IMF Working Paper 92/40.
Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. 2012. A Broken Promise to our Children: The 1998 State Tobacco Settlement 13 Years Later. Available at: (accessed May 30, 2012).
Canavese, Alfredo. 1992. “Hyperinflation and Convertibility-based Stabilization in Argentina.” In Alvaro Antonio Zini, ed. The Market and the State in Economic Development in the 1990s, 181199. Amsterdam: North Holland.
Caprio, Gerard, Michael P. Dooley, Danny Leipziger, and Carl E. Walsh. 1996. “The Lender of Last Resort Function Under a Currency Board: The Case of Argentina.” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 1648.
Carlos, Ann, and Larry Neal. 2006. “The Micro-Foundations of the Early London Capital Market: Bank of England Shareholders During and After the South Sea Bubble, 1720–1725.” Economic History Review 59(3): 498538.
Carlos, Ann, Larry Neal, and Kirsten Wandschneider. 2007. “Networks and Market Makers in Bank of England Shares, 1720.” Unpublished.
Carlson, Ingrid, and J. Mark Payne. 2003. “Estudio comparativo de estadísticas de empleo público en 26 países de América Latina y el Caribe.” In K. Echebarría, ed. Red de gestión y transparencia de la política pública. Servicio civil: temas para el diálogo. Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank.
Carlton, Dennis W. 2001. “A General Analysis of Exclusionary Conduct and Refusal to Deal – Why Aspen and Kodak Are Misguided.” National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 8105/2001. Available at: (accessed May 30, 2012).
Carlton, Dennis W., and Ken Heyer. 2008. “Appropriate Antitrust Policy Towards Single Firm Conduct.” National Bureau of Economic Research. Economic Analysis Group Discussion Paper EAG 08–2. Available at (accessed May 30, 2012).
Cartelier, Jean. 2006. “Comptabilité et Pensée Economique: Introduction à une Réflexion Théorique.” Revue Economique 57(5): 10091032.
Cartelier, Jean 2007. “The Hypostasis of Money: An Economic Point of View.” Cambridge Journal of Economics 31(2): 217233.
Cavallo, Domingo F., and Joaquin Cottani. 1997. “Argentina’s Convertibility Plan and the IMF.” American Economic Review 87(2): 1722.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1999. Tobacco Control Activities in the United States: 1994–1999. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services.
Centre for European Policy Studies. 2008. CEPS Task Force Report: Concrete Steps Towards More Integrated Financial Oversight. Brussels: CEPS Publications.
Chattaway, Chris. 1907. “Arbitration in the Foreign Corn Trade in London.” Economic Journal 17(67): 428431.
Cheung, Steven S. 1983. “The Contractual Nature of the Firm.” Journal of Law and Economics 26(1): 122.
Chick, Harriette. 1957. “Wheat and Bread: A Historical Introduction.” Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 17: 17.
Cihak, Martin, and Erlend Nier. 2009. “The Need for Special Resolution Regimes for Financial Institutions – The Case of the European Union.” IMF Working Paper WP/09/200.
Clark, Ian N., Philip J. Major, and Nina Mollett. 1989. “The Development and Implementation of New Zealand’s ITQ Management System.” In Ragnar Árnason, Philip A. Neher, and Nina Mollett, eds. Rights Based Fishing, 117145. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Coase, Ronald. 1937. “The Nature of the Firm.” Economica 4(16): 386405.
Coase, Ronald 1960. “The Problem of Social Cost.” Journal of Law and Economics 3: 1–44.
Coase, Ronald 1978. “Economics and Contiguous Disciplines.” Journal of Legal Studies 7(2): 201211.
Coase, Ronald 1994. Essays on Economics and Economists. University of Chicago Press.
Compte, Olivier, Ariane Lambert-Mogiliansky, and Thierry A. Verdier. 2005. “Corruption and Competition in Procurement Auctions.” RAND Journal of Economics 36(1): 115.
Congressional Budget Office. 2007. “Trade-offs in Allocating Allowances for CO2 Emissions.” Economic and Budget Issue Briefs April 25. Washington, DC: Congressional Budget Office.
Convery, Frank J., and Luke Redmond. 2007. “Market and Price Developments in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme.” Review of Environmental Economics and Policy 1(1): 88111.
Cook, Karen S., Russell Hardin, and Margaret Levi. 1995. Cooperation without Trust?New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Cooper, Russell, and Andrew John. 1988. “Coordinating Coordination Failures in Keynesian Models.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 103(3): 441464.
Coopers & Lybrand Associates. 1983. Structural Options for the EFI. Report to the Department of Energy. Unpublished.
Cosmides, Leda, and John Tooby. 1992. “The Psychological Foundation of Culture.” In Jerome H. Barkow, J. Leda Cosmides, and John Tooby, eds. The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture, 19136. New York: Oxford University Press.
Coviello, Decio, and Stefano Gagliarducci. 2010. “Tenure in Office and Public Procurement.” CEIS Research Paper 179, Tor Vergata University.
Crocker, Keith J., and Scott Masten. 1996. “Regulation and Administered Contracts Revisited: Lessons from Transaction-Cost Economics for Public Utility Regulation.” Journal of Regulatory Economics 9(1): 539.
Cunningham, Bryson. 1923. Cargo Handling at Ports: A Survey of the Various Systems in Vogue, with a Consideration of their Respective Merits. London: Chapman & Hall.
Dal Bó, Ernesto, Pedro Dal , and Rafael Di Tella. 2006. “Plata o Pomo? Bribe and Punishment in a Theory of Political Influence.” American Political Science Review 100(1): 4153.
Danielsson, Jon. 2009. “The Myth of Riskometer.” Available from (accessed May 30, 2012).
Danielsson, Jon, Paul Embrechts, Charles Goodhart, Con Keating, Felix Muennich, Olivier Renault, and Hyun Shin. 2001. “An Academic Response to Basel 2.” LSE Financial Market Group Special Paper 130.
Danielsson Jon, Hyun Shin, and Jean-Pierre Zigrand. 2009. “Risk Appetite and Endogeneous Risk.” Available at: (accessed May 30, 2012).
Darby, Michael, and Edi Karni. 1973. “Free Competition and the Optimal Amount of Fraud.” Journal of Law and Economics 16(1): 6788.
David, Paul A. 1987. “Some New Standards for the Economics of Standardization in the Information Age.” In Partha Dasgupta and Paul Stoneman, eds. Economic Policy and Technical Performance. Cambridge University Press.
Daviron, Benoit. 2002. “Small Farm Production and the Standardization of Tropical Products.” Journal of Agrarian Change 2(2): 162184.
Davis, Neal. 1997. “The Transformation of Argentina’s Electricity Industry.” In US Department of Energy, ed. Electricity Reform Abroad and US Investment. Washington, DC: US Department of Energy.
Defeuilley, Christophe. 2009. “Retail Competition in Electricity Markets.” Energy Policy 37(2): 377386.
de Figueiredo, Rui J. P. Jr., Pablo T. Spiller, and Santiago Urbiztondo. 1999. “An Informational Perspective on Administrative Procedures.” Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization 15(1): 283305.
De Larosière Group. 2009. Report of the High-level Group on Financial Supervision in the EU. Brussels: EU Commission.
De La Vega, José. 1957. Confusion de Confusiones. Reprinted in Boston: Baker Library, Harvard Graduate School of Business.
Delbeke, Jos, ed. 2006. EU Environmental Law: The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme, Vol. IV in EU Energy Law. Leuven: Claeys & Casteels.
Della Paollera, Gerardo, and Alan M. Taylor 2003. “Gaucho Banking Redux.” NBER Working Paper 9457.
Demsetz, Harold. 1967. “Toward a Theory of Property Rights.” American Economic Review 57(2): 347359.
Demsetz, Harold 1968. “Why Regulate Utilities.” Journal of Law and Economics 11(1): 5566.
De Pinto, Isaac. 1771. Traité de la Circulation et du Crédit. Amsterdam: Marc Michel Rey.
Depoorter, Ben, and Francesco Parisi. 2005. “The Modernization of European Antitrust Enforcement: The Economics of Regulatory Competition.” George Mason Law Review 13(2): 309323.
Dewatripont, Mathias, and Jean Charles Rochet. 2009. “The Treatment of Distressed Banks.” In Mathias Dewatripont, Xavier Freixas, and Richard Portes, eds. Macroeconomic Stability and Financial Regulation: Key Issues For the G20, 149164. London: CEPR Ebook.
Dewatripont, Mathias, and Jean Tirole. 1993. The Prudential Regulation of Banks. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Diaz, Carlos, and Raimundo Soto. 2002. “Open-Access Issues in the Chilean Telecommunications and Electricity Sectors.” In Federico Basañes and Robert Willig, eds. Second-generation Reforms in Infrastructure Services, 193222. Washington, DC: IDB Publications.
Dickson, Peter G. M. 1967. The Financial Revolution in England: A Study in the Development of Public Credit, 1688–1756. New York: St. Martins Press.
Dinan, Terry, and Diane Lim Rogers. 2002. “Distributional Effects of Carbon Allowance Trading: How Government Decisions Determine Winners and Losers.” National Tax Journal 55(2): 199221.
Dixit, Avinash K. 1996. The Making of Economic Policy: A Transaction-Cost Politics Approach. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Dixit, Avinash K. 2004. Lawlessness and Economics: Alternative Modes of Governance. Princeton University Press.
Dogan, Stacey L., and Mark A. Lemley. 2009. “Antitrust Law and Regulatory Gaming.” Texas Law Review 87: 685730.
Dornbusch, Rudiger, and Stanley Fischer. 1986. “Stopping Hyperinflations, Past and Present.” Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv 122.
Dornbusch, Rudiger, and Mario Henrique Simonsen. 1987. Inflation Stabilization with Incomes Policy Support. New York: Group of Thirty.
Dornbusch, Rudiger, Ferico Sturzenegger, and Holger Wolf. 1990. “Extreme Inflation: Dynamics and Stabilization.” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 21(2): 184.
Driel, Hugo Van, and Johan Schot. 2005. “Radical Innovation as a Multilevel Process: Introducing Floating Grain Elevators in the Port of Rotterdam.” Technology and Culture 46(1): 5176.
Dumbell, Stanley. 1925. “The Sale of Corn in the Nineteenth Century.” Economic Journal 35(137): 141145.
Earle, Peter. 1989. The Making of the English Middle Class: Business, Society and Family Life in London, 1660–1730. London: Methuen.
Earle, Timothy. 1997. How Chiefs Come to Power. Stanford University Press.
Earle, Timothy 2003. Bronze Age Economics: The Beginnings of Political Economies. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Easterbrook, Frank H. 1984. “The Limits of Antitrust.” Texas Law Review 63: 140.
Economic Planning Advisory Commission. 1995. Final Report of the Private Infrastructure Task Force. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Eggers, William D., and Stephen Goldsmith. 2004. Governing by Network: The New Shape of the Public Sector. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Eisenbeis, Robert, and George Kaufman. 2005. “Bank Crisis Resolution and Foreign Owned Banks.” Federal Bank of Atlanta Economic Review 2005(4).
Eisenbeis, Robert, and George Kaufman 2006. “Cross-border Banking: Challenges for Deposit Insurance and Financial Stability in the European Union.” Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Working Paper 2006(15).
Ejrnæs, Mette, Karl Gunnar Persson, and Søren Rich. 2008. “Feeding the British: Convergence and Market Efficiency in the Nineteenth-century Grain Trade.” Economic History Review 61(s1): 140171.
Electric Utility Week International. 2000. Brazil, Rejecting True Privatization, Opts to Sell Furnas in Small Blocks.
Elhauge, Einer. 2003. “Defining Better Monopolization Standards.” Stanford Law Review 56: 253344.
Ellerman, A. Denny. 2004. “The US SO2 Cap-and-Trade Programme.” In OECD, Tradeable Permits: Policy Evaluation, Design and Reform, 7197. Paris: OECD Publishing.
Ellerman, A. Denny 2006. “Are Cap-and-trade Programs More Environmentally Effective Than Conventional Regulation?” In Charles Kolstad and Jody Freeman, eds. Moving to Markets in Environmental Regulation: Lessons from Twenty Years of Experience, 4862. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
Ellerman, A. Denny 2008. “Lessons for the United States from the European Union’s CO2 Emissions Trading Scheme.” In Denny A. Ellerman et al., eds. Cap-and-Trade: Contributions to the Design of a US Greenhouse Gas Program, 235. Cambridge, MA: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research.
Ellerman, A. Denny, and Barbara K. Buchner. 2007. “The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme: Origins, Allocation and Early Results.” Review of Environmental Economics and Policy 1(1): 6687.
Ellerman, A. Denny, and Barbara K. Buchner 2008. “Over-allocation or Abatement? A Preliminary Analysis of the EU ETS Based on the 2005–06 Emissions Data.” Environmental & Resource Economics 41(2): 267287.
Ellerman, A. Denny, and Paul L. Joskow. 2008. The European Union’s Emissions Trading System in Perspective. Washington, DC: Pew Center on Global Climate Change.
Ellerman, A. Denny, and Raphael Trotignon. 2009. “Cross-border Trading and Borrowing in the EU ETS.” Energy Journal 30(2): 5378.
Ellerman, A. Denny, Barbara K. Buchner, and Carlo Carraro, eds. 2007. Allocation in the European Emissions Trading Scheme: Rights, Rents and Fairness. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ellerman, A. Denny, Frank J. Convery, and Christian de Perthuis. 2010. Pricing Carbon: The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ellerman, A. Denny, Paul L. Joskow, and David Harrison, Jr. 2003. Emissions Trading: Experience, Lessons, and Considerations for Greenhouse Gases. Washington, DC: Pew Center on Global Climate Change.
Ellerman, A. Denny, Paul L. Joskow, Richard Schmalensee, Juan-Pablo Montero, and Elizabeth M. Bailey. 2000. Markets for Clean Air: The US Acid Rain Program. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
Emmons, William III. 1997. “Credence Goods and Fraudulent Experts.” RAND Journal of Economics 28(1): 107119.
Emmons, William 2000. The Evolving Bargain: Strategic Implications of Deregulation and Privatization. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Engel, Eduardo, Ronald Fischer, and Alexander Galetovic. 2006. “Renegotiation Without Holdup: Anticipating Spending and Infrastructure Concessions.” Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1567, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
Epstein, Richard. 1979. “Possession as the Root of Title.” Georgia Law Review 13: 12211242.
Estache, Antonio, and Martin Rodríguez-Pardina. 1998. “Light and Lightning at the End of the Public Tunnel: Reform of the Electricity Sector in the Southern Cone.” World Bank Policy Research Paper 2074.
Estache, Antonio, Jose Luis Guasch, Atsushi Iimi, and Lourdes Trujillo. 2009. “Multidimensionality and Renegotiation: Evidence From Transport-Sector PPP Transactions in Latin America.” Review of Industrial Organization 35(1): 4171.
Euromoney. 1999. “Minais Gerais, Franco the Noisy Populist.” Euromoney, October, p. 46.
European Commission. 2007. “EU-US Open Skies. A New Era in Transatlantic Aviations Starts on March 30.” Available at: (accessed May 30, 2012).
European Commission 2008a. White Paper on Damages Actions for Breach of the EC Antitrust Rules. COM(2008) 165 final.
European Commission 2008b. Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council Amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to Improve and Extend the Greenhouse Gas Emission Allowance Trading System of the Community. COM(2008) 16 final.
European Commission. DG Competition. 2008. Guidance on the Commission’s Official Enforcement Priorities in Applying Article 82 EC Treaty to Abusive Exclusionary Conduct by Dominant Undertakings (December 3, 2008). Available at: (accessed May 30, 2012).
European Union. 2003. “Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 2003 Establishing a Scheme for Greenhouse Gas Emission Allowance Trading within the Community and Amending Council Directive 96/61/EC.” Official Journal of the European Union L275: 3246, October 25, 2003.
European Union 2005. Buying Green Handbook. Available at: (accessed May 30, 2012).
European Union 2009a. “Directive 2009/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 Amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to Improve and Extend the Greenhouse Gas Emission Allowance Trading Scheme of the Community.” Official Journal of the European Union L140: 6387, June 5, 2009.
European Union 2009b. Internal Market Scoreboard, July 2009 No. 19. Available at (accessed May 30, 2012).
Fanelli, Jose, and Daniel Heymann. 2002. “Dilemas Monetarios en la Argentina.” Desarrollo Económico 42(165): 324.
Faure, Michael. 2004. “Economic Analysis of Tort Law and the European Civil Code.” In Arthur Hartkamp and Carla Joustra, eds. Towards a European Civil Code – Third Fully Revised and Expanded Edition, 659676. London: Wolters Kluwer.
Fay, Charles R. 1925. “The London Corn Market at the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century.” American Economic Review 15(1): 7076.
Fehr, Ernst, Oliver Hart, and Christian Zehnder. 2011. “Contracts as Reference Points – Experimental Evidence.” American Economic Review 101(2): 493525.
Ferejohn, John. 1990. “Congressional Influence on Bureaucracy.” Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization 6: 120.
Ferguson, Robert B. 1980. “The Adjudication of Commercial Disputes and the Legal System in Modern England.” British Journal of Law and Society 7(2): 141157.
Fernández-Barcala, Marta, Manuel González-Díaz, and Juan Prieto-Rodriguez. 2010. “Hotel Quality Appraisal on the Internet: A Market for Lemons?Tourism Economics 16(2): 345360.
Fisher, Ronald. 1982. “Income and Grant Effects on Local Expenditure: The Flypaper Effect and Other Difficulties.” Journal of Urban Economics 12(3): 324345.
Fischer, Ronald, and Pablo Serra. 2000. “Regulating the Electricity Sector in Latin America.” Economia 1(1): 155198.
Fishlow, Albert. 1974. “Indexing Brazilian Style: Inflation without Tears?Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1: 261280.
Fishlow, Albert 2005. “Thirty Years of Combatting Inflation in Brazil, from the PAEG (1964) to the Plano Real (1994).” Oxford University – Center for Brazilian Studies (CBS) Working Paper 68–05.
Flandreau, Marc, Christophe Galimard, Clemens Jobst, and Pilar Nogués-Marco. 2009. “Monetary Geography before the Industrial Revolution.” Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society 2(2): 149171.
Fogel, Ramón. 1993. “La estructura social paraguaya y su incidencia en la transición a la democracia.” In D. Abente Brun, ed. Paraguay en Transición. Caracas: Editorial Nueva Sociedad.
Forrer, John, James E. Kee, Kathryn E. Newcomer, and Eric Boyer. 2010. “Public–Private Partnerships and the Public Accountability Question.” Public Administration Review May/June: 475484.
Forrester, R. B. 1931. “Commodity Exchanges in England.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 155(1): 196207.
Franco, Gustavo. 1995. O Plano Real e Outros Ensayos. Rio de Janeiro: Francisco Alves.
Franco, Gustavo 2000. “The Real Plan and the Exchange Rate.” Princeton University Essays in International Finance 217.
Frehen, Rik G. P., William N. Goetzmann, and K. Geert Rouwenhorst. 2009. “New Evidence on the First Financial Bubble.” Yale ICF Working Paper 09–04.
Friedman, Milton. 1953[1970]. Essays in Positive Economics. University of Chicago Press.
Frischmann, Brett M., and Spencer Weber Waller. 2008. “Revitalizing Essential Facilities.” Antitrust Law Journal 75: 166.
Fukuyama, Francis. 1995. Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. New York: Free Press.
Galal, Ahmed, Leroy Jones, Pankay Tandon, and Ongo Vogelsang. 1994. Welfare Consequences of Selling Public Enterprises. New York: Oxford University Press (for the World Bank).
Ganuza, Juan-José. 2007. “Competition and Cost Overruns in Procurement.” Journal of Industrial Economics 55(4): 633660.
Garcia, Marcio. 1996. “Avoiding the Costs of Inflation and Crawling Towards Hyperinflation: The Case of the Brazilian Domestic Currency Substitute.” Journal of Development Economics 51(1): 139159.
Gelderblom, Oscar, and Joost Jonker. 2004. “Completing a Financial Revolution: The Finance of the Dutch East India Trade and the Rise of the Amsterdam Capital Market, 1595–1612.” Journal of Economic History 64(3): 641672.
Gelderblom, Oscar, and Joost Jonker 2009. “With a View to Hold: The Emergence of Institutional Investors on the Amsterdam Securities Market during the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries.” In Jeremy Atack and Larry Neal, eds. The Origins and Development of Financial Markets and Institutions: From the Seventeenth Century to the Present, 7198. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gely, Rafael, and Pablo T. Spiller. 1990. “A Rational Choice Theory of Supreme Court Statutory Decisions with Applications to the State Farm and Grove City Cases.” Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization 6(2): 263300.
Gilbert, Richard J. 2007. “Holding Innovation to an Antitrust Standard.” Competition Policy International 3. Available at: (accessed May 30, 2012).
Giorgio, Luis Alberto. 1989. “Crisis Financiera, Reestructuracion Bancaria y Hiperinflacion en Argentina.” Banco Central de la Republica de Argentina, mimeo.
Glachant, Jean-Michel and François Lévêque, eds. 2009. Electricity Reform in EU. Towards a Single Energy Market. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Glachant, Jean-Michel, Dominique Finon, and Adrien de Hauteclocque, eds. 2011. Competition, Contracts and Electricity Markets. A New Perspective. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Global Power Report. 2001a. Brazil’s Power Crisis Due to Bad Regulations, Market Participants Say.
Global Power Report 2001b. Enron Says 2 Brazil Projects, 980MW, On Hold Until Market Rules Clarified.
Goldberg, Victor P. 1976. “Regulation and Administered Contracts.” Bell Journal of Economics 7(2): 426448.
Goldberg, Victor P. 1977. “Competitive Bidding and the Production of Precontract Information.” Bell Journal of Economics 8(1): 250261.
Goodhart, Charles. 2008. “The Regulatory Response to the Financial Crisis.” Journal of Financial Stability 4(4): 351358.
Goodhart, Charles, Pojanart Sunirand, and Dimitrios Tsomocos. 2005. “A Risk Assessment Model for Banks.” Annals of Finance 1(2): 197224.
Gordy, Michael, and Bradley Howells. 2004. “Procyclicality in Basel II: Can We Treat the Disease Without Killing the Patient?Journal of Financial Intermediation 15(3): 395417.
Goulder, Lawrence H., Ian W. H. Parry, and Dallas Burtraw. 1997. “Revenue-raising vs. Other Approaches to Environmental Protection: The Critical Significance of Pre-existing Tax Distortions.” RAND Journal of Economics 28(4): 708731.
Grafton, R. Quentin, Dale Squires, and Kevin J. Fox. 2000. “Private Property and Economic Efficiency: A Study of a Common-pool Resource.” Journal of Law and Economics 43(2): 679713.
Grajzl, Peter, and Peter Murrell. 2007. “Allocating Lawmaking Power: Self-regulation vs. Government Regulation.” Journal of Comparative Economics 35(3): 520545.
Gramlich, Edward M., Harvey Galper, Stephen Goldfeld, and Martin McGuire. 1973. “State and Local Fiscal Behavior and Federal Grant Policy.” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 4(1): 1566.
Grande, Edgar. 1996. “The State and Interest Groups in a Framework of Multi-level Decision-making: The Case of the European Union.” Journal of European Public Policy 3(3): 318338.
Granovetter, Mark. 1985. “Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness.” American Journal of Sociology 91(3): 481510.
Granovetter, Mark, and Soong Roland. 1986. “Threshold Models of Interpersonal Affects in Consumer Demand.” Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organization 7(1): 8399.
Grassby, Richard. 2001. Kinship and Capitalism: Marriage, Family, and Business in the English Speaking World, 1580–1720. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Green, Richard, and Tanga McDaniel. 1998. “Competition in Electricity Supply: Will ‘1998’ Be Worth It?Fiscal Studies 19(3): 273293.
Greif, Avner. 1998. “Historical and Comparative Institutional Analysis.” American Economic Review 88(2): 8084.
Greif, Avner 2002. “Institutional Foundations of Impersonal Exchange: From Communal to Individual Responsibility.” Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics 158(1): 168204.
Greif, Avner 2005. “Commitment, Coercion and Markets: The Nature and Dynamics of Institutions Supporting Exchange.” In Claude Ménard and Mary M. Shirley, eds. Handbook of New Institutional Economics, 727786. New York: Springler-Verlag.
Greif, Avner 2006a. “The Birth of Impersonal Exchange: The Community Responsibility System and Impartial Justice.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 20(2): 221236.
Greif, Avner 2006b. Institutions and the Path to the Modern Economy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Greif, Avner, and David D. Laitin. 2004. “A Theory of Endogenous Institutional Change.” American Political Science Review 98(4): 633652.
Greif, Avner, Paul Milgrom, and Barry R. Weingast. 1994. “Commitment, Coordination, and Enforcement: The Case of the Merchant Guilds.” Journal of Political Economy 102(4): 745776.
Grossfeld, Bernhard. 1973. “Management Control of Marketable Share Companies.” In Alfred Conard, ed. Business and Private Organizations, Vol. IV in the International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck.
Guasch, J. Luis. 2004. Granting and Renegotiating Infrastructure Concessions: Doing it Right. Washington, DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development of the World Bank Institute.
Guasch, J. Luis, Jean-Jacques Laffont, and Stéphane Straub. 2007. “Concessions of Infrastructure in Latin America: Government-led Renegotiations.” Journal of Applied Econometrics 22(7): 12671294.
Guasch, J. Luis, Jean-Jacques Laffont, and Stéphane Straub 2008. “Renegotiation of Concession Contracts in Latin America, Evidence from the Water and Transport Sectors.” International Journal of Industrial Organization 26(2): 421442.
Guccio, Calogero, Giacomo Pignataro, and Ilde Rizzo. 2008. “Adaptation Costs in Public Works Procurement in Italy.” Proccedings of the 3rd International Public Procurement Conference, Amsterdam.
Guttentag, Jack, and Richard Herring. 1986. “Disaster Myopia in International Banking.” Princeton University Essays in International Finance 164.
Haddock, David D. 1986. “First Possession versus Optimal Timing: Limiting the Dissipation of Economic Value.” Washington University Law Review 64: 775791.
Hall, Bronwyn H. 2002. “Patents and Innovation.” Testimony for the Federal Trade Commission & Department of Justice Antitrust Division Hearings on Competition & Intellectual Property Law in the Knowledge-Based Economy on Feb. 26, 2002. Available at: (accessed May 30, 2012).
Hamaguchi, Nobuaki. 2002. “Will the Market Keep Brazil Lit Up? Ownership and Market Structural Changes in the Electric Power Sector.” The Developing Economies 40(4): 522552.
Hammami, Mona, Jean-François Ruhashyankiko, and Etienne B. Yehoue. 2006. “Determinants of Public–Private Partnerships in Infrastructure.” IMF Working Paper 06/1999.
Hammond, Elizabeth, Dieter Helm, and David Thompson. 1985a. Regulation of the Gas Industry: Memorandum 27. Submitted by the Institute of Fiscal Studies to The Energy Committee.
Hammond, Elizabeth, Dieter Helm, and David Thompson 1985b. “British Gas: Options for Privatisation.” Fiscal Studies 6(4): 120.
Hammond, Elizabeth, Dieter Helm, and David Thompson 1986. “Competition in Electricity Supply: Has the Energy Act Failed?Fiscal Studies 7(1): 1133.
Hansmann, Henry. 1996. Ownership of Enterprise. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Hansmann, Henry, and Reinier Kraakman. 2000. “The Essential Role of Organizational Law.” Yale Law Journal 110(3): 387440.
Hansmann, Henry, and Reinier Kraakman 2002. “Property, Contract, and Verification: The Numerus Clausus Problem and the Divisibility of Rights.” Journal of Legal Studies 31(2): S373–S420.
Hardin, Garrett. 1968. “Tragedy of the Commons.” Science 162(3859): 12431248.
Harris, A. C. 1996. “Financing Infrastructure: Private Profits from Public Losses.” In Public/Private Infrastructure Financing: Still Feasible?Sydney: Audit Office of NSW, Public Accounts Committee, Parliament of NSW.
Harrison, David, Jr. 2004. “Ex-post Evaluation of the RECLAIM Emissions Trading Programmes for the Los Angeles Basin.” In OECD, Tradeable Permits: Policy Evaluation, Design and Reform, 4569. Paris: OECD Publishing.
Hart, Marjolein t’. 2006. “Money and Trust. Amsterdam Moneylenders and the Rise of the Modern State, 1478–1794.” Paper presented at the International Economic History Congress, Helsinki, University of Helsinki.
Hart, Oliver, and John Moore. 2008. “Contracts as Reference Points.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 123(1): 148.
Hart, Oliver, and Luigi Zingales. 2009. “To Regulate Finance, Try the Market.” Posted in Foreign Policy on September 30, 2010. Available at: (accessed May 30, 2012).
Hausman, Jerry, Gregory K. Leonard, and Jean Tirole. 2003. “On Nonexclusive Membership in Competing Joint Ventures.” RAND Journal of Economics 34(1): 4362.
Hausmann, Ricardo, and Andrés Velasco. 2002. “Hard Money’s Soft Underbelly: Understanding the Argentine Crisis.” Brookings Trade Forum 2002: 59104.
Hayek, Friedrich A. von. 1982. Law, Legislation, and Liberty: A New Statement of the Liberal Principles of Justice and Political Economy. University of Chicago Press. Reprint, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Helgesson, Claes-Fredrik, Steffan Hultén, and Douglas J. Puffert. 1995. “Standards as Institutions: Problems with Creating All-European Standards for Terminal Equipment.” In John Groenewegen, Christos Pitelis, and Sven-Erik Sjöstrand, eds. On Economic Institutions: Theory and Applications, 164182. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Hellwig, Martin. 2009. “Systemic Risk in the Financial Sector: An Analysis of the Subprime Mortgage Financial Crisis.” De Economist 157(2): 129207.
Helm, Dieter. 2004. Energy, the State and the Market: British Energy Policy Since 1979. Oxford University Press.
Henisz, Witold J., and Bennet A. Zelner. 2005. “Legitimacy, Interest Group Pressures, and Change in Emergent Institutions: The Case of Foreign Investors and Host Country Governments.” Academy of Management Review 30(2): 361382.
Henisz, Witold J., and Bennet A. Zelner 2006. “Interest Groups, Veto Points, and Electricity Infrastructure Deployment.” International Organization 60(1): 263286.
Henisz, Witold J., Bennet A. Zelner, and Mauro. F. Guillén. 2005. “The Worldwide Diffusion of Market-oriented Infrastructure Reform, 1977–1999.” American Sociological Review 70(6): 871897.
Henney, Alex. 1987. Privatise Power: How to Restructure the Electricity Supply Industry. London: Centre for Policy Studies.
Henney, Alex 1994. A Study of the Privatisation of the Electricity Supply Industry in England and Wales. London: EEE.
Heymann, Daniel. 1987. “The Austral Plan.” American Economic Review 77(2): 284287.
Hildebrand, Philipp. 2008. “Is Basel 2 Enough? The Benefits of a Leverage Ratio.” Lecture at the LSE Financial Market Group.
Hill, Lowell D. 1990. Grain, Grades and Standards: Historical Issues Shaping the Future. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Hines, Jr. James R., and Richard H. Thaler. 1995. “Anomalies: The Flypaper Effect.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 9(4): 217226.
Hoffman, Philip, Jean-Laurent Rosenthal, and Gilles Postel-Vinay. 2000. Priceless Markets: The Political Economy of Credit in Paris, 1660–1870. University of Chicago Press.
Hooghe, Liesbet, and Gary Marks. 2001. Multilevel Governance and European Integration. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Horn, Murray. 1995. The Political Economy of Public Administration: Institutional Choice in the Public Sector, Political Economy of Institutions and Decisions. Cambridge University Press.
Houghton, John. 1692. A Collection for Improvement of Husbandry and Trade. London: Randall Taylor.
House of Representatives Standing Committee on Communications Transport and Microeconomic Reform. 1997. Planning not Patching: An Inquiry Into Federal Road Funding. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Humphreys, Macartan, Jeffrey D. Sachs, and Joseph E. Stiglitz, eds. 2007. Escaping the Resource Curse. New York: Columbia University Press.
Iacoviello, Mercedes, Mariano Tommasi, and Laura Zuvanic. 2002. “Diagnóstico institucional de sistemas de servicio civil: caso Argentina.” Working Paper 8962, Inter-American Development Bank.
Independent Power Report. 1993. International Power Brazil to Privatize Part of 1,457MW Sao Paulo Utility.
Independent Power Report 1996. One Year After Privatization, Brazil Escelsa Has Cut Losses and Raised Profit.
Industry Commission. 1996. Competitive Tendering and Contracting by Public Sector Agencies. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Ingham, Geoffrey. 1996. “Money is a Social Relation.” Review of Social Economy 54(4): 507529.
International Energy Agency. 1999. Energy Statistics. Paris: OECD Publishing.
International Monetary Fund. 1999. Brazil: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix. Staff Country Report 99/97, September.
International Monetary Fund 2009. “Assessing the Systemic Implications of Financial Linkages.” Chapter 2 in: Global Financial Stability Report: Responding to the Financial Crisis and Measuring Systemic Risks. Washington, DC: IMF Publications.
Iossa, Elisabetta, and David Martimort. 2008. “The Simple Micro-Economics of Public–Private Partnerships.” CEIS Tor Vergata Research Paper Series 6(12).
Irigoin, Maria Alejandra. 2000. “Inconvertible Paper Money, Inflation and Economic Performance in Early Nineteenth Century Argentina.” Journal of Latin American Studies 32(2): 333359.
Jacks, David S. 2006. “What Drove 19th Century Commodity Market Integration?Explorations in Economic History 43(3): 383412.
Jacks, David S., Christopher M. Meissner, and Dennis Novy. 2010. “Trade Costs in the First Wave of Globalization.” Explorations in Economic History 47(2): 127141.
Jadresic, Alejandro. 1997. “Regulating Private Involvement in Infrastructure: The Chilean Experience.” In Harinder S. Kohli, Ahoka Mody, and Michael Mody, eds. Choices for Efficient Private Provision of Infrastructure in East Asia, 5468. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
Jago, William, and William C. Jago. 1911. The Technology of Bread-making. London: Kent & Co.
Johnson, Allen W., and Timothy Earle. 2000. The Evolution of Human Societies. Stanford University Press.
Johnson, Ronald N. 1995. “Implications of Taxing Quota Value in an Individual Transferable Quota Fishery.” Marine Resource Economics 10(4): 327340.
Johnson, Ronald N., and Gary Libecap. 1982. “Contracting Problems and Regulation: The Case of the Fishery.” American Economic Review 72(5): 10051022.
Jones, Eluned. 1999. “The Role of Information in US Grain and Oilseed Markets.” Review of Agricultural Economics 21(1): 237255.
Jones, Glyn. 2001. The Millers: A Story of Technological Endeavour and Industrial Success, 1870–2001. Lancaster: Carnegie Publishing Limited.
Jones, Robert A. 1976. “The Origin and Development of Media of Exchange.” Journal of Political Economy 84(4): 757775.
Joskow, Paul, and Richard Schmalensee. 1998. “The Political Economy of Market-based Environmental Policy: The US Acid Rain Program.” Journal of Law and Economics 41(1): 3783.
Kaplan, Michael. 1997. “Energy Restructuring in Brazil.” Journal of Project Finance 3(2): 4363.
Kaplan, Steven Laurence. 1984. Provisioning Paris: Merchants and Millers in the Grain and Flour Trade During the Eighteenth Century. Ithaca, NY and London: Cornell University Press.
Kaplow, Louis, and Steven Shavell. 1996. “Property Rules Versus Liability Rules: An Economic Analysis.” Harvard Law Review 109(4): 713790.
Kassim, Hussein, and Handley Stevens. 2010. Air Transport and the European Union: Europeanisation and its Limits. London: Palgrave-Macmillan.
Katz, Michael L., and Howard A. Shelanski. 2005. “Schumpeterian Competition and Antitrust Policy in High-Tech Markets.” Competition 14: 4767.
Katz, Michael L., and Howard A. Shelanski 2007. “Mergers and Innovation.” Antitrust Law Journal 74: 186.
Kaufmann, Patrick J., and Francine Lafontaine. 1994. “Costs of Control: The Source of Economic Rents for McDonald’s Franchises.” Journal of Law and Economics 37(2): 417453.
Kearney, Joseph D., and Thomas W. Merrill. 1998. “The Great Transformation of Regulated Industries Law.” Columbia Law Review 98: 13231409.
Kerber, Wolfgang. 2003. “An International Multi-Level System of Competition Laws: Federalism in Antitrust.” In Josef Drexl, ed. The Future of Transnational Antitrust – From Comparative to Common Competition Law, 269300. Berne: Staempfli – Kluwer Law International.
Kerber, Wolfgang 2009. “The Theory of Regulatory Competition and Competition Law.” In Karl Meessen, ed. Economic Law as an Economic Good, Its Rule Function in the Competition of Systems, 2744. Munich: Sellier.
Kettner, Claudia, Angela Koeppl, Stefan Schleicher, and Gregor Thenius. 2007. “Stringency and Distribution In the EU Emissions Trading Scheme: The 2005 Evidence.” FEEM Working Paper 22/2007.
Kiguel, Miguel, and Nissan Liviatan. 1988. “Inflationary Rigidities and Orthodox Stabilization Policies: Lessons from Latin America.” World Bank Economic Review 2(3).
Kindleberger, Charles. 1983. “Standards as Public, Collective and Private Goods.” Kyklos 36(3): 377396.
Kingdon, John W. 1984. Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies. New York: Addison-Wesley Longman.
Kirkland, J. 1896. “The Relative Prices of Wheat and Bread.” Economic Journal 6(23): 475484.
Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro, and John Moore. 2005. “Liquidity and Asset Prices.” International Economic Review 46(2): 317349.
Klein, Benjamin. 1996. “Why Hold-ups Occur. The Self-Enforcing Range of Contractual Relationships.” Economic Inquiry 34(3): 444463.
Klein, Benjamin 2000. “The Role of Incomplete Contracts in Self-Enforcing Relationships.” Revue d’Economie Industrielle 92(1): 6780.
Klein, Benjamin, and Keith B. Leffler. 1981. “The Role of Market Forces in Assuring Contractual Performance.” Journal of Political Economy 89(4): 615641.
Klemperer, Paul. 2002. “What Really Matters in Auction Design.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 16(1): 169189.
Knapp, Georg F. 1924. The State Theory of Money. London: Macmillan and Company.
Kolasky, William. 2006. “Refusals to Deal with Rivals: A Proposed Synthesis.” Presentation at the Federal Trade Commission & Department of Justice Joint Workshop on Monopolization (July 18, 2006). Available at: (accessed May 30, 2012).
Kolderie, Ted. 1986. “The Two Different Concepts of Privatization.” Public Administration Review 46(4): 285291.
Kranton, Rachel. 2003. “Competition and the Incentive to Produce Quality.” Economica 70(3): 385404.
Krauss, Michael I. 1998. “Property Rules vs. Liability Rules.” In B. Bouckaert and G. de Geest, eds., Encyclopedia of Law & Economics, Vol. II: 782794. Cheltenham and Northampton: Edward Elgar.
Kregel, Jan. 2008. “Minsky’s Cushions of Safety.” Levy Economics Institute of Bard College Public Policy Brief 93.
Krueger, Anne O. 1974. “The Political Economy of the Rent-seeking Society.” American Economic Review 64(3): 291303.
Kruger, Joseph, Wallace E. Oates, and William A. Pizer. 2007. “Decentralization in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and Lessons for Global Policy.” Review of Environmental Economics and Policy 1(1): 112133.
Kula, Witold. 1986. Measures and Men. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Kurland, Nancy B., and Terri D. Egan. 1999. “Public v. Private Perceptions of Formalization, Outcomes, and Justice.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 9 (3): 437458.
Laffont, Jean-Jacques, and David Martimort. 1999. “Separation of Regulators against Collusive Behavior.” RAND Journal of Economics 30(2): 232262.
Laffont, Jean-Jacques, and Jean Tirole. 1991. “The Politics of Government Decision-Making: A Theory of Regulatory Capture.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 106(4): 1089–1127.
Laffont, Jean-Jacques, and Jean Tirole 1993. A Theory of Incentives in Procurement and Regulation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Lagniappe Letter Latin American Information Services. 1993. Power Privatization Established Argentina on Innovative Path.
Lambert-Mogiliansky, Ariane, and Konstantin Sonin. 2006. “Collusive Market Sharing and Corruption in Procurement.” Journal of Economics and Management Strategy 15(4): 883908.
Lan, Zhiyong, and Hal G. Rainey. 1992. “Goals, Rules, and Effectiveness in Public, Private, and Hybrid Organizations: More Evidence on Frequent Assertions About Differences.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 2(1): 528.
Lancaster, Kelvin. 1966. “A New Approach to Consumer Theory.” Journal of Political Economy 74(2): 132157.
Lanciotti, Norma. 2008. “Foreign Investments in Electric Utilities: A Comparative Analysis of Belgian and American Companies in Argentina, 1890–1960.” Business History Review 82(3): 503528.
Lara Resende, A. 1990. “Estabilizacão e Reforma: 1964–1967.” In Marcelo Paiva Abreu, ed. A Ordem do Progresso, Cem Anos de Politica Economica Republicana, 1889–1989. Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier.
Law, John. 1705. Money and Trade Considered: with a Proposal for Supplying the Nation with Money. Edinburgh: Andrew Anderson.
Lawson, Nigel. 1992. The View from No. 11: Memoirs of a Tory Radical. London: Bantam Press.
Leffler, Keith B., and Randal R. Rucker 1991. “Transaction Costs and the Efficient Organization of Production: A Study of Timber-Harvesting Contracts.” Journal of Political Economy 99(5): 10601087.
Leffler, Keith B., Randal R. Rucker, and Ian A. Munn. 2000. “Transaction Costs and the Collection of Information: Presale Measurement on Timber Private Sales.” Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization 16(1): 166188.
Leijonhufvud, Axel. 2008. “Keynes and the Crisis.” CEPR Policy Insight 23.
Lerner, Abba P. 1947. “Money as a Creature of the State.” American Economic Review 37(2): 312317.
Leslie, Christopher R. 2006. “The Anticompetitive Effects of Unenforced Invalid Patents.” Minnesota Law Review 91: 101183.
Levi, Margaret. 2004. “An Analytic Narrative Approach to Puzzles and Problems.” In Ian Shapiro, Rogers Smith, and Tarek Masoud, eds. Problems and Methods in the Study of Politics, 201226. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Levy, Brian, and Pablo Spiller. 1994. “The Institutional Foundations of Regulatory Commitment: A Comparative Analysis of Telecommunications Regulations.” Journal of Law Economics and Organization 10(2): 201246.
Lewis, Gregory, and Patrick Bajari. 2011. “Procurement Contracting with Time Incentives: Theory and Evidence.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 126(3): 1173–1211.
Libecap, Gary D. 1989. Contracting for Property Rights. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Libecap, Gary D. 2007. “The Assignment of Property Rights on the Western Frontier: Lessons for Contemporary Environmental and Resource Policy.” Journal of Economic History 67(2): 257291.
Libecap, Gary D. 2008. “Open-access Losses and Delay in the Assignment of Property Rights.” Arizona Law Review 50(2): 379408.
Listfield, Robert, and Fernando Montes-Negret. 1996. “Brazil’s Efficient Payment System: A Legacy of High Inflation.” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 1680.
Little, Ian, Richard Cooper, W. Max Corden, and Sarath Rajapatirana. 1993. Boom, Crisis and Adjustment: The Macroeconomic Experience of Developing Countries. New York: Oxford University Press.
Littlechild, Stephen C. 1984. “Restructuring and Privatisation of the UK Electricity Supply Industry.” Unpublished.
Littlechild, Stephen C. 2000. “Privatisation, Competition and Regulation.” Institute of Economic Affairs Occasional Paper 110 (Wincott Lecture).
Littlechild, Stephen C. 2002. “Competition in Retail Electricity Supply.” Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines 12(2/3): 379402.
Littlechild, Stephen C. 2006. “Competition and Contracts in the Nordic Residential Electricity Markets.” Utilities Policy 14(3): 135147.
Littlechild, Stephen C. 2009. “Retail Competition in Electricity Markets – Expectations, Outcomes and Economics.” Energy Policy 37(2): 759763.
Llach, Juan J. 1985. “La Naturalezza Institucional e Internacional de las Hiperinflaciones.” Instituto Torcuato di Tella, mimeo.
Lobina, Emanuele, and David Hall. 2003. “Problems with Private Water Concessions: A Review of the Experiences in Latin America and Other Regions.” In Inter-American Development Bank, Water Pricing and Public–Private Partnership in the Americas. Washington, DC: IADB.
Loeb, Martin P., and Krishnamurthy Surysekar. 1994. “On the Optimality of Cost-Based Contracts in Sole Source Procurement.” Management Accounting Research 5(1): 3144.
London Corn Trade Association, Committee Minutes, Papers and Reports (MS23186/1, MS23177 and MS23175), Corporation of London Records Office, London.
Lueck, Dean. 1995. “The Rule of First Possession and the Design of the Law.” Journal of Law and Economics 38(2): 393436.
Lueck, Dean 1998. “First Possession.” In Peter Newman, ed. The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics and the Law, 13244. London: Macmillan Press.
Lupia, Arthur, and Mathew D. McCubbins. 1998. The Democratic Dilemma: How Can Citizens Learn What They Need to Know?New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lutter, Marcus. 1973. “Limited Liability Companies and Private Companies.” In Detlev Vagts, ed. Business and Private Organizations, Vol. XIII of the International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck.
Macaulay, Stewart. 1963. “Non-Contractual Relations in Business: A Preliminary Study.” American Sociological Review 28(1): 5567.
MacKie-Mason, Jeffrey K. 2002. “What to Do About Unilateral Refusals to License?” At 2 Testimony for the Federal Trade Commission & Department of Justice Hearings on Competition & Intellectual Property Law and Policy in the Knowledge-Based Economy on May 1, 2002. Available at: (accessed May 30, 2012).
Macrosty, Henry. 1903. “The Grainmilling Industry: A Study in Organization.” Economic Journal 13(51): 324334.
Maia, Fernando. 1999. “Some Regulatory Tools to Deal With Competition in the Brazilian Electricity Sector.” Working Paper of the Institute of Brazilian Business and Public Management Issues at the George Washington University.
Majone, Gaindomenico. 2001. “Non Majoritarian Institutions and the Limits of Democratic Governance: A Political Transaction-Cost Approach.” Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics 157(1): 5778.
Manelli, M. Alejandro, and Daniel R. Vincent. 1995. “Optimal Procurement Mechanism.” Econometrica 63(3): 591620.
Manzetti, Luigi. 1999. Privatization: South American Style. New York: Oxford University Press.
Marks, Gary. 1993. “Structural Policy and Multi-level Governance in the EC.” In Alan Cafruny and Glenda Rosenthal, eds. The Maastricht Debate and Beyond, Vol. II in The State of the European Community, 391410. Boulder, CO: Harlow Longman.
Marks, Gary, Liesbet Hooghe, and K. Blank. 1996. “European Integration from the 1980s: State-Centric v. Multi-Level Governance.” Journal of Common Market Studies 34(3): 341378.
Marshall, Robert C., Michael J. Meurer, and Jean-François Richard. 1994a. “Curbing Agency Problems in the Procurement Process by Protest Oversight.”RAND Journal of Economics 25: 297318.
Marshall, Robert C., Michael J. Meurer, and Jean-François Richard 1994b. “Litigation Settlement and Collusion.”Quarterly Journal of Economics 109(1): 211239.
Marques, Geider L. 1997. “Restructuring the Brazilian Electrical Sector.” Working Paper of Institute of Brazilian Issues at the George Washington University.
Martimort, David. 1999. “Renegotiation Design with Multiple Regulators.” Journal of Economic Theory 88(2): 261293.
Maser, Steven M., Vladimir Subbotin, and Fred Thompson. 2010. “The Bid-Protest Mechanism: Effectiveness and Fairness in Defense Acquisitions?” Available at: (accessed May 30, 2012).
McAfee, R. Preston, and John McMillan. 1987. “Auctions and Bidding.” Journal of Economic Literature 25(2): 699738.
McCubbins, Matthew D., and Thomas Schwartz. 1984. “Congressional Oversight Overlooked: Police Patrols versus Fire Alarms.” American Journal of Political Science 28 (1): 165179.
McCubbins, Matthew D., Roger D. Noll, and Barry R. Weingast. 1987. “Administrative Procedures as Instruments of Political Control.” Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization 3(2): 243277.
McCubbins, Matthew D., Roger D. Noll, and Barry R. Weingast 1989. “Structure and Process, Politics and Policy: Administrative Arrangements and the Political Control of Agencies.” Virginia Law Review 75: 431482.
McCusker, John, and Cora Gravesteijn. 1991. The Beginnings of Commercial and Financial Journalism: The Commodity Price Currents, Exchange Rate Currents, and Money Currents of Early Modern Europe. Amsterdam: NEHA.
McGowan, Francis. 2000. “Competition Policy.” In Helen Wallace and William Wallace, eds. Policy-Making in the European Union, 115148. Oxford University Press.
McMillan, John. 1994. “Selling Spectrum Rights.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 8(3): 145162.
Medina, Barak. 2003. “Augmenting the Value of Ownership by Protecting It Only Partially: The ‘Market-Overt’ Rule Revisited.” Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization 19(2): 343372.
Melamed, A. Douglas. 2005. “Exclusionary Conduct under the Antitrust Laws: Balancing, Sacrifice, and Refusals to Deal.” Berkeley Technology Law Journal 20: 12471268.
Melamed, A. Douglas, and Ali M. Stoeppelwerth. 2002. “The CSU Case: Facts, Formalism, and the Intersection of Antitrust and Intellectual Property Law.” George Mason Law Review 10: 407428.
Merrill, J. C. F. 1911. “Classification of Grain into Grades.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 38(2): 5877.
Merrill, Thomas W., and Henry E. Smith. 2000. “Optimal Standardization in the Law of Property: The Numerus Clausus Principle.” Yale Law Journal 110(1): 170.
Merrill, Thomas W., and Henry E. Smith 2001a. “What Happened to Property in Law and Economics?Yale Law Journal 111(2): 357398.
Merrill, Thomas W., and Henry E. Smith 2001b. “The Property/Contract Interface.” Columbia Law Review 101(4): 773852.
Metcalf, Gilbert E. 2007. “A Proposal for a US Carbon Tax Swap: An Equitable Tax Reform to Address Global Climate Change.” Brookings Institution Discussion Paper 2007–12.
Meunier, Sophie. 2005. Trading Voices: The European Union in International Commercial Negotiation. Princeton University Press.
Milgrom, Paul. 1989. “Auctions and Bidding: A Primer.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 3(3): 322.
Milgrom, Paul, and John Roberts. 1982. “Limit Pricing and Entry under Incomplete Information.” Econometrica 50(2): 443459.
Minsky, Hyman. 1986. Stabilizing an Unstable Economy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Modiano, Eduardo. 1990. “A Opera Dos Três Cruzados: 1985–1989.” In Marcelo Paiva Abreu, ed. A Ordem do Progresso, Cem Anos de Politica Economica Republicana, 1889–1989. Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier.
Moffett, Matt. 1998. “Sour Juice: In Brazil, A Utility Dims Public Enthusiasm for Privatizations.” Wall Street Journal, April 27.
Molinas, José, Anibal Pérez-Liñán, Sebastian M. Saiegh, and Marcela Montero. 2006. “Political Institutions, Policymaking Processes and Policy Outcomes in Paraguay, 1954–2003.” IDB Working Paper 201.
Monod, Jacques. 1971. Chance and Necessity. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. (translated from Jacques Monod, Le hasard et la nécessité. Essai sur la philosophie naturelle de la biologie moderne, Paris: Le Seuil, 1970).
Moran, Mark J., and Barry R. Weingast. 1983. “Bureaucratic Discretion or Congressional Control? Regulatory Policymaking by the Federal Trade Commission.” Journal of Political Economy 91(5): 765800.
Morineau, Michel. 1985. Incroyables Gazettes et Fabuleux Métaux: Les Retours des Trésors Américains d’après Les Gazettes Hollandaises (XVIe-XVIIIe Siècles). London and New York: Cambridge University Press.
Moschini, GianCarlo, Luisa Menapace, and Daniel Pick. 2008. “Geographical Indications and the Competitive Provision of Quality in Agricultural Markets.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 90(3): 794812.
Moszoro, Marian. 2010. “Opportunism in Public–Private Project Financing.” IESE Business School Working Paper 887. SSRN eLibrary.
Moszoro, Marian, and Magdalena Krzyzanowska. 2008. “Striving for the Quality of Public Services Through Public–Private Partnerships. The Case of 7 Projects in the City of Warsaw.” Paper read at 4th International Conference: An Enterprise Odyssey: Tourism – Governance and Entrepreneurship, at Cavtat (Croatia).
Motta, Massimo. 2004. Competition Policy. Cambridge University Press.
Mougeot, Michel, and Florence Naegelen. 1988. “Analyse Micro-Economique du Code des Marchés Publics.” Revue Economique 39(4): 725752.
Murillo, Maria Victoria. 2009. Political Competition, Partisanship and Policy Making in Latin American Public Utilities. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Murphy, Anne S. 2009. “Trading Options before Black-Scholes: A Study of the Market in Late Seventeenth Century London.” Economic History Review 62(s1): 830.
Murphy, Antoin E. 1997. John Law: Economic Theorist and Policymaker. New York: Oxford University Press.
Murphy, Kevin M., Andrei Shleifer, and Robert W. Vishny. 1993. “Why is Rent-seeking So Costly to Growth?American Economic Review 83(2): 409414.
Mussa, Michael. 2002. Argentina and the Fund: From Triumph to Tragedy. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics Publishing.
Myers, Stewart, and Nicholal S. Majluf. 1984. “Financing and Investment Decisions When Firms Have Information that Investors Do Not Have.” Journal of Financial Economics 13(2): 187221.
National Association of Attorneys General. 1998. Master Settlement Agreement. Available at: (accessed May 30, 2012).
National Conference of State Legislatures. 2003. State Management and Allocation of Tobacco Settlement Revenue 2003. Available at: (accessed May 30, 2012).
Neal, Larry. 1990. The Rise of Financial Capitalism: International Capital Markets in the Age of Reason. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
Neal, Larry 2011. “I Am Not Master of Events”: The Adventures of John Law and Lord Londonderry in the Mississippi and South Sea Bubbles. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Nelson, Philip. 1970. “Information and Consumer Behavior.” Journal of Political Economy 78(2): 311329.
Newbery, David. 2006. “Electricity Liberalization in Britain and the Evolution of Market Design.” In Fereidoon P. Sioshansi and Wolfgang Pfaffenberger, eds. Electricity Market Reform, An International Perspective, 109144. Oxford: Elsevier.
Nicita, Antonio. 2009. “Consumers Win-back as Exclusionary Conduct. Some Insights for Antitrust Law.” Quaderni del Dipartimento di Economia Politica – University of Siena – 565.
North, Douglass C. 1981. Structure and Change in Economic History. New York: Norton.
North, Douglass C. 1990. Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. Cambridge University Press.
North, Douglass C. 1991. “Institutions.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 5(1): 97112.
North, Douglass C. 2005. Understanding the Process of Economic Change. Princeton University Press.
North, Douglass C., and Robert Paul Thomas. 1973. The Rise of the Western World: A New Economic History. Cambridge University Press.
North, Douglass C. and Barry R. Weingast. 1989. “Constitutions and Commitment: Evolution of Institutions Governing Public Choice.” Journal of Economic History, 44: 803832.
North, Douglass C., John Joseph Wallis, and Barry R. Weingast. 2006. “A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Recorded Human History.” NBER Working Paper 12795.
North, Douglass C., John Joseph Wallis, and Barry R. Weingast 2009. Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Nugent, Neil, and William Paterson. 2003. “The Political System of the European Union.” In Jack Hayward and Anand Menon, eds. Governing Europe, 92113. Oxford University Press.
Oates, Wallace E. 1972. Fiscal Federalism. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
OECD. 1999. “Procurement Markets.” OECD Journal of Competition Law and Policy 1(4): 83123.
Office of Electricity Regulation (Offer). 1997. Annual Report. London: Offer Publications.
Ogus, Anthony. 1999. “Competition between National Legal Systems: A Contribution of Economic Analysis to Comparative Law.” International and Comparative Law Quarterly 48: 405418.
Oliver, Christine. 1992. “The Antecedents of Deinstitutionalization.” Organization Studies 13(4): 563588.
Olson, Mancur. 1965. The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Olson, Mancur 1982. The Rise and Decline of Nations. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Ondo Ndong, Sonia, and Laurence Scialom. 2009. “Northern Rock: The Anatomy of a Crisis – The Prudential Lessons.” In Robert Bliss and George Kaufman, eds. Financial Institutions and Markets: 2007–8 The Year of Crisis. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.
Orszag, Peter R. 2007. “Approaches to Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions.” Written testimony before the Committee on the Budget, US House of Representatives, November 1, 2007.
Osborne, Martin. 2004. An Introduction to Game Theory. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ostrom, Elinor. 1990. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge University Press.
Ostrom, Elinor 2005. Understanding Institutional Diversity. Princeton University Press.
Ostroy, Joseph M. 1973. “The Informational Efficiency of Monetary Exchange.” American Economic Review 63(4): 697710.
Parisi, Francesco, Norbert Schulz, and Jonathan Klick. 2006. “Two Dimensions of Regulatory Competition.” International Review of Law and Economics 26(1): 5666.
Parker, David. 2009. The Official History of Privatisation, Vol. I: The Formative Years 1970–1987. Government Official History Series. London and New York: Routledge.
Parker, David 2012. The Official History of Privatisation, Vol. II: Popular Capitalism 1987–1997. Government Official History Series. London: Routledge.
Parkinson, Cecil. 1992. Right at the Centre. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
Parry, Ian W. H., Robertson C. Williams III, and Lawrence H. Goulder. 1999. “When Can Carbon Abatement Policies Increase Welfare? The Fundamental Role of Distorted Factor Markets.” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 37(1): 5284.
Peltzman, Sam. 1976. “Toward a More General Theory of Regulation.” Journal of Law and Economics 19(2): 211240.
Percival, John. 1934. Wheat in Great Britain. London: Duckworth.
Pereira, R. 2001. “Brazil: Analysts Divided over Furnas Privatization Model.” World News Connection, April 13.
Petram, Lodewijk. 2009. “How the World’s First Stock Exchange Developed into a Well-Functioning Market: The Amsterdam Market for VOC Shares, 1602–1700.” Paper presented at the World Economic History Conference, University of Utrecht.
Petrazzini, Ben. 1995. The Political Economy of Telecommunications Reform in Developing Countries: Privatization and Liberalization in Comparative Perspective. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Pfiffner, James P. 1987. “Political Appointees and Career Executives: The Democracy-Bureaucracy Nexus in the Third Century.” Public Administration Review 47(1): 5765.
Philippi, D. B. 1991. “The Chilean Electric Power Sector in the Last Decade: The Design and Implementation of a New Policy.” Unpublished.
Philipson, Tomas J., and Richard Posner. 2001. “Anti-Trust and the Not-For-Profit Sector.” NBER Working Paper 8126.
Pinker, Steven. 1997. How the Mind Works. New York: Norton.
PiresRodrigues A., and F. Braga Monteiro. 1991. “Electricity System in Brazil.” Paper presented at CERES Workshop on Electricity Regulation in the Southern Cone, Montevideo.
Pirrong, Craig. 1995a. “The Efficient Scope of Private-Transactions-Cost-Reducing Institutions: The Case of Commodity Exchanges.” Journal of Legal Studies 24(1): 229255.
Pirrong, Craig 1995b. “Mixed Manipulation Strategies in Commodity Futures Markets.” Journal of Futures Markets 15(1): 1338.
Pirrong, Craig 1995c. “The Self-Regulation of Commodity Exchanges: The Case of Market Manipulation.” Journal of Law and Economics 38(1): 141206.
Pirrong, Craig 1999. “The Organization of Financial Exchange Markets: Theory and Evidence.” Journal of Financial Markets 2(4): 329357.
Pirrong, Craig 2000. “A Theory of Financial Exchange Organization.” Journal of Law and Economics 43(2): 437471.
Pirrong, Craig 2002. “Securities Markets Macrostructure: Property Rights and the Efficiency of Securities Trading.” Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization 18(2): 385410.
Pirrong, Craig 2008. “The Economics of Clearing in Derivatives Markets: Netting, Asymmetric Information, and the Sharing of Default Risks Through a Central Counterparty.” University of Houston Working Paper.
Pitofsky, Robert, Donna Patterson, and Jonathan Hooks. 2002. “The Essential Facilities Doctrine under US Antitrust Law.” Antitrust Law Journal 70: 443462.
Pollitt, Michael. 2008. “Electricity Reform in Argentina: Lessons for Developing Countries.” Energy Economics 30(4): 15361567.
Ponte, Stefano, and Peter Gibbon. 2005. “Quality Standards, Conventions and the Governance of Global Value Chains.” Economy and Society 34(1): 131.
Popofsky, Mark S. 2006. “Defining Exclusionary Conduct: Section 2, the Rule of Reason, and the Unifying Principle Underlying Antitrust Rules.” Antitrust Law Journal 73: 435482.
Porter, Robert H. 1983. “A Study of Cartel Stability: The Joint Executive Committee, 1880–1886.” Bell Journal of Economics 14(2): 301314.
Porter, Robert, and Douglas Zona. 1993. “Detection of Bid Rigging in Procurement Auctions.” Journal of Political Economy 101(3): 518538.
Prager, Robin. 1990. “Firm Behaviors in Franchise Monopoly Market.” RAND Journal of Economics 21(2): 211225.
Prendergast, Canice. 2003. “The Limits of Bureaucratic Efficiency.” Journal of Political Economy 111(5): 929958.
Priest, George. 1993. “The Origins of Utility Regulation and the ‘Theories of Regulation’ Debate.” Journal of Law and Economics 36(1): 289323.
Quiggin, John. 1996. “Private Sector Involvement in Infrastructure Projects.” Australian Economic Review (1st quarter): 5164.
Raymond, Leigh. 2003. Private Rights in Public Resources: Equity and Property Allocation in Market-based Environmental Policy. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.
Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI). 2006. Model Rule (8/15/2006). Available at: (accessed April 20, 2010).
Reiss, Peter C., and Frank A. Wolak. 2007. “Structural Econometric Modeling: Rationales and Examples from Industrial Organization.” In James J. Heckman, and Edward E. Leamer, eds. Handbook of Econometrics, Vol. 6A: 42774415. London: Elsevier.
Rennhack, Robert, and Masahiro Nozaki. 2006. “Financial Dollarization in Latin America.” IMF Working Paper 06/7.
Rhoades, Dawna L. 2008. The Evolution of International Aviation: Phoenix Rising. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing.
Richman, Barak. 2004. “Firms, Courts, and Reputation Mechanisms: Toward a Positive Theory of Private Ordering.” Columbia Law Review 104(8): 23282367.
Riker, William. 1957. “Events and Situations.” Journal of Philosophy 54(1): 5770.
Riker, William H. 1963. The Theory of Political Coalitions. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Riley, James C. 1980. International Government Finance and the Amsterdam Capital Market, 1740–1815. Cambridge University Press.
Robinson, Glen O. 2002. “On Refusing to Deal with Rivals.” Cornell Law Review 87(2001–2002): 11771232.
Rochet, Jean-Charles, and Jean Tirole. 2007. “Two-sided Markets: A Progress Report.” RAND Journal of Economics 37: 645667.
Romer, Paul M. 1990. “Endogenous Technological Change.” Journal of Political Economy 98(5): S71–S102.
Rosamond, Ben. 2003. “New Theories of European Integration.” In Michelle Cini, ed. European Union Politics, 109127. Oxford University Press.
Rose, Carol M. 1985. Possession as the Origin of Property. University of Chicago.
Rosse, James N. 1970. “Estimating Cost Function Parameters Without Using Cost Data: Illustrated Methodology.” Econometrica 38(2): 256275.
Rubin, Paul. 2000. “Information Regulation (Including Regulation of Advertising).” In Badewijn Bouckaert and Gerrit De Geest, eds. The Regulation of Contracts, Vol. III in the Encyclopedia of Law and Economics. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Rudnick, Hugh. 1998. “The Electric Market Restructuring in South America: Successes and Failures on Market Design.” Paper presented at the Harvard Electricity Policy Group, San Diego.
Sachs, Jeffrey, and Alvaro Zini. 1996. “Brazilian Inflation and the Plano Real.” World Economy 19(1): 1337.
Salop, Steven C. 2006. “Exclusionary Conduct, Effect on Consumers, and the Flawed Profit-Sacrifice Standard.” Antitrust Law Journal 73: 311374.
Sargent, Thomas J. 1982. “The Ends of Four Big Inflations.” In Robert Hall, ed. Inflation: Causes and Effects, 4198. Chicago University Press.
Sargent, Thomas J., and Neil Wallace. 1981. “Some Unpleasant Monetarist Arithmetic.” Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Quarterly Review Fall.
Savedoff, William, and Pablo Spiller. 1999. “Government Opportunism and the Provision of Water.” In William Savedoff and Pablo Spiller, eds. Government Opportunism and the Provision of Water. Washington, DC: InterAmerican Development Bank.
Scharpf, Fritz. 1994. “Community and Autonomy: Multilevel Policy Making in the European Union.” Journal of European Public Policy 1(2): 219242.
Schmalensee, Richard, Paul L. Joskow, A. Denny Ellerman, Juan-Pablo Montero, and Elizabeth M. Bailey. 1998. “An Interim Evaluation of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Trading.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 12(3): 5368.
Schroeder, Stephen A. 2002. “Conflicting Dispatches from the Tobacco Wars.” New England Journal of Medicine 347(14): 11061109.
Schroeder, Stephen A. 2004. “Tobacco Control in the Wake of the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement.” New England Journal of Medicine 350(3): 293301.
Scialom, Laurence. 2007. “Les Propositions du European Shadow Financial Regulatory Committee Sur l’Action Corrective Précoce en Europe – Une Analyse Critique ‘Amicale’.”Revue Economique 58(5): 11271138.
Seabright, Paul. 2004. The Company of Strangers: A Natural History of Economic Life. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.
Service, Elman R. 1975. Origins of the State and Civilization: The Process of Cultural Evolution. New York: Norton.
Sgard, Jérôme. 2008. “L’Hyperinflation et la Reconstruction de la Monnaie Nationale: Une Comparaison de l’Argentine et du Brésil, 1990–2002.” In Bruno Thérêt, ed. La Monnaie Dévoilée Par Ses Crises. Paris: Presses de lEHESS.
Shapiro, Carl. 1983. “Premiums for High Quality Products as Returns to Reputations.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 98(4): 659679.
Shea, Gary. 2007a. “Understanding Financial Derivatives during the South Sea Bubble: The Case of the South Sea Subscription Shares.” Oxford Economic Papers 59(1): 73104.
Shea, Gary 2007b. “Financial Market Analysis Can Go Mad (In the Search for Irrational Behaviour during the South Sea Bubble).” Economic History Review 60(4): 742765.
Simon, Herbert A. 1962. “The Architecture of Complexity.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 106(6): 467482.
Simonsen, Mario H. 1995. 30 Anos de Indexaçao. Rio de Janeiro: Fundaçao Vargas Editora.
Simpson, Alfred W. B. 1991. “The Origins of Futures Trading on the Liverpool Cotton Market.” In Peter Cane and Jane Stapleton, eds. Essays for Patrick Atiyah. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Singhal, Monica. 2008. “Special Interest Groups and the Allocation of Public Funds.” Journal of Public Economics 92(3–4): 548564.
Sinn, Hans-Werner. 1997. “The Selection Principle and Market Failure in Systems Competition.” Journal of Public Economics 66(2): 247274.
Skjærseth, Jon Birger, and Jørgen Wettestad. 2008. EU Emissions Trading: Initiation, Decision-making and Implementation. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing.
Smith, Henry E. 2006. “Modularity in Contracts: Boilerplate and Information Flow.” University of Michigan Law Review 104: 11751222.
Smith, Henry E. 2007. “Intellectual Property as Property: Delineating Entitlements in Information.” Yale Law Journal 116(8): 17421822.
Smith, Henry E. 2008. “Governing Water: The Semicommons of Fluid Property Rights.” Arizona Law Review 50(2): 445478.
Smith, Henry E. 2009. “Modularity in Property, Intellectual Property, and Organizations.” Harvard Law School mimeo.
Solanet, Manuel. A. 1994. “Privatization: The Long Road to Success in Argentina.” Business Forum Winter/Spring: 28–31.
Soto, R. 1999. “Institutional Reforms in the Electricity Sector.” Manuscript.
Spiller, Pablo T. 2008. “An Institutional Theory of Public Contracts: Regulatory Implications.” NBER Working Paper 14152.
Spiller, Pablo T., and Luis V. Martorell. 1996. “How Should it Be Done? Electricity Regulation in Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Chile.” In Richard Gilbert and Edward P. Kahn, eds. International Comparison of Electricity Regulation, 82125. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Spiller, Pablo T., and William D. Savedoff. 2000. “Oportunismo gubernamental y suministro de agua.”. In P. T. Spiller and W. D. Savedoff, eds. Agua perdida: compromisos institucionales para el suministro de servicios públicos sanitarios. Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank.
Spiller, Pablo T., and Santiago Urbiztondo. 1994. “Political Appointees vs. Career Civil Servants: A Multiple Principals Theory of Political Bureaucracies.” European Journal of Political Economy 10(3): 465497.
Spulber, D. 1996. “Market Microstructure and Intermediation.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 10: 135152.
Squam Lake Working Group on Financial Regulation. 2009a. An Expedited Resolution Mechanism for Distressed Financial Firms: Regulatory Hybrid Securities. Washington, DC: Council on Foreign Relations.
Squam Lake Working Group on Financial Regulation 2009b. Improving Resolution Options for Systemically Relevant Financial Institutions. Washington, DC: Council on Foreign Relations.
Staniland, Martin. 2003. Government Birds: Air Transport and the State in Western Europe. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Stavins, Robert N. 1998. “What Can We Learn from the Grand Policy Experiment? Lessons from SO2 Allowance Trading.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 12(3): 6988.
Stavins, Robert N. 2007. “Market-based Environmental Policies: What Can We Learn From US Experience (and Related Research)?” In Jody Freeman and Charles D. Kolstad, eds. Moving to Markets in Environmental Regulation: Lessons from Twenty Years of Experience, 6394. New York: Oxford University Press.
Stewart, James. 1923. “Marketing Wheat.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 107: 187192.
Stigler, George. 1951. “The Division of Labor Is Limited by the Extent of the Market.” Journal of Political Economy 59(3): 185193.
Stigler, George 1971. “The Theory of Economic Regulation.” Bell Journal of Economics and Management Science 2(1): 321.
Sturzenegger, Federico. 1991. “Description of a Populist Experience: Argentina, 1973–1976.” In Rudiger Dornbusch and Sebastian Edwards, eds. The Macroeconomics of Populism in Latin America, 77121. Chicago University Press.
Sun, Jeanne-Mey, and Jacques Pelkmans. 1995. “Regulatory Competition in the Single Market.” Journal of Common Market Studies 33(1): 6789.
Thatcher, Margaret. 1993. The Downing Street Years. London: Harper Collins.
Thomas, John R. 2001. “Collusion and Collective Action in the Patent System: A Proposal for Patent Bounties.” University of Illinois Law Review: 305354.
Tiebout, Charles. 1956. “A Pure Theory of Local Government Expenditure.” Journal of Political Economy 64(5): 416424.
Tietenberg, Thomas. 2005. Environmental and Natural Resource Economics. Boston, MA: Pearson, Addison-Wesley.
Tietenberg, Thomas 2006. Emissions Trading: Principles and Practice. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.
Tirole, Jean. 1988. The Theory of Industrial Organization. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Trigger, Bruce G. 2003. Understanding Early Civilizations. Cambridge University Press.
Troesken, Werner. 1996. Why Regulate Utilities? The New Institutional Economics and the Chicago Gas Industry, 1849–1924. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Tsebelis, George. 1990. Nested Games: Rational Choice in Comparative Politics. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
United Kingdom Department of Energy. 1992. History of Electricity Privatisation (England and Wales). London: Department of Energy.
United Kingdom Financial Services Authority. 2009. The Turner Review: A Regulatory Response to the Global Banking Crisis. London: Financial Services Authority.
United Kingdom Secretary of State for Energy. 1988. Privatising Electricity: The Government’s Proposals for the Privatisation of the Electricity Supply Industry in England and Wales. London: HMSO, Cm 322, February.
United States Antitrust Modernization Commission. 2007. Report and Recommendations. Available at: (accessed June 1, 2012).
United States Department of Defense. 2011. Source Selection Procedures. Available at:–10-DPAP.pdf (accessed May 19, 2011).
United States Department of Justice. 1997. Antitrust Resource Manual. Available at: (accessed June 1, 2012).
United States Department of Justice 2008. Competition and Monopoly: Single Firm Conduct under Section 2 of the Sherman Act (Sept. 2008). Available at (accessed June 1, 2012).
United States Department of Justice and Federal Trade Commission. 1995. Antitrust Guidelines for the Licensing of Intellectual Property. Available at: (accessed June 1, 2012).
United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) (various). Progress Report. Various years by program, available at (accessed April 20, 2010).
United States Federal Trade Commission. 2003. “To Promote Innovation: The Proper Balance of Competition and Patent Law and Policy. Executive Summary.” Available at: (accessed June 1, 2012).
United States Government Accountability Office. 2001. Contract Management. Benefits of Simplified Acquisition Test Procedures Not Clearly Demonstrated. Washington, DC: United States General Accounting Office (GAO). Available at: (accessed July 11, 2011).
United States Government Accountability Office 2003. Equal Employment Opportunity. SSA Region X’s Changes to Its EEO Process Illustrate Need for Agencywide Procedures. Washington, DC: United States Government Accountability Office (GAO). Available at: (accessed July 18, 2011).
United States Government Accountability Office 2008. Defense Acquisition. Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs. Washington, DC: United States General Accounting Office (GAO). Available at: (accessed July 11, 2011).
Van den Bergh, Roger. 1998. “Subsidiarity as an Economic Demarcation Principle and the Emergence of European Private Law.” Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law 5(2): 129152.
Van den Bergh, Roger 2000. “Towards an Institutional Legal Framework for Regulatory Competition in Europe.” Kyklos 53(4): 435466.
Van den Bergh, Roger, and Peter Camesasca. 2006. European Competition Law and Economics: A Comparative Perspective. London: Sweet and Maxwell.
Vecchia, G. 1993. “Power Connections: Privatization of Electricity Surges Ahead in Argentina.” LatinFinance.
Vegh, Carlos. 1992. “Stopping High Inflation: An Analytical Overview.” IMF Staff Paper 39(3).
Velde, François. 2009. “Was John Law’s System a Bubble? The Mississippi Bubble Revisited.” In Jeremy Atack and Larry Neal, eds. The Origins and Development of Financial Institutions and Markets, 99120. Cambridge University Press.
Velkar, Aashish. 2012. Markets and Measurements in Nineteenth Century Britain. Cambridge University Press.
Victor, David, and Thomas C. Heller, eds. 2007. The Political Economy of Power Sector Reform: The Experiences of Five Major Developing Countries. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Volden, Craig, and Alan E. Wiseman. 2007. “Bargaining in Legislatures over Particularistic and Collective Goods.” American Political Science Review 101(1): 7992.
Waller, Spencer Weber. 2008. “Areeda, Epithets, and Essential Facilities.” Wisconsin Law Review: 359386.
Wallis, John Joseph. 2011. “Institutions, Organizations, Impersonality, and Interests: The Dynamics of Institutions.” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 79(1–2): 4864.
Walzenbach, Gunter P. E. 2006. “European Competition Policy: Governance as Graduated Coordination.” In Gunter Walzenbach, ed. European Governance. Policy Making between Politicization and Control, 1734. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing.
Wang, Chong, and Joseph San Miguel. 2011. “Unintended Consequences of Advocating Use of Fixed-Price Contracts in Defense Acquisition Practice.” Paper read at the Eighth Annual Acquisition Research Symposium: Creating Synergy for Informed Change, May 11–12, 2011, at Monterey, CA.
Weingast, Barry. 1998. “Political Stability and Civil War: Institutions, Commitments and American Democracy.” In A. Bates, A. Greif, M. Levi, J.L. Rosenthal, and B. Weingast, eds. Analytic Narratives, 148–193. Princeton University Press.
Weingast, Barry R. 2004. “The Constitutional Dilemma of Economic Liberty.” The Journal of Economic Perspectives 19(3): 89108.
Weingast, Barry, and William Marshall. 1988. “The Industrial Organization of Congress; Or, Why Legislatures, Like Firms, Are Not Organized As Markets.” Journal of Political Economy 96(1): 132168.
Weingast, Barry R., and Mark J. Moran. 1983. “Bureaucratic Discretion or Congressional Control? Regulatory Policymaking by the Federal Trade Commission.” Journal of Political Economy 91(5): 765–800.
Weiser, Philip J. 2002. “Law and Information Platforms.” Journal on Telecommunications & High Technology Law 1: 136.
Werden, Gregory J. 2006. “Identifying Exclusionary Conduct Under Section 2: The ‘No Economic Sense’ Test.” Antitrust Law Journal 73: 413434.
Whinston, Michael D. 1990. “Tying, Foreclosure, and Exclusion.” American Economic Review 80: 837859.
White, Eugene. 1989. “Was There a Solution to the Financial Crisis of the Ancien Régime?Journal of Economic History 49(3): 545568.
White, Eugene 2003. “The Paris Bourse, 1724–1814.” In Stanley L. Engerman, Philip T. Hoffman, Jean-Laurent Rosenthal, and Kenneth L. Sokoloff, eds. Finance, Intermediaries and Economic Development, 3474. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
Wilkinson, John. 1997. “A New Paradigm for Economic Analysis?Economy and Society 26(3): 305339.
Williamson, Oliver E. 1975. Markets and Hierarchies: Analysis of Antitrust and Implications. New York: Free Press.
Williamson, Oliver E. 1976. “Franchise Bidding for Natural Monopolies: In General and with Respect to CATV.” Bell Journal of Economics 7(1): 73104.
Williamson, Oliver E. 1979. “Transaction-Cost Economics: The Governance of Contractual Relations.” Journal of Law and Economics 22(2): 233261.
Williamson, Oliver E. 1985. The Economic Institutions of Capitalism: Firms, Markets, Relational Contracting. New York: The Free Press, Macmillan, Inc.
Williamson, Oliver E. 1999. “Public and Private Bureaucracies: A Transaction Cost Economics Perspective.” Journal of Law Economics and Organization 15(1): 306342.
Williamson, Oliver E. 2002. “The Theory of the Firm as Governance Structure: From Choice to Contract.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 16(3): 171195.
Williamson, Oliver E. 2005. “The Economics of Governance.” American Economic Review 95(2): 118.
Wilson, Charles. 1941 (Repr. 1966). Anglo-Dutch Commerce & Finance in the Eighteenth Century. Cambridge University Press.
Wing, L. K. 1999. “Painful Lessons.” Latin Finance.
Wisnefski, S. 2001. “Brazilian Power Rationing Highlights Regulatory Challenge.” Dow Jones Wire Service, May 23.
Wolak, Frank A. 2000. “An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Hedge Contracts on Bidding Behavior in a Competitive Electricity Market.” International Economic Journal 14(2): 1–39.
Wolak, Frank A. 2003a. “Identification and Estimation of Cost Functions Using Observed Bid Data: An Application to Electricity Markets.” In M. Dewatripont, L. P. Hansen, and S. J. Turnovsky, eds. Advances in Economics and Econometrics: Theory and Applications (Eighth World Congress), Vol. II: 133169. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Wolak, Frank A. 2003b. “Measuring Unilateral Market Power in Wholesale Electricity Markets: The California Market 1998 to 2000.” American Economic Review May 2003: 425430.
Wolak, Frank A. 2007. “Quantifying the Supply-Side Benefits from Forward Contracting in Wholesale Electricity Markets.” Journal of Applied Econometrics 22: 11791209.
Wolak, Frank A., and Shaun D. McRae. 2009. “How Do Firms Exercise Unilateral Market Power? Evidence from a Bid-Based Wholesale Electricity Market.” EUI Working Paper RSCAS 2009/36, 2009.
Woll, Cornelia. 2008. Firm Interests: How Governments Shape Business Lobbying in Global Trade. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
World Bank. 1995. Bureaucrats in Business: The Economics and Politics of Government Ownership. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ye, Lixin. 2007. “Indicative Bidding and a Theory of Two-Stage Auctions.” Games and Economic Behavior 58(1): 181207.
Zahedieh, Nuala. 1994. “London and the Colonial Consumer in the Late Seventeenth Century.” Economic History Review 47(2): 239261.
Zelner, Bennet A., Witold J. Henisz, and Guy L. F. Holburn. 2009. “Contentious Implementation and Retrenchment in Neoliberal Policy Reform: The Global Electric Power Industry, 1989–2001.” Administrative Science Quarterly 54(3): 379412.