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Adebanwi, W.. 2002. “The Nation as a Grand Narrative: The Nigerian Press and the Politics of Meaning.” Ph.D. diss., University of Ibadan.
Adebanwi, W.. 2004. “The Press and the Politics of Marginal Voices: Narratives of the Experiences of the Ogoni of Nigeria.” Media, Culture and Society
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Adebanwi, W.. 2008. Trials and Triumphs: The Story of The NEWS. Lagos: West African Book Publishers.
Agbaje, Adigun. 1990. “Freedom of the Press and Party Politics in Nigeria: Precepts, Retrospect and Prospects.” African Affairs
89 (355): 205–26.
Agbaje, Adigun. 1992. The Nigerian Press Hegemony and the Social Construction of Legitimacy, 1960–1983. Lewiston, N.Y.: The Edwin Press.
Agbaje, Adigun. 1993. “Beyond the State: Civil Society and the Nigerian Press under Military Rule.” Media Culture Society
Agbese, Aje-Ori. 2006. The Role of the Press and Communication Technology in Democratization: The Nigerian Story. London: Routledge.
Ang, Ien, 1996. Living Room Wars: Rethinking Media Audiences in a Postmodern World. London: Routledge.
Askew, Kelly, and Wilk, Richard R., eds. 2002. The Anthropology of the Media: A Reader, Maiden, Mass.: Blackwell.
Babu, A. M.
1992. “The Right to Demand Freedoms.” Index on Censorship
Barton, Frank. 1979. The Press of Africa: Persecution and Perseverance. New York: Macmillan.
1998. “Media and Democracy in Southern Africa.” Review of African Political Economy
Berger, G.. 2002. “Theorizing the Media–Democracy Relationship in Southern Africa.” Gazette: The International Journal of Communication Studies
64 (1): 21–45.
Bird, S. Elizabeth, ed. 2009. The Anthropology of News and Journalism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Blankson, Isaac Abeku. 2002. “Re-examining Civil Society in Emerging Sub Sahara African Democracies: The State, the Media, and the Public in Ghana.” Global Media Journal
1 (1). http://lass.calumet.purdue.edu.
Bourgault, Louise M.
1993. “Press Freedom in Africa: A Cultural Analysis.” Journal of Communication Inquiry
17 (2): 69–92.
Brown, Wendy. 1995. States of Injury: Power and Freedom in Late Modernity. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Buckley, Stephen. 1996. “In Sub-Saharan Africa, Crackdowns on the Press Are Becoming Commonplace.” International Herald Tribune, April 9.
Joseph, Campbell W.. 2003 “African Cultures and Newspapers.” In The Function of the Newspaper: A Global Perspective, edited by Martin, Shannon E. and Copeland, David A., 31–46. New York: Praeger.
Chabal, Patrick. 1998. “A Few Considerations on Democracy in Africa.” International Affairs
74 (2): 289–303.
Chen, Sheue Yun. 1998. “State, Media and Democracy in Taiwan.” Media, Culture and Society
Collings, Anthony. 2001. Words of Fire: Independent Journalists Who Challenge Dictators, Drug Lords, and Other Enemies of aFree Press. New York: New York University Press.
Coman, Mihai, and Rothenbuhler, Erik W.. 2005. “The Promise of Media Anthropology.” In Media Anthropology, edited by Rothenbuhler, Erik W. and Coman, Mihai, 1–12. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.
Dare, Olatunji. 1997. “The Press.” In Transition Without End: Nigerian Politics and Civil Society under Babangida, edited by Diamond, Larry
et al., 535–51. Ibadan: Vantage Publishers.
Dare, Sunday. 2007. Guerilla Journalism: Dispatches from the Underground. Bloomington, Ind.: Xlibris Corporation.
Diamond, Larry. 1990. “Nigeria: Pluralism, Statism, and the Struggle for Democracy.” In Politics in Developing Countries: Comparing Experiences with Democracy, edited by Diamond, Larry, Linz, Juan J., and Lipset, Seymour Martin, 351–409. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner.
Diamond, Larry. 1991. “Nigeria's Search for a New Political Order.” Journal of Democracy
2 (2): 54–69.
Downing, John D. H.
2001. Radical Media: Rebellious Communication and Social Movements. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.
Ekpu, Ray. 1990. “Nigeria's Embattled Fourth Estate.” Journal of Democracy
1 (Spring): 106–16.
Eribo, Festus, and Jong-Ebot, William. 1997. Press Freedom and Communication in Africa. Trenton, N.J.: African World Press.
Ette, Mercy, 2000. “Agent of Change or Stability? The Nigerian Press Undermines Democracy.” The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics
5 (3): 67–86.
Ginsburg, Faye. 2005. “Media Anthropology: An Introduction.” In Media Anthropology, edited by Rothenbuhler, Erik W. and Coman, Mihai, 17–25. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.
Gramsci, Antonio. 1971. Selections from Prison Notebooks. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
Hall, Stuart, 1982. “The Rediscovery of ‘Ideology’: The Return of the Repressed in Media Studies.” In Culture, Society and the Media, edited by Gurevitch, M.
et al., 52–86. London: Methuen.
Hasty, Jennifer. 2001. “From Culture of Silence to Culture of Contest: Hegemony, Legitimacy and the Press in Ghana.” The Journal of Cultural Studies
3 (2): 348–59.
Hasty, Jennifer. 2005a. “The Pleasures of Corruption: Desire and Discipline in Ghanaian Political Culture.” Cultural Anthropology
20 (2): 271–301.
Hasty, Jennifer. 2005b. “Sympathetic Magic/Contagious Corruption: Sociality, Democracy, and the Press in Ghana.” Public Culture
17 (3): 339–69.
Hasty, Jennifer. 2005c. The Press and Political Culture in Ghana. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Hasty, Jennifer. 2006. “Performing Power, Composing Culture: The State Press in Ghana.” Ethnography
Hobart, Mark, 2005. “The Profanity of the Media.” In Media Anthropology, edited by Rothenbuhler, Erik W. and Coman, Mihai. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.
Hydén, Göran, and Okigbo, Charles. 2002. “The Media and Two Waves of Democracy.” In Media and Democracy in Africa, edited by Hydén, Göran, Leslie, Michael, and Ogundimu, Folu F., 29–54. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.
Hydén, Göran, and Leslie, Michael. 2002. “Communication and Democratization in Africa.” In Media and Democracy in Africa, edited by Hydén, Göran, Leslie, Michael, and Ogundimu, Folu F., 1–28. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.
Hydén, Göran, Leslie, Michael, and Ogundimu, Folu F., eds. 2002. Media and Democracy in Africa. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.
2003. “The Nigerian Press and Jun e 12: Pressure and Performance during a Political Crisis.” Journalism and Communication Monographs
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Imanyara, Gitobu. 1992. “Kenya: Indecent Exposure.” Index on Censorship
21 (4): 21–22.
Iyare, Tony. 1993. “Storm of Protests.” Newswatch, August 30.
Joseph, Richard, 1997. “Democratization Under Military Rule and Repression.” In Dilemmas of Democracy in Nigeria, edited by Beckett, Paul and Young, Crawford, 137–54. Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press.
Kandeh, Jimmy D.
1996. “What Does the ‘Militariat’ Do When It Rules? Military Regimes: The Gambia, Sierra Leone and Liberia.” Review of African Political Economy
23 (69): 387–404.
Karikari, Kwame. 1993. “Africa: The Press and Democracy.” Race and Class
34 (3): 55–66.
Kasoma, Francis P.
1995. “The Role of the Independent Media in Africa's Change to Democracy.” Media Culture Society
Kasoma, Francis P.. 1997. “The Independent Press and Politics in Africa.” International Communication Gazette
1998. “Nigeria: Free Press Hopes Fade.” Columbia Journalism Review (Nov./Dec.): 24–25.
Kumbula, Tendayi S.
1997. “Press Freedom in Zimbabwe.” In Press Freedom and Communication in Africa, edited by Eribo, Festus and Jong-Ebot, William, 157–83. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press.
Lamb, Christina. 1995. “Editors Defy Nigerian Reign of Fear.” Sunday Times (London), December 24.
1993. “Democratization and Forces in the African Media.” Journal of International Affairs
47 (1): 89–93.
Louw, Eric P.
2001. The Media and Cultural Production. London: Sage.
Louw, Eric P., and Tomaselli, Keyan G.. 1994. “Considerations on the Role of Media and Information in Building a New South Africa.” Africa Media Review
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Marnogues, Michele. 1996. Guerrilla Journalism, Paris: Reporters Sans Frontiere.
Mazrui, Ali A.
1973. “The Lumpen Proletariat and the Lumpen Militariat: African Soldiers as a New Political Class.” Political Studies
21 (1): 1–12.
Mbembe, Achille. 1992. “Provisional Notes on the Postcolony.” Africa: Journal of the International African Institute
62 (1): 3–37.
Meldrum, Andrew. 2004. Where We Have Hope: A Memoir of Zimbabwe. New York: Grove Press.
Nyamnjoh, Francis B.
2005. Africa's Media: Democracy and the Politics of Belonging. New York: Zed Books.
Nyamnjoh, F. B., Wete, F., and Fonshingong, T.. 1996. “Media and Civil Society in Cameroon.” Africa Media Review
10 (3): 37–66.
Obadare, Ebenezer. 1999. “The Press and Democratic Transition in Nigeria: Comparative Notes on the Abacha and Abubakar Transition Programs.” Issue: A Journal of Opinion
27 (1): 38–40.
Obadare, Ebenezer. 2005. “The Theory and Practice of Civil Society in Nigeria.” Ph.D diss., London School of Economics.
Obadare, Ebenezer, and Adebanwi, Wale. 2010. “Introduction: Excess and Abjection in the Study of the African State.” In Encountering the Nigerian State, edited by Adebanwi, W. and Obadare, E., 1–28. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
Ocitti, Jim. 2005. Press, Politics and Public Policy in Uganda: The Role of Journalism in Democratization. Lampeter, U.K.: The Edwin Mellen Press.
Ogbondah, Chris W.
1997. “Communication and Democratization in Africa: Constitutional Changes, Prospects and Persistent Problems for the Media.” Gazette
59 (4–5): 271–94.
Ogbondah, Chris W.. 2002. “Media Laws in Political Transition.” In Media and Democracy in Africa. edited by Hydén, Göran, Leslie, Michael, and Ogundimu, Folu F.. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.
Ojo, Emmanuel O.
2003. “The Mass Media and the Challenges of Sustainable Democratic Values in Nigeria: Possibilities and Limitations.” Media, Culture and Society
Olorunyomi, Dapo. “Famished Road to Freedom.” 1996. Guardian (London), January 22.
Olorunyomi, Dapo. 1998a. “Defiant Publishing in Nigeria.” In Journalists in Peril, edited by Woodhull, Nancy J. and Snyder, Robert W., 57–63. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.
Olorunyomi, Dapo. 1998b. “Substance and Fancy in Nigerian Media–Military Relations.” The North-South Institute Review
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Olukotun, Ayo, and Omole, Tade. 1999. “The Media and Democratisation in Nigeria 1984–1996.” In Governance and Democratization in West Africa, edited by Soremekun, Kayode
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Olukotun, Ayo, and Omole, Tade. 2002a. “Authoritarian State, Crisis of Democratization and the Underground Media in Nigeria.” African Affairs
Olukotun, Ayo, and Omole, Tade. 2002b. State Repression, Crisis of Democratization and Media Resistance in Nigeria, 1988–1999. Ibadan: College Press.
Olukotun, Ayo, and Omole, Tade. 2004. “Media Accountability and Democracy in Nigeria, 1999–2003.” African Studies Review
47 (3): 69–90.
Ortner, Sherry B.
2006. Anthropology and Social Structure: Culture, Power, and the Acting Subject. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.
Osaghae, Eghosa. 1994. “Introduction: Between the Individual and the State in Africa—The Imperative of Development.” In Between State and Civil Society in Africa, edited by Osaghae, E., 1–16. Dakar: CODESRIA.
Pinnock, Don. 1997. “Writing Left: The Journalism of Ruth First and The Guardian in the 1950s.” In South Africa's Alternative Press: Voices of Protest and Resistance, edited by Switzer, Les. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rothenbuhler, Erik W., and Coman, Mihai, eds. 2005. Media Anthropology. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.
1996. “Transition without Consolidation: Democratization in Six African Cases.” Third World Quarterly
17 (1): 69–87
Seeger, Murray. 1997. “Nigeria Descends Deep into Disrepute: Rule by ‘Medieval Warlords’ Is Holding Back Largest Nation on the African Continent.” Baltimore Sun, December 21.
Stepan, Alfred C., 1988. Rethinking Military Politics: Brazil and the Southern Cone. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Switzer, Les. 1997a. South Africa's Alternative Press: Voices of Protest and Resistance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Switzer, Les. 1997b. “Socialism and the Resistance Movement: The Life and Times of The Guardian, 1937–1952.” In South Africa's Alternative Press: Voices of Protest and Resistance, edited by Switzer, Les, 266–307. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Switzer, Les. 2000. “Introduction: South Africa's Resistance Press under Apartheid.” In South Africa's Resistance Press: Alternative Voices in the Last Generation under Apartheid, edited by Switzer, Les and Adhikari, Mohamed, 1–53. Athens: Ohio University Press.
Switzer, Les, and Adhikari, Mohamed, eds. 2000. South Africa's Resistance Press: Alternative Voices in the Last Generation under Apartheid. Athens: Ohio University Press.
1995. “The Press and the Democratization Process in Africa: The Case of the Republic of Cameroon.” Journal of Third World Studies
12 (2): 326–49.
Tettey, Wisdom J.
2001. “The Media and Democratization in Africa: Contributions, Constraints and Concerns of the Private Press.” Media, Culture and Society
Tomaselli, Keyan, and Louw, P. Eric, eds. 1991. The Alternative Press in South Africa. Colorado Springs: International Academic Publisher.
Uko, Ndaeyo. 2004. Romancing the Gun: The Press as Promoter of Military Rule. Trenton, N.J.: African World Press.
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