Books and Periodicals
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AdebanwiW.. 2002. “The Nation as a Grand Narrative: The Nigerian Press and the Politics of Meaning.” Ph.D. diss., University of Ibadan.
AdebanwiW.. 2004. “The Press and the Politics of Marginal Voices: Narratives of the Experiences of the Ogoni of Nigeria.” Media, Culture and Society
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AdebanwiW.. 2008. Trials and Triumphs: The Story of The NEWS. Lagos: West African Book Publishers.
AgbajeAdigun. 1990. “Freedom of the Press and Party Politics in Nigeria: Precepts, Retrospect and Prospects.” African Affairs
89 (355): 205–26.
AgbajeAdigun. 1992. The Nigerian Press Hegemony and the Social Construction of Legitimacy, 1960–1983. Lewiston, N.Y.: The Edwin Press.
AgbajeAdigun. 1993. “Beyond the State: Civil Society and the Nigerian Press under Military Rule.” Media Culture Society
AgbeseAje-Ori. 2006. The Role of the Press and Communication Technology in Democratization: The Nigerian Story. London: Routledge.
AngIen, 1996. Living Room Wars: Rethinking Media Audiences in a Postmodern World. London: Routledge.
AskewKelly, and WilkRichard R., eds. 2002. The Anthropology of the Media: A Reader, Maiden, Mass.: Blackwell.
1992. “The Right to Demand Freedoms.” Index on Censorship
BartonFrank. 1979. The Press of Africa: Persecution and Perseverance. New York: Macmillan.
1998. “Media and Democracy in Southern Africa.” Review of African Political Economy
BergerG.. 2002. “Theorizing the Media–Democracy Relationship in Southern Africa.” Gazette: The International Journal of Communication Studies
64 (1): 21–45.
BirdS. Elizabeth, ed. 2009. The Anthropology of News and Journalism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
BlanksonIsaac Abeku. 2002. “Re-examining Civil Society in Emerging Sub Sahara African Democracies: The State, the Media, and the Public in Ghana.” Global Media Journal
1 (1). http://lass.calumet.purdue.edu.
1993. “Press Freedom in Africa: A Cultural Analysis.” Journal of Communication Inquiry
17 (2): 69–92.
BrownWendy. 1995. States of Injury: Power and Freedom in Late Modernity. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
BuckleyStephen. 1996. “In Sub-Saharan Africa, Crackdowns on the Press Are Becoming Commonplace.” International Herald Tribune, April 9.
JosephCampbell W.. 2003 “African Cultures and Newspapers.” In The Function of the Newspaper: A Global Perspective, edited by MartinShannon E. and CopelandDavid A., 31–46. New York: Praeger.
ChabalPatrick. 1998. “A Few Considerations on Democracy in Africa.” International Affairs
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ChenSheue Yun. 1998. “State, Media and Democracy in Taiwan.” Media, Culture and Society
CollingsAnthony. 2001. Words of Fire: Independent Journalists Who Challenge Dictators, Drug Lords, and Other Enemies of aFree Press. New York: New York University Press.
ComanMihai, and RothenbuhlerErik W.. 2005. “The Promise of Media Anthropology.” In Media Anthropology, edited by RothenbuhlerErik W. and ComanMihai, 1–12. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.
DareOlatunji. 1997. “The Press.” In Transition Without End: Nigerian Politics and Civil Society under Babangida, edited by DiamondLarry
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DareSunday. 2007. Guerilla Journalism: Dispatches from the Underground. Bloomington, Ind.: Xlibris Corporation.
DiamondLarry. 1990. “Nigeria: Pluralism, Statism, and the Struggle for Democracy.” In Politics in Developing Countries: Comparing Experiences with Democracy, edited by DiamondLarry, LinzJuan J., and LipsetSeymour Martin, 351–409. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner.
DiamondLarry. 1991. “Nigeria's Search for a New Political Order.” Journal of Democracy
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DowningJohn D. H.
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EriboFestus, and Jong-EbotWilliam. 1997. Press Freedom and Communication in Africa. Trenton, N.J.: African World Press.
EtteMercy, 2000. “Agent of Change or Stability? The Nigerian Press Undermines Democracy.” The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics
5 (3): 67–86.
GinsburgFaye. 2005. “Media Anthropology: An Introduction.” In Media Anthropology, edited by RothenbuhlerErik W. and ComanMihai, 17–25. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.
GramsciAntonio. 1971. Selections from Prison Notebooks. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
HallStuart, 1982. “The Rediscovery of ‘Ideology’: The Return of the Repressed in Media Studies.” In Culture, Society and the Media, edited by GurevitchM.
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HastyJennifer. 2001. “From Culture of Silence to Culture of Contest: Hegemony, Legitimacy and the Press in Ghana.” The Journal of Cultural Studies
3 (2): 348–59.
HastyJennifer. 2005a. “The Pleasures of Corruption: Desire and Discipline in Ghanaian Political Culture.” Cultural Anthropology
20 (2): 271–301.
HastyJennifer. 2005b. “Sympathetic Magic/Contagious Corruption: Sociality, Democracy, and the Press in Ghana.” Public Culture
17 (3): 339–69.
HastyJennifer. 2005c. The Press and Political Culture in Ghana. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
HastyJennifer. 2006. “Performing Power, Composing Culture: The State Press in Ghana.” Ethnography
HobartMark, 2005. “The Profanity of the Media.” In Media Anthropology, edited by RothenbuhlerErik W. and ComanMihai. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.
HydénGöran, and OkigboCharles. 2002. “The Media and Two Waves of Democracy.” In Media and Democracy in Africa, edited by HydénGöran, LeslieMichael, and OgundimuFolu F., 29–54. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.
HydénGöran, and LeslieMichael. 2002. “Communication and Democratization in Africa.” In Media and Democracy in Africa, edited by HydénGöran, LeslieMichael, and OgundimuFolu F., 1–28. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.
HydénGöran, LeslieMichael, and OgundimuFolu F., eds. 2002. Media and Democracy in Africa. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.
2003. “The Nigerian Press and Jun e 12: Pressure and Performance during a Political Crisis.” Journalism and Communication Monographs
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ImanyaraGitobu. 1992. “Kenya: Indecent Exposure.” Index on Censorship
21 (4): 21–22.
IyareTony. 1993. “Storm of Protests.” Newswatch, August 30.
JosephRichard, 1997. “Democratization Under Military Rule and Repression.” In Dilemmas of Democracy in Nigeria, edited by BeckettPaul and YoungCrawford, 137–54. Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press.
1996. “What Does the ‘Militariat’ Do When It Rules? Military Regimes: The Gambia, Sierra Leone and Liberia.” Review of African Political Economy
23 (69): 387–404.
KarikariKwame. 1993. “Africa: The Press and Democracy.” Race and Class
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1995. “The Role of the Independent Media in Africa's Change to Democracy.” Media Culture Society
KasomaFrancis P.. 1997. “The Independent Press and Politics in Africa.” International Communication Gazette
1998. “Nigeria: Free Press Hopes Fade.” Columbia Journalism Review (Nov./Dec.): 24–25.
1997. “Press Freedom in Zimbabwe.” In Press Freedom and Communication in Africa, edited by EriboFestus and Jong-EbotWilliam, 157–83. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press.
LambChristina. 1995. “Editors Defy Nigerian Reign of Fear.” Sunday Times (London), December 24.
1993. “Democratization and Forces in the African Media.” Journal of International Affairs
47 (1): 89–93.
2001. The Media and Cultural Production. London: Sage.
LouwEric P., and TomaselliKeyan G.. 1994. “Considerations on the Role of Media and Information in Building a New South Africa.” Africa Media Review
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MarnoguesMichele. 1996. Guerrilla Journalism, Paris: Reporters Sans Frontiere.
1973. “The Lumpen Proletariat and the Lumpen Militariat: African Soldiers as a New Political Class.” Political Studies
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MbembeAchille. 1992. “Provisional Notes on the Postcolony.” Africa: Journal of the International African Institute
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MeldrumAndrew. 2004. Where We Have Hope: A Memoir of Zimbabwe. New York: Grove Press.
2005. Africa's Media: Democracy and the Politics of Belonging. New York: Zed Books.
NyamnjohF. B., WeteF., and FonshingongT.. 1996. “Media and Civil Society in Cameroon.” Africa Media Review
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ObadareEbenezer. 1999. “The Press and Democratic Transition in Nigeria: Comparative Notes on the Abacha and Abubakar Transition Programs.” Issue: A Journal of Opinion
27 (1): 38–40.
ObadareEbenezer. 2005. “The Theory and Practice of Civil Society in Nigeria.” Ph.D diss., London School of Economics.
ObadareEbenezer, and AdebanwiWale. 2010. “Introduction: Excess and Abjection in the Study of the African State.” In Encountering the Nigerian State, edited by AdebanwiW. and ObadareE., 1–28. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
OcittiJim. 2005. Press, Politics and Public Policy in Uganda: The Role of Journalism in Democratization. Lampeter, U.K.: The Edwin Mellen Press.
1997. “Communication and Democratization in Africa: Constitutional Changes, Prospects and Persistent Problems for the Media.” Gazette
59 (4–5): 271–94.
OgbondahChris W.. 2002. “Media Laws in Political Transition.” In Media and Democracy in Africa. edited by HydénGöran, LeslieMichael, and OgundimuFolu F.. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.
2003. “The Mass Media and the Challenges of Sustainable Democratic Values in Nigeria: Possibilities and Limitations.” Media, Culture and Society
OlorunyomiDapo. “Famished Road to Freedom.” 1996. Guardian (London), January 22.
OlorunyomiDapo. 1998a. “Defiant Publishing in Nigeria.” In Journalists in Peril, edited by WoodhullNancy J. and SnyderRobert W., 57–63. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.
OlorunyomiDapo. 1998b. “Substance and Fancy in Nigerian Media–Military Relations.” The North-South Institute Review
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OlukotunAyo, and OmoleTade. 1999. “The Media and Democratisation in Nigeria 1984–1996.” In Governance and Democratization in West Africa, edited by SoremekunKayode
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OlukotunAyo, and OmoleTade. 2002a. “Authoritarian State, Crisis of Democratization and the Underground Media in Nigeria.” African Affairs
OlukotunAyo, and OmoleTade. 2002b. State Repression, Crisis of Democratization and Media Resistance in Nigeria, 1988–1999. Ibadan: College Press.
OlukotunAyo, and OmoleTade. 2004. “Media Accountability and Democracy in Nigeria, 1999–2003.” African Studies Review
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2006. Anthropology and Social Structure: Culture, Power, and the Acting Subject. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.
OsaghaeEghosa. 1994. “Introduction: Between the Individual and the State in Africa—The Imperative of Development.” In Between State and Civil Society in Africa, edited by OsaghaeE., 1–16. Dakar: CODESRIA.
PinnockDon. 1997. “Writing Left: The Journalism of Ruth First and The Guardian in the 1950s.” In South Africa's Alternative Press: Voices of Protest and Resistance, edited by SwitzerLes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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1996. “Transition without Consolidation: Democratization in Six African Cases.” Third World Quarterly
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SeegerMurray. 1997. “Nigeria Descends Deep into Disrepute: Rule by ‘Medieval Warlords’ Is Holding Back Largest Nation on the African Continent.” Baltimore Sun, December 21.
StepanAlfred C., 1988. Rethinking Military Politics: Brazil and the Southern Cone. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
SwitzerLes. 1997a. South Africa's Alternative Press: Voices of Protest and Resistance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
SwitzerLes. 1997b. “Socialism and the Resistance Movement: The Life and Times of The Guardian, 1937–1952.” In South Africa's Alternative Press: Voices of Protest and Resistance, edited by SwitzerLes, 266–307. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
SwitzerLes. 2000. “Introduction: South Africa's Resistance Press under Apartheid.” In South Africa's Resistance Press: Alternative Voices in the Last Generation under Apartheid, edited by SwitzerLes and AdhikariMohamed, 1–53. Athens: Ohio University Press.
SwitzerLes, and AdhikariMohamed, eds. 2000. South Africa's Resistance Press: Alternative Voices in the Last Generation under Apartheid. Athens: Ohio University Press.
1995. “The Press and the Democratization Process in Africa: The Case of the Republic of Cameroon.” Journal of Third World Studies
12 (2): 326–49.
2001. “The Media and Democratization in Africa: Contributions, Constraints and Concerns of the Private Press.” Media, Culture and Society
TomaselliKeyan, and LouwP. Eric, eds. 1991. The Alternative Press in South Africa. Colorado Springs: International Academic Publisher.
UkoNdaeyo. 2004. Romancing the Gun: The Press as Promoter of Military Rule. Trenton, N.J.: African World Press.
WilliamsAdebayo. 1993. “Remember Rufus.” Tempo, December 23.