Books and Periodicals
2000. “The Nigerian Press and the National Question.” In The National Question in Nigeria: Comparative Perspectives, edited by Momoh Abubakar and Adejumobi Said, 201–15. Aldershot: Ashgate Books.
Adebanwi W.. 2002. “The Nation as a Grand Narrative: The Nigerian Press and the Politics of Meaning.” Ph.D. diss., University of Ibadan.
Adebanwi W.. 2004. “The Press and the Politics of Marginal Voices: Narratives of the Experiences of the Ogoni of Nigeria.” Media, Culture and Society
26 (6): 763–83.
Adebanwi W.. 2008. Trials and Triumphs: The Story of The NEWS. Lagos: West African Book Publishers.
Agbaje Adigun. 1990. “Freedom of the Press and Party Politics in Nigeria: Precepts, Retrospect and Prospects.” African Affairs
89 (355): 205–26.
Agbaje Adigun. 1992. The Nigerian Press Hegemony and the Social Construction of Legitimacy, 1960–1983. Lewiston, N.Y.: The Edwin Press.
Agbaje Adigun. 1993. “Beyond the State: Civil Society and the Nigerian Press under Military Rule.” Media Culture Society
Agbese Aje-Ori. 2006. The Role of the Press and Communication Technology in Democratization: The Nigerian Story. London: Routledge.
Ang Ien, 1996. Living Room Wars: Rethinking Media Audiences in a Postmodern World. London: Routledge.
Askew Kelly, and Wilk Richard R., eds. 2002. The Anthropology of the Media: A Reader, Maiden, Mass.: Blackwell.
Babu A. M.
1992. “The Right to Demand Freedoms.” Index on Censorship
Barton Frank. 1979. The Press of Africa: Persecution and Perseverance. New York: Macmillan.
1998. “Media and Democracy in Southern Africa.” Review of African Political Economy
Berger G.. 2002. “Theorizing the Media–Democracy Relationship in Southern Africa.” Gazette: The International Journal of Communication Studies
64 (1): 21–45.
Bird S. Elizabeth, ed. 2009. The Anthropology of News and Journalism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Blankson Isaac Abeku. 2002. “Re-examining Civil Society in Emerging Sub Sahara African Democracies: The State, the Media, and the Public in Ghana.” Global Media Journal
1 (1). http://lass.calumet.purdue.edu.
Bourgault Louise M.
1993. “Press Freedom in Africa: A Cultural Analysis.” Journal of Communication Inquiry
17 (2): 69–92.
Brown Wendy. 1995. States of Injury: Power and Freedom in Late Modernity. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Buckley Stephen. 1996. “In Sub-Saharan Africa, Crackdowns on the Press Are Becoming Commonplace.” International Herald Tribune, April 9.
Joseph Campbell W.. 2003 “African Cultures and Newspapers.” In The Function of the Newspaper: A Global Perspective, edited by Martin Shannon E. and Copeland David A., 31–46. New York: Praeger.
Chabal Patrick. 1998. “A Few Considerations on Democracy in Africa.” International Affairs
74 (2): 289–303.
Chen Sheue Yun. 1998. “State, Media and Democracy in Taiwan.” Media, Culture and Society
Collings Anthony. 2001. Words of Fire: Independent Journalists Who Challenge Dictators, Drug Lords, and Other Enemies of aFree Press. New York: New York University Press.
Coman Mihai, and Rothenbuhler Erik W.. 2005. “The Promise of Media Anthropology.” In Media Anthropology, edited by Rothenbuhler Erik W. and Coman Mihai, 1–12. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.
Dare Olatunji. 1997. “The Press.” In Transition Without End: Nigerian Politics and Civil Society under Babangida, edited by Diamond Larry
et al., 535–51. Ibadan: Vantage Publishers.
Dare Sunday. 2007. Guerilla Journalism: Dispatches from the Underground. Bloomington, Ind.: Xlibris Corporation.
Diamond Larry. 1990. “Nigeria: Pluralism, Statism, and the Struggle for Democracy.” In Politics in Developing Countries: Comparing Experiences with Democracy, edited by Diamond Larry, Linz Juan J., and Lipset Seymour Martin, 351–409. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner.
Diamond Larry. 1991. “Nigeria's Search for a New Political Order.” Journal of Democracy
2 (2): 54–69.
Downing John D. H.
2001. Radical Media: Rebellious Communication and Social Movements. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.
Ekpu Ray. 1990. “Nigeria's Embattled Fourth Estate.” Journal of Democracy
1 (Spring): 106–16.
Eribo Festus, and Jong-Ebot William. 1997. Press Freedom and Communication in Africa. Trenton, N.J.: African World Press.
Ette Mercy, 2000. “Agent of Change or Stability? The Nigerian Press Undermines Democracy.” The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics
5 (3): 67–86.
Ginsburg Faye. 2005. “Media Anthropology: An Introduction.” In Media Anthropology, edited by Rothenbuhler Erik W. and Coman Mihai, 17–25. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.
Gramsci Antonio. 1971. Selections from Prison Notebooks. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
Hall Stuart, 1982. “The Rediscovery of ‘Ideology’: The Return of the Repressed in Media Studies.” In Culture, Society and the Media, edited by Gurevitch M.
et al., 52–86. London: Methuen.
Hasty Jennifer. 2001. “From Culture of Silence to Culture of Contest: Hegemony, Legitimacy and the Press in Ghana.” The Journal of Cultural Studies
3 (2): 348–59.
Hasty Jennifer. 2005a. “The Pleasures of Corruption: Desire and Discipline in Ghanaian Political Culture.” Cultural Anthropology
20 (2): 271–301.
Hasty Jennifer. 2005b. “Sympathetic Magic/Contagious Corruption: Sociality, Democracy, and the Press in Ghana.” Public Culture
17 (3): 339–69.
Hasty Jennifer. 2005c. The Press and Political Culture in Ghana. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Hasty Jennifer. 2006. “Performing Power, Composing Culture: The State Press in Ghana.” Ethnography
Hobart Mark, 2005. “The Profanity of the Media.” In Media Anthropology, edited by Rothenbuhler Erik W. and Coman Mihai. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.
Hydén Göran, and Okigbo Charles. 2002. “The Media and Two Waves of Democracy.” In Media and Democracy in Africa, edited by Hydén Göran, Leslie Michael, and Ogundimu Folu F., 29–54. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.
Hydén Göran, and Leslie Michael. 2002. “Communication and Democratization in Africa.” In Media and Democracy in Africa, edited by Hydén Göran, Leslie Michael, and Ogundimu Folu F., 1–28. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.
Hydén Göran, Leslie Michael, and Ogundimu Folu F., eds. 2002. Media and Democracy in Africa. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.
2003. “The Nigerian Press and Jun e 12: Pressure and Performance during a Political Crisis.” Journalism and Communication Monographs
4 (4): 163–209.
Imanyara Gitobu. 1992. “Kenya: Indecent Exposure.” Index on Censorship
21 (4): 21–22.
Iyare Tony. 1993. “Storm of Protests.” Newswatch, August 30.
Joseph Richard, 1997. “Democratization Under Military Rule and Repression.” In Dilemmas of Democracy in Nigeria, edited by Beckett Paul and Young Crawford, 137–54. Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press.
Kandeh Jimmy D.
1996. “What Does the ‘Militariat’ Do When It Rules? Military Regimes: The Gambia, Sierra Leone and Liberia.” Review of African Political Economy
23 (69): 387–404.
Karikari Kwame. 1993. “Africa: The Press and Democracy.” Race and Class
34 (3): 55–66.
Kasoma Francis P.
1995. “The Role of the Independent Media in Africa's Change to Democracy.” Media Culture Society
Kasoma Francis P.. 1997. “The Independent Press and Politics in Africa.” International Communication Gazette
1998. “Nigeria: Free Press Hopes Fade.” Columbia Journalism Review (Nov./Dec.): 24–25.
Kumbula Tendayi S.
1997. “Press Freedom in Zimbabwe.” In Press Freedom and Communication in Africa, edited by Eribo Festus and Jong-Ebot William, 157–83. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press.
Lamb Christina. 1995. “Editors Defy Nigerian Reign of Fear.” Sunday Times (London), December 24.
1993. “Democratization and Forces in the African Media.” Journal of International Affairs
47 (1): 89–93.
Louw Eric P.
2001. The Media and Cultural Production. London: Sage.
Louw Eric P., and Tomaselli Keyan G.. 1994. “Considerations on the Role of Media and Information in Building a New South Africa.” Africa Media Review
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Marnogues Michele. 1996. Guerrilla Journalism, Paris: Reporters Sans Frontiere.
Mazrui Ali A.
1973. “The Lumpen Proletariat and the Lumpen Militariat: African Soldiers as a New Political Class.” Political Studies
21 (1): 1–12.
Mbembe Achille. 1992. “Provisional Notes on the Postcolony.” Africa: Journal of the International African Institute
62 (1): 3–37.
Meldrum Andrew. 2004. Where We Have Hope: A Memoir of Zimbabwe. New York: Grove Press.
Nyamnjoh Francis B.
2005. Africa's Media: Democracy and the Politics of Belonging. New York: Zed Books.
Nyamnjoh F. B., Wete F., and Fonshingong T.. 1996. “Media and Civil Society in Cameroon.” Africa Media Review
10 (3): 37–66.
Obadare Ebenezer. 1999. “The Press and Democratic Transition in Nigeria: Comparative Notes on the Abacha and Abubakar Transition Programs.” Issue: A Journal of Opinion
27 (1): 38–40.
Obadare Ebenezer. 2005. “The Theory and Practice of Civil Society in Nigeria.” Ph.D diss., London School of Economics.
Obadare Ebenezer, and Adebanwi Wale. 2010. “Introduction: Excess and Abjection in the Study of the African State.” In Encountering the Nigerian State, edited by Adebanwi W. and Obadare E., 1–28. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
Ocitti Jim. 2005. Press, Politics and Public Policy in Uganda: The Role of Journalism in Democratization. Lampeter, U.K.: The Edwin Mellen Press.
Ogbondah Chris W.
1997. “Communication and Democratization in Africa: Constitutional Changes, Prospects and Persistent Problems for the Media.” Gazette
59 (4–5): 271–94.
Ogbondah Chris W.. 2002. “Media Laws in Political Transition.” In Media and Democracy in Africa. edited by Hydén Göran, Leslie Michael, and Ogundimu Folu F.. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.
Ojo Emmanuel O.
2003. “The Mass Media and the Challenges of Sustainable Democratic Values in Nigeria: Possibilities and Limitations.” Media, Culture and Society
Olorunyomi Dapo. “Famished Road to Freedom.” 1996. Guardian (London), January 22.
Olorunyomi Dapo. 1998a. “Defiant Publishing in Nigeria.” In Journalists in Peril, edited by Woodhull Nancy J. and Snyder Robert W., 57–63. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.
Olorunyomi Dapo. 1998b. “Substance and Fancy in Nigerian Media–Military Relations.” The North-South Institute Review
2 (2). www.nsi-ins.ca.
Olukotun Ayo, and Omole Tade. 1999. “The Media and Democratisation in Nigeria 1984–1996.” In Governance and Democratization in West Africa, edited by Soremekun Kayode
et al., 239–63. Dakar: CODESRIA.
Olukotun Ayo, and Omole Tade. 2002a. “Authoritarian State, Crisis of Democratization and the Underground Media in Nigeria.” African Affairs
Olukotun Ayo, and Omole Tade. 2002b. State Repression, Crisis of Democratization and Media Resistance in Nigeria, 1988–1999. Ibadan: College Press.
Olukotun Ayo, and Omole Tade. 2004. “Media Accountability and Democracy in Nigeria, 1999–2003.” African Studies Review
47 (3): 69–90.
Ortner Sherry B.
2006. Anthropology and Social Structure: Culture, Power, and the Acting Subject. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.
Osaghae Eghosa. 1994. “Introduction: Between the Individual and the State in Africa—The Imperative of Development.” In Between State and Civil Society in Africa, edited by Osaghae E., 1–16. Dakar: CODESRIA.
Pinnock Don. 1997. “Writing Left: The Journalism of Ruth First and The Guardian in the 1950s.” In South Africa's Alternative Press: Voices of Protest and Resistance, edited by Switzer Les. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rothenbuhler Erik W., and Coman Mihai, eds. 2005. Media Anthropology. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.
1996. “Transition without Consolidation: Democratization in Six African Cases.” Third World Quarterly
17 (1): 69–87
Seeger Murray. 1997. “Nigeria Descends Deep into Disrepute: Rule by ‘Medieval Warlords’ Is Holding Back Largest Nation on the African Continent.” Baltimore Sun, December 21.
Stepan Alfred C., 1988. Rethinking Military Politics: Brazil and the Southern Cone. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Switzer Les. 1997a. South Africa's Alternative Press: Voices of Protest and Resistance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Switzer Les. 1997b. “Socialism and the Resistance Movement: The Life and Times of The Guardian, 1937–1952.” In South Africa's Alternative Press: Voices of Protest and Resistance, edited by Switzer Les, 266–307. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Switzer Les. 2000. “Introduction: South Africa's Resistance Press under Apartheid.” In South Africa's Resistance Press: Alternative Voices in the Last Generation under Apartheid, edited by Switzer Les and Adhikari Mohamed, 1–53. Athens: Ohio University Press.
Switzer Les, and Adhikari Mohamed, eds. 2000. South Africa's Resistance Press: Alternative Voices in the Last Generation under Apartheid. Athens: Ohio University Press.
1995. “The Press and the Democratization Process in Africa: The Case of the Republic of Cameroon.” Journal of Third World Studies
12 (2): 326–49.
Tettey Wisdom J.
2001. “The Media and Democratization in Africa: Contributions, Constraints and Concerns of the Private Press.” Media, Culture and Society
Tomaselli Keyan, and Louw P. Eric, eds. 1991. The Alternative Press in South Africa. Colorado Springs: International Academic Publisher.
Uko Ndaeyo. 2004. Romancing the Gun: The Press as Promoter of Military Rule. Trenton, N.J.: African World Press.
Williams Adebayo. 1993. “Remember Rufus.” Tempo, December 23.