Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

The Agricultural Foundations of the Tiwanaku State: A View from the Heartland

  • Alan L. Kolata (a1)

Abstract

In this essay I explore the nature, role, and significance of intensive agriculture in the ancient state of Tiwanaku, which was centered in the high plateau of southern Peru and northwestern Bolivia. Significant primary evidence that the state of Tiwanaku systematically reclaimed immense tracts of now abandoned agricultural land around the borders of Lake Titicaca is adduced and evaluated.

I conclude that Tiwanaku was a dynamic, expansive state based squarely on an effective, surplus-producing system of intensive agriculture, that the intensification agricultural production through large scale reclamation of flat, seasonally inundated land along the margins of Lake Titicaca was a prime economic strategy of the Tiwanaku state, and that this strategy was devised and managed by a hierarchically organized, central government.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Bandelier, Adolph F. 1910 The Islands of Titicaca and Koati. Hispanic Society of America, New York.
Bennett, Wendell C. 1936 Excavations in Bolivia. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History 35(4) : 329507. American Museum of Natural History.
Browman, David L. 1978 Toward the Development of the Tiahuanaco (Tiwanaku) State. In Advances in Andean Archaeology, edited by L. Browman, David, pp. 327349. Mouton, The Hague, The Netherlands.
Cordero Miranda, Gregorio 1971 Reconocimiento arqueologico de Pucarani y sitios adyacentes. Pumapunku 3 : 727. Instituto de Cultura Aymara, La Paz, Bolivia.
Dene van, William M. 1970 Aboriginal Drained-Field Cultivation in the Americas. Science 169 : 647654.
Dene van, William M. 1980 Tipologia de configuraciones agricolas prehispanicas. America Indigena 40 : 619652.
Dene van, William M. 1982 Hydraulic Agriculture in the American Tropics : Forms, Measures, and Recent Research. In Maya Subsistence, edited by V. Flannery, Kent, pp. 181203. Academic Press, New York.
Erickson, Clark L. 1984 Applications of Prehistoric Andean Technology : Experiments in Raised Field Agriculture, Huatta, Lake Titicaca : 1981-1982. In Prehistoric Intensive Agriculture in the Tropics, edited by Farrington. British, Ian Archaeological Reports, International Series, Oxford, in press.
Hill, R. 1959 Inflow of Lake Titicaca. Journal of Geophysical Research 64 : 789794.
Isbell, William H., and Katharina, J. Schreiber 1978 Was Huari a State? American Antiquity 43 : 372389.
Kolata, Alan L. 1982 Tiwanaku : Portrait of an Andean Civilization. Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 53(8) : 1328.
Kolata, Alan L. 1983 The South Andes. In Ancient South Americans, edited by D. Jennings, Jesse, pp. 241284. W. H. Freeman, San Francisco.
Lennon, Thomas J. 1982 Raised Fields of Lake Titicaca, Peru : A Prehispanic Water Management System. Unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Colorado, Boulder.
Ministerio de Asuntos Campesinos y Agropecuarios, La Paz, Bolivia, 1974 Diagnostico del Sector Agropecuario. 2 vols. Ministerio de Asuntos Campesinos y Agropecuarios, Oficina de Planeamiento Sectorial, La Paz.
Nunez, Mario, and Paredes, Rolando 1978 Esteves : un sitio de ocupacion Tiwanaku. In Congreso Peruano del Hombre y la Cultura Andina, vol. 2, edited by Ramiro, Matos M., pp. 757764. Lima.
Parsons, Jeffrey R. 1968 An Estimate of Size and Population for Middle Horizon Tiahuanaco, Bolivia. American Antiquity 47 : 572595.
Ponce Sangines, Carlos 1970 Las Culturas Wankarani y Chiripa y su relacion con Tiwanaku. Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Bolivia, publicacion numero 25, La Paz, Bolivia.
Ponce Sangines, Carlos 1976 La Ceramica de la Epoca I de Tiwanaku. 2nd ed. Instituto Nacional de Arqueologia, publicacion numero 18, La Paz, Bolivia.
Ponce Sangines, Carlos 1979 La Cultura nativa en Bolivia. 2nd ed. Ediciones Los Amigos del Libro, La Paz, Bolivia.
Ponce Sangines, Carlos 1980 Panorama de la arqueologia boliviano. Libreria y Editorial “Juventud, ” La Paz, Bolivia.
Ponce Sangines, Carlos 1981 Tiwanaku : Espacio, Tiempo y Cultura. Ensayo de sintesis arqueologica. 4th ed. Editorial “Los Amigos del Libro, ” La Paz and Cochabamba, Bolivia.
Posnansky, Arthur 1945 Tiahuanaco : The Cradle of American Man. 2 vols. J. J. Augustin, New York.
Smith, C. T., William, M. Denevan, and Hamilton, P. 1968 Ancient Ridged Fields in the Region of Lake Titicaca. Geographical Review 134 : 353367.
Tapia Pineda, Felix B. 1976 Contribuciones al estudio de la cultura precolombiana en el altiplano peruano. Instituto Nacional de Arqueologia, publicacion numero 16, La Paz, Bolivia.
Unzueta, Orlando 1975 Mapa Ecologico de Bolivia : Memoria Explicativa. Ministerio de Asuntos Campesinos y Agropecuarios, Division de Suelos, Riegos e Ingenieria, La Paz, Bolivia.
Wright, Henry T., and Johnson, Gregory 1975 Population, Exchange and Early State Formation in Southwestern Iran. American Anthropologist 77 : 267289.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

American Antiquity
  • ISSN: 0002-7316
  • EISSN: 2325-5064
  • URL: /core/journals/american-antiquity
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed