The Hohokam grew maize as early as 300 B.C. Common beans were introduced by Estrella phase (100 B.C.-A.D. 100) and cotton was cultivated by the following phase (A.D. 100-300). Sahuaro and mesquite seeds supplemented agricultural products especially when crops failed. The Hohokam apparently harvested two plantings per year. Opuntia seeds were eaten when crops failed and sedge seeds were consumed during optimal conditions for growth of all local vegetation. Pollen analysis suggests cholla buds were eaten and that there was continual expansion of agricultural land from Sweetwater through Gila Butte phases. Coniferous timbers were incorporated into houses during the last phase (Sacaton, A.D. 1100-1200) of the occupation of Snaketown.
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