Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Glacial-Age Man in South America? A Critical Review

  • Thomas F. Lynch (a1)
Abstract

This paper is an attempt to place the dispute about early man in South America in historical context and to review the most convincing and important evidence that has been put forward. Essentially no skeletal remains–either in North or South America–have survived recent scrutiny and direct dating by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and small CO2 counters. Only a handful of North American sites still are considered likely to be pre-Clovis, but the concept of an earlier, generalized hunting-and-gathering adaptation remains popular. In South America the pre-Paleoindian sites of the 1960s and 1970s are reevaluated and found to present only weak or negative indications of early occupation. Recently discovered sites in Brazil and Chile are examined critically, and the evidence is questioned. The results of this survey and evaluation suggest that we still lack the absolutely certain case that would be necessary to support the hypothesis of glacial-age occupation. Moreover, the probability of demonstration is seen to decrease, rather than increase, as the Paleoindian horizon increasingly is defined with more certainty while only equivocal cases are marshalled for an Archaic-like pre-Paleoindian stage. In summarizing prehistory, archaeologists should depend more on unambiguous and replicated cases, rather than on regional exceptions. More interpretive caution is needed, especially where there are possibilities of mixture and secondary deposition. Natural processes often mimic cultural patterns, confusing the positive identification of informal hearths and simple artifacts.

Résumé

Este trabajo es un intento para colocar la discusión del hombre temprano en la América del Sur en un contexto histórico, y para revisar la evidencia más convincente e importante que haya sido presentada. Prácticamente, ningún resto esqueletal, en ambos continentes, ha sobrevivido a los recientes escrutínios yfechaciones directas por AMS y pequeños contadores de C02. Solamente un puúado de sitios de la América del Norte es considerado todavía razonablemente probable de ser pre-Clovis, pero el concepto de una adaptación temprana, de caza y recolección generalizadas, es aún popular. En la América del Sur, los sitios pre-Paleoindios de los años 60 y 70 son re-evaluados, y se encontró que presentan solamente frágiles o negativas indicaciones de ocupación temprana. Los sitios de Brasil y de Chile, recientemente descubiertos, son examinados críticamente y la evidencia es cuestionada. Los resultados de esta investigación y evaluación sugieren que todavía nos hacefalta el caso absolutamente seguro que sería necesario para demostrar la hipótesis de ocupacion en la edad glacial. Más aún, la probabilidad estadística parece decrecer, antes que aumentar, mientras que el horizonte Paleoindio se define cada vez más y con mayor seguridad, en cuanto que se acumulan solamente casos equívocos para un estadio pre-Paleoindio. Los arqueológos deberían depender más de casos indubables y replicados, que de las excepciones regionales, alescribir los patrones generales de la prehistoria americana. Se ruega por más cautela interpretativa, especialmente donde existen posibilidades de mezcla y depositación secundaria. Los procesos naturales frecuentemente mimetizan los patrones culturales, confundiendo una identificación positiva de fogones informales y de artefactos sencillos.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Aguerre, A. M. 1979 Observaciones sobre la industria toldense. Sapiens 3: 3567. Museo Arqueologico O. F. A. Menghin, Chivilcoy, Argentina.
Ameghino, F. 1879 L'homme prehistorique dans La Plata. Revue d'Anthropologie 2: 210249.
Ameghino, F. 1880 La antiguedad del hombre en La Plata. 2 vols. Privately published, Paris.
Arellano Lopez, J. 1986 Nuapua, un asentamiento paleoindigena en Bolivia. Prehistoricas 1: 4955. Universidad Mayor de San Andres, La Paz.
Beltrao, M. C. de M. C. 1974 Datacoes arqueologicas mais antigas do Brasil. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 46(2): 211251.
Beltrao, M. C. de M. C., Danon, J., Enriquez, C., Poupeau, G., and Zuleta, E. 1982 Sur l'arrivee de l'homme en Amerique: Datations par thermoluminescence des silex brules du site archeologique Alice Boer (Bresil). Comptes Rendus de VAcademie des Sciences, Paris 295: 629632.
Beltrao, M. C. de M. C., and Danon, J. 1987 Evidence of Human Occupations During the Middle Pleistocene at the Toca da Esperanca in Central Archaeological Region, State of Bahia, Brazil. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 59(3): 275276.
Beltrao, M. C. de M. C., Enriquez, C., Danon, J., Zuleta, E., and Poupeau, G. 1986 Thermoluminescence Dating of Burnt Cherts from the Alice Boer Site (Brazil). In New Evidence for the Pleistocene Peopling of the Americas, edited by Bryan, A. L., pp. 203213. Center for the Study of Early Man, Orono, Maine.
Berger, R. 1983 Direct Bone Dating in a Small C02 Counter. Radiocarbon 25: 655659.
Binford, L. R., and Ho, C. K. 1985 Taphonomy at a Distance: Zhoukoudian, “The Cave Home of Beijing Man“? Current Anthropology 26: 413429.
Binford, L. R., and Stone, N. M. 1986 Zhoukoudian: A Closer Look. Current Anthropology 27: 453475.
Bird, J. B. 1943 Excavations in Northern Chile. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History 38(4). New York.
Bird, J. B. 1965 The Concept of a “Pre-Projectile Point” Cultural Stage in Chile and Peru. American Antiquity 31: 262270.
Bischoff, J. L., Ileya, M., and Budinger, F. E. 1984 A TL/ESR Study of the Hearth Feature at the Calico Archaeological Site, California. American Antiquity 49: 764774.
Bonavia, D. 1979 Considerations sobre el complejo Chivateros. In Arqueologia peruana, edited by Matos, R., pp. 6574. Centro de Proyeccion Cristiana, Lima.
Bonavia, D. 1982 El complejo Chivateros, una aproximacion tecnologica. Revista del Museo Nacional 46: 1937, Lima.
Bonnichsen, R. 1988 Early Human Sites in South America. Mammoth Trumpet 4(3): 2, 6.
Bonnichsen, R., and Hoch, D. M. 1983 Flake Dispersal Experiments: Noncultural Transformation of the Archaeological Record. American Antiquity 48: 553572.
Borrero, L. A. 1985 Taphonomic Observations on Guanaco Skeletons. In Current Research in the Pleistocene, vol. 2, edited by Mead, J. I., pp. 6566. Center for the Study of Early Man, Orono, Maine.
Bowen, D. Q. 1978 Quaternary Geology: A Stratigraphic Framework for Multidisciplinary Work. Pergamon Press, New York.
Brothwell, D., and Burleigh, R. 1977 On Sinking Otavalo Man. Journal of Archaeological Science 4: 291294.
Bryan, A. L. 1973 Paleoenvironments and Cultural Diversity in Late Pleistocene South America. Quaternary Research 3: 237256.
Bryan, A. L. 1978a An Overview of Paleo-American Prehistory from a Circum-Paciflc Perspective. In Early Man in America from a Circum-Pacific Perspective, edited by Bryan, A. L., pp. 306327. Department of Anthropology, University of Alberta, Edmonton.
Bryan, A. L. 1978b The Contribution of J. M. Cruxent to the Study of the Paleo-Indian Problem in the New World. In Unidady Variedades, Ensayos en Homenaje a Jose M. Cruxent, pp. 6375. Centro de Estudios Avanzados del IVIC, Caracas.
Bryan, A. L. 1979 The Stratigraphy of Taima-Taima. In Taima-Taima, edited by Ochsenius, C. and Gruhn, R., pp. 4152. South American Quaternary Documentation Program, Federal Republic of Germany.
Bryan, A. L. 1986 New Evidence for the Pleistocene Peopling of the Americas. Center for the Study of Early Man, Orono, Maine.
Bryan, A. L., and Beltrao, M. C. de M. C. 1978 An Early Stratified Sequence near Rio Claro, East Central Sao Paulo State, Brazil. In Early Man in America from a Circum-Pacific Perspective, edited by Bryan, A. L., pp. 303305. Department of Anthropology, University of Alberta, Edmonton.
Bryan, A. L., and Gruhn, R. 1979 The Radiocarbon Dates of Taima-Taima. In Taima-Taima edited by Ochsenius, C. and Gruhn, R., pp. 5358. South American Quaternary Documentation Program, Federal Republic of Germany.
BUrgl, H. 1957 Artefactos paleoliticos de una tumba en Garzon, Huila. Revista Colombiana de Antropologia 6: 728.
Bushnell, G. H. S. 1971 Text of Lecture Delivered November 5, 1970, at the University of Illinois, Urbana. Journal of the Steward Anthropological Society 3: 5665.
Butzer, K. W. 1988 A “Marginality” Model to Explain Major Spatial and Temporal Gaps in the Old and New World Pleistocene Settlement Records. Geoarchaeology 3: 193203.
Capdeville, A. 1928 Como descubri la industria paleolitica americana de los silices negros tallados, en la zona de la costa de Taltal. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 32: 348364.
Cardich, A. 1973 Excavaciones en la Caverna de Huargo, Peru. Revista del Museo Nacional 39: 1139.
Cardich, A. 1977 Las culturas pleistocenicas y post-pleistocenicas de Los Toldos y un bosqueo de la prehistoria de Sudamerica. In Obra del Centenario del Museo de La Plata, vol. 2, pp. 149172. La Plata, Argentina.
Cardich, A. 1984 Paleoambientes y la mas antiqua presencia del hombre. In Las culturas de America en la Epoca del Descubrimiento: Seminario sobre la situacion de la investigacion de las culturas indigenas de la Patagonia, pp. 1335. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid.
Cardich, A., Cardich, L. A., and Hajduk, A. 1973 Secuencia arqueologica de la cueva 3 de Los Toldos (Santa Cruz, Argentina). Relaciones de La Sociedad Argentina de Antropologia 7: 85123.
Cardich, A., and Flegenheimer, N. 1978 Description y tipologia de las industrias liticas mas antiguas de Los Toldos. Relaciones de la Sociedad Argentina de Antropologia 12: 225242.
Casamiquela, R. M, Montane, J. C., and Santana, R. 1967 Convivencia del hombre con el mastodonte en Chile central. Noticiario Mensual del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural 11(132): 16.
Chauchat, C. 1977 El Paijanense de Cupisnique. Revista del Museo Nacional 43: 1326. Lima.
Chauchat, C. 1982 LePaijanien du desert de Cupisniqiue: Recherches sur I'occupation prehistorique de la cote nord du Perou au debut de I' Holocene. Unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, Institute of Quaternary Studies, University of Bordeaux I, France.
Collins, M. B., and Dillehay, T. D. 1986 The Implications of the Lithic Assemblage from Monte Verde for Early Man Studies. In New Evidence for the Pleistocene Peopling of the Americas, edited by Bryan, A. L., pp. 339355. Center for the Study of Early Man, Orono, Maine.
Correal Urrego, G. 1983 Evidencia de cazadores especializados en el sitio de La Gloria, golfo de Uraba. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales 15(58): 7782. Bogota.
Correal Urrego, G. 1986 Apuntes sobre el medio ambiente pleistocenico y el hombre prehistorico en Colombia. In New Evidence for the Pleistocene Peopling of the Americas, edited by Bryan, A. L., pp. 115131. Center for the Study of Early Man, Orono, Maine.
Crabtree, D. 1969 Technological Description of Artifacts in Assemblage I, Wilson Butte Cave. Current Anthropology 10: 366367.
Cruxent, J. M. 1960 Les cultures lithiques Paleo-Indiennes du Venezuela: Un curieux phenomene de convergence typologique et fonctionelle avec les cultures forestiers centrafricaines. Verhandelingen der Koninklijk Museum voor Midden-Africa, Turvuren, pp. 257259.
Cruxent, J. M. 1962 Artifacts of Paleo-Indian type, Maracaibo, Zulia, Venezuela. American Antiquity 27: 576579.
Cruxent, J. M. 1970 Projectile Points with Pleistocene Mammals in Venezuela. Antiquity 44: 223225.
Cushing, J., Wenner, A. M., Noble, E., and Daily, M. 1986 A Groundwater Hypothesis for the Origin of “Fire Areas” on the Northern Channel Islands, California. Quaternary Research 26: 207217.
Davies, D. M. 1978a Some Observations on the Otavalo Skeleton and Other Remains of Early Man in South America. Journal of Human Evolution 7: 279281.
Davies, D. M. 1978b Some Observations on the Otavalo Skeleton from Imbabura Province, Ecuador. In Early Man in America from a Circum-Pacific Perspective, edited by Bryan, A. L., pp. 273289. Department of Anthropology, University of Alberta, Edmonton.
Dillehay, T. D. 1985 A Regional Perspective of Preceramic Times in the Central Andes. Reviews in Anthropology 12: 193205.
Dillehay, T. D., and Collins, M. B. 1988 Early Cultural Evidence from Monte Verde in Chile. Nature 332: 150152.
Dincauze, D. F. 1984 An Archaeo-Logical Evaluation of the Case for Pre-Clovis Occupations. Advances in World Archaeology, vol. 3, edited by Wendorf, F. and Close, A., pp. 275323. Academic Press, New York.
Dixon, E. J. 1985 The Origins of the First Americans. Archaeology 38(2): 2227.
Erlandson, J. M. 1984 A Case Study in Faunalturbation: Delineating the Effects of Burrowing Pocket Gopher on the Distribution of Archaeological Materials. American Antiquity 49: 785790.
Evans, O. H. 1906 Notes on the Stone Age in Northern Chile, with Special Reference to Taltal. Man 6: 1924.
Fagan, B. M. 1987 The Great Journey: The Peopling of Ancient America. Thames and Hudson, London.
Flegenheimer, N. 1980 Hallazgos de puntas “cola de pescado” en la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Relaciones de la Sociedad Argentina de Antropologia 14: 169176.
Fung, R., Cenzano, C., and Zavaleta, A. 1972 El taller litico de Chivateros, valle de Chillon. Revista del Museo Nacional 38: 6172. Lima.
Fung, R., Cenzano, C., and Zavaleta, A. 1985 The Third Dimension in Site Structure: An Experiment in Trampling and Vertical Dispersal. American Antiquity 50: 803818.
Greenberg, J. H., Turner, C. G. II, and Zegura, S. L. 1986 The Settlement of the Americas: A Comparison of the Linguistic, Dental, and Genetic Evidence. Current Anthropology 27: 477497.
Grove, R. B. 1970 Investigations of the Chuqui Complex. Ms. on file, Department of Anthropology, Cornell University, Ithaca.
Gruhn, R. 1965 Two Early Radiocarbon Dates from the Lower Levels of Wilson Butte Cave, South-Central Idaho. Tebiwa 8(2): 57.
Gruhn, R. 1987 Stratified Radiocarbon-Dated Archaeological Sites of Clovis Age and Older in Brazil. Paper presented at the 12th Congress of the International Union for Quaternary Research, Ottawa, Ontario.
Gruhn, R. 1988 Linguistic Evidence in Support of the Coastal Route of Earliest Entry into the New World. Man 23: 77100.
Gruhn, R., and Bryan, A. L. 1984 The Record of Pleistocene Megafaunal Extinction at Taima-Taima, Northern Venezuela. In Quaternary Extinctions: A Prehistoric Revolution, edited by Martin, P. and Klein, R., pp. 128137. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Guidon, N. 1984 L' Aire archeologique du sud-est du Piaui (Bresil), vol. 1. Editions Recherche sur les Civilisations, Synthese No. 16. Paris.
Guidon, N. 1985 Early Man in Piaui, Brazil. Paper presented at the 50th meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Denver.
Guidon, N. 1986 Las unidades culturales de Sao Raimundo Nonato-sudeste del Estado de Piaui— Brasil. In New Evidence for the Pleistocene Peopling of the Americas, edited by Bryan, A. L., pp. 157171. Center for the Study of Early Man, Orono, Maine.
Guidon, N., and Delibrias, G. 1985 Inventaire des sites sud-americains anterieurs a 12, 000 ans. L' Anthropologie 89: 385407.
Guidon, N., and Delibrias, G. 1986 Carbon-14 Dates Point to Man in the Americas 32, 000 Years Ago. Nature 321: 769771.
Haynes, C. V. 1966 Elephant Hunting in North America. Scientific American 2 14(6): 104112.
Haynes, C. V. 1974 Paleoenvironments and Cultural Diversity in Late Pleistocene South America: A Reply to A. L. Bryan. Quaternary Research 4: 378382.
Haynes, C. V. 1980 Paleoindian Charcoal from Meadowcroft Rockshelter: Is Contamination a Problem? American Antiquity 45: 582587.
Hoffstetter, R. 1968 Nuapua, un gisement de vertebres pleistocenes dans le Chaco Bolivien. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle 40: 823836.
Holm, O. 1981 Los primeros hombres del Ecuador. Museo Antropologico del Banco Central del Ecuador, Guayaquil.
Hrdlicka, A. 1912 Early Man in South America. Bulletin 52. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, D. C.
Hurt, W. R. 1960 The Cultural Complexes from the Lagoa Santa Region, Brazil. American Anthropologist 62: 569585.
Hurt, W. R. 1971 Late Pleistocene and Holocene Evidence for Climatic Changes in the Sabana de Bogota and Their Human Ecological Implications. Paper presented at the 36th meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Norman, Oklahoma.
Hurt, W. R. 1986 The Cultural Relationships of the Alice Boer Site, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. In New Evidence for the Pleistocene Peopling of the Americas, edited by Bryan, A. L., pp. 215219. Center for the Study of Early Man, Orono, Maine.
Hurt, W. R., van der Hammen, T., and Correal, G. 1977 The El Abra Rockshelters, Sabana de Bogota, Colombia. In Occasional Papers and Monographs of the Indiana University Museum, vol. 2, pp. 156. Bloomington.
Illera Montoya, C. H., and Valencia, C. Gnecco 1986 Puntas de proyectil en el valle de Popayan. Boletin Museo del Oro 17: 4557.
Irving, W. N., Jopling, A. V., and Beebe, B. F. 1986 Indications of Pre-Sangamon Humans near Old Crow, Yukon, Canada. In New Evidence for the Pleistocene Peopling of the Americas, edited by Bryan, A. L., pp. 4963. Center for the Study of Early Man, Orono, Maine.
James, S. R. 1989 Hominid Use of Fire in the Lower and Middle Pleistocene: A Review of the Evidence. Current Anthropology 30: 126.
Jennings, J. D. 1989 Prehistory of North America. 3rd ed. Mayfield, Mountain View, California.
Kelly, R. L., and Todd, L. C. 1988 Coming into the Country: Early Paleoindian Hunting and Mobility. American Antiquity 53: 231244.
Krantz, G. S. 1977 The Populating of Western North America. Occasional Papers in Method and Theory of the Society for California Archaeology 1. University of California, Berkeley.
Krieger, A. D. 1964 Early Man in the New World. In Prehistoric Man in the New World, edited by Jennings, J. and Norbeck, E., pp. 2381. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Krieger, A. D. 1965 Reply to Bird. American Antiquity 31: 270272.
Laming-Emperaire, A. 1979 Missions archeologiques franco-bresiliennes de Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais, Bresil: Le grand abri de Lapa Vermelha (P. L.). Revista de Pre-historia 1: 5389. Sao Paulo.
Laming-Emperaire, A., Prous, A. A., Moraes, A., and Beltrao, M. M. C. 1975 Grottes et abris de la region de Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais, Bresil. Cahiers d'Archeologie d'Amerique du Sud, Paris.
Lanning, E. P. 1970 Pleistocene Man in South America. World Archaeology 2: 90111.
Lanning, E. P. 1973 Burin Industries in the Pleistocene of the Andes. Estudios Atacamenos 1: 2138. San Pedro de Atacama, Chile.
Lanning, E. P., and Patterson, T. C. 1967 Early Man in South America. Scientific American 217(5): 4450.
Latcham, R. E. 1904 Notes of Some Ancient Chilean Skulls and Other Remains. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 34: 234254.
Latcham, R. E. 1915 Una estacion paleolitica en Taltal. Revista Chilena de Historia y Geografia 14: 85106. Santiago.
Lavallee, D. 1985 L'occupation prehistorique des hautes terres andines. VAnthropologic 89: 409430.
LePaige, G. 1958 Antiguas culturas atacameiias en la cordillera chilena, epoca paleolitica. Revista Universitaria 43: 139165. Anales de la Academia Chilena de Ciencias Naturales, Santiago.
LePaige, G. 1959-1960 Antiguas culturas atacameiias en la cordillera chilena, epoca paleolitica. Revista Universitaria 44/45: 191206. Anales de la Academia Chilena de Ciencias Naturales. Santiago.
Long, A., and Martin, P. S. 1974 Death of American Ground Sloths. Science 186: 638640.
Long, A., and Martin, P. S. 1988 Decouverte d'outils tailles associes a des faunes du Pleistocene moyen dans la Toca da Esperanca, Etat de Bahia, Bresil. Comptes Rendus de I' Academie des Sciences, Paris 306: 241247.
Lynch, T. F. 1967 The Nature of the Central Andean Preceramic. Occasional Papers of the Idaho State University Museum 21: 198. Pocatello.
Lynch, T. F. 1971 Preceramic Transhumance in the Callejon de Huaylas, Peru. American Antiquity 36: 139148.
Lynch, T. F. 1974 The Antiquity of Man in South America. Quaternary Research 4: 356377.
Lynch, T. F. 1978 Peopling of the Americas: A Reply to Irving Rouse. Quaternary Research 9: 129131.
Lynch, T. F. 1980 Guitarrero Cave: Early Man in the Andes. Academic Press, New York and London.
Lynch, T. F. 1983 The Paleo-Indians. In Ancient South Americans, edited by Jennings, J. D., pp. 87137. W. H. Freeman, San Francisco.
Lynch, T. F. 1984 Review of Prehistory of the Ayacucho Basin, Peru: Vol. 2: Excavations and Chronology , by Mac Neish, R. S., Garcia, A., Lumbreras, L., Vierra, R., and Nelken, A.. American Anthropologist 86: 762764.
Lynch, T. F. 1986 Climate Change and Human Settlement Around the Late-Glacial Laguna de Punta Negra, Northern Chile: The Preliminary Results. Geoarchaeology 1: 145162.
Lynch, T. F. 1988 Chobshi Cave in Retrospect. Andean Past 2: 132.
Lynch, T. F. (editor) 1971 Current Research: Highland South America. American Antiquity 36: 239243.
Lynch, T. F., Gillespie, R., Gowlett, J., and Hedges, R. 1985 Chronology of Guitarrero Cave, Peru. Science 229: 864867.
Lynch, T. F., and Kennedy, K. A. R. 1970 Early Human Cultural and Skeletal Remains from Guitarrero Cave, Northern Peru. Science 169: 13071309.
Mac Neish, R. S. 1976 Early Man in the New World. American Scientist 63: 316327.
Mac Neish, R. S. 1978 Late Pleistocene Adaptations: A New Look at Early Peopling of the New World as of 1976. Journal of Anthropological Research 34: 475496.
Mac Neish, R. S. 1979 The Early Man Remains from Pikimachay Cave, Ayacucho Basin, Highland Peru. In Pre-Llano Cultures of the Americas: Paradoxes and Possibilities, edited by Humphrey, R. and Stanford, D., pp. 147. Anthropological Society of Washington, Washington, D. C.
Mac Neish, R. S. 1982 A Late Commentary on an Early Subject. In Peopling of the New World, edited by Ericson, J., Taylor, R, and Berger, R., pp. 311315. Ballena Press, Los Altos, California.
Mac Neish, R. S., Berger, R., and Protsch, R. 1970 Megafauna and Man from Ayacucho, Highland Peru. Science 168: 975977.
Mac Neish, R. S., Garcia, A., Lumbreras, L., Vierra, R., and Nelkin-Terner, A. 1981 Prehistory of the Ayacucho Basin, Peru, vol. 1. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.
Mayer-Oakes, W. J. 1982 Early Man in the Northern Andes: Problems and Possibilities. In Peopling of the New World, edited by Ericson, J., Taylor, R, and Berger, R., pp. 269283. Ballena Press, Los Altos, California.
Mayer-Oakes, W. J. 1986 El Inga, a Paleo-Indian Site in the Sierra of Northern Ecuador. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 76(4): 1235. Philadelphia.
McFadden, B. J., and Wolff, R. G. 1981 Geological Investigations of Late Cenozoic Vertebrate-Bearing Deposits in Southern Bolivia. Anais II Congresso Latino-Americano Paleontologia, pp. 766778. Porto Alegre, Brazil.
Mead, J. I. 1980 Is It Really That Old? A Comment about the Meadowcroft Rockshelter “Overview.American Antiquity 45: 579581.
Montane, J. C. 1968 Paleo-Indian Remains from Laguna de Tagua Tagua, Central Chile. Science 161: 11371138.
Montane, J. C. 1972 Las evidencias del poblamiento temprano de Chile. Pumapunku 5: 4053.
Mosimann, J. E., and Martin, P. S. 1975 Simulating Overkill by Paleoindians. American Scientist 63: 304313.
Newcomer, M. H., Grace, R., and Unger-Hamilton, R. 1987 Microwear Polishes, Blind Tests, and Texture Analysis. In The Human Uses of Flint and Chert, edited by Sieveking, G. and Newcomer, M., pp. 253263. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England.
Nunez Atencio L., J. Varela, and Casamiquela, R. 1983 Ocupacion paleoindio en Quereo: Reconstruccion multidisciplinaria en el territorio semi-drido de Chile (IV Region). Universidad del Norte, Antofagasta, Chile.
Nunez Atencio L., J. Varela, and Casamiquela, R. 1987 Ocupacion paleoindio en el Centro-Norte de Chile: Adaptation circunlacustre en las tierras bajas. In Investigaciones paleoindias al sur de la linea ecuatorial, edited by Nunez, L. and Meggers, B., pp. 142185. Taraxacum, Washington, D. C.
Ossa, P. P. 1973 A Survey of the Lithic Preceramic Occupation of the Moche Valley, North Coastal Peru: With an Overview of Some Problems in the Study of the Early Human Occupation of West Andean South America. Unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Ossa, P. P., and Moseley, M. E. 1972 La Cumbre: A Preliminary Report on the Early Lithic Occupation of the Moche Valley. Nawpa Pacha 9: 116.
Owen, R. C. 1984 The Americas: The Case Against an Ice-Age Human Population. In The Origins of Modern Humans, edited by Smith, F. H. and Spencer, F., pp. 517563. Alan R. Liss, New York.
Palanca, F., and Politis, G. 1979 Los cazadores de fauna extinguida de la provincia de Buenos Aires. In Prehistoria bonaerense, pp. 7091. Municipalidad de Olavarria, Olavarria, Argentina.
Pino Quivira, M., and Dillehay, T. D. 1988 Monte Verde, South-Central Chile: Stratigraphy, Climate Change, and Human Settlement. Geoarchaeology 3: 177191.
Poch, H. 1938 Beitrage zur Kenntnis von den Fossilen Menschlichen Funden von Lagoa Santa (Brasilien) und Fontequelas (Argentinien). Mitteilungen der Antropologische Gesellschaft in Wien 68: 310340.
Politis, G. 1985 The Early Man Site of Arroyo Seco (Pampa Region-Argentina). Paper presented at the 50th meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Denver.
Prous, A. 1986 L' Archeologie au Bresil: 300 siecles d'occupation humaine. L' Anthropologie 90: 257306.
Reichel-Dolmatoff, G. 1965 Colombia. Thames and Hudson, London.
Richardson, J. B. III, 1978 Early Man on the Peruvian North Coast, Early Maritime Exploitation and the Pleistocene and Holocene Environments. In Early Man in America from a Circum-Pacific Perspective, edited by Bryan, A. L., pp. 274289. Department of Anthropology, University of Edmonton, Alberta.
Rick, J. W. 1980 Prehistoric Hunters of the High Andes. Academic Press, New York.
Rick, J. W. 1987 Dates as Data: An Examination of the Peruvian Preceramic Radiocarbon Record. American Antiquity 52: 5573.
Rivet, P. 1908 La race de la Lagoa Santa chez les populations precolombiennes de l'equateur, Bulletins et Memoires de la Societe d'Anthropologie de Paris 9: 209271.
Rivet, P. 1926 Recherche d'une voie de migration des Australiens vers l'Amerique. Seances Publiques de la Society Biogeographique 3: 1116. Paris.
Rouse, I., and Cruxent, J. M. 1963a Some Recent Radiocarbon Dates for Western Venezuela. American Antiquity 28: 537540.
Rouse, I., and Cruxent, J. M. 1963b Venezuelan Archaeology. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.
Rowlett, R. M., and Robbins, M. C. 1982 Estimating Original Assemblage Content to Adjust for Post-Depositional Vertical Artifact Movement. World Archaeology 1: 7383.
Royo y Gomez, J. 1960 El yacimiento de vertebrados prehistoricos de Muaco, Estado Falcon, Venezuela, con industria litica humana. Proceedings of the International Geological Congress 21(4): 154—157. Copenhagen.
Schmitz, P. I. 1987 Prehistoric Hunters and Gatherers of Brazil. Journal of World Prehistory 1: 53126.
Schobinger, J. 1969 Prehistoria de Suramerica. Editorial Labor, Barcelona.
Serrano, A. 1968 El preceramico en la Republica Argentina y paises vecinos. Publicaciones del Instituto de Antropologia, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba 28: 182. Cordoba, Argentina.
Shotton, F. W., and Williams, R. E. G. 1973 Birmingham University Radiocarbon Dates VII. Radiocarbon 15: 451468.
Stanford, D. 1979 The Selby and Dutton Sites: Evidence for a Possible Pre-Clovis Occupation of the High Plains. In Pre-Llano Cultures of the Americas: Paradoxes and Possibilities, edited by Humphrey, R. and Stanford, D., pp. 101123. The Anthropological Society of Washington, Washington, D. C.
Stanford, D. 1987 The Ginsberg Experiment. Natural History 96(9): 1014.
Stein, J. K. 1983 Earthworm Activity: A Source of Potential Disturbance of Archaeological Sediments. American Antiquity 48: 277289.
Stothert, K. E. 1983 A Review of the Early Preceramic Complexes of the Santa Elena Peninsula, Ecuador. A merican Antiquity 48: 122127.
Stothert, K. E. 1985 The Preceramic Las Vegas Culture of Coastal Ecuador. American Antiquity 50: 613637.
Tambussi, C. P., and Tonni, E. P. 1985 Aves del sitio arqueologico Los Toldos, Cafiadon de Las Cuevas, provincia de Santa Cruz (Republica Argentina). Ameghiniana (Revista de la Asociacion Paleontologica, Argentina) 22: 6974. Buenos Aires.
Tamers, M. A. 1970 I. V. I. C. Natural Radiocarbon Measurements V. Radiocarbon 12: 509525.
Tankersley, K. B., Munson, C. A., and Smith, D. 1987 Recognition of Bituminous Coal Contaminants in Radiocarbon Samples. American Antiquity 52: 318330.
Taylor, R. E., Payen, L., Prior, C., Slota, P., Gillespie, R., Gowlett, J., Hedges, R., Jull, A., Zabel, T., Donahue, D., 1985 Major Revisions in the Pleistocene Age Assignments for North American Human Skeletons by C-14 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry: None Older Than 11, 000 C-14 Years B. P. American Antiquity 50: 136140.
Temme, M. 1982 Excavaciones en el sitio preceramico de Cubilan, Ecuador. Miscelanea Antropologica Ecuatoriana 2: 135164. Guayaquil.
The, M. S. 1972 Methods of Physical Examination in Archaeology. Seminar Press, New York.
True, D. L., Nunez, L., and Nunez, P. 1971 Tarapaca 10: A Workshop Site in Northern Chile. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 115: 398121. Philadelphia.
Turner, C. G. 1983 Dental Evidence for the Peopling of the Americas. In Early Man in the New World edited by Shutler, R., pp. 147157. Sage Publications, Beverly Hills.
Turner, C. G. 1985 The Dental Search for Native American Origins. In Out of Asia: Peopling America and the Pacific, edited by Kirk, R. and Szathmary, E., pp. 3178. Australian National University, Canberra.
Uceda Castillo, S. E. 1986 LePaijanien de la region de Casma (Perou): Industrie lithique et relations avec les autres industries preceramiques. Unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, Institute of Quaternary Studies, University of Bordeaux I, France.
Uhle, M. 1917 Sobre la estacion paleolitica de Taltal. Publicaciones del Museo de Etnologia y Antropologia, de Chile 1: 3150. Santiago.
van der Hammen, T. 1957 Las terrazas del Rio Magdalena y la position estratigrafica de los hallazgos de Garzon. Revista Colombiana de Antropologia 6: 261270.
Villa, P., and Courtin, J. 1983 The Interpretation of Stratified Sites: A View From Underground. Journal of Archaeological Science 10: 267281.
Weber, R. L. (editor) 1989 Current Research: The Amazon, Eastern Brazil, and the Orinoco. American Antiquity 54: 185187.
Wolff, R. G., Maples, W. R., Mueller, P. A., and Frailey, C. D. 1987 Humans and Contemporaneous Vertebrates from Ancient Lake Sediments at Nuapua, Southeastern Bolivia. Ms. on file, Department of Anthropology, Cornell University, Ithaca.
Wood, W. R., and Johnson, D. L. 1978 A Survey of Disturbance Processes in Archaeological Site Formation. In Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, vol. 1, edited by Schiffer, M., pp. 315381. Academic Press, New York.
Wormington, H. M. 1957 Ancient Man in North America. 4th rev. ed. Denver Museum of Natural History. Denver.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

American Antiquity
  • ISSN: 0002-7316
  • EISSN: 2325-5064
  • URL: /core/journals/american-antiquity
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed