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Migration and Social Structure among the Hopewell: Evidence from Ancient DNA

  • Deborah A. Bolnick (a1) and David Glenn Smith (a2)
Abstract

For more than a century, archaeologists have studied the cultural and skeletal remains of the prehistoric Native Americans known as the “Hopewell Moundbuilders.” While many aspects of the Hopewell phenomenon are now well understood, questions still remain about the genetic makeup, burial practices, and social structure of Hopewell communities. To help answer these questions, we extracted mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from the skeletal remains of 39 individuals buried at the Pete Klunk Mound Group in Illinois. The pattern of mtDNA variation at this site suggests that matrilineal relationships did not strongly influence burial practices. Because different forms of mortuary activity were not associated with distinct genetic lineages, this study provides no evidence of a maternally inherited or ascribed status system in this society. The genetic data collected here also help clarify another aspect of Illinois Hopewell social structure by suggesting a matrilocal system of post-marital residence. Finally, when these data were considered in conjunction with mtDNA data previously collected from the Hopewell Mound Group in Ohio (Mills 2003), they demonstrated that migration and gene flow did accompany the cultural exchange between Hopewell communities in the Illinois and Ohio Valleys.

Résumé

Por más de un siglo, los arqueólogos han estudiados los restos materiales, tanto culturales como biológicos, de los indígenas norteamericanos conocidos como los “Hopewell Moundbuilders.” Aunque muchos aspectos del fenómeno Hopewell se han estudiado a fondo, aún quedan interrogantes sobre las características genéticas, las prácticas fúnebres, y la estructura social de las comunidades Hopewell. Para ayudar a contestar estas preguntas, obtuvimos ADN mitocondrial (ADNmt) de los esqueletos de 39 individuos enterrados en los montículos conocidos como Pete Klunk Mound Group en Illinois. El patrón de la variación del ADNmt indica que las relaciones matrilineales no ejercieron gran influencia sobre las prácticas fúnebres en este sitio arqueológico. Los distintos tipos de actividad fúnebre que se han identificado no se asocian a distintos linajes genéticos. Por lo tanto, este estudio no provee evidencia de que el estatus se heredara por la línea materna en esta sociedad. Los datos genéticos obtenidos como parte de esta investigación también ayudan a clarificar otro aspecto sobre la estructura social de los Hopewell de Illinois, ya que sugieren que había un sistema de residencia post-matrimonial por línea materna. Finalmente, cuando nuestros datos se comparan con datos sobre ADNmt recolectados en el grupo de montículos conocido como “Hopewell Mound Group” en Ohio (Mills 2003), demuestran que una migración y flujo genético acompañó el intercambio cultural entre las comunidades Hopewell de los valles de Illinois y de Ohio.

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