Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Some Issues in the Philosophy of Archaeology

  • Michael B. Schiffer (a1)
Abstract

This paper identifies a domain of inquiry that lies at the interface between archaeology and the philosophy of science. I argue that in the recent past archaeology has contributed little to the philosophy of science. This situation can change if archaeologists succeed in calling those issues or controversies that have genuine philosophical import to the attention of philosophers. This paper provisionally explores two such areas: first, the use of ecological principles to explain human behavior; and second, problems of confirmation in ethnoarchaeology.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Bayard, Donn 1972 A non-quantitative non-law in anthropology; a reply to Carneiro. American Antiquity 37:447-449.
Bennett, John W. 1976 The ecological transition: cultural anthropology and human adaptation. Pergamon, New York.
Binford, Lewis R. 1968a Archeological perspectives. In New perspectives in archeology, edited by Sally R. Binford and Lewis R. Binford, pp. 5-32. Aldine, Chicago.
Binford, Lewis R. 1968b Some comments on historical versus processual archaeology. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 24:267-275.
Binford, Lewis R. 1978a Dimensional analysis of behavior and site structure: learning from an Eskimo hunting stand. American Antiquity 43:330-361.
Binford, Lewis R. 1978b Nunamiut ethnoarchaeology. Academic Press, New York.
Carneiro, Robert L. 1970 A quantitative law in anthropology. American Antiquity 35:492-494.
Coles, John 1973 Archaeology by experiment. Scribner's, New York.
Cowgill, George L. 1975 On causes and consequences of ancient and modern population changes. American Anthropologist 77:505-525.
Donnan, Christopher B., and William Clewlow, C. Jr. (editors) 1974 Ethnoarchaeology. University of California at Los Angeles, Institute of Archaeology, Monograph 4.
Flannery, Kent V. 1968 Archeological systems theory and early Mesoamerica. In Anthropological archeology in the Americas, edited by Betty J. Meggers, pp. 67-87. Archeological Society of Washington, Washington, D.C.
Flannery, Kent V. 1972 The cultural evolution of civilizations. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 3:399-426.
Flannery, Kent V. 1973 Archeology with a capital S. In Research and theory in current archeology, edited by Charles L. Redman, pp. 47-58. Wiley, New York.
Fritz, John M. 1972 Archaeological systems for indirect observation of the past. In Contemporary archaeology, edited by Mark, P. Leone, pp. 135-157. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
Fritz, John M., and Fred, Plog 1970 The nature of archaeological explanation. American Antiquity 35:405-412.
Gall, Patricia L., and Arthur A., Saxe 1977 The ecological evolution of culture: the state as predator in succession theory. In Exchange systems in prehistory, edited by Timothy K. Earle and Jonathon E. Ericson, pp. 255-268. Academic Press, New York.
Glassow, Michael A. 1972 Changes in the adaptations of southwestern Basketmakers: a systems perspective. In Contemporary archaeology, edited by Mark, P. Leone, pp. 289-302. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
Gould, Richard A. 1980 Living archaeology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Gould, Richard A. (editor) 1978 Explorations in ethnoarchaeology. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
Gumerman, George J., and David, A. Phillips Jr. 1978 Archaeology beyond anthropology. American Antiquity 43:184-191.
Hardesty, Donald L. 1977 Ecological anthropology. Wiley, New York.
Harris, Marvin 1966 The cultural ecology of India's sacred cattle. Current Anthropology 7:51-66.
Hassan, Fekri A. 1978 Demographic archaeology. In Advances in archaeological method and theory (vol. 1), edited by Michael B. Schiffer, pp. 49-103. Academic Press, New York.
Ingersoll, Daniel, John, E. Yellen, and William, MacDonald (editors) 1977 Experimental archaeology. Columbia University Press, New York.
Jochim, Michael A. 1979 Breaking down the system: recent ecological approaches in archaeology. In Advances in archaeological method and theory (vol. 2), edited by Michael B. Schiffer, pp. 7-117. Academic Press, New York.
Kramer, Carol (editor) 1978 Ethnoarchaeology: implications of ethnography for archaeology. Columbia University Press, New York.
Kuhn, Thomas 1970 The structure of scientific revolutions (second ed). University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Lee, Richard B., and Irven, DeVore (editors) 1968 Man the hunter. Aldine, Chicago.
Leeds, Anthony, and Andrew, Vayda (editors) 1965 Man, culture and animals: the role of animals in human ecological adjustments. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C.
Levin, Michael D. 1973 On explanation in archaeology: a rebuttal to Fritz and Plog. American Antiquity 38:387-395.
Levin, Michael D. 1976 On the ascription of functions to objects, with special reference to inference in archaeology. Philosophy of Social Science 6:227-234.
McNett, Charles W. Jr. 1979 The cross-cultural method in archaeology. In Advances in archaeological method and theory (vol. 2), edited by Michael B. Schiffer, pp. 39-76. Academic Press, New York.
Margalef, Ramon 1968 Perspectives in ecological theory. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Martin, Paul S. 1971 The revolution in archaeology. American Antiquity 36:1-8.
Morgan, Charles G. 1973 Archaeology and explanation. World Archaeology 4:259-276.
Morgan, Charles G. 1974 Explanation and scientific archaeology. World Archaeology 6:133-137.
Nagel, Ernest 1961 The structure of science. Harcourt, Brace & World, New York.
Netting, Robert McC. 1977 Cultural ecology. Cummings, Menlo Park, Calif.
Nickles, Thomas 1977 On the independence of singular causal explanation in social science: archaeology. Philosophy of Social Science 7:163-187.
Osborn, Alan J. 1977 Strandloopers, mermaids, and other fairy tales: ecological determinants of marine resource utilization— the Peruvian case. In For theory building in archaeology, edited by Lewis, R. Binford, pp. 157-205. Academic Press, New York.
Plog, Fred T. 1974 The study of prehistoric change. Academic Press, New York.
Plog, Fred T. 1975 Systems theory in archaeological research. Annual Review of Anthropology 4:207-224.
Rappaport, Roy A. 1968 Pigs for the ancestors: ritual in the ecology of a New Guinea people. Yale University Press, New Haven.
Rappaport, Roy A. 1971 Nature, culture, and ecological anthropology. In Man, culture, and society, edited by Shapiro, H. L., pp. 237-267. Oxford University Press, London.
Reid, J. Jefferson, Michael, B. Schiffer, and William, L. Rathje 1975 Behavioral archaeology: four strategies. American Anthropologist 77:864-869.
Read, Dwight W” and Steven, A. LeBlanc 1978 Descriptive statements, covering laws, and theories in archaeology. Current Anthropology 19:307-335.
Sabloff, Jeremy A., Thomas, W. Beale, and Anthony, J. Kurland Jr. 1973 Recent developments in archaeology. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 408:103-118.
Salmon, Merrilee H. 1975 Confirmation and explanation in archaeology. American Antiquity 40:459-464.
Salmon, Merrilee H. 1976Deductive” versus “inductive” archaeology. American Antiquity 41:376-381.
Salmon, Merrilee H. 1978 What can systems theory do for archaeology? American Antiquity 43:174-183.
Salmon, Merrilee H. 1981 Ascribing functions to archaeological objects. Philosophy of Social Science 11:19-26.
Salmon, Merrilee H., and Wesley C., Salmon 1979 Alternative models of scientific explanation. American Anthropologist 81:61-74.
Schaffner, Kenneth F. 1967 Approaches to reduction. Philosophy of Science 34:137-147.
Schiffer, Michael B. 1975 Archaeology as behavioral science. American Anthropologist 77:836-848.
Schiffer, Michael B. 1976 Behavioral archeology. Academic Press, New York.
Schiffer, Michael B. 1978a A synthetic model of archaeological inference. In Discovering past behavior; experiments in the archaeology of the American Southwest, edited by Paul F. Grebinger, pp. 123-139. Gordon and Breach, London.
Schiffer, Michael B. 1978b Taking the pulse of method and theory in American archaeology. American Antiquity 43:153-158.
Schiffer, Michael B. 1979 A preliminary consideration of behavioral change. In Transformations; mathematical approaches to culture change, edited by Colin, Renfrew and Kenneth, L. Cooke, pp. 353-368. Academic Press, New York.
SchifferMichael, B. (editor) 1980 Advances in archaeological method and theory (vol. 3). Academic Press, New York.
Smith, Bruce D. 1977 Archaeological inference and inductive confirmation. American Anthropologist 79:598-617.
Spaulding, Albert C. 1968 Explanation in archeology. In New perspectives in archeology, edited by Sally R. Binford and Lewis R. Binford, pp. 33-39. Aldine, Chicago.
Sullivan, Alan P. 1978 Inference and evidence in archaeology: a discussion of the conceptual problems. In Advances in archaeological method and theory (vol. 1), edited by Michael B., Schiffer, pp. 183-222. Academic Press, New York.
Trigger, Bruce 1970 Aims in prehistoric archaeology. Antiquity 44:26-37.
Tuggle, H. # 1972 Review of Patty Jo Watson, Steven A. LeBlanc and Charles L. Redman: Explanation in archeology. Philosophy of Science 39:564-566.
Tuggle, H. David, Alex, H. Townsend, and Thomas, J. Riley 1972 Laws, systems and research designs: a discussion of explanation in archaeology. American Antiquity 37:3-12.
VaydaAndrew, P. (editor) 1969 Environment and cultural behavior. Natural History Press, New York.
Vayda, Andrew P., and Roy A., Rappaport 1968 Ecology, cultural and non-cultural. In Introduction to anthropology, edited by James S., Clifton, pp. 477-497. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston.
Watson, Patty Jo 1979 Archaeological ethnography in western Iran. Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology 57.
Watson, Patty Jo, Steven A., LeBlanc, and Charles L., Redman 1971 Explanation in archeology. Columbia University Press, New York. Watson, Richard A.
Watson, Patty Jo, Steven A., LeBlanc, and Charles L., Redman 1976 Inference in archaeology. American Antiquity 41:58-66. White, Leslie A.
Watson, Patty Jo, Steven A., LeBlanc, and Charles L., Redman 1949 The science of culture. Grove Press, New York.
Wylie, M. Alison 1978 Analogy in archaeological interpretation. Unpublished ms., State University of New York, Binghamton, N.Y.
Yellen, John E. 1977a Archaeological approaches to the present; models for reconstructing the past. Academic Press, New York.
Yellen, John E. 1977b Cultural patterning in faunal remains: evidence from the !Kung Bushmen. In Experimental archaeology, edited by Daniel, Ingersoll, John E., Yellen, and William, MacDonald, pp. 272-331. Columbia University Press, New York.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

American Antiquity
  • ISSN: 0002-7316
  • EISSN: 2325-5064
  • URL: /core/journals/american-antiquity
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed