Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Collective Identity Formation and the International State

  • Alexander Wendt (a1)
Abstract

The neorealist-neoliberal debate about the possibilities for collective action in international relations has been based on a shared commitment to Mancur Olson's rationalist definition of the problem as one of getting exogenously given egoists to cooperate. Treating this assumption as a de facto hypothesis about world politics, I articulate the rival claim that interaction at the systemic level changes state identities and interests. The causes of state egoism do not justify always treating it as given. Insights from critical international relations and integration theories suggest how collective identity among states could emerge endogenously at the systemic level. Such a process would generate cooperation that neither neorealists nor neoliberals expect and help transform systemic anarchy into an “international state”—a transnational structure of political authority that might undermine territorial democracy. I show how broadening systemic theory beyond rationalist concerns can help it to explain structural change in world politics.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Adler, Emanuel. 1991. “Cognitive Evolution.” In Progress in Postwar International Relations, ed. Adler, Emanuel and Crawford, Beverly. New York: Columbia University Press.
Alker, Hayward. N.d. “The Presumption of Anarchy in World Politics.” Rediscoveries and Reformulations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Forthcoming.
Anderson, Benedict. 1983. Imagined Communities. London: Verso.
Ashley, Richard. 1987. “The Geopolitics of Geopolitical Space.” Alternatives 12:403–34.
Ashley, Richard. 1988. “Untying the Sovereign State: A Double Reading of the Anarchy Problématique.” Millennium 17:227–62.
Axelrod, Robert. 1984. The Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Basic Books.
Baldwin, David, ed. 1993. Neorealism and Neoliberalism. New York: Columbia University Press.
Benjamin, Roger, and Duvall, Raymond. 1985. “The Capitalist State in Context.” In The Democratic State, ed. Benjamin, Roger and Elkin, Stephen L.. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press.
Berger, Peter, and Luckmann, Thomas. 1966. The Social Construction of Reality. New York: Anchor Books.
Brewer, Marilynn. 1991. “The Social Self: On Being the Same and Different at the Same Time.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 17:475–82.
Bull, Hedley. 1977. The Anarchical Society. New York: Columbia University Press.
Buzan, Barry. 1993. “From International System to International Society.” International Organization 47:327–52.
Calhoun, Craig. 1991. “The Problem of Identity in Collective Action.” In Macro-Micro Linkages in Sociology, ed. Huber, Joan. Beverly Hills: Sage.
Caporael, Linnda, Dawes, Robyn, Orbell, John, and Kragt, Alphonse J.C. van de. 1989. “Selfishness Examined: Cooperation in the Absence of Egoistic Incentives.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12:683–99.
Caporaso, James. 1992. “International Relations Theory and Multilateralism: The Search for Foundations.” International Organization 46:599632.
Chafetz, Glenn. 1993. “The Psychology of Nonproliferation.” University of Georgia. Typescript.
Chase, Jonathon. 1992. “The Self and Collective Action: Dilemmatic Identities.” In Social Psychology of Identity and the Self Concept, ed. Breakwell, G.. Surrey University Press.
Cohen, Michael, and Axelrod, Robert. 1984. “Coping with Complexity: The Adaptive Value of Changing Utility.” American Economic Review 74(1):3042.
Connolly, William. 1991. “Democracy and Territoriality.” Millennium 20:463–84.
Cox, Robert. 1987. Production, Power, and World Order. New York: Columbia University Press.
Dahl, Robert. 1993. “System Effectiveness Versus Citizen Effectiveness.” Yale University. Typescript.
Dawes, Robyn, Kragt, Alphons J. C. van de, and Orbell, John. 1990. “Cooperation for the Benefit of Us—Not Me, or My Conscience.” In Beyond Self-interest, ed. Mansbridge, J.. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Den Boer, Monica, and Walker, Neil. 1993. “European Policing after 1992.” Journal of Common Market Studies 31:327.
Deudney, Daniel. 1993. “Dividing Realism: Structural Realism Versus Security Materialism on Nuclear Security and Proliferation.” Security Studies 2:737.
Deutsch, Karl et al. , 1957. Political Community and the North Atlantic Area. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Douglas, Mary. 1986. How Institutions Think. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.
Duvall, Raymond, and Wendt, Alexander. 1987. “The International Capital Regime and the Internationalization of the State.” University of Minnesota. Typescript.
Ferguson, Yale, and Mansbach, Richard. 1991. “Between Celebration and Despair: Constructive Suggestions for Future International Theory.” International Studies Quarterly 35:363–86.
Gaertner, Samuel, Davidio, John, Anastasio, Phyllis, Bachman, Betty, and Rust, Mary. 1993. “The Common Ingroup Identity Model.” In European Review of Social Psychology 4:126. Ed. Stroebe, W. and Hewstone, M.. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Gamson, William. 1992. “The Social Psychology of Collective Action.” In Frontiers in Social Movement Theory, ed. Morris, A. and Mueller, C.. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Geser, Hans. 1992. “Towards an Interaction Theory of Organizational Actors.” Organization Studies 13:429–51.
Goffman, Erving. 1959. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. New York: Anchor Books.
Green, Donald, and Shapiro, Ian. 1994. Pathologies of Rational Choice Theory. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Hall, Stuart. 1986. “The Problem of Ideology—Marxism without Guarantees.” Journal of Communication Inquiry 10:2844.
Held, David. 1990. “Democracy, the Nation-State, and the Global System.” Economy and Socidy 20:138–71.
Hopkins, Raymond. 1978. “Global Management Networks: The Internationalization of Domestic Bureaucracies.” International Social Science Journal 30:3146.
Hurrell, Andrew. 1990. “Kant and the Kantian Paradigm in International Relations.Review of International Studies 16:183205.
Ikenberry, John, and Kupchan, Charles. 1990. “Socialization and Hegemonic Power.” International Organization 44:283315.
Jackson, Robert, and Rosberg, Carl. 1982. “Why Africa's Weak States Persist: The Empirical and the Juridical in Statehood.” World Politics 35:124.
Jencks, Christopher. 1990. “Varieties of Altruism.” In Beyond Self-Interest, ed. Mansbridge, J.. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Jervis, Robert. 1978. “Cooperation under the Security Dilemma.” World Politics 30:167214.
Jervis, Robert. 1988. “Realism, Game Theory, and Cooperation.” World Politics 40:317–49.
Johnson, James. 1988. “Symbolic Action and the Limits of Strategic Rationality.” In Political Power and Social Theory, vol. 7, ed. Zeitlin, M.. Greenwich: JAI.
Kaiser, Karl. 1971. “Transnational Relations as a Threat to the Democratic Process.” In Transnational Relations and World Politics, ed. Keohane, Robert and Nye, Joseph. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Katzenstein, Peter. 1990. “Analyzing Change in International Politics: The New Institutionalism and the Interpretative Approach.” Cornell University. Typescript.
Keohane, Robert. 1984. After Hegemony. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Keohane, Robert. 1988. “International Institutions: Two Approaches.” International Studies Quarterly 32:379–96.
Keohane, Robert, and Hoffmann, Stanley. 1991. “Institutional Change in Europe in the 1980s.” In The New European Community, ed. Keohane, Robert and Hoffmann, Stanley. Boulder: Westview.
Keohane, Robert, and Nye, Joseph. 1977. Power and Interdependence. Glenview: Scott, Foresman.
Kratochwil, Friedrich. 1989. Rules, Norms, and Decisions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lasswell, Harold. 1972. “Future Systems of Identity in the World Community.” In The Future of the International Legal Order, vol. 4, ed. Black, Cyril E. and Falk, Richard A.. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Legro, Jeffrey. 1993. “Preferences and International Cooperation.” Presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington.
Leplin, Jarrett. 1988. “Is Essentialism Unscientific?Philosophy of Science 55:493510.
Linklater, Andrew. 1990. “The Problem of Community in International Relations.” Alternatives 15:135–53.
Lukes, Steven. 1974. Power: A Radical View. London: MacMillan.
Lumsdaine, David. 1993. Moral Vision in International Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
McCall, G., and Simmons, J.. 1978. Identities and Interactions. New York: Free Press.
Mead, George Herbert. 1934. Mind, Self, and Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Melucci, Alberto. 1989. Nomads of the Present. London: Hutchinson.
Mercer, Jonathon. 1993. “Anarchy, Self-Help, and Relative Gains.” Stanford University. Typescript.
Milner, Helen. 1991. “The Assumption of Anarchy in International Relations Theory: A Critique.” Review of International Studies 17:6785.
Moravcsik, Andrew. 1992. “Liberalism and International Relations Theory.” Harvard University Center for International Affairs. Typescript.
Morris, Aldon, and Mueller, Carol McClura, eds. 1992. Frontiers in Social Movement Theory. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Nau, Henry. 1993. “Identity and International Politics.” Presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington.
Nye, Joseph. 1987. “Nuclear Learning and U.S.-Soviet Security Regimes.” International Organization 41:371402.
Oldenquist, Andrew. 1982. “Loyalties.” Journal of Philosophy 79:173–93.
Olson, Mancur. 1965. The Logic of Collective Action. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Pasic, Amir. 1993. “The Role of Authority in International Relations Theory.” Presented at the Northeast International Studies Association meeting, Newark.
Picciotto, Sol. 1991. “The Internationalization of the State.” Capital and Class 43:4362.
Plotke, David. 1992. “Political Judgment, Identities, and Collective Action.” New School for Social Research. Typescript.
Pogge, Thomas. 1992. “Cosmopolitanism and Sovereignty.” Ethics 103:4875.
Risse-Kappen, Thomas. 1991. “Cooperation among Democracies: Alliance Norms and the European Influence on U.S. Foreign Policy.” Yale University. Typescript.
Rosenau, James, and Czempiel, Ernst-Otto, eds. 1992. Governance without Government: Order and Change in World Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rosenberg, Morris. 1981. “The Self-Concept: Social Product and Social Force.” In Social Psychology, ed. Rosenberg, M. and Turner, R.. New York: Basic Books.
Ruggie, John. 1983a. “Continuity and Transformation in the World Polity: Toward a Neorealist Synthesis.” World Politics 35:261–85.
Ruggie, John. 1983b. “International Regimes, Transactions, and Change: Embedded Liberalism in the Postwar Economic Order.” In International Regimes, ed. Krasner, Stephen D.. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Ruggie, John. 1993a. “Multilateralism: Anatomy of an Institution.” International Organization 46:561–98.
Ruggie, John. 1993b. “Territoriality and Beyond: Problematiz-ing Modernity in International Relations.” International Organization 47:139–74.
Russett, Bruce. 1963. Community and Contention. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.
Russett, Bruce, and Sullivan, John. 1971. “Collective Goods and International Organization.” International Organization 25:845–65.
Schroeder, Paul. 1993. “The Transformation of Political Thinking, 1787–1848.” In Coping with Complexity in the International System, ed. Jervis, Robert. Boulder: Westview.
Schwalbe, Michael. 1991. “The Autogenesis of the Self.” Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior 21:269–95.
Sen, Amartya. 1985. “Goals, Commitment, and Identity.” Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 1:341–55.
Shapiro, Ian, and Wendt, Alexander. 1992. “The Difference That Realism Makes: Social Science and the Politics of Consent. Politics and Society 20:197223.
Shorter, John. 1990. “Social Individuality Versus Possessive Individualism.” In Deconstructing Social Psychology, ed. Parker, Ian and Shotter, John. London: Routledge.
Smith, Anthony. 1992. “National Identity and the Idea of European Unity.” International Affairs 68:5576.
Stein, Arthur. 1983. “Coordination and Collaboration: Regimes in an Anarchic World.” In International Regimes, ed. Krasner, S.. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Stigler, George, and Becker, Gary. 1977. “De Gustibus Non Est Disputandum.” American Economic Review 67(2):7690.
Strang, David. 1991. “Anomaly and Commonplace in European Expansion: Realist and Institutional Accounts.” International Organization 45:143–62.
Taylor, Michael, and Singleton, Sara. 1993. “The Communal Resource: Transaction Costs and the Solution of Collective Action Problems.” Politics and Society 21:195214.
Taylor, Paul. 1991. “The European Community and the State.” Review of international Studies 17:109–25.
Turner, Jonathon. 1988. A Theory of Social Interaction. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Walker, R. B. J. 1990. “Sovereignty, Identity, Community.” In Contending Sovereignties, ed. Walker, R. B. J. and Mendlovitz, S.. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Walker, R. B. J. 1991. “On the Spatiotemporal Conditions of Democratic Practice.” Alternatives 16:243–62.
Walker, Stephen, ed. 1987. Role Theory and Foreign Policy Analysis. Durham: Duke University Press.
Walt, Stephen. 1987. The Origins of Alliances. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Waltz, Kenneth. 1979. Theory of International Politics. Boston: Addison-Wesley.
Wartenberg, Thomas. 1991. “Social Movements and Individual Identity.” Philosophical Forum 22:362–82.
Weides, Jutta. 1993. “Constructing National Interests: The Logic of U.S. National Security in the Postwar Era.” Ph.D. Diss., University of Minnesota.
Wendt, Alexander. 1987. “The Agent-Structure Problem in International Relations Theory.” International Organization 41:335–70.
Wendt, Alexander. 1992. “Anarchy Is What States Make of It: The Social Construction of Power Politics.” International Organization 46:395421.
Wendt, Alexander. N.d. Social Theory of International Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Forthcoming.
Wendt, Alexander, and Barnett, Michael. 1993. “Dependent State Formation and Third World Militarization.” Review of International Studies 19:321–47.
Williams, Shirley. 1991. “Sovereignty and Accountability in the European Community.” In The New European Community, ed. Keohane, Robert and Hoffmann, Stanley. Boulder: Westview.
Wolfe, Alan. 1992. “Democracy Versus Sociology: Boundaries and Their Political Consequences.” In Cultivating Differences, ed. Lamont, Michele and Foumier, Marcel. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

American Political Science Review
  • ISSN: 0003-0554
  • EISSN: 1537-5943
  • URL: /core/journals/american-political-science-review
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed