Banks, Jeffrey. 1990. “Equilibrium Behavior in Crisis Bargaining Games.” American Journal of Political Science 34:579–614.
Betts, Richard. 1987. Nuclear Blackmail and Nuclear Balance. Washington: Brookings Institution.
Billingsley, Patrick. 1986. Probability and Measure. 2d ed.New York: Wiley & Sons.
Blainey, Geoffrey. 1973. The Causes of War. New York: Free Press.
Blight, James, and Welch, David. 1990. On the Brink: Americans and Soviets Reexamine the Cuban Missile Crisis. New York: Noonday.
Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce, and Lalman, David. 1992. War and Reason. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Chan, Steve. 1984. “Mirror, Mirror on the Wall, … Are Freer Countries More Pacific?” Journal of Conflict Resolution 28:617–48.
Cho, In-Koo, and Kreps, David. 1987. “Signaling Games and Stable Equilibria.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 102:179–222.
Crawford, Vince, and Sobel, Joel. 1982. “Strategic Information Transmission.” Econometrica 50:1431–52.
Farrell, Joseph. 1988. “Communication, Coordination, and Nash Equilibrium.” Economic Letters 27:209–14.
Fearon, James. 1990. “Deterrence and the Spiral Model: The Role of Costly Signals in Crisis Bargaining.” Presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco.
Fearon, James. 1992. “Threats to Use Force: The Role of Costly Signals in International Crises.” Ph.D. diss., University of California, Berkeley.
Fearon, James. 1993. “Rationalist Explanations for War.” Presented at the 1993 annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington.
Fudenberg, Drew, and Tirole, Jean. 1991. Game Theory. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.
Gaubautz, Kurt Taylor. 1992. “Democratic States and Commitment in International Relations.” Presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago.
Gelb, Leslie, and Betts, Richard. 1979. The Irony of Vietnam: The System Worked. Washington: Brookings Institution.
George, Alexander L., and Smoke, Richard. 1974. Deterrence in American Foreign Policy. New York: Columbia University Press.
Glaser, Charles. 1992. “Political Consequences of Military Strategy: Expanding and Refining the Spiral and Deterrence Models.” World Politics 44:497–538.
Herz, John. 1950. “Idealist Internationalism and the Security Dilemma.” World Politics 2:157–74.
Higonnet, P. L. R. 1968. “The Origins of the Seven Years' War.” Journal of Modern History 40:57–90.
Howard, Michael. 1983. The Causes of Wars. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Jervis, Robert. 1970. The Logic of Images in International Relations. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Jervis, Robert. 1971. “Bargaining and Bargaining Tactics.” In Nomos: Coercion, ed. Roland Pennock, J. and Chapman, J.. Chicago: Aldine.
Jervis, Robert. 1978. “Cooperation under the Security Dilemma.” World Politics 30:167–214.
Jervis, Robert, Lebow, Richard N., and Stein, Janice Gross. 1985. Psychology and Deterrence. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Katz, Michael. 1991. “Game Playing Agents: Unobservable Contracts as Precommitments.” Rand Journal of Economics 22:307–28.
Kilgour, D. Marc. 1991. “Domestic Political Structure and War Behavior: A Game-theoretic Approach.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 35:266–84.
Kreps, David, and Wilson, Robert. 1982. “Sequential Equilibrium.” Econometrica 50:863–94.
Kydd, Andrew. 1993. “The Security Dilemma, Game Theory, and World War I.” Presented at the 1993 annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington.
Lebow, Richard Ned. 1981. Between Peace and War. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Manning, William Ray. 1904. “The Nootka Sound Controversy.” Annual Report of the American Historical Association. Washington: GPO.
Maoz, Zeev, and Russett, Bruce. 1992. “Alliance, Contiguity, Wealth, and Political Stability: Is the Lack of Conflict among Democracies a Statistical Artifact?” International Interactions 17:245–67.
Martin, Lisa. 1993. “Credibility, Costs, and Institutions: Cooperation on Economic Sanctions.” World Politics 45:406–32.
Maxwell, Stephen. 1968. Rationality in Deterrence. Adelphi Paper No. 50. London: Institute for Strategic Studies.
Maynard Smith, John. 1982. Evolution and the Theory of Games. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Morgenthau, Hans. 1956. Politics among Nations, 2d ed.New York: Knopf.
Morrow, James D. 1989. “Capabilities, Uncertainty, and Resolve: A Limited Information Model of Crisis Bargaining.” American Journal of Political Science 33:941–72.
Nalebuff, Barry. 1986. “Brinkmanship and Nuclear Deterrence: The Neutrality of Escalation.” Conflict Management and Peace Science 9:19–30.
Norris, J. M. 1955. “The Policy of the British Cabinet in the Nootka Crisis.” English Historical Review 70:562–80.
O'Neill, Barry. N.d. “The Diplomacy of Insults.” In Signals, Symbols, and War. Forthcoming.
Powell, Robert. 1985. “The Theoretical Foundations of Strategic Nuclear Deterrence.” Political Science Quarterly 100:75–96.
Powell, Robert. 1990. Nuclear Deterrence Theory: The Problem of Credibility. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Powell, Robert. 1993. “Bargaining in the Shadow of Power.” University of California at Berkeley. Typescript.
Rabin, Matthew. 1990. “Communication between Rational Agents.” Journal of Economic Theory 51:144–70.
Russett, Bruce. 1993. Grasping the Democratic Peace: Principles for a Post–Cold War World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Schelling, Thomas. 1960. The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Schweller, Randolph. 1992. “Domestic Structure and Preventive War: Are Democracies More Pacific?” World Politics 44:235–69.
Shimshoni, Jonathan. 1988. Israel and Conventional Deterrence: Border Warfare from 1953 to 1970. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Smoke, Richard. 1977. War: Controlling Escalation. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Snyder, Glenn, and Diesing, Paul. 1977. Conflict among Nations. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Spence, A. Michael. 1973. “Job Market Signalling.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 87:355–74.
Tirole, Jean. 1989. The Theory of Industrial Organization. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.
Trachtenberg, Marc. 1991. History and Strategy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Wagner, R. Harrison. 1989. “Uncertainty, Rational Learning, and Bargaining in the Cuban Missile Crisis.” In Models of Strategic Choice in Politics, ed. Ordeshook, Peter. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Wagner, R. Harrison. 1991. “Nuclear Deterrence, Counterforce Strategies, and the Incentive to Strike First.” American Political Science Review 85:727–49.
Waltz, Kenneth. 1959. Man, the State, and War. New York: Columbia University Press.
Waltz, Kenneth. 1979. Theory of International Politics. Reading, MA: Addison–Wesley.