Skip to main content

Social and Institutional Origins of Political Islam


Under what conditions did the first Islamist movements organize? Which social and institutional contexts facilitated such mobilization? A sizable literature points to social and demographic changes, Western encroachment into Muslim societies, and the availability of state and economic infrastructure. To test these hypotheses, we match a listing of Muslim Brotherhood branches founded in interwar Egypt with contemporaneous census data on over 4,000 subdistricts. A multilevel analysis shows that Muslim Brotherhood branches were more likely in subdistricts connected to the railway and where literacy was higher. Branches were less likely in districts with large European populations, and where state administration was more extensive. Qualitative evidence also points to the railway as key to the movement’s propagation. These findings challenge the orthodoxy that contact between Muslims and the West spurred the growth of organized political Islam, and instead highlight the critical role of economic and state infrastructure in patterning the early contexts of Islamist activism.

Corresponding author
Steven Brooke is Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Louisville (
Neil Ketchley is a lecturer in Middle East politics, Department of Middle Eastern Studies, King’s College London and a Visiting Professor of Political Science in the Department of Political Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. (
Hide All

The authors are listed in alphabetical order; each contributed equally. This research was supported by the Project on Middle East Political Science. An earlier version of this article was presented at the 2016 annual conference of the American Political Science Association, as well as at seminars and workshops at Harvard University, King’s College London, the London School of Economics, and the University of Oxford. We thank Tarek Masoud for sharing data as well as constructive criticism, and Selma Hegab, Sarah ElMasry, Khaldoun alMousily, and Scott Walker for excellent research assistance. Christopher Barrie, Michael Biggs, Jason Brownlee, Ferdinand Eibl, Michael Farquhar, Ali Kadivar, Charles Kurzman, Dan McCormack, Quinn Mecham, Patrick Präg, Lamiaa Shehata, John Sidel, Sidney Tarrow, Felix Tropf, and three anonymous reviewers provided invaluable feedback and comments.

Hide All
al-Anani Khalil. 2013. “The Power of the Jama’a: The Role of Hasan Al-Banna in Constructing the Muslim Brotherhood’s Collective Identity.” Sociology of Islam 1 (1–2): 4163.
al-Banna Hassan. 1939. “Risalat al-Mu’tamar al-Khāmis” [Message from the Fifth Conference]. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
al-Banna Hassan. ND. Hal Nahnu Qawm ’āmil’īn? [Are We Practical People?]. Cairo: Dār al-Wafā’ Lil-Tibā’a wa al-Nashr.
al-Guindi Anwar. 1978. Hassan al-Banna: al-Dā’iya al-Imām wa Mujaddid al-Shahīd [Hassan al-Banna: Preacher of Faith and Renewer of Martyrdom]. Beirut: Dar al-Qalam.
al-Sayyid Marsot Afaf Lutfi. 1984. “Religion or Opposition? Urban Protest Movements in Egypt.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 16 (4): 541–52.
Alavi Hamza. 1997. “Ironies of History: Contradictions of the Khilafat Movement.” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 17 (1): 116.
Allison Paul. 2012. “Logistic Regression for Rare Events.” Statistical Horizons.
al-Nadhīr . (1358b) 1938. “Barnāmij Rihlat Fadilat al-Murshid al-’ām Lil-Sa’īd” [The Blessed General Guide’s Itinerary for his Visit to Upper Egypt]. al-Nadhīr 22. (29 Jumāda al-Awwal) July 16, 1938. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
al-Nadhīr . (1357) 1938. “Wafd min al-Ismā’iliyya Yazūr Akhan min Bur Saīd” [Delegation from Ismailia on a Visit to a Brother from Port Said]. al-Nadhīr 5. (28 Rabi Akheera) August 24, 1938.
al-Nadhīr . (1358a) 1938. “Ba’d Ma Ra’āni Min Rihlat al-Qanāl” [Some Observations from the Journey (with Hassan al-Banna) to the Canal]. al-Nadhīr 10. (5 Jumāda al-Thāni) August 1, 1938.
al-Nadhīr . (1358c) 1939. “Rihla Masā’iyya” [Evening Journey]. al-Nadhīr 3. (15 Muharram) March 4, 1939.
al-Nadhīr . (1358d) 1939. “Rihlat Fadila al-Murshid al-’ām bi Bilad al-Sa’īd” [The Journey of the Blessed General Guide to the Lands of Southern Egypt]. al-Nadhīr 28. (13 Rajab) August 28, 1939.
Amin Goma’a. 2003. Awrāq min Tārīkh al-Ikhwān al-Muslimīn (Papers from the History of the Muslim Brotherhood). Cairo: Dār al-Tawzī’ wa al-Nashr al-Islāmiyya.
Awaisi Abdel Fattah Muhammad. 1998. The Muslim Brothers and the Palestine Question, 1928–1947. London: Tauris Academic Studies.
Aydin Cemil. 2007. The Politics of anti-Westernism in Asia: Visions of World Order in Pan-Islamic and Pan-Asian Thought. New York: Columbia University Press.
Ayoob Mohammed. 2009. The Many Faces of Political Islam: Religion and Politics in the Muslim World. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Ayubi Nazih. 1991. Political Islam: Religion and Politics in the Arab World. London: Routledge.
Ayubi Nazih N.M. 1980. “The Political Revival of Islam: The Case of Egypt.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 12 (4): 481–99.
Baer Gabriel. 1983. Islamic Political Activity in Modern Egyptian History: A Comparative Analysis. In Islam, Nationalism, and Radicalism in Egypt and the Sudan, eds. Warburg Gabriel R. and Kupferschmidt Uri M.. London: Praeger, 3354.
Barak On. 2013. On Time: Technology and Temporality in Modern Egypt. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Baron Beth. 2014. The Orphan Scandal: Christian Missionaries and the Rise of the Muslim Brotherhood. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
Bennett Andrew, and Checkel Jeffrey T.. 2014. Process Tracing: From Metaphor to Analytic Tool. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Berman Sheri. 2003. “Islamism, Revolution, and Civil Society.” Perspectives on Politics 1 (2): 257–72.
Biggs Michael, and Knauss Steven. 2012. “Explaining Membership in the British National Party: A Multilevel Analysis of Contact and Threat.” European Sociological Review 28 (5): 633–46.
Blaydes Lisa, and Chaney Eric. 2013. “The Feudal Revolution and Europe’s Rise: Political Divergence of the Christian West and the Muslim World before 1500 C.E.American Political Science Review 107 (1): 1634.
Braun Robert. 2016. “Religious Minorities and Resistance to Genocide: The Collective Rescue of Jews in the Netherlands during the Holocaust.” American Political Science Review 110 (1): 127–47.
Brooke Steven. 2016. Old Questions and New Methods in the Study of Islamism. In Evolving Methodologies in the Study of Islamist Politics, ed. Lynch Marc. Washington, DC: Project on Middle East Political Science, 27–9.
Brooke Steven. 2017. “From Medicine to Mobilization: Social Service Provision and the Islamist Political Advantage.” Perspectives on Politics 15 (1): 4261.
Brown Nathan. 2015. “A Struggle for Power: Islamism and Democracy.” Middle East Journal 69 (3): 463–7.
Burke Edmund. 1972. “Pan-Islam and Moroccan Resistance to French Colonial Penetration, 1900–1912.” The Journal of African History 13 (1): 97118.
Calvert John. 2008. Islamism: A Documentary and Reference Guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Cammett Melani, and Luong Pauline Jones. 2014. “Is There an Islamist Political Advantage?Annual Review of Political Science 17: 187206.
Carter Barbara L. 1984. “On Spreading the Gospel to Egyptians Sitting in Darkness: The Political Problem of Missionaries in Egypt in the 1930s.” Middle Eastern Studies 20 (4): 1836.
Charlesworth Andrew. 1983. “The Spatial Diffusion of Rural Protest: An Historical and Comparative Perspective of Rural Riots in Nineteenth-Century Britain.” Environment and Planning 1 (3): 251–63.
Church Missionary Society. 1931. Annual Report of the Church Missionary Society for Africa and the East: One-Hundred-and-Thirty-Second-Year, 1930–31. London: Church Missionary Society.
Cleveland William L. 2014. Islam Against the West: Shakib Arslan and the Campaign for Islamic Nationalism. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Cole Juan R. I. 2002. Printing and Urban Islam in the Mediterranean world, 1890–1920. In Modernity and Culture: from the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean, eds. Fawaz Leila Tarazi and Bayly C. A.. New York: Columbia University Press, 344–64.
Commins David. 1994. Hasan al-Banna, 1906–1949. In Pioneers of Islamic Revival, ed. Rahnema Ali. London: Zed Books, 125–49.
Coveney Joseph. 2015. “FIRTHLOGIT: Stata Module to Calculate Bias Reduction in Logistic Regression.” Statistical Software Components.
Cunningham David, and Phillips Benjamin T.. 2007. “Contexts for Mobilization: Spatial Settings and Klan Presence in North Carolina, 1964–1966.” American Journal of Sociology 113 (3): 781814.
Davis Nancy Jean, and Robinson Robert V.. 2012. Claiming Society for God: Religious Movements and Social Welfare in Egypt, Israel, Italy, and the United States. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Deeb Marius. 1979. Party Politics in Egypt: the Wafd & its Rivals, 1919–1939. Ithaca, NY: Ithaca Press.
Dekmejian R. Hrair. 1995. Islam in Revolution: Fundamentalism in the Arab World. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.
Egypt General Mission News. 1931. Thirty-Third Annual Report XXXI (172). London: Egypt General Mission.
Egyptian State Railway. 1936. Chemins de Fer de Létat Egyptien: Indicateur Horaire Détè du 1er Mai au 31 Octobre 1936. Cairo: Egyptian State Railway Printing Office.
Ferwerda Jeremy, and Miller Nicholas L.. 2014. “Political Devolution and Resistance to Foreign Rule: A Natural Experiment.” American Political Science Review 108 (3): 642–60.
Fischer Michael M.J. 1982. “Islam and the Revolt of the Petit Bourgeoisie.” Daedalus 111 (1): 101–25.
Gambetta Diego, and Hertog Steffen. 2016. Engineers of Jihad: The Curious Connection Between Violent Extremism and Education. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
George Alexander L., and Bennett Andrew. 2005. Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences. Boston, MA: MIT Press.
Gershoni Israel. 1986. “The Muslim Brothers and the Arab Revolt in Palestine, 1936–39.” Middle Eastern Studies 22 (3): 367–97.
Gershoni Israel. 1988. Rejecting the West: The Image of the West in the Teachings of the Muslim Brotherhood, 1928–1939. In The Great Powers in the Middle East, 1919–1939, ed. Dann Uriel. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner, 370–90.
Gershoni Israel, and Jankowski James. 2009. Confronting Fascism in Egypt: Dictatorship Versus Democracy in the 1930s. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
Gershoni Israel, and Jankowski James P.. 2002. Redefining the Egyptian Nation, 1930–1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Goldberg Ellis. 1981. “Bases of Traditional Reaction: A Look at the Muslim Brothers.” Mediterranean Peoples 14: 7996.
Goldfinch Gary. 2003. Steel in the Sand: The History of Egypt and Its Railways. Reading, UK: Finial Publishing.
Harris Christina Phelps. 1964. Nationalism and Revolution in Egypt: The Role of the Muslim Brotherhood. Palo Alto, CA: Hoover Institution Press.
Hedström Peter, Sandell Rickard, and Stern Charlotta. 2000. “Mesolevel Networks and the Diffusion of Social Movements: The Case of the Swedish Social Democratic Party.” American Journal of Sociology 106 (1): 145–72.
Heyworth-Dunne James. 1950. Religious and Political Trends in Modern Egypt. Washington, DC: self-published.
Hobsbawm Eric. 2010. Age of Capital: 1848–1875. New York: Hachette.
Hobsbawn Eric, and Rudé George. 1968. Captain Swing: A Social History of the Great English Agricultural Uprising of 1830. New York: Penguin.
Hourani Albert. 1962. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age, 1798–1939. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Husaini Ishaq Musa. 1956. The Moslem Brethren: The Greatest of Modern Islamic Movements. Beirut: Khayat.
Ismail Salwa. 2006. Rethinking Islamist Politics: Culture, the State and Islamism. London: I.B. Tauris.
Jankowski James P. 1975. Egypt’s Young Rebels: Young Egypt, 1933–1952. Palo Alto, CA: Hoover Institution Press.
Jha Saumitra, and Wilkinson Steven. 2012. “Does Combat Experience Foster Organizational Skill? Evidence from Ethnic Cleansing During the Partition of South Asia.” American Political Science Review 106 (4): 883907.
Karpat Kemal H. 2001. The Politicization of Islam: Reconstructing Identity, State, Faith, and Community in the Late Ottoman State. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kaufmann Eric, and Harris Gareth. 2015. ‘“White Flight” or Positive Contact? Local Diversity and Attitudes to Immigration in Britain.’ Comparative Political Studies 48 (12): 1563–90.
Kawalerowicz Juta, and Biggs Michael. 2015. “Anarchy in the UK: Economic Deprivation, Social Disorganization, and Political Grievances in the London Riot of 2011.” Social Forces 94 (2): 673–98.
Keddie Nikki R. 1983. An Islamic Response to Imperialism: Political and Religious Writings of Sayyid Jamāl ad-Dīn“ al-Afghānī”. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Kepel Gilles. 2006. Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Ketchley Neil, and Biggs Michael. 2017. “The Educational Contexts of Islamist Activism: Elite Students and Religious Institutions in Egypt.” Mobilization 22 (1): 5776.
Khalid Adeeb. 1999. The Politics of Muslim Cultural Reform: Jadidism in Central Asia. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Khuri-Makdisi Ilham. 2010. The Eastern Mediterranean and the Making of Global Radicalism, 1860–1914. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
King Gary, and Zeng Langche. 2001. “Logistic Regression in Rare Events Data.” Political Analysis 9 (2): 137–63.
Kocher Matthew A., and Monteiro Nuno P.. 2016. “Lines of Demarcation: Causation, Design-Based Inference, and Historical Research.” Perspectives on Politics 14 (4): 952–75.
Krämer Gudrun. 2014. Hasan al-Banna. London: Oneworld Publications.
Kupferschmidt Uri M. 1982. “The Muslim Brothers and the Egyptian Village.” Asian and African Studies 16 (1): 157–70.
Kupferschmidt Uri M. 1987. “Reformist and Militant Islam in Urban and Rural Egypt.” Middle Eastern Studies 23 (4): 403–18.
Kurzman Charles. 2002. Modernist Islam, 1840–1940. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Laffan Michael Francis. 2003. Islamic Nationhood and Colonial Indonesia: The Umma Below the Winds. London: Routledge.
Langohr Vickie. 2005. “Colonial Education Systems and the Spread of Local Religious Movements: The Cases of British Egypt and Punjab.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 47 (1): 161–89.
Lapidus Ira M. 1997. “Islamic Revival and Modernity: The Contemporary Movements and the Historical Paradigms.” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 40 (4): 444–60.
Lawrence Adria. 2013. Imperial Rule and the Politics of Nationalism: Anti-Colonial Protest in the French Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lia Brynjar. 1998. The Society of the Muslim Brothers in Egypt: The Rise of an Islamic Mass Movement, 1928-1942. Ithaca, NY: Ithaca Press.
Lia Brynjar. 2015. “Autobiography or Fiction? Hasan al-Bannā’s Memoirs Revisited.” Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies 15: 199226.
Makdisi Ussama. 2008. Artillery of Heaven: American Missionaries and the Failed Conversion of the Middle East. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Mann Michael. 1984. “The Autonomous Power of the State: Its Origins, Mechanisms and Results.” European Journal of Sociology 25 (2): 185213.
Masoud Tarek. 2014. Counting Islam: Religion, Class, and Elections in Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mayer Thomas. 1982. The Military Force of Islam: The Society of the Muslim Brethren and the Palestine Question, 1945–1948. In Zionism and Arabism in Palestine and Israel, eds. Kedourie Elie and Haim Sylvia G.. London: Routledge, 100–17.
Mayer Thomas. 1983. Egypt and the Palestine Question 1936–1945. Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag.
McAdam Doug. 1986. “Recruitment to High-Risk Activism: The Case of Freedom Summer.” American Journal of Sociology 92 (1): 6490.
McAdam Doug, Tarrow Sidney, and Tilly Charles. 2001. Dynamics of Contention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Metcalf Barbara D. 2014. Islamic Revival in British India: Deoband, 1860-1900. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Minault Gail. 1982. The Khilafat Movement: Religious Symbolism and Political Mobilization in India. New York: Columbia University Press.
Mitchell Richard. (1969) 1993. The Society of the Muslim Brothers. Reprint ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Moaddel Mansoor. 2005. Islamic Modernism, Nationalism, and Fundamentalism: Episode and Discourse. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Munson Ziad. 2001. “Islamic Mobilization: A Social Movement Theory Approach.” The Sociological Quarterly 42 (4): 487510.
Noer Deliar. 1973. The Modernist Muslim Movement in Indonesia, 1900–1942. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Okkenhaug Inger Marie. 2015. “Christian Missions in the Middle East and the Ottoman Balkans: Education, Reform, and Failed Conversions, 1819–1967.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 47 (3): 593604.
Owen Roger. 1993. The Middle East in the World Economy, 1800–1914. London: I.B. Tauris.
Özcan Azmi. 1997. Pan-Islamism: Indian Muslims, the Ottomans and Britain, 1877–1924. Leiden: Brill.
Pepinsky Thomas B., Liddle R. William, and Mujani Saiful. 2012. “Testing Islam's Political Advantage: Evidence from Indonesia.” American Journal of Political Science 56 (3): 584600.
Pethybridge Roger. 1972. The Spread of the Russian Revolution: Essays on 1917. London: Springer.
Picard Robert. 2012. “GEODIST: Stata Module to Compute Geodetic Distances.” Statistical Software Components. Last retrieved July 17, 2017.
Quraishi Zāhīr Mas’ ud. 1967. Liberal Nationalism in Egypt: The Rise and Fall of the Wafd Party. Allahbad: Kitab Mahal.
Qureshi M. Naeem. 1999. Pan-Islam in British Indian Politics: A Study of the Khilafat Movement, 1918–1924. Leiden: Brill.
Reetz Dietrich. 2006. Islam in the Public Sphere: Religious Groups in India, 1900–1947. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Robinson Francis. 1993. “Technology and Religious Change: Islam and the Impact of Print.” Modern Asian Studies 27 (1): 229–51.
Roy Olivier. 1994. The Failure of Political Islam. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Rudé George. 1964. The Crowd in History: A Study of Popular Disturbances in France and England, 1730–1848. New York: Wiley & Sons.
Ryzova Lucie. 2014. The Age of the Efendiyya: Passages to Modernity in National-Colonial Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schulze Reinhard. 2002. A Modern History of the Islamic World. London: I.B. Tauris.
Sedra Paul. 2011. From Mission to Modernity: Evangelicals, Reformers and Education in Nineteenth Century Egypt. London: I.B. Tauris.
Shalabi Ali. 1981. Misr al-Fatā wa Dawraha fi al-Siyāsa al-Misriyya, 1933-1941 [Young Egypt and their Role in Egyptian Politics, 1933–1941]. Cairo: Dār al-Kutub al-Jamā’i.
Sharkey Heather J. 2008. American Evangelicals in Egypt: Missionary Encounters in an Age of Empire. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Sharkey Heather J. 2013. Ambiguous Conversions: The Selective Adaptation of Religious Cultures in Colonial North Africa. In Religious Conversions in the Mediterranean World, ed. Marzouki Nadia and Roy Olivier. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 7797.
Shiraishi Takashi. 1990. An Age in Motion: Popular Radicalism in Java, 1912–1926. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Silver Beverly J. 2003. Forces of Labor: Workers’ Movements and Globalization since 1870. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Skocpol Theda. 1997. “The Tocqueville Problem: Civic Engagement in American Democracy.” Social Science History 21 (4): 455–79.
Snyder Richard. 2001. “Scaling Down: The Subnational Comparative Method.” Studies in Comparative International Development 36 (1): 93110.
Stasavage David. 2010. “When Distance Mattered: Geographic Scale and the Development of European Representative Assemblies.” American Political Science Review 104 (4): 625–43.
Tarrow Sidney. 2011. Power in Movement: Revised and Updated Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tarrow Sidney. 2015. War, States, and Contention: A Comparative Historical Study. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
The War Office. 1927. Military Report on Egypt 1926. London: The War Office.
The War Office. 1938. Military Report on Egypt 1937. London: The War Office.
Tilly Charles. 1990. Coercion, Capital, and European States, AD 990-1990. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tilly Charles. 2004. Social Movements, 1768–2004. London: Routledge.
Tilly Charles. 2008. Contentious Performances. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tomz Michael, King Gary, and Zeng Langche. 2003. “ReLogit: Rare Events Logistic Regression.” Journal of Statistical Software 8 (2): 137–63.
Tripp Charles. 1984. Ali Mahir Pasha and the Palace in Egyptian Politics, 1936–42: Seeking Mass Enthusiasm for Autocracy. Unpublished PhD thesis, School of Oriental and African Studies.
United Presbyterian Church of North America. 1931. Triennial Report of the Board of Foreign Missions of the United Presbyterian Church of North America. Philadelphia, PA: Joseph Brennian Company.
Ushama Thameem. 1995. Hasan al-Banna: Vision & Mission. Kuala Lumpur: AS Noordeen.
Van der Veur Paul W. 2006. The Lion and the Gadfly: Dutch Colonialism and the Spirit of EFE Douwes Dekker. Amsterdam: KITLV Press.
Voll John O. 1994. Islam: Continuity and Change in the Modern World. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.
Watenpaugh Keith David. 2014. Being Modern in the Middle East: Revolution, Nationalism, Colonialism, and the Arab Middle Class. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Weber Eugen. 1976. Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France, 1870–1914. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
Wedeen Lisa. 2003. “Beyond the Crusades: Why Huntington, and Bin Laden, are Wrong.” Middle East Policy 10 (2): 5462.
Wendell Charles. 1978. Five Tracts of Hasan Al-Banna (1906–1949): A Selection from the Majmuat Rasa’il Al-Imam Al-Shahid Hasan Al-Banna’. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Weyland Kurt. 2016. “Crafting Counterrevolution: How Reactionaries Learned to Combat Change in 1848.” American Political Science Review 110 (2): 215–31.
Wickham Carrie R. 2002. Mobilizing Islam: Religion, Activism and Social Change in Egypt. New York: Columbia University Press.
Woltering Robbert A.F.L. 2002. “The Roots of Islamist Popularity.” Third World Quarterly 23 (6): 1133–43.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

American Political Science Review
  • ISSN: 0003-0554
  • EISSN: 1537-5943
  • URL: /core/journals/american-political-science-review
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Brooke and Ketchley Dataset

Supplementary materials

Brooke and Ketchley supplementary material

 PDF (163 KB)
163 KB


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 367
Total number of PDF views: 152 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 2197 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 6th February 2018 - 21st February 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.