Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The cult of King Alfred the Great

  • Simon Keynes
Extract

King Alfred the Great has long been regarded as the archetypal symbol of the nation's perception of itself. Beset throughout his reign with the reality or threat of Viking invasions, Alfred battled fiercely and suffered heroically in leading his people to their eventual victory; at the same time he promoted the causes of religion and learning, and by the example of his government upheld truth, justice and the Anglo-Saxon way. Moreover, although himself fundamentally English (with West Saxon parents and a Mercian wife), he stood for a combination of political interests which made it easier to pass him off as prototypically British. Certainly he has done well, over the years, from the processes which turn history into legend. It may have taken a while for the cult to get going; but once up and running, the bandwagon could not be stopped. My purpose in reviewing the development of the cult of King Alfred is to explore the variety of factors which in their different ways contributed to the process from the ninth century to the present day, and to show how Alfredophilia, and latterly Alfredomania, found expression not only in religious, legal, political and historical writing, but also in much else besides. The overdy ‘literary’ manifestations of the cult of King Alfred, in poetry, drama, music, and prose, are not unfamiliar; yet they must be taken in connection with manifestations of the cult of King Alfred in sculpture, painting, engraving, and book-illustration, and all placed in whatever contexts may be appropriate, if we are to understand how the image of the king was formed and then transmitted to the next generation.

Copyright
References
Hide All

1 An unpublished lecture by Sir Frank Stenton, entitled ‘King Alfred and his Place in History’, was delivered at Wantage in 1949, and is preserved in the Library, Univ. of Reading, Stenton Papers 16/7. I am grateful to Michael Bott for supplying me with a photocopy of the typescript.

2 Davis, R. H. C., ‘Alfred the Great: Propaganda and Truth’, History 56 (1971), 169–82, repr. in his From Alfred the Great to Stephen (London, 1991), pp. 3346.

3 Whitelock, D., ‘The Importance of the Battle of Edington’, repr. in her From Bede to Alfred: Studies in Early Anglo-Saxon Literature and History (London, 1980), no. XIII. The lecture was originally delivered in 1978, in the priory church of Edington.

4 The occasion was marked by a symposium on King Alfred held under the gaze of a portrait of Sir Frank Stenton at the University of Reading. See Bately, J., The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: Texts and their Textual Relationships, Reading Med. Stud. Monograph 3 (Reading, 1991); and Keynes, S., ‘King Alfred and the Mercians’, Kings, Currency and Alliances: History and Coinage in Southern England in the Ninth Century, ed. Blackburn, M. A. S. and Dumville, D. N. (Woodbridge, 1998), pp. 145.

5 Keynes, S., ‘King Alfred the Great and Shaftesbury Abbey’, Studies in the Early History of Shaftesbury Abbey, ed. Keen, L. (Dorchester, 1999), pp. 1772, being one of a series of lectures first delivered in 1988, and repeated in 1997.

6 Stevenson, W. H., ‘The Date of King Alfred's Death’, EHR 13 (1898), 71–7.

7 I have to thank my colleague, Professor David Dumville, for reminding me that the same distinction applies (under the wilder conditions of Irish history) to St Patrick. The 1500th anniversary of Patrick's death in 461 was celebrated, or rather contested, in 1961; the 1500th anniversary of his death in 493 was celebrated in 1993. For further explanation, see Dumville, D. N. et al. , Saint Patrick, A.D. 493–1993 (Woodbridge, 1993).

8 I should like to record my particular gratitude to the late Jeremy Maule (Trinity College, Cambridge) for discussion of the early modern period (and much else besides) in the early stages of this work, and to Dr Boyd Hilton, Dr David McKitterick, Mr William St Clair, and Dr Tessa Webber (also of Trinity College) for references and suggestions as I strayed further afield. I am also grateful to Dr Nigel Ramsay for reading this paper in typescript, and for making a number of valuable suggestions. Many other debts are mentioned where appropriate below. Papers based on aspects of this material were delivered at the University of Oxford in November 1998, at the University of Notre Dame and at the Newberry Library, Chicago, in March 1999, and at the meeting of the International Society of Anglo-Saxonists, Notre Dame, in August 1999. I am grateful to Professors Rees Davies, Patrick Geary, Paul Szarmach, and Katherine O'Brien O'Keeffe for their cood offices in these connections.

9 On aspects of the development of the Alfredian legend, see, e.g., Miles, L. W., King Alfred in Literature (Baltimore, MD, 1902); Lees, B. A., Alfred the Great / Tne Truth Teller / Maker of England 848–899 (New York and London, 1915), pp. 433–67; Hill, C., ‘The Norman Yoke’ [1954], repr. in his Puritanism and Revolution: Studies in Interpretation of the English Revolution of the 17th Century (London, 1958), pp. 50122, esp. 96–9; Stanley, E., ‘The Glorification of Alfred King of Wessex [1678–1851]’ (1981), repr. in his A Collection of Papers with Emphasis on Old English Literature (Toronto, 1987), 410–41; Keynes, S. and Lapidge, M., Alfred the Great: Asser's ‘Life of King Alfred’ and other Contemporary Sources (Harmondsworth, 1983), pp. 44–8; Simmons, C. A., Reversing the Conquest: History and Myth in Nineteenth-Century British Literature (New Brunswick, NJ, 1990), esp. pp. 2541 and 175202; and Sturdy, D., Alfred the Great (London, 1995), pp. 228–41.

10 Æthelweard, Chronicon iv.3 (The Chronicle of Æthelweard, ed. Campbell, A. (London, 1962), p. 50).

11 The Old English Version of the Heptateuch / Ælfric's Treatise on the Old and New Testament and his Preface to Genesis, ed. Crawford, S. J., EETS os 160 (Oxford, 1922), 416–17; English Historical Documents c. 500–1042, ed. Whitelock, D., 2nd ed., Eng. Hist. Documents 1 (London, 1979), 928 (no. 239 (i)).

12 Ælfric's Catholic Homilies. The First Series. Text, ed. Clemoes, P., EETS ss 17 (Oxford, 1997), 174; Ælfric's Catholic Homilies. The Second Series. Text, ed. Godden, M., EETS ss 5 (Oxford, 1979), 72.

13 Keynes, S., ‘On the Authenticity of Asser's Life of King AlfredJEH 47 (1996), 529–51, at 537–8.

14 Sawyer, P. H., Anglo-Saxon Charters: an Annotated List and Bibliography, R. Hist. Soc. Guides and Handbooks 8 (London, 1968), no. 946: Harmer, F. E., Anglo-Saxon Writs (Manchester, 1952), pp. 395–6 (no. 107).

15 Historia de Sancto Cuthberto, chs. 14–19 (an eleventh-century interpolation in a tenth-century source, or, more probably, an integral part of an eleventh-century source). See Keynes, and Lapidge, , Alfred the Great, pp. 21–2 and 211–12; Simpson, L., ‘The King Alfred/St Cuthbert Episode in the Historia de sancto Cuthberto: its Significance for Mid-Tenth-Century English History’, St Cuthbert, His Cult and His Community to AD 1200, ed. Bonner, G. et al. , (Woodbridge, 1989), pp. 397411; and The Historia de Sancto Cuthberto, ed. Johnson-South, T. (forthcoming).

16 Keynes, and Lapidge, , Alfred the Great, pp. 21–2 and 197202.

17 For a valuable survey of all this material, see Gransden, A., Historical Writing in England c. 550 to c. 1307 (London, 1974), and Gransden, A., Historical Writing in England II: c. 1307 to the Early Sixteenth Century (London, 1982). See also Galloway, A., ‘Writing History in England’, The Cambridge History of Medieval English Literature, ed. Wallace, D. (Cambridge, 1999), pp. 255–83.

18 For the ‘historical’ Arthur, see Padel, O. J., ‘The Nature of Arthur’, CMCS 27 (1994), 131; for the use of the legend in the Middle Ages, see MacColl, A., ‘King Arthur and the Making of an English Britain’, Hist. Today 49.3 (1999), 713.

19 On the cult of St Edward, see further below, pp. 237–8.

20 The point is made, for example, in King William's famous writ for the citizens of London: Regesta regum Anglo-Normannorum: the Acta of William 1 (1066–1087), ed. Bates, D. (Oxford, 1998), p. 593 (no. 180). See also O'Brien, B. R., God's Peace and King's Peace: the Laws of Edward the Confessor (Philadelphia, PA, 1999), esp. pp. 25–8.

21 Ridyard, S. J., ‘Condigna Veneratio: Post-Conquest Attitudes to the Saints of the Anglo-Saxons’, ANS 9 (1987), 179206; but cf. Heslop, T. A., ‘The Canterbury Calendars and the Norman Conquest’, Canterbury and the Norman Conquest Churches, Saints and Scholars 1066–1109, ed. Eales, R. and Sharpe, R. (London, 1995), pp. 5385.

22 William of Malmesbury, Gesta regum ii.121.1 (William of Malmesbury: Gesta regum Anglorum / The History of the English Kings I, ed. Mynors, R. A. B., Thomson, R. M. and Winterbottom, M. (Oxford, 1998), 180–2).

23 William of Malmesbury, Gesta regum ii.121.5 (ibid. pp. 182–4).

24 William of Malmesbury, Gesta regum ii.123.1–3 (ibid. pp. 192–4); see also Whitelock, D., ‘William of Malmesbury on the Works of King Alfred’ (1969), repr. in From Bede to Alfred, no. VII.

25 Asser, chs. 103–4; William of Malmesbury, Gesta regum ii. 124.4 (ed. Thomson, Mynors and Winterbottom, , p. 194). On the later development of this theme, especially with regard to labour legislation in the nineteenth century, see Langenfelt, G., The Historic Origin of the Eight Hours Day: Studies in English Traditionalism (Stockholm, 1954), pp. 122–39.

26 William of Malmesbury, Gesta regum ii.122.1–2 (ibid., pp. 188–90). For further discussion, see Thomson, R. M. with Winterbottom, M., William of Malmesbury: Gesta Regum Anglorum / The History of the English Kings, II: General Introduction and Commentary (Oxford, 1999), 98.

27 The Chronicle of John of Worcester, II: the Annals from 450 to 1066, ed. Darlington, R. R. and McGurk, P. (Oxford, 1995), 352–4.

28 Historia Anglorum ii.23, iv.30 and v.7–13 (Henry, Archdeacon of Huntingdon: ‘Historia Anglorum’ / The History of the English People, ed. Greenway, D. (Oxford, 1996), pp. 106, 264 and 284–98), ending with a poem praising Alfred's resilience in the face of sustained Danish attack.

29 The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis, ed. Chibnall, M., 6 vols. (Oxford, 19681980) II, 240 and 340.

30 For ‘Matthew of Westminster’, see A Bibliography of English History to 1485, ed. Graves, E. B. (Oxford, 1975), p. 421 (no. 2871); and Gransden, , Historical Writing II, 436 and 479.

31 For Roger of Wendover's account of Alfred, see Matthæi Parisiensis, Monachi Sancti Albani, Chronica Majora, ed. Luard, H. R., RS 57, 7 vols. (London, 18721983) I, 403–35 [passages in small type representing the text of RW].

32 For the significance of the events of 886, see Keynes, , ‘King Alfred and the Mercians’, pp. 21–9.

33 Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 26, fols, iv verso and 65r, and Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 16, fol. iii recto: see Lewis, S., The Art of Matthew Paris in the Chronica Majora, California Stud. in the Hist. of Art 21 (Aldershot, 1987), 165–74, with figs. 95, 96 and 77; and Morgan, N., Early Gothic Manuscripts [I] 1190–1250, Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the Brit. Isles 4.i (Oxford, 1982), 136–9 (no. 88).

34 ‘Rex Alfredus magnus. Iste regnauit xxix annis, & mensibus vi. Hic mentis exigentibus magnus dicebatur’ (BL Cotton Nero D. i, fol. 30v); see Keynes, S., ‘A Tale of Two Kings: Alfred the Great and Æthelred the Unready’, TRHS 5th ser. 36 (1986), 195217, at 195, n. 2, and Stanley, , ‘The Glorification of Alfred’, p. 441.

35 The account of Alfred in the vernacular chronicle attributed to Robert of Gloucester, written c. 1300, draws on William of Malmesbury and Henry of Huntingdon, but makes more than they do of the significance of the (supposed) fact that Alfred was anointed king by Pope Leo in Rome. See The Metrical Chronicle of Robert of Gloucester, ed. Wright, W. A., 2 vols., RS 86 (London, 1887) I, xix and 387–94, at lines 5326–32; see also Gransden, , Historical Writing I, 405–6 and 432–8.

36 Historia Anglorum i.5 (ed. Greenway, , pp. 1618).

37 Savile, H., Rerum Anglicarum scriptores post Bedam praecipui (London, 1596), fols. 484–520, at 495rv; [Fulman], W., Rerum Anglicarum scriptores I (Oxford, 1684), 1132, at 28. For a translation of the operative passage, see Riley, H. T., Ingulph's Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland (London, 1854), p. 56.

38 For William of Sudbury's tract on the regalia, incorporated in Richard of Cirencester's Speculum Historiale, see Ricardi de Cirencestria Speculum historiale de gestis regum Angliæ, ed. Mayor, J. E. B., 2 vols., RS 30 (London, 18631869) II, 2639. In the early 1640s the box in which St Edward's Crown was kept, at Westminster, bore a label to the effect that it contained the crown with which Alfred, Edward, and others had been crowned; see Spelman, Life of Alfred, ed. Hearne, [below, n. 127], pp. 200–1. ‘St Edward's Crown’ seems thus to have been misidentified as ‘King Alfreds Crowne’ when an inventory was taken of the regalia under the Commonwealth in 1649, shortly before its destruction; see Millar, O., ‘The Inventories and Valuations of the King's Goods 1649–1651’, Walpole Soc. 43 (1972), at 49. See also Lightbown, R., ‘The King's Regalia, Insignia and Jewellery’, The Late King's Goods: Collections, Possessions and Patronage of Charles I in the Light of the Commonwealth Sale Inventories, ed. MacGregor, A. (London, 1989), pp. 257–75, at 257–8, and below, n. 64.

39 See Faith, R. J., ‘The “Great Rumour’ of 1377 and Peasant Ideology’, The English Rising of 1381, ed. Aston, T. H. and Hilton, R. H. (London, 1984), pp. 4373, at 56–7, and Faith, R., The English Peasantry and the Growth of Lordship, Stud. in the Early Hist. of Britain (London, 1997), pp. 266–7.

40 Annales Monastici, ed. Luard, H. R., 5 vols., RS 36 (London, 18641869) II [Annals of Winchester], 10.

41 Tne Owl and the Nightingale, ed. Stanley, E. G. (London, 1960).

42 Kemble, J. M., The Dialogue of Solomon and Saturn (London, 1848), pp. 225–57, at 226–48, with translation; South, H. P., The Proverbs of Alfred (1931), repr. (New York, 1970); Arngart, O., The Proverbs of Alfred, 2 vols., Skrifter utgivna av Kungl. Humanistiska Vetenskapssamfundet i Lund 32 (Lund, 19421955).

43 For Spelman's ‘Life’ of Alfred, see below, pp. 254–6. He cites the Proverbs of Alfred from a tran script of a lost Cottonian manuscript (BL, Cotton Galba A. xix), on which see Arngart, , Proverbs of Alfred II, 1117.

44 For Alfred's supposed translation of Æsop, see Marie de France: Fables, ed. Spiegel, H. (Toronto, 1987), pp. 256–8. In a forthcoming study, Michael Lapidge and Jill Mann suggest that Marie de France may have worked from a lost Latin poem to which Alfred's name had become attached, itself related to the (tenth-century) ‘Hexametrical Romulus’. For Alfred's supposed authorship of Quaestiones naturales, see Smalley, B., English Friars and Antiquity in the Early Fourteenth Century (Oxford, 1960), pp. 207–8.

45 For an authoritative assessment of Alfred's legislation, see Wormald, P., The Making of English Law: King Alfred to the Twelfth Century (Oxford, 1999), and its sequel (forthcoming).

46 On the glorification of Alfred as a law-maker, in a wider context, see Stanley, E. G., Die angelsächsische Rechtspflege (forthcoming), esp. sect. 2.

47 Wormald, P., ‘“Quadripartitus”’, with Sharpe, R., ‘The Prefaces of “Quadripartitus”’, in Law and Government in Medieval England and Normandy: Essays in Honour of Sir James Holt, ed. Garnett, G. and Hudson, J. (Oxford, 1994), pp. 111–72; see also Liebermann, F., ‘A Contemporary Manuscript of the “Leges Anglorum Londoniis collectae”’, EHR 28 (1913), 732–45.

48 The Treatise on the Laws and Customs of the Realm of England, Commonly Called Glanvill, ed. Hall, G. D. G. (London, 1965); Bracton, De legibus et consuetudinibus Angliae, ed. Woodbine, G. E., rev. Thorne, S. E., 4 vols. (New Haven, CT, 19151942); Sir John Fortescue, De laudibus legum Anglie, ed. Chrimes, S. B. (Cambridge, 1942), and The Governance of England: otherwise called The Difference between an Absolute and a Limited Monarchy, by Sir John Fortescue, Kt, ed. Plummer, C. (Oxford, 1885).

49 The Mirror of Justices, ed. Whittaker, W. J., with an Introduction by Maitland, F. W., Selden Soc. 7 (London, 1895), xxiv (date), 8 (parliaments), 54 (treason) and 166–71 (judges). Maitland attributed the work to Andrew Horn, fishmonger of Bridge Street, London; but see Catto, J., ‘Andrew Horn: Law and History in Fourteenth-Century England’, The Writing of History in the Middle Ages: Essays presented to Richard William Southern, ed. Davis, R. H. C. and Wallace-Hadrill, J. M. (Oxford, 1981), pp. 367–91, at 373–4 and 386–7.

50 For the Modus tenendi parliamentum, see Pronay, N. and Taylor, J., Parliamentary Texts of the Later Middle Ages (Oxford, 1980), pp. 6779 (text) and 8091 (translation), with full commentary.

51 On the use of the Mirror of Justices in the seventeenth century, see further below, p. 249.

52 The material bearing on the mythical history of the University of Oxford is most conveniently assembled in Parker, J., The Early History of Oxford 727–1100, Oxford Hist. Soc. 3 (Oxford, 1885), 2462 (discussion, with translation of texts) and 305–17 (appendix of texts).

53 Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden Monachi Cestrensis, ed. Babington, C. and Lumby, J. R., 9 vols., RS 41 (London, 18651886) VI, 354. See also Taylor, J., The ‘Universal Chronicle’ of Ranulf Higden (Oxford, 1966), p. 45, and Gransden, , Historical Writing II, 4357, at 52. The Polychronicon had been translated into English by the end of the fourteenth century, and was printed by Caxton in 1480.

54 Polychronicon, ed. Babington, and Lumby, VI, 362.

55 For further details, see Parker, , Early History of Oxford, pp. 52–7; The Victoria History of the County of Oxford III: The University of Oxford, ed. Salter, H. E. and Lobel, M. D. (London, 1954) [hereafter VCH Oxon III], 6181 (University College); and esp. Darwall-Smith, R., University College: the First 750 Years (Oxford, 1999), being the catalogue of an exhibition at the Bodleian Library to mark the 750th anniversary of the founding of University College (in 1249).

56 For the ‘memorials’ of Alfred in the windows of the fifteenth-century chapel, and in some of the old chamber windows, see Carr, W., University College (London, 1902), pp. 6 and 66–7.

57 See further below, pp. 260–9 and 322–4.

58 See further below, n. 95.

59 Liber Monasterii de Hyda, ed. Edwards, E., RS 45 (London, 1866), pp. 41–2, and Parker, , Early History of Oxford, pp. 45–6. For Thomas Rudbourne, see The ‘Liber Vitae’ of the New Minster and Hyde Abbey, Winchester, ed. Keynes, S., EEMF 26 (Copenhagen, 1996), 45.

60 For the operative passage from Rous's Historia regum Angliae, see Parker, , Early History of Oxford, pp. 4951 (with translation) and 315 (text). For Rous himself, and his views on the antiquity of Oxford and Cambridge, see also Kendrick, T., British Antiquity (London, 1950), pp. 1929, and Gransden, , Historical Writing II, 309–27.

61 Letters from Henry VI to Pope Eugenius IV, dated 20 March 1441, one concerning Osmund and the other concerning Alfred, in Memorials of the Reign of King Henry VI: Official Correspondence of Thomas Bekynton, Secretary to King Henry VI, and Bishop of Bath and Wells, ed. Williams, G., 2 vols., RS 56 (London, 1872) I, 117–19. On the canonization of Osmund, see Richmond, C., ‘Religion’, Fifteenth-Century Attitudes: Perceptions of Society in Late Medieval England, ed. Horrox, R. (Cambridge, 1994), pp. 183201, at 190–1.

62 For the significance of the so-called ‘Laws of Edward the Confessor’, see above, n. 20. The author of the Modus tenendi parliamentum projected parliament back into Edward's reign (Pronay, and Taylor, , Parliamentary Texts, pp. 67 and 80).

63 On the cult of St Edward at Westminster, see Binski, P., Westminster Abbey and the Plantagenets: Kingship and the Representation of Power 1200–1400 (New Haven, CT, 1995), esp. pp. 5289. Edward was canonized in 1161. His relics were placed in a new shrine at Westminster on 13 Oct. 1163, in the presence of King Henry II and Thomas Becket, and were moved again on 13 Oct. 1269, in the presence of King Henry III. For Richard II at the shrine of Edward in 1381, see The Westminster Chronicle 1381–1394, ed. Hector, L. C. and Harvey, B. F. (Oxford, 1982), pp. 810. The shrine was despoiled in the 1540s, restored by Mary I, and restored again by James II.

64 On the cult of St Edward in relation to the regalia, see Binski, , Westminster Abbey and the Plantagenets, pp. 134–5, and Lightbown, R., ‘The English Coronations before the Commonwealth’, The Crown Jewels: the History of the Coronation Regalia in the Jewel House of the Tower of London, ed. Blair, C., 2 vols. (London, 1998) I, 53256, and ‘The English Coronation Regalia before the Commonwealth’, ibid. 1, 257–353.

65 The coat of arms which would appear to have been devised for Edward the Confessor in the thirteenth century was a cross patonce (or cross flory) between five birds (? eagles, or doves), itself probably derived from his seal and from his coinage (Dolley, R. H. M. and Jones, F. Elmore, ‘A New Suggestion Concerning the So-Called “Martlets” in the Arms of St Edward’, Anglo-Saxon Coins, ed. Dolley, R. H. M. (London, 1961), pp. 215–26). It is seen, for example, in Westminster Abbey: Binski, , Westminster Abbey and the Plantagenets, p. 79 (fig. 115). For its adoption by Richard II, in the form of a cross patonce (or flory) between five legless birds (presumably martlets), see Harvey, J. H., ‘The Wilton Diptych – A Re-examination’, Archaeologia 98 (1961), 128, at 56, and Binski, , Westminster Abbey and the Plantagenets, pp. 87 and 200. The Wilton Diptych (National Gallery), made for Richard II in the late 1390s, shows Richard with his patrons St Edmund (king of East Anglia), Edward the Confessor, and John the Baptist, with Richard's ‘Edwardian’ arms on the back. For the later adaptation of Edward's coat of arms into one for the kings of all England, including Alfred, see below, n. 114.

66 For ‘The Tudor Cult of British History’, see Kendrick, , British Antiquity, pp. 3444, and MacDougall, H. A., Racial Myth in English History: Trojans, Teutons, and Anglo-Saxons (Montreal and Hanover, NH, 1982), pp. 1517.

67 Polydori Vergilii Urbinatis Anglicæ Historiæ Libri XXVI (Basel, 1534). Vergil's manuscript, in the Vatican Library, was written in 1512–13. A Tudor translation of his account of the period before the Norman Conquest was edited from BL Royal 18. C. VIII–IX in Polydore Vergil's English History, I: Containing the First Eight Books, Comprising the Period Prior to the Norman Conquest, ed. Ellis, H., Camden Soc. 36 (London, 1846), 203–8 and 213–21. See also Hay, D., Polydore Vergil Renaissance Historian and Man of Letters (Oxford, 1952), esp. pp. 79168; Levy, F. J., Tudor Historical Thought (San Marino, CA, 1967), pp. 5368; and MacDougall, , Racial Myth in English History, pp. 1720.

68 For Vergil on Arthur, see Hay, , Polydore Vergil, pp. 109–10, 157–8, and 199. Henry VIII was more conscious of King Arthur than of any other king before Edward the Confessor; see The Inventory of King Henry VIII, I: The Transcript, ed. Starkey, D., Report of the Research Committee of the Soc. of Antiq. 56 (London, 1998), 174, 326, 384 (nos. 8906 [vestment], 13337 [tapestry], 15377 [picture]).

69 Polydore Vergil's English History, ed. Ellis, , pp. 182–3. For Vergil and Peter's Pence, see also Hay, , Polydore Vergil, pp. 67 and 199200.

70 Polydore Vergil's English History, ed. Ellis, , pp. 197–8.

71 Ibid. p. 203. For Samuel Wale's illustration of this ‘event’, made for an edition of Lockman's History (1747), see below, p. 305.

72 Commentarii de scriptoribus Britannicis, auctore Joanne Lelando Londinate, ed. Hall, A. (Oxford, 1709) I, 144–53, from Oxford, Bodleian Library, Top. gen. c. 4 (S.C. 3120). The heading ‘De Alfredo Magno’ was supplied by the editors and is not found in Leland's manuscript (as noted by Stanley, , ‘The Glorification of Alfred’, p. 411).

73 Bale, J., Illustrium maioris Britanniae scriptorum, hoc est, Angliae, Cambriae, ac Scotiæ, summarium (Ipswich, 1548), 65r66r, at 65r; and Bale, J., Scriptorum illustrium maioris Brytanniae … catalogas, 2 vols. (Basel, 15571559) I, 125–6. For Alfredian annotations in Balc's copy of the Catalogus (BL, Dept of Ptd Books, C.28.m.6), see Johannis de Trokelowe Annales Edvardi II, ed. Hearne, T. (Oxford, 1729), pp. 276–92, at 279–80. See also Index Britanniae Scriptorum: John Bale's Index of British and Other Writers, ed. Poole, R. L. and Bateson, M. (Oxford, 1902), reptd with an introduction by Brett, C. and Carley, J. P. (Cambridge, 1990), pp. 28 (writings) and 473–4 (laws). For Leland and Bale, see also McKisack, M., Medieval History in the Tudor Age (Oxford, 1971), pp. 125.

74 Parker, , Early History of Oxford, pp. 2040; McKisack, , Medieval History in the Tudor Age, pp. 70–1.

75 For Lambarde, see Levy, , Tudor Historical Thought, pp. 136–41; Warnicke, R. M., William Lombarde: Elizabethan Antiquary 1536–1601 (Chichester, 1973), esp. pp. 23–6.

76 Page, R. I., Matthew Parker and his Books (Kalamazoo, MI, 1993), pp. 43–4, with plate 24.

77 Cambridge, University Library, Kk. 3. 18 (Ker, N. R., Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing AngloSaxon (Oxford, 1957), no. 23), with Parkerian notes on the verso of the flyleaf (to which Tim Graham kindly drew my attention). The manuscript was used by Whelock as the basis of his edition of Bede published in 1643 (below, p. 253).

78 Levy, , Tudor Historical Thought, pp. 114–22 and 133–6; Fussner, F. S., The Historical Revolution: English Historical Writing and Thought, 1580–1640 (London, 1962); pp. 22–4; Wright, C. E., ‘The Dispersal of the Monastic Libraries and the Beginnings of Anglo-Saxon Studies’, Trans. of the Cambridge Bibliographical Soc. 3 (1951), 208–37, at 226–7; McKisack, , Medieval History in the Tudor Age, pp. 2649, esp. 39; Williams, P., The Later Tudors: England 1547–1603 (Oxford, 1995), pp. 233–7 and 417–18. Jones, E., The English Nation: the Great Myth (Stroud, 1998), esp. pp. 3160, is instructively partisan in its treatment of the same subject.

79 Hagedorn, S. C., ‘Matthew Parker and Asser's Ælfredi Regis Res Gestæ’, Princeton Univ. Lib. Chronicle 51.1 (1989), 7490; Hagedorn, S. C., ‘Received Wisdom: the Reception History of Alfred's Preface to the Pastoral Care’, Anglo-Saxonism and the Construction of Social Identity, ed. Frantzen, A. J. and Niles, J. D. (Gainesville, FL, 1997), pp. 86107.

80 Keynes, and Lapidge, , Alfred the Great, pp. 197202; see also Keynes, S., Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts … in the Library of Trinity College, Cambridge, OEN Subsidia 18 (Binghamton, NY, 1992), no. 25 (‘Annals of St Neots’), with pl. XXV. For the possibility that Parker's edition gave currency to the tale of Alfred and the cakes, see below, n. 96.

81 Foxe, J.., Acts and Monuments of these Latter and Perillous Dayes (London, 1563), as expanded with further historical material in Foxe, J., The First Volume of the Ecclesiastical History Contaynyng the Actes and Monumentes of Thynges Passed in Every Kynges Tyme in this Realme (London, 1570). for Foxe's treatment of earlier English history, see Haller, W., Foxe's Book of Martyrs and the Elect Nation (London, 1963), esp. pp. 128–30, 141–2 and 152–3 (Alfred).

82 Holinshed, R., The Firste Volume of the Chronicles of England, Scotlande, and Irelande (London, 1577), pp. 211–19. Holinshed's account is illustrated with woodcuts of shipwreck, land-battle, seabattle, and building activity under royal direction; but the artist would not necessarily have had the specifically ‘Alfredian’ context in mind. For further discussion, see Scholderer, V., ‘The Illustrations of the First Edition of Holinshed’, Edinburgh Bib. Soc. Trans. 2 (19381945), 398403.

83 Camden, W., Britannia, sive florentissimorum regnorum, Angliæ, Scotiæ, Hiberniæ … (London, 1586), rev. ed. (London, 1600); Camden, W., Britain, or a Chorographicall Description of the Most Flourishing Kingdomes, England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the Islands adjoyning, out of the depth of Antiquitie, trans. Holland, Ph. (London, 1610). For Camden, see Collinson, P., ‘One of Us? William Camden and the Making of History’, TRHS 6th ser. 8 (1998), 139–63. See also Kendrick, , British Antiquity, pp. 108–9; Levy, , Tudor Historical Thought, pp. 148–59; and MacDougall, , Racial Myth in English History, pp. 20–1.

84 Chronicon ex chronicis ab initio mundi usque ad annum Domini 1118 deductum, auctore Florentio Wigorniensi monacho (London, 1592), repr. at Frankfurt in 1601; see Chronicle of John of Worcester, ed. Darlington, and McGurk, , pp. lxxxi–lxxxii.

85 Rerum Anglicarum scriptores post Bedam praecipui (London, 1596), dedicated to Queen Elizabeth, and repr. at Frankfurt in 1601. Sir Henry Savile (1549–1622) was Warden of Merton College, Oxford, from 1585, and provost of Eton College.

86 See A Bibliography of English History to 1485, ed. Graves, E. B. (Oxford, 1975), p. 294, with references.

87 Evans, J., A History of the Society of Antiquaries (Oxford, 1956), pp. 813, citing Henry Spelman's account of the gatherings in Gibson, E., Reliquiæ Spelmannianæ: the Posthumous Works of Sir Henry Spelman Kt (Oxford, 1698), pp. 6970. See also Levy, , Tudor Historical Thought, pp. 164–6; Fussner, , The Historical Revolution, pp. 92106; and Parry, G., The Trophies of Time: English Antiquarians of the Seventeenth Century (Oxford, 1995), p. 5.

88 The principal collection of papers is BL, Cotton Faustina E. v. The majority are printed in Hearne, T., A Collection of Curious Discourses written by Eminent Antiquaries upon Several Heads in our English Antiquities (Oxford, 1720), supplemented by [SirAyloffe], J., A Colleaion of Curious Discourses Written by Eminent Antiquaries upon Several Heads in our English Antiquities, 2 vols. (London, 1771). See also Keynes, S., ‘Queen Emma and the Encomium Emmae Reginae’, Encomium Emmae Reginae, ed. Campbell, A., Camden Classic Reprints 4 (Cambridge, 1998), xiii–lxxx, at xlv, n. 7, with references.

89 Cf. Brinkley, R. F., Arthurian Legend in the Seventeenth Century, Johns Hopkins Monographs in Lit. Hist. 3 (Baltimore, MD, 1932), 61–4, and Hill, , ‘The Norman Yoke’, pp. 60–1.

90 Lambarde, W., Archeion: or, A Discourse Upon the High Courts of Justice in England, ed. McIlwain, C. H. and Ward, P. L. (Cambridge, MA, 1957). For exposition of this work, see also Terrill, R. J., ‘William Lambarde: Elizabethan Humanist and Legal Historian’, Jnl of Legal Hist. 6 (1985), 157–78, at 168–75; Alsop, J. D. and Stevens, W. M., ‘William Lambarde and the Elizabethan Polity’, Stud in Med. and Renaissance Hist. 8 (1987), 233–66; and Weston, C. C., ‘England: Ancient Constitution and Common Law’, The Cambridge History of Political Thought 1450–1700, ed. Burns, J. H. with Goldie, M. (Cambridge, 1991), pp. 374411, at 393–4.

91 Hearne, , Curious Discourses, pp. 2951, and Ayloffe, , Curious Discourses I, 1932, and II, 323; see also Hearne, , Curious Discourses, pp. lxxix–lxxxvi.

92 Watson, A. G., ‘Henry Savile and the Asser Interpolation’, in his The Manuscripts of Henry Savile of Banke (London, 1969), pp. 83–5. Henry Savile the Elder was the father of Henry Savile of Banke, and neither is to be confused with Sir Henry Savile, Warden of Merton College (above, n. 85). For his manuscript of Asser, see n. 95.

93 Camden, , Britannia [1600], pp. 331–2; Camden, , Britain, trans. Holland, [1610], pp. 378–9. It must have appeared to some that Parker had suppressed the passage in his own edition of Asser. So, when first he heard of the passage about Oxford, the antiquary Thomas Allen asked Thomas James to investigate the matter further. James reported back to Allen by letter, dated 1 April 1600, giving an account of his inspection of the manuscript of Asser which had been used by Parker (and which he had located in Lord Lumley's library), noting that the passage in question was not there. The letter is Oxford, Bodleian Library, Twyne 3, pp. 225–8; and see Asser's Life of King Alfred, ed. Stevenson, W. H. (Oxford, 1904), pp. xxxvii–xxxix.

94 Camden, W., Anglica, Normannica, Hibernica, Cambrica, a veteribus scripta (Frankfurt, 1602), pp. 122, at 16; Asser's Lif e of King Alfred, ed. Stevenson, , p. 70 (ch. 83b). For further discussion, see ibid. pp. xxiii–xxviii and Parker, , Early History of Oxford, pp. 4052.

95 The implications of the passage in Camden's edition of Asser were pursued, enthusiastically, by Twyne, B., Antiquitatis academiæ Oxoniensis apologia (Oxford, 1608), pp. 143–8 and 182204. On 18 February 1622, Twyne had occasion to raise the matter with Camden himself, and wrote an account of the meeting (Oxford, Bodleian Library, Twyne 22, 235v–236v). It emerges from this account that the manuscript of Asser which had belonged to Savile, and which had been used by Camden, was thought by Camden to have been written at about the time of Richard II, i.e. in the last quarter of the fourteenth century. Such a manuscript might well have contained the offending passage (above, p. 236) and there is no reason to believe that it had been invented by Savile or by Camden.

96 ‘A merry songe of a kinge and a shepherd’ was entered on the Stationers’ Register for 25 Sept. 1578, and ‘King and shepperd’ was entered on 14 Dec. 1624; see Rollins, H. E., ‘An Analytical Index to the Ballad-Entries in the Register of the Company of Stationers of London’, Stud. in Phil. 21 (1924), 1324, at 117–18 (nos. 1354 and 1358). The ballad in question (a seventeenthcentury copy of which survives among the Roxburghe Ballads in the British Library [Rox. I. 504–5]) was incorporated in Wit and Mirth, or Pills to Purge Melancholy, ed. D'Urfey, T., 6 vols. (London, 17191720), repr. with an Introduction by Day, C. L., 6 vols. in 3 (New York, 1959) V, 289–97, and in Evans, T., Old Ballads, Historical and Narrative, new ed., rev. Evans, R. H., 4 vols. (London, 1810) II, 1121. For an edition, see Chappell, W., The Roxburgbe Ballads III.i (Hertford, 1880), 211–19, with a woodcut of Alfred burning the cakes. See also Miles, , King Alfred in Literature, pp. 4852, and Lees, , Alfred the Great, pp. 456–7.

97 For material of this kind in its wider cultural context, see Spufford, M., Small Books and Pleasant Histories: Popular Fiction and its Readership in Seventeenth-Century England (London, 1981); Würzbach, N., The Rise of the English Street Ballad, 1550–1650 (Cambridge, 1990); and Watt, T., Cheap Print and Popular Piety 1550–1640 (Cambridge, 1991).

98 Parts Added to The Mirror for Magistrates by John Higgins & Thomas Blenerhasset, ed. Campbell, L. B. (Cambridge, 1946), pp. 361496, at 469–76. For successive editions of the original compilation (1559–87), see The Mirror for Magistrates, ed. Campbell, L. B. (Cambridge, 1938).

99 For accounts with emphasis on historiography, see: Butterfield, H., The Whig Interpretation of History (London, 1931); Butterfield, H., The Englishman and his History (Cambridge, 1944); and Kenyon, J., The History Men: the Historical Profession in England since the Renaissance (London, 1983). For accounts with emphasis on political thought, see: Hill, , ‘The Norman Yoke’ [1954]’; Pocock, J. G. A., The Ancient Constitution and the Feudal Law: a Study of English Historical Thought in the Seventeenth Century (Cambridge, 1957), reissued with a Retrospect (Cambridge, 1987); and Skinner, Q., ‘History and Ideology in the English Revolution’, Hist. Jnl 8 (1965), 151–78, with particular attention to differing views of the Norman Conquest. See also Seaberg, R. B., ‘The Norman Conquest and the Common Law: the Levellers and the Argument from Continuity’, Hist. Jnl 24 (1981), 791806; Sommerville, J. P., ‘History and Theory: the Norman Conquest in Early Stuart Political Thought’, Political Stud. 34 (1986), 249–61; Weston, ‘England: Ancient Constitution and Common Law’; and Chibnall, M., The Debate on the Norman Conquest (Manchester, 1999). For the ‘Norman Yoke’ in the eighteenth century, see below, p. 270.

100 V[erstegan], R., Restitution of Decayed Intelligence in Antiquities, Concerning the Most Noble and Renowned English Nation (Antwerp, 1605), repr. (London, 1673). See Parry, , Trophies of Time, pp. 4969; and Clement, R. W., ‘Richard Verstegan's Reinvention of Anglo-Saxon England: a Contribution from the Continent’, Reinventing the Middle Ages & the Renaissance, ed. Gentrup, W. F. (Brepols, 1998), pp. 1936. The thrust of the argument is represented symbolically by the inclusion of a number of engraved illustrations, depicting the pagan gods and two particularly significant historical events (‘The arrival of the first ancestors of English-men out of Germany in Britain’, and ‘The manner of the first bringing and preaching of the Christian faith unto Ethelbert, King of Kent’). The reprint of Verstegan was made necessary, perhaps, by the tenacity of the ‘British’ point of view, represented latterly (for example) by Sheringham, R., De Anglorum gentis origine disceptatio (Cambridge, 1670).

101 Verstegan, , Restitution of Decayed Intelligence in Antiquities, esp. pp. 161–4. In the late tenth century, Æthelweard (Chronicon i.3) stated that Britain was now called England, ‘taking the name of the victors’ (ed. Campbell, , p. 9); in the twelfth century, Henry of Huntingdon stated that the monarchy of England had originated under Egbert, and had then been divided into shires (ed. Greenway, , pp. 12, 16 and 264); and according to Camden, Egbert had issued an edict proclaiming the Heptarchy as ‘England’.

102 [Clapham, J.], The Historie of Great Britannie (London, 1606), repr. Eng. Experience 719 (Amsterdam, 1975), esp. 296–7. For Clapham, see also Kendrick, , British Antiquity, p. 109. The tide continues: ‘declaring the successe of times and affaires in that iland, from the Romans first entrance, untili the raigne of Egbert, the West-Saxon prince; who reduced the severall principalities of the Saxons and English, into a monarchie, and changed the name of Britannie into England’.

103 Gibson, , Reliquiœ Spelmannianœ, p. 70.

104 The Reports of Sir Edward Coke Kt. in English, Compleat in Thirteen Parts, 7 vols. (London, 1727) IV and V. For Coke's, use of the Mirror of Justices (above, pp. 234–5), see Mirror of Justices, ed. Whittaker, , pp. ix–x. See also Hill, , ‘The Norman Yoke’, pp. 58–9 and 65–6; Complete Prose Works of John Milton, III: 1648–1649, ed. Hughes, M. Y. (New Haven, CT, 1962), 398–9; Pronay, and Taylor, , Parliamentary Texts, pp. 56–9; and Weston, , ‘England: Ancient Constitution and Common Law’, pp. 392–3. For a valuable exposition of Coke's views in a wider context, see Cromartie, A., Sir Matthew Hale 1609–1676: Law, Religion and Natural Philosophy, Cambridge Stud. in Early Modern Brit. Hist. (Cambridge, 1995), pp. 1129.

105 Gibson, , Reliquiœ Spelmannianœ, pp. 146 (Feuds and Tenures), 4955 (Ancient Government) and 5765 (Parliaments). On the dispersal of Spelman's collections, see Keynes, S., ‘The Lost Carttulary of Abbotsbury’, ASE 18 (1989), 207–43, at 223–4 and 234.

106 For recent accounts of Selden and his works, see Cromartie, , Sir Matthew Hale, pp. 3041; Parry, , Trophies of Time, pp. 95129; and Christianson, P., Discourse on History, Law, and Governance in the Public Career of John Selden, 1610–1635 (Toronto, 1996). On the dispersal of Selden's collections, see Keynes, S., ‘A Charter of Edward the Elder for Islington’, Hist. Research 66 (1993), 303–16, at 304–6.

107 Selden, J., Analecton Anglobritannicon (Frankfurt, 1615).

108 J. Selden, England's Epinomis, in Westcot, R., Tracts Written by John Selden (London, 1683) [England's Epinomis], esp. pp. 811.

109 Selden, J., Jani Anglorum Facies Altera (London, 1610), trans, in Westcot, , Tracts Written by John Selden [Jani Anglorum Facies Altera], esp. pp. 3742.

110 Spelman, H., ‘Of Antient Deeds and Charters’, The English Works of Sir Henry Spelman Kt (London, 1723), pt 2, pp. 233–56, at 236.

111 For Coke's library, see A Catalogue of the Library of Sir Edward Coke, ed. Hassall, W. O., Yale Law Lib. Pub. 12 (New Haven, CT, 1950), and the material still preserved at Holkham Hall, Norfolk. For the libraries of Spelman and Selden, see above, nn. 105 and 106.

112 Speed, J., The Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine + The History of Great Britaine Under the Conquests of the Romans, Saxons, Danes and Normans (London, 1611 ). The work was dedicated to King James; the copy which belonged to his queen, Anne of Denmark, is now in the library of Trinity College, Cambridge.

113 For Cotton's coins, see Dolley, R. H. M., ‘The Cotton Collection of Anglo-Saxon Coins’, Brit. Museum Quarterly 19 (1954), 7581; van der Meer, G., ‘An Early Seventeenth-Century Inventory of Cotton's Anglo-Saxon Coins’, Sir Robert Cotton as Collector: Essays on an Early Stuart Courtier and his Legacy, ed. Wright, C. J. (London, 1997), pp. 168–82; and below, n. 173. For Cotton and Speed, see Howarth, D., ‘Sir Robert Cotton and the Commemoration of Famous Men’, Sir Robert Cotton as Collector, ed. Wright, , pp. 4067, at 65–6, n. 38.

114 It would appear that separate badges for each of the kingdoms of the Heptarchy were invented in the Middle Ages, to which was added a badge for the kingdom of all England (a cross flory), itself derived from the thirteenth-century arms of Edward the Confessor (above, n. 65). In Speed's system (which may be a refinement of an older system), the cross flory served on its own for kings from Egbert to Eadwig, including Alfred; the badge becomes a cross flory between four martlets, for kings from Edgar to Edmund Ironside; a fifth martlet was then added at the base of the cross, for Edward the Confessor. University College, Oxford, seems to have adopted its own coat of arms (a cross flory between four martlets) from this system, presumably in the fond belief that these arms were Alfred's.

115 ibid. pp. 348–9 [Egbert] and 356–9 [Alfred].

116 Daniel, S., The First Part of the Historie of England (London, 1612), extending to the reign of King Stephen, later continued as The Collection of the Historie of England (London, [1618]), extending to the reign of Edward III.

117 Baziliologia, a Booke of Kings, being the True and Lively Effigies of all our English Kings from the Conquest untill this Present (London, 1618) began with William I: see Griffiths, A., The Print in Stuart Britain 1603–1689, Exhibition Catalogue (London, 1998), pp. 4952 (no. 9).

118 Pits, J., Relationum historicarum de rebus Anglicis tomus primus (Paris, 1619), pp. 169–71.

119 Drury, W., Alvredus sive Alfredus: Tragi-comoedia ter exhibita in seminario Anglorum Duaceno ab ejusdem collegii juventute, anno Domini M.DC.XIX (Douay, 1620). For Drury, see the Dictionary of National Biography (hereafter DNB), and Miles, , King Alfred in Literature, pp. 52 and 128–30. For another Jacobean drama with an Alfredian theme, in which Alfred defends his kingdom against King Canute, and grants a charter to Newcastle, see Howell, R., ‘King Alfred and the Proletariat: a Case of the Saxon Yoke’, AAe 4th ser. 47 (1969), 97100.

120 L'Isle, W., A Saxon Treatise concerning the Old and New Testament (London, 1623), Preface. For L'Isle and his projected edition of the OE Psalter, see McKitterick, D., A History of the Cambridge University Press, I: Printing and the Book Trade in Cambridge 1534–1698 (Cambridge, 1992), 187.

121 For Whelock, see Oates, J. C. T., Cambridge University Library: a History. From the Beginnings to the Copyright Act of Queen Anne (Cambridge, 1986), pp. 173211. For the Saxon lectureship, see the Spelman–Whelock correspondence in Cambridge, University Library, Dd. III. 12.

122 [Whelock, A.], Historiœ ecclesiasticœ gentis Anglorum libri V (Cambridge, 1643); see also McKitterick, , A History of the Cambridge University Press, pp. 187–91.

123 For Powell, see the entry on him in the DNB.

124 Powell, R., A Treatise of the Antiquity, Authority, Uses and Jurisdiction of the Ancient Courts of Leet, or View of Franck-Pledge, and of Subordination of Government Derived from the Institution of Moses, the First Legislator; and the First Imitation of him in this Island of Great Britaine, by King Alfred and Continued Ever Since (London, 1642), published again in 1668.

125 Powell, R., The Life of Alfred, or, Alured. The First Institutor of Subordinate Government in this Kingdome, and Refounder of the University of Oxford. Together with a Parallel of our Soveraigne Lord K. Charles untili this year, 1634 (London, 1634); repr. with an Introduction by F. Wilson and bibliographical notes by Tyas, S. (Stamford, 1996). For Powell, see the DNB, and Miles, , King Alfred in Literature, p. 42.

126 Powell, , Life of Alfred, pp. 3747 (pp. 1516 in the repr. ed.), citing Twyne as his authority.

127 For the original English text, see Hearne, T., The Life of Ælfred the Great, by Sir John Spelman Kt (Oxford, 1709), hereafter Spelman, Life of Alfred, ed. Hearne, . For the Latin translation, see [Walker, O.], Ælfredi Magni Anglorum regis invitissimi vita tribus libris comprehensa a clarissimo duo Johanne Spelman (Oxford, 1678), hereafter Spelman, Life of Alfred, ed. Walker, . See also Miles, , King Alfred in Literature, pp. 43–4; Hagedorn, , ‘Received Wisdom: the Reception History of Alfred's Preface to the Pastoral Care’, pp. 92–4; and Simmons, , Reversing the Conquest, pp. 33–4.

128 See further below, n. 132.

129 For his father's account, see Gibson, , Reliquiœ Spelmannianœ, sig. d; see also Obadiah Walker's preface to the edition of 1678 (below, n. 174).

130 Hearne countered Spelman's suggestion (that Oxford was a safe place) with a spirited assertion of the supposition that Alfred chose Oxford ‘because Letters had flourished here so much before’ (Spelman, , Life of Alfred, ed. Hearne, , pp. 144–5, n. 1; cf. pp. 225–6).

131 He gave an honest reason for not wishing to impugn the antiquity of his own university: ‘Besides having been of Trinity College in Cambridge, I would not be thought to have less affection to my Foster-Mother's Right, than the Author to the Apology [i.e. Twyne], MrCamden, , Leland, and other Oxford Men have shewn for Oxford’ (p. 191).

132 Spelman, , Life of Alfred, ed. Hearne, , p. 182. A letter from John Spelman to Abraham Whelock, dated 6 April 1640 (in Cambridge, University Library, Dd. III. 12), reveals that for this purpose Spelman had sought Whelock's assistance in establishing the whereabouts of the manuscript used by Parker.

133 Spelman, , Life of Alfred, ed. Hearne, , p. 192.

134 Spelman, , Life of Alfred, ed. Hearne, , pp. 125–31. See also Arngart, , Proverbs of Alfred II, 20–5.

135 It seems that Cotton Tiberius B. i was not available when Spelman visited the Cottonian library; see his Life of Alfred, ed. Hearne, , pp. 152–6. See also Brewer, D. S., ‘Sixteenth, Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century References to the Voyage of Ohthere’, Anglia 71 (19521953), 202–11, at 209.

136 Spelman's portrayal of King Alfred deserves comparison with the line of argument pursued by him in some of his other more overtly polemical writings, on which see Weston, C. C. and Greenberg, J. R., Subjects and Sovereigns: the Grand Controversy over Legal Sovereignty in Stuart England (Cambridge, 1981), pp. 108–13. The ‘Life’ is judged in another context by Carter, H., A History of the Oxford University Press, I: To the Year 1780 (Oxford, 1975), pp. 112–13.

137 Oxford, Bodleian Library, e Mus. 75 (S.C. 3696). Spelman's text was copied c. 1660 in Bodleian Library, Ballard 55 (S.C. 10841), and prepared by Hearne for the press in Bodleian Library, Rawlinson D. 324 (S.C. 15363).

138 University College, MS. 131 (‘Joan. Spelmanni notæ in vitam Ælfredi regis, 8vo’) was perhaps a volume of Spelman's working notes. University College 136 (‘Vita Ælfredi regis, primi monarchiæ Anglicanæ fundatoris, Anglicano sermone, folio’), if not an earlier manifestation of a local interest in King Alfred, was perhaps a copy of the finished work in its original English form. The descriptions are from Bernard, E., Catalogi librorum manuscriptorum Angliae et Hiberniae in unum collecti (Oxford, 1697), p. Univ 5, cited by Coxe, H. O., Catalogus codicum MSS. qui in collegiis aulisque Oxoniensibus hodie adservantur, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1852) 1, 38 (by which time both were missing).

139 Baker, R., Chronicle of the Kings of England (London, 1643). For Baker, see the DNB, and Brownley, M. W., ‘Sir Richard Baker's Chronicle and Later Seventeenth-Century English Historiography’, Huntington Lib. Quarterly 52.4 (1989), 481500.

140 Complete Prose Works III, ed. Hughes, , 398400, with notes.

141 ibid. pp. 586–93. In both cases, Milton cites the Mirror of Justices.

142 Milton, J., The History of Britain, that Part Especially Now Call'd England, from the First Traditional Beginning Continu'd to the Norman Conquest (London, 1670), repr. from the edition of 1677 in Milton, J., The History of Britain, with an Introduction by Parry, G. (Stamford, 1991). For a modern edition, with full apparatus, see Complete Prose Works of John Milton, V.i: 1648?–1671, ed. Fogle, F. (New Haven, CT, 1971). See also Carnicelli, T. A., ‘Milton's Knowledge of the Anglo-Saxon Period’, A Milton Encyclopedia, ed. Hunter, W. B. et al. , 9 vols. (Lewisburg, 19781983) I, 51–3, and Hamilton, G. D., ‘The History of Britain and its Restoration Audience’, Politics, Poetics, and Hermeneutics in Milton's Prose, ed. Loewenstein, D. and Turner, J. G. (Cambridge, 1990), pp. 241–55.

143 Complete Prose Works V.i, ed. Fogle, , 249; Milton, , History of Britain, p. 216, with Parry's remarks, ibid. pp. 40–2.

144 Complete Prose Works V.i, ed. Fogle, , 257–9 (Danish invasions), 276–92 (Alfred), 327–8 (decline after Edgar) and 403 (Norman Conquest); Milton, , History of Britain, pp. 222–4, 238–51, 280 and 357.

145 Cambridge, Trinity College, R. 3. 4, p. 38: Keynes, , Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts in the Library of Trinity College, p. 52 (no. 38), with pl. XXXVIII; also in Milton, , History of Britain, Appendix II (unpaginated), no. 24.

146 Oxford, Bodleian Library, Rawlinson poet. 88, on which see Tricomi, A. H., ‘R. Kirkham's Alfred, or Right Re-Enthroned’, OEN 22.1 (1988), 30–1.

147 See Brinkley, , Arthurian Legend, pp. 80–7, and MacDougall, , Racial Myth in English History, pp. 24–5.

148 A verse play by Rymer, Thomas (16411713), called Edgar, or The English Monarch; an Heroick Tragedy (London, 1678), 2nd ed. (London, 1693), was dedicated to King Charles II, and began with a poem comparing Charles and Edgar (‘Thus … You alone, great Edgar's Person bear. / Unking'd, in Love, we represent him here’). Rymer became historiographer royal in 1692, and is better known for his Foedera (17041717). For further comment, see Osborn, J. M., ‘Thomas Rymer as Rhymer’, PQ 54 (1975), 126.

149 It is worth noting in this connection that the Wilton Diptych (above, n. 65) had passed into the possession of King Charles I; see Griffiths, , The Print in Stuart Britain, pp. 92–3 (no. 48).

150 Bury, S., ‘St Edward's Crown’, in The Crown Jewels, ed. Blair, II, 325, and Blair, C., ‘St Edward's Staff, 1661’, ibid. II, 283–6.

151 For the continued significance of the Laws of Edward the Confessor in seventeenth-century polemic, see Greenberg, J., ‘The Confessor's Laws and the Radical Face of the Ancient Constitution’, EHR 104 (1989), 611–37, and Weston, , ‘England: Ancient Constitution and Common Law’, pp. 381–5.

152 Above, n. 99.

153 Sir Matthew Hale's The Prerogatives of the King, ed. Yale, D. E. C., Selden Soc. 92 (London, 1976).

154 Hale's ‘History of the Common Law’ was first published in 1713, repr. in 1716 and 1739. It is repr. from the 3rd ed. in Hale, M., The History of the Common Law of England, ed. Gray, C. M. (Chicago, 1971); but cf. Yale, D. E. C., Hale as a Legal Historian, Selden Soc. Lecture (London, 1976), pp. 56, on the transmission of the text. See also Cromartie, Sir Matthew Hale, pp. 104–9.

155 Prerogatives of the King, ed. Yale, , pp. 1920; History of the Common Law, ed. Gray, , pp. 5, 36–8, 42–3, 55–6, 62, 68–9 and 76 (and pp. 160–7, on trials by jury, without mention of Alfred). For Hale and the Norman Conquest, see also ibid. pp. xxvii–xxviii; Prerogatives of the King, ed. Yale, , pp. xli–xlii; Cromartie, , Sir Matthew Hale, pp. 33–6.

156 In the early 1640s Hare, John, in his tract St Edwards Ghost, or Anti-Normanisme (London, 1647), had developed a version of the ‘Norman Yoke’ which proposed the restoration of the laws of Edward the Confessor (Hill, , ‘The Norman Yoke’, pp. 72–4), though it might have been realized subsequently that it was better to maintain differentials between the Norman and the English regimes.

157 Petyt, W, The Antient Right of the Commons of England Asserted; or, A Discourse Proving by Records and the Best Historians that the Commons of England were Ever an Essential Part of Parliament (London, 1680), esp. Preface, pp. 175, at 616 (on ‘Saxon government’).

158 Brady's response to Petyt's tract was first published in 1681, and revised in Brady, R., An Introduction to the Old English History (London, 1684); see also Brady, R., A Complete History of England (London, 1685), pp. 114–17. For Petyt and Brady, see Weston, , ‘England: Ancient Constitution and Common Law’, pp. 404–10. See also Douglas, D. C., English Scholars 1660–1730, 2nd ed. (London, 1951), pp. 119–38; Butterfield, , The Englishman and his History, pp. 75–8; Pocock, , Ancient Constitution, pp. 182228; Smith, R. J., The Gothic Bequest: Medieval Institutions in British Thought, 1688–1863 (Cambridge, 1987), pp. 78; and Hicks, P., Neoclassical History and English Culture: From Clarendon to Hume (Basingstoke, 1996), pp. 82109.

159 For a conspectus of the arguments deployed c. 1690, see Goldie, M., ‘The Revolution of 1689 and the Structure of Political Argument: an Essay and an Annotated Bibliography of Pamphlets on the Allegiance Controversy’, Bull, of Research in the Humanities 83 (1980), 473564, at 485–91 and 529.

160 Temple, W., An Introduction to the History of England (London, 1695), 3rd ed. (London, 1708). for Temple, see the entry in DNB, and Steensma, R. C., ‘“So Ancient and Noble a Nation”: Sir William Temple's History of England’, NM 77 (1976), 95107.

161 Above, p. 236.

162 The payments are recorded in the General Accounts for 1661/2 (UC:BU2/F1/1, 389r and 389v), cited by Poole, R. Lane, Catalogue of Portraits in the Possession of the University, Colleges, City, and County of Oxford, 3 vols. (Oxford, 19121926) II, 1, n. 1. A payment of £3 10s ‘for King Alfreds picture’, recorded in a private account book of Thomas Walker, Master of Univ 1632–48 and 1660–5, suggests, however, that the Master paid for the picture himself (UC:MA26/F4/1, 3v). I am most grateful to Dr Robin Darwall-Smith, Archivist of University College, for supplying and clarifying these references (letter, 4 Jan. 1999), and for determining that a further payment of £8 10s, ‘to the painter’, adduced in this connection by Lane Poole, probably had nothing to do with the picture of Alfred. A payment of 2s 6d was made in 1706 ‘for mending and varnishing King Alfred's picture’ (UC:BU5/F2/1, p. 3).

163 Cf. Hearne's remarks in his diary, 24 Feb. 1714: ‘I saw this morning in the Master of University College's Dining Room a Picture of K. Alfred, painted a pretty many Years agoe. But us nothing near as good as that I have printed from the Draught in Sr John Spelman's MS. ‘The Beard is also wrong, & it makes him look too old. There is not that Briskness neither in the Face as should be.’ (Remarks and Collections of Thomas Hearne, ed. Doble, C. E. et al. , 11 vols., Oxford Hist. Soc. 2, 7, 13, 34, 42–3, 48, 50, 65, 67, 72 (Oxford, 18851921) IV, 313–14.) In March 1721 Francis Wise addressed some queries on Alfredian matters to Arthur Charlen, including the age of the Cottonian manuscript of Asser and ‘the Age of the Picture of King Alfred in the Master's Lodgings at University’, which Charlett forwarded to Humfrey Wanley (BL, Add. 70477); Wanley dealt with the former, but avoided the latter (Letters of Wanley, ed. Heyworth, , pp. 423–5 (no. 217) and 431–2 (no. 220)). In 1728 William Smith alluded to a ‘very small’ painting of King Alfred in the Lodgings which was considered to be older than another painting of Alfred which by implication was not in the Lodgings (Annals of University-College [below, n. 461], p. 251).

164 See below, pp. 265 and 271. The engravings do not include the college's coat of arms, on which see above, n. 114.

165 The assumption derives from the fact that the portrait is not registered in Poole, Lane, Catalogue of Portraits II [1926], even though the details of its origin in 1661–2 are given in a footnote (ibid. p. 1, n. 1).

166 For some of the classic examples of Caroline portraiture, see Ollard, R., The Image of the King: Charles I and Charles II (London, 1979). For Charles I, see also Howarth, D., Images of Rule: Art and Politics in the English Renaissance, 1485–1649 (London, 1997), pp. 132–52, and esp. Roberts, J., The King's Head. Charles I: King and Martyr, Exhibition Catalogue (London, 1999).

167 The size and appearance of the portraits, the similar form of lettering on each, and the identical frames, suggest that they have long been hung as a pair; they were still regarded as a pair in 1902 (Carr, , University College, pp. 7 and 225), and are recorded as a pair (though correctly identified) in the college inventory of 1943. The portrait of the queen conforms to the standard iconographic type for Elizabeth of York: see Strong, R., Tudor and Jacobean Portraits, 2 vols. (London, 1969) I, 97–8. I am grateful to Lord Butler (Master of University College), Ms Christine Ritchie (Librarian of University College), and Dr Jane Cunningham (Courtauld Institute) for their good offices in connection with these portraits; and to the occupants of the Blue Room, in the Master's Lodgings, for tolerating an intrusion when I came to see the portraits in March 1999.

168 For the Bodleian picture gallery, see Waterhouse, E., ‘Paintings and Painted Glass’, The History of the University of Oxford, V: the Eighteenth Century, ed. Sutherland, L. S. and Mitchell, L. G. (Oxford, 1986), 857–64, at 857–9. I am grateful to Steven Tomlinson, Assistant Librarian, Bodleian Library, for his guidance in this connection.

169 The Bodleian portrait appears to be a cross between the engraving of the portrait made in 1661–2 and the engraving of a medieval painting, said to represent King Alfred, in St Albans cathedral, published in Spelman, Life of Alfred, ed. Walker, (1678), pl. II. It was presumably one of the portraits of founders commissioned for the picture gallery, c. 1670, by Willem Sonmans (William Sunman), who died in 1708. For the date ‘872’, cf. Rous (above, pp. 236–7), who gives 873. A mezzotint of the Bodleian portrait was published in Faber, John, Founders of Colleges in Oxford and Cambridge (London, 17121714), inscribed: ‘Alfredus Saxonum Rex Coll. Universitatis Oxon. Fundr. Circa Ao Chr. 872. Hujus summi Regis Effigiem a Tabula in Bibl. Bodleiana factam Reverendo Viro Arthuro Charlett S.T.P. et istius Collegii Magistro &c. Summa cum Humil. & Observantia D.D.D. J. Faber Ao 1712.’ A particularly fine reproduction of the portrait, in colour, was published in Ackermann, R., A History of the University of Oxford, its Colleges, Halls, and Public Buildings, 2 vols. (London, 1814) I, opp. p. 25.

170 For Obadiah Walker, see the account of his life in the DNB, and VCH Oxon III, 67–8. See also F[irth], A. E., ‘Obadiah Walker’, University College Record 1961, 95106, and 1964, 261–73; Darwall-Smith, R., ‘Obadiah Walker in his own Words’, University College Record 1998, 5668; Mitchell, L., ‘Obadiah Walker: Addendum’, University College Record 1998, 6973; and Darwall-Smith, , University College: the First 750 Years, pp. 1618.

171 Printed here from Walker's draft (UC:MA30/1/C/13). I am grateful to Dr Robin Darwall-Smith for supplying me with a photocopy. The letter is also cited by Newman, J., ‘The Architectural Setting’, The History of the University of Oxford, IV: Seventeenth-Century Oxford, ed. Tyacke, N. (Oxford, 1997), pp. 135–77, at 145, and by Beddard, R. A., ‘Tory Oxford’, Seventeenth-Century Oxford, ed. Tyacke, , pp. 863905, at 864.

172 Wase is named as the translator by Hearne, , Life of Alfred, p. 225. He was educated at Eton and at King's College, Cambridge.

173 The draft of Walker's letter to Ashmole (UC:MA30/3/C7/1) is printed by Darwall-Smith, , ‘Obadiah Walker in his own Words’, p. 63. In the event, Walker published five engraved plates of coins, which are not in themselves unimportant in the history of Anglo-Saxon numismatics. The first (pl. III) shows the coins found at Harkirke, Lanes., in 1611 (Blackburn, M. and Pagan, H., ‘A Revised Check-List of Coin Hoards from the British Isles, c.500–1100’, Anglo-Saxon Monetary History, ed. Blackburn, M. A. S. (Leicester, 1986), pp. 291313, at 295 and 303 (no. 92), from a manuscript in Corpus Christi College, Oxford (MS. 255, 78v). The other four plates (pls. IV–VII) show a range of Anglo-Saxon coins from the collections of Sir John Cotton, Elias Ashmole, the Bodleian Library, and Dr Nicholas Jonston, but also including some said to be ‘apud nos’. The device on the ‘London Monogram’ type was interpreted by Walker as evidence that the Alfred who issued it was king of Northumbria; cf. Remarks and Collections, ed. Doble, et al. , II, 189.

174 [Walker], Ælfredi Magni Anglorum regis invictissimi vita. Walker's own copy, with extensive annotations, is preserved in the library of University College, Oxford. The original copperplates for all seven of the engraved plates are preserved in the college archives (UC:MA30/2/AR/1–7). I am grateful to Ms Christine Ritchie for enabling me to examine the book in November 1998.

175 The notes include a text of the OE Coronation Oath, printed from ajunius transcript [Junius 60, 2r] of a (burnt) Cottonian manuscript [Cotton Vitellius A. vii] (p. 62); an interesting discussion of the Alfredian church at Athelney described by William of Malmesbury (pp. 130–1, with diagram), and some carefully chosen words on Alfred's foundation of Oxford University and of University College (p. 135).

176 The appendices include the Latin version of King Alfred's will (from Parker), the prose and verse prefaces to Alfred's translation of Gregory's Regula pastoralis (from Parker), a text of the West Saxon regnal table (from Whelock), a chronology of Alfred's life, a text of the voyages of Ohthere and Wulfstan (presumably derived from a transcript of BL, Cotton Tiberius B. i), and an account of Alfred's descendants to King Charles II. See also Brewer, , ‘References to the Voyage of Ohthere’, p. 209.

177 Clark, A., The Life and Times of Anthony Wood, Antiquary, of Oxford, 1632–1695, Described by Himself, 5 vols., Oxford Hist. Soc. 19, 21, 26, 30, 40 (Oxford, 18911900) II, 421–2 and 449; see also Beddard, , ‘Tory Oxford’, pp. 864–5, and Jones, , The English Nation, pp. 107–14.

178 The statue was given to the college by Dr Robert Plot, on his becoming a Fellow Commoner; see Smith, , Annals of University-College [below, n. 461], pp. 251–2, and VCH Oxon III, 77. David, Loggan's view of the rebuilt University College, published in his Oxonia Illustrata (1675), shows the outer face of the gate-tower with two niches for statues, both then empty; see The Encyclopedia of Oxford, ed. Hibbert, C. (London, 1988), p. 475.

179 Clark, , Life and Times of Wood III, 35. Alfred was later replaced over the gate tower by Queen Anne, who remains in situ.

180 See the account of his career in the DNB, and the references cited above, nn. 170 and 177. In 1687–8 Walker published a number of Catholic tracts from a printing-press at Univ (Clark, , Life and Times of Wood III, 209, 218, 221), under an imprint with included King Alfred's head; see Carter, , History of the OUP, pp. 118–19, and Tyacke, N., ‘Religious Controversy’, Seventeenth-Century Oxford, ed. Tyacke, , pp. 569619, at 610 and 614, with pl. 28.

181 A photograph of the statue in the rockery, taken in 1915 (Oxfordshire Photographic Archive, Central Library, Oxford), is reproduced in Rhodes, J., Oxford: the University in Old Photographs (Stroud, 1988). See also VCH Oxon III, 77. The statue was still there in the 1940s, but is alas there no more.

182 Life of Alfred, ed. Hearne, , p. 190. The ancient stained glass in the west window has not survived; but for an account of it in the early seventeenth century, see Jackson, T. G., The Church of St. Mary the Virgin Oxford (Oxford, 1897), pp. 124 and 213–14.

183 The representations of King Alfred and King Æthelstan were engraved for Spelman, Life of Alfred, ed. Walker, , pl. II. The windows, which would appear to have originated c. 1600, were described by Hearne in 1724; see Remarks and Collections, ed. Doble, et al. , VIII, 225. For their later history, cf. VCH Oxon III, 186–7.

184 Parker, M., Early History of Oxford, pp. 52–3.

185 There are engravings of the bust in Spelman, Life of Alfred, ed. Walker, , pl. I, and in Wise's edition of Asser (p. 1). The portrait (given to the college in 1769) showed Alfred in a ‘red and ermine mantle over blue dress’, holding a partly unrolled scroll in his left hand (Poole, Lane, Catalogue of Portraits II, 243); cf. below, n. 312. I am grateful to Mrs Elizabeth Boardman, College Archivist, Brasenose College, and Ms Maria Chevska, curator of pictures, for apprising me of its unfortunate fate.

186 For an excellent study of the wider context, see Fairer, D., ‘Anglo-Saxon Studies’, History of the University of Oxford: the Eighteenth Century, ed. Sutherland, and Mitchell, , pp. 807–29.

187 Oxford, Bodleian Library, Junius 12 (S.C. 5124), 53 (S.C. 5165) and 70 (S.C. 5181). See also Stanley, E. G., ‘The Sources of Junius's Learning as Revealed in the Junius Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library’, Franciscus Junius F.F. and his Circle, ed. Bremmer, R. H. Jr, Stud. in Lit. 21 (Amsterdam and Atlanta, GA, 1998), 159–76, at 166–7, 169 and 170.

188 For an assessment of Thwaites's contribution, see Fairer, , ‘Anglo-Saxon Studies’, pp. 812–20.

189 Gibson, E., Chronicon Saxonicum (Oxford, 1692). Gibson, Edmund (16691748)had entered The Queen's College in 1686. He also edited Reliquiœ Spelmannianœ (Oxford, 1698).

190 An. Manl. Sever. Boethi Consolations Philosophiae Libri V, Anglo-Saxonice redditi ab Alfredo, inclyto Anglo-Saxonum rege, ed. Rawlinson, C. (Oxford, 1698). See Fairer, , ‘Anglo-Saxon Studies’, pp. 813–14. Rawlinson (1677–1733) entered The Queen's College in 1695, and worked with assistance from Thwaites.

191 For Elstob's Orosius, see Fairer, , ‘Anglo-Saxon Studies’, pp. 822–3, and Letters of Wanley, ed. Heyworth, , p. 46 n. 4. William Elstob (1673–1715) entered The Queen's College in 1691, and became a fellow of University College in 1696.

192 One of three notebooks containing the material gathered by the Elstobs for their edition of the laws is now Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS. Eng. lang. c. 11 (S.C. 40391). For the Elstobs, see Gretsch, M., ‘Elizabeth Elstob: a Scholar's Fight for Anglo-Saxon Studies’, Anglia 117 (1999).

193 For Thwaites and his Orosius, see Fairer, , ‘Anglo-Saxon Studies’, p. 812. For the ‘Pastoral Care’, see Oxford, Bodleian Library, Rawl. D. 377, fols. 86–7. See also A Chorus of Grammars, ed. Harris, R. L., Pub. of the Dictionary of Old English 4 (Toronto, 1992), 108.

194 For the ‘Benefactors’ Book’, see Darwall-Smith, , University College: the First 750 Years, pp. 56, with illustration showing the treatment of Alfred the Great and William of Durham on the opening page. I am informed by Dr Darwall-Smith that the last (? original) entry in the book is dated 1695, followed by two undated records which refer to Arthur Charlett, after which the book is blank.

195 For Wanley, see The Blackmell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England, ed. Lapidge, M. et al. , (Oxford, 1999), pp. 466–7, and references; see also Gillam, S., ‘Humfrey Wanley and Arthur Charlett’, Bodleian Lib. Record 16.5 (1999), 411–29. One wonders whether Wanley might have had a hand in the production of the ‘Benefactors’ Book'.

196 Wanley to Hickes, 18 Feb. 1698 (Letters of Wanley, ed. Heyworth, , pp. 85–6); see also Fairer, , ‘Anglo-Saxon Studies’, pp. 807–8.

197 Hickes, G. and Wanley, H., Antiquœ literaturœ septentrionalis libri duo (Oxford, 17031705), comprising Hickes's Linguarum vett. septentrionalium thesaurus grammatico-criticus et archœologicus (in vol. I) and Wanley's Librorum vett. septentrionalium, qui in Angliæ biblioth. extant, catalogus historico-criticus (in vol. II).

198 Hearne, T., The Life of Alfred the Great, by Sir John Spelman Kt (Oxford, 1709). The sketch of Alfred which looms out of the page in Spelman's autograph manuscript (above, n. 137) was elaborated and engraved by Burghers for the frontispiece to Hearne's edition; but this portrait of the king made little impression on later Alfredian iconography. To judge from Hearne's own account (Remarks and Collections, ed. Doble, et al. , II, 179–83, 184–5 and 438), he prepared his edition c. 1705, and intended it as an expression of his gratitude to University College for kindnesses received; yet Dr Charlett, Master of Univ, was obstructive, in part because Hearne's edition was not dedicated to him, but also because he objected to the portrait (ibid. VIII, 39), evidendy preferring the one in his own Lodgings, later engraved for Wise's edition of Asser (above, pp. 261–2, and below, p. 271). See also Harmsen, T., ‘Bodleian Imbroglios, Politics and Personalities, 1701–16: Thomas Hearne, Arthur Charlett and John Hudson’, Neophilologus 82 (1998), 149–68, at 153 and 155–6.

199 For his diaries, and a digest of his correspondence, see Remarks and Collections, ed. Doble, et al. , described, with his other papers, in the Bodleian Library Summary Catalogue, under the Rawlinson collection. For Hearne's letters to James West, see A Catalogue of the Lansdowne Manuscripts in the British Museum II (London, 1819), 174–81. For a catalogue of his library, see Antiquaries, ed. Piggott, S., Sale Catalogues of Libraries of Eminent Persons 10 (London, 1974), 201402. For his publications, see Carter, , History of the OUP, pp. 263–9.

200 Hearne, , Life of Ælfred the Great, pp. 144, n. 1 and 177 [–80], n. 4.

201 Keynes, S., ‘The Discovery and First Publication of the Alfred Jewel’, Somerset Archaeol. and Nat. Hist. 136 (1993 for 1992), 18; MacGregor, A. G. and Turner, A. J., ‘The Ashmolean Museum’, History of the University of Oxford: the Eighteenth Century, ed. Sutherland, and Mitchell, , pp. 639–58, at 649; and S. Piggott, ‘Antiquarian Studies’, ibid. pp. 757–77, at 771. For the history of Alfred at Oxford in the later eighteenth century, see further below, pp. 322–4.

202 On the emergence of ‘British’ identity in the eighteenth century, see Colley, L., Britons: Forging the Nation 1707–1837 (New Haven, CT, 1992); see also O'Gorman, F., The Long Eighteenth Century: British Political and Social History 1688–1832 (London, 1997), pp. 96101, and Hastings, A., The Construction of Nationhood: Ethnicity, Religion and Nationalism (Cambridge, 1997), esp. pp. 3565 (‘England as Prototype’), at 61–5.

203 Keynes, S., ‘England, 700–900’, The New Cambridge Medieval History, II: c.700–c.900, ed. McKitterick, R. (Cambridge, 1995), 1842, and Encyclopaedia of ASE, ed. Lapidge, et al. , p. 74.

204 Above, pp. 247–8. For further discussion, see Hill, , ‘The Norman Yoke’, pp. 95–9; Horsman, R., ‘Origins of Racial Anglo-Saxonism in Great Britain before 1850’, Jnl of the Hist. of Ideas 37 (1976), 387410; Newman, G., The Rise of English Nationalism: a Cultural History 1740–1830 (London, 1987), pp. 183–91 and 229–30; and Smith, , The Gothic Bequest, esp. pp. 98102.

205 Wilkins, D., Leges Anglo-Saxonicœ ecclesiasticæ & civiles (London, 1721). Wilkins was of Prussian origin (born Wilke), and is said to have been blessed with ‘a width of erudition purchased with a certain want of accuracy’ (DNB).

206 Smith, J., Historiae ecclesiasticae gentis Anglorum libri quinque, auctore Sancto & Venerabili Baeda (Cambridge, 1722).

207 Wise, F., Annales rerum gestarum Ælfredi Magni, auctore Asserio Menevensi (Oxford, 1722). Wise (1695–1767) was a fellow of Trinity College, Oxford. For his suggestion, made in 1738, that the White Horse of Uffington commemorated the English victory at Ashdown in 871, see Piggott, , ‘Antiquarian Studies’, History of the University of Oxford: the Eighteenth Century, ed. Sutherland, and Mitchell, , pp. 757–77, at 765–70.

208 For a portrait of Vertue as engraver, in the Society of Antiquaries of London, see Einberg, E., Manners & Morals: Hogarth and British Painting 1700–1760, Exhibition Catalogue (London, 1987), pp. 56–7 (no. 30); see also p. 93 (no. 71).

209 There was no spirit of friendship between Wise and Hearne. In 1719 Wise (described by Hearne as ‘a Pretender to Antiquities’) had got the post of Second Librarian (Under-Keeper) in the Bodleian Library which had been denied to Hearne because of his refusal to take the oaths (Remarks and Collections, ed. Doble, et al. , VII, 81). This naturally affected Hearne's feelings towards Wise. Hearne was thus bound to have a low opinion of Wise's Asser, which he thought had been done ‘purely out of opposition to me’ (ibid. VIII, 30, 39–40 and 322, and IX, 121–2 and 123–4). Wise narrowly failed to become Bodley's Librarian in 1729, to Hearne's evident pleasure (ibid. X, 207).

210 The coat of arms (a cross potent fitched at foot) is a variation of the cross patonce or cross flory which represented the kingdom of all England, and was used for kings from Egbert to Eadwig, including Alfred (above, n. 114). The cross flory returns in a later version of Vertue's portrait (pl. IIb)

211 For Rapin, see Trevor-Roper, H. R., ‘A Huguenot Historian: Paul Rapin’, Huguenots in Britain and their French Background, 1550–1800, ed. Scouloudi, I. (Basingstoke, 1987), pp. 319, and Hicks, , Neoclassical History and English Culture, pp. 146–50.

212 Thoyras, P. de Rapin, The History of England, as well Ecclesiastical as Civil I (London, 1728), preface.

213 Thoyras, P. de Rapin, Histoire d'Angleterre, 8 vols. (The Hague, 17241727).

214 Thoyras, P. de Rapin, The History of England, as well Ecclesiastical as Civil I–II (London, 17261728). Vol. I [Julius Caesar – Edward the Martyr] is dated 1728, and was dedicated to Thomas, Lord Howard, Baron of Effingham. Vol. II.i [Æthelred II – Harold II, with the dissertation on the government of the Anglo-Saxons], dated 1726, and II.ii [William I – Stephen], dated 1728, was dedicated to Sir Charles Wager. For the manner and success of the publication, see Wiles, R. M., Serial Publication in England before 1750 (Cambridge, 1957), pp. 96–7, 197 and 276–7.

215 Thoyras, P. Rapin de [sic], The History of England, 2nd ed., 2 vols. (London, 17321733), originally published in weekly parts. For the folio edition, see Wiles, , Serial Publication in England, pp. 106–8 and 285. Illustradons were added by subscription, from 1733 to 1736 (below, n. 293).

216 Thoyras, P. Rapin de, The History of England, 3rd ed., 2 vols. (London, 1743), originally published in weekly parts (Wiles, , Serial Publication in England, p. 335).

217 An Abridgement of the History of England; being a Summary of Mr. Rapin's History and Mr. Tindal's Continuation, from the Landing of Julius Casar, to the Death of King George I, 3 vols. (London, 1747), in which the narrative was reduced to single-sentence paragraphs, with marginal dates, though retaining some extended prose on ‘The Character of Alfred the Great’ (I, 3945).

218 Lockman, J., A New History of England, by Question and Answer, extracted from the Most Celebrated English Histories, particularly M. Rapin de Thoyras (London, 1729), which reached its 5th ed. in 1740, its 10th in 1758, its 15th in 1768, its 20th in 1784, and its 25th in 1811. For the illustrations which first appeared in the 6th ed. (1747), see below, p. 305. For Lockman, (16981771), see the DNB. For a similar work by Mangnall, Richmal (17691820), see below, n. 514.

219 Butterfield, , The Englishman and his History, pp. 90–6.

220 Rapin, , History of England, 2nd ed. I, 90–7 (on Alfred), at 92, n. 6: ‘She having one Day set a Cake on the Coals, and being busied about something else, the Cake happen'd to be burnt; upon which she fell a scolding at the King for his Carelessness in not looking after the Cake, which she told him he could eat fast enough. Alfred was then sitting in the Chimney-corner, making Bows and Arrows, and other warlike Instruments. Asser. Vit. Alfr. p. 9.’). Cf. Thoyras, de Rapin, Histoire d'Angleterre I, 307.

221 For a contemporary assessment of Prince Frederick, albeit from an interested party, see Horace Walpole:Memoirs of George II, ed. Brooke, J., 3 vols. (New Haven, CT, 1985) I, pp. 50–5.

222 Extended modern studies are: Young, G., Poor Fred: the People's Prince (Oxford, 1937); Edwards, A., Frederick Lewis, Prince of Wales (London, 1947); and De-la-Noy, M., The King Who Never Was: the Story of Frederick, Prince of Wales (London, 1996). See also Jones, S., Frederick, Prince of Wales, and his Circle, Exhibition Catalogue [Gainsborough's House] (Sudbury, 1981); Newman, A. N., ‘The Political Patronage of Frederick Lewis, Prince of Wales’, Hist. Jnl 1 (1958), 6875; Langford, P., A Polite and Commercial People: England 1727–1783 (Oxford, 1989), pp. 36–7, 47–8 and 340; and Colley, , Britons, p. 206.

223 Among contemporary portraits of Prince Frederick, several in the Royal Collection are reproduced with discussion in Lloyd, C., The Quest for Albion: Monarchy and the Patronage of British Painting, Exhibition Catalogue (London, 1998).

224 Philippe Mercier (1689–1760), ‘Frederick, Prince of Wales, and his Sisters making Music at Kew’, reproduced with discussion in Laing, A., In Trust for the Nation: Paintings from National Trust Houses, Exhibition Catalogue (London, 1995), pp. 56–7.

225 MacDougall, , Racial Myth in English History, pp. 25–6.

226 SirBlackmore, Richard, Alfred: an Epick Poem in Twelve Books (London, 1723). For Blackmore's life and works, see the DNB. See also Miles, , King Alfred in Literature, pp. 52–7; and Simmons, C. A., ‘The Historical Sources of Sir Richard Blackmore's Alfred’, ELN 26 (1988), 1823.

227 Blackmore, , Alfred, pp. xli–xliii.

228 See further below, n. 293. For Vertue and Prince Frederick, see Clayton, T., The English Print 1688–1802 (New Haven, CT, 1997), pp. 172–3.

229 Gunnis, R., Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660–1851 (London, 1953), rev. ed. (London, 1968), pp. 333–8; Webb, M. I., Michael Rysbrack, Sculptor (London, 1954), pp. 145–6; Eustace, K., Michael Rysbrack Sculptor 1694–1770, Exhibition Catalogue (Bristol, 1982), pp. 135–7 and 173; and Eustace, K., ‘Stowe and the Development of the Historical Portrait Bust’, Apollo 148 [no. 437] (07 1998), 3140, at 37. For Queen Caroline and the arts, see Millar, O., The Tudor, Stuart and Early Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen (London, 1963), pp. 27–8. The terracotta bust of Alfred (known from a photograph, reproduced in Eustace, Rysbrack, fig. 51), with others in the same series, fetched up on a shelf in the Orangery at Windsor Castle, and was destroyed when the shelf collapsed in 1906. There is an engraving, dated 1785, of a portrait of King Alfred as one of a series of royal portraits at Kensington Palace.

230 Millar, , The Tudor, Stuart and Early Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, pp. 2830; Rorschach, K., ‘Frederick, Prince of Wales (1707–51), as Collector and Patron’, Walpole Soc. 55 (19891990), 176; Rorschach, K., ‘Frederick, Prince of Wales: Taste, Politics and Power’, Apollo 134 [no. 356] (10 1991), 239–45.

231 Rorschach, , ‘Frederick, Prince of Wales (1707–51), as Collector and Patron’, esp. pp. 21–6; Harris, J., ‘A Carlton House Miscellany: William Kent and Carlton House Garden’, Apollo 134 [no.356] (10 1991), 251–3.

232 Walpole: Memoirs of King George II, ed. Brooke, I, 50.

233 The Octagon Temple drew architectural inspiration from Lord Burlington's Palladian villa at Chiswick, built in the 1720s, on which see The Palladian Revival: Lord Burlington: his Villa and his Garden at Chiswick, Exhibition Catalogue (New Haven, CT, 1994).

234 According to a note in a contemporary publication, Rysbrack had finished ‘the two fine Statues, which are to be erected on two marble Pedestals in the Octagon of the Garden of his R. H. the Prince of Wales in Pall-Mall’ by July 1735 (London Mag. 07 1735, 390). The inscription on the pedestal of the statue of Alfred read as follows: ‘Alfredo Magno, / Anglorum Reipublicæ Libertatisque / Fundatori / Justo, Forti, Bono, / Legislatori, Duci, Regi, / Artium Musarumque / Fautori Eruditissimo, / Patriæ Patri / Posuit / F.W.P. / MDCCXXXV’ (ibid.). In 1736 Prince Frederick paid Rysbrack £105 for the marble busts of Alfred and the Black Prince; see Webb, , Rysbrack, pp. 156 and 210, and Eustace, , ‘Stowe and the Development of the Historical Portrait Bust’, p. 38.Rorschach, , ‘Frederick, Prince of Wales (1707–51), as Collector and Patron’, pp. 24–5, suggests that the statues were by the staircase of the Octagon Temple.

235 For William Woollett (1735–85), appointed Engraver to King George III in 1775, see Clayton, , The English Print, pp. 210–11; his engraving of the garden at Carlton House is reproduced ibid. p. 164.

236 The battered and restored statue of a bearded king which stands in Trinity Church Square, Southwark, London S.E.1, is presumed by some to be Prince Frederick's Alfred, from Carlton House, but is supposed by others to be from the Palace of Westminster, c. 1400.

237 The position of the Octagon Temple, at the eastern end of Carlton House gardens, can be seen in Rocque's map of London (1746), reproduced in Rorschach, ‘Frederick, Prince of Wales (1707–51), as Collector and Patron’, fig. 39, and in Jones, , Frederick, Prince of Wales, and his Circle, p. 13. This map can be compared with maps in Carlton House: the Past Glories of George IV's Palace, Exhibition Catalogue (London, 1991), inside front and back covers, showing the house and gardens in 1799 and showing the house superimposed on a modern street plan of the same area.

238 For Bolingbroke's text, which itself makes no reference to Alfred, see Bolingbroke: Political Writings, ed. Armitage, D. (Cambridge, 1997), pp. 217–94; see also Lord Bolingbroke: Contributions to the ‘Craftsman’, ed. Varey, S. (Oxford, 1982). For pertinent comment, see Smith, , The Gothic Bequest, pp. 5770; Langford, , England 1727–1783, p. 222; and esp. Gerrard, C., The Patriot Opposition to Walpole: Politics, Poetry, and National Myth, 1725–1742 (Oxford, 1994), pp. 185229.

239 The Complete Poetical Works of James Thomson, ed. Robertson, J. L. (Oxford, 1908), pp. 107 and 378; Thomson, J., Liberty, The Castle of Indolence, and Other Poems, ed. Sambrook, J. (Oxford, 1986), p. 111; Thomson, J., The Seasons and the Castle of Indolence, ed. Sambrook, J. (Oxford, 1972), pp. 77 and 225.

240 For Alfred: a Masque, see Miles, , King Alfred in Literature, pp. 5862; Grant, D., James Thomson: Poet of ‘The Seasons’ (London, 1951), pp. 169–94; McKillop, A. D., ‘The Early History of Alfred’, PQ 41 (1962), 311–24; Alfred: a Masque written by David Mallet and James Thomson, set to Music by Thomas Augustine Arne, ed. Scott, A., Musica Britannica 47 (London, 1981), pp. xv–xx; Burden, M., ‘A Mask for Politics: The Masque of Alfred’, Music Rev. 48 (1988), 2130, at 26–7; and Gerrard, , Patriot Opposition, p. 117. See also Cliveden, National Trust Guide (London, 1994), pp. 1619. A CD recording of extended excerpts from the masque was published by the BBC Music Mag. in June 1997. The masque was performed by Bampton Classical Opera, in the Deanery Garden, Bampton, in July 1998.

241 Rorschach, , ‘Frederick, Prince of Wales (1707–51), as Collector and Patron’, pp. 2731, citing Vertue's notes in BL, Add. 19027, 80r.

242 See Gerrard, , Patriot Opposition; esp. pp. 102–7 and 116–21, and O'Gorman, , The Long Eighteenth Century, pp. 7186.

243 Lees-Milne, J., Earls of Creation: Five Great Patrons of Eighteenth-Century Art (London, 1962, new ed. London, 1986), pp. 23–8; see also Burke, J., English Art 1714–1800 (Oxford, 1976), p. 50, and McCarthy, M., The Origins of the Gothic Revival (New Haven, CT, 1987), p. 27 and pl. 21. The place where King Alfred stayed on the eve of the battle of Edington in 878, formerly identified as ‘Oakley Wood’ (among other places), is now identified as Iley Oak, near Warminster, Wilts. (Asser's ‘Life of King Alfred’, ed. Stevenson, , pp. 270–2; Keynes, and Lapidge, , Alfred the Great, p. 249).

244 Eustace, , ‘Stowe and the Development of the Historical Portrait Bust’; Webb, , Rysbrack, pp. 135–6; Clarke, G., ‘Grecian Taste and Gothic Virtue: Lord Cobham's Gardening Programme and its Iconography’, Apollo 97 (06 1973), 566–71; Bevington, M., Stowe: the Garden and the Park, 2nd ed. (Stowe, 1995), pp. 37–8 and 94–6; and Robinson, J. M., Temples of Delight: Stowe Landscape Gardens, National Trust (London, 1990; new ed., 1994), pp. 90–3, with illustrations. See also Stowe Landscape Gardens, National Trust Guide (London, 1997), pp. 2830.

245 See Descriptions of Lord Cobham's Gardens at Stowe (1700–1750), ed. Clarke, G. B., Buckinghamshire Record Soc. 26 (Aylesbury, 1990), 11, 75, 90, 107, 116 and 138.

246 Samuel Johnson: Poems, ed. McAdam, E. L. with Milne, G., Yale Edition of the Works of Samuel Johnson 6 (New Haven, CT, 1964), 4561, at 60–1.

247 Boswell: Life of Johnson, ed. Chapman, R. W., 3rd ed., rev. Fleeman, J. D. (Oxford, 1970), p. 128. In 1781 Thomas Astle sent Johnson some notes on King Alfred's will: see Liber Vitae, ed. Keynes, , p. 77.

248 George, Lord Lyttelton, The History of the Life of Henry the Second, and of the Age in which he Lived, in Five Books: to which is prefixed, A History of the Revolutions of England from the Death of Edward the Confessor to the Birth of Henry the Second, 3 vols. (London, 17671771), esp. II, 165 (navy), 175–6 (trade), 257 (slavery), 259 (view of Frankpledge) and 322 (learning).

249 The painting is now in the Frick Collection, New York. See Uglow, J., Hogarth: a Life and a World (London, 1997), pp. 363–5, and Eustace, , ‘Stowe and the Development of the Historical Portrait Bust’, p. 39.

250 For the Jacobite jingle (‘Here lies poor Fred, who was alive and is dead …’), see Young, , Poor Fred, pp. 219–24. Prince Frederick's death was marked by the publication of numerous odes; and it is represented also by a pottery figure ‘Britannia mourning for Frederick, Prince of Wales’ (British Museum), reproduced in Jones, Frederick, Prince of Wales, and his Circle, p. 27. See also Langford, , England 1727–1783, pp. 220–1.

251 Guthrie, W., A General History of England, from the Invasion of the Ramans under Julius Cœsar, to the Late Revolution in MDCLXXXVIII, 4 vols. (London, 17441751), originally published in weekly parts (Wiles, , Serial Publication in England, pp. 148 and 339). The plates are in the form of engraved portraits, for rulers from William I onwards. For Guthrie (1707–70), see Smith, , The Gothic Bequest, pp. 55–6, and Hicks, , Neoclassical History and English Culture, pp. 155–8.

252 Bernard, J. P. et al. , A General Dictionary, Historical and Critical in which a New and Accurate Translation of that of the Celebrated Mr. Boyle is Included, 10 vols. (London, 17341741) I, 493505 (on Alfred); Biographia Britannica: or, The Lives of the Most Eminent Persons who have Flourished in Great Britain and Ireland, from the Earliest Ages, down to the Present Times, 6 vols. in 7 (London, 17471766) I, 4557 (on Alfred). See also Ryland, J., The Life and Character of Alfred the Great (London, 1784), said to have been ‘drawn from the more ample view of him in the first volume in folio of the Biographia Britannica, with other authors’, which I have not seen.

253 For the complex bibliography of this work, see Jessop, T. E., A Bibliography of David Hume and of Scottish Philosophy (London, 1938), pp. 2733. For an exposition of Hume's historical writing, see Smith, , The Gothic Bequest, pp. 7484, and Hicks, , Neoclassical History and English Culture, pp. 170209.

254 Smollett, T., A Complete History of England, 4 vols. (London, 17571758), republished in weekly parts as 2nd ed. (London, 1758). On the popularity of this work, see Wiles, , Serial Publication in England, pp. 56.

255 Hume, D., The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in 1688, 6 vols. (London, 17591762), new ed. in 8 vols. (London, 1778), reset in 6 vols., with a Foreword by Todd, W. B., Liberty Classics (Indianapolis, IN, 1983) I, 6381. An abridged edition of Hume's, History (Chicago, 1975), which does not include coverage of the Anglo-Saxon period, has an Introduction by R. W. Kilcup.

256 E.g. Hume, , History of England [1983] 1, 168–9 and 185. See also Skinner, , ‘History and Ideology’, pp. 155 and 177.

257 The Sovereignty of the Law: Selections from Blackstone's ‘Commentaries on the Laws of England’, ed. Jones, G. (London, 1973), pp. 46–8, 176 and 209–12. For Blackstone, see also Smith, , The Gothic Bequest, pp. 91–4.

258 See, in general, Miles, , King Alfred in Literature; Stanley, , ‘The Glorification of Alfred’; Frank, R., ‘The Search for the Anglo-Saxon Oral Poet’, Bull. of the John Rylands Univ. Lib. of Manchester 75 (1993), 1136; and Pratt, L., ‘Anglo-Saxon Attitudes?: Alfred the Great and the Romantic National Epic’, Literary Appropriations of the Anglo-Saxons from the Thirteenth to the Twentieth Century, ed. Scragg, D. and Weinberg, C., CSASE 29 (Cambridge, 2000), 138–56. Miles, (pp. 23) cites Arnold, J. Loring, ‘King Alfred in English Poetry’, PhD Dissertation, Univ. of Leipzig (Meiningen, 1898), which I have not seen.

259 See Colley, L., ‘Radical Patriotism in Eighteenth-Century England’, Patriotism: the Making and Unmaking of British National Identity, ed. Samuel, R., 3 vols. (London, 1989) I, 169–87, at 172–3, for an almanac issued by one of the Anti-Gallicans in 1750–1, featuring a print which listed the pre-Conquest rulers of England.

260 Alfred the Great, Deliverer of his Country: a Tragedy (London, 1753). See also Miles, , King Alfred in Literature, pp. 63–5, and Stanley, , ‘The Glorification of Alfred’, pp. 432–3.

261 [Chatterton, T.], Poems, Supposed to have been Written at Bristol, by Thomas Rowley, and Others, in the Fifteenth Century (London, 1777); see also Chatterton, T., The Rowley Poems 1794 (Oxford and New York, 1990).

262 The Complete Works of Thomas Chatterton: a Bicentenary Edition, ed. Taylor, D. S. with Hoover, B. B., 2 vols. (Oxford, 1971) I, 72 (Battle of Hastings II, lines 135–8) and 273 (draft of a letter to Horace Walpole, April 1769).

263 An Historical Essay on the English Constitution: or, An Impartial Inquiry into the Elective Power of the People, fromthe First Establishment ofthe Saxons in this Kingdom, wherein the Right of Parliament, to Tax our Distant Provinces, is Explained, and Justified (London, 1771), esp. pp. 2233. For exposition of this work, see Newman, , The Rise of English Nationalism, pp. 185–9, and Smith, , The Gothic Bequest, pp. 100–2.

264 Bicknell, A., The Life of Alfred the Great, King of the Anglo-Saxons (London, 1777). See Stanley, , ‘The Glorification of Alfred’, p. 419.

265 Bicknell, A., The Patriot King: or Alfred and Elvida. An Historical Tragedy (London, 1788), soon adapted for performance in Germany and provided with incidental music by Joseph Haydn (Stanley, , ‘The Glorification of Alfred’, p. 423, n. 47). See also Miles, , King Alfredin Literature, pp. 6971.

266 [Home, L.], Alfred A Tragedy. As Performed at the Theatre-Royal, in Covent-Garden (Dublin, 1777; London, 1778). For a synopsis of the plot, see Miles, , KingAlfred in Literature, pp. 66–9.

267 Holmes, R., Alfred. An Ode. With Six Sonnets (Oxford, 1778).

268 Kedleston Hall, Derbyshire, National Trust Guide (London, 1988, rev. 1998), p. 55; I am grateful to Ms Jill Banks, Archivist, Kedleston Hall, for her assistance in this connection. If only to judge from the portrait, ‘Ethelred’ was modelled on a Helmet penny of Æthelred II. Medallions of Alfred and Ethelred were among the items sold at the sale of the effects of a sculptor called Bridges in 1775 (Gunnis, , Dictionary of British Sculptors, p. 61).

269 The painting, made in 1776 by Antonio Zucchi (1726–95), shows Britannia, enthroned between Faith and Justice, being presented by Fame with portraits of Alfred the Great and Elizabeth I. Zucchi was working for Robert Adam, on behalf of Elizabeth, Dowager Countess of Home. See Whinney, M., Home House: No. 20 Portman Square (Feltham, 1969), pp. 3940, with plate on p. 94, and Croft-Murray, , Decorative Painting in England II, 298. The portrait of Alfred was based on the image devised by Vertue.

270 An inscription on a tablet in the wall read as follows: ‘To the Memory of / Alfred the Great / The Wise, the Pious and Magnanimous / The Friend of / Science, Virtue, Law, and Liberty / This Monument /Jeremiah Dixon of Allerton / Gledhow caused to be erected / A.D. MDCCLXIX.’ I am grateful to Chris Solomon for drawing my attention to ‘Alfred's Castle’; to Vivien Cartwright (Local Studies Library, Central Library, Leeds) for providing me with presscuttings (and a photograph of part of the structure taken shortly before it was demolished in May 1946); and to Brett Harrison (The Thoresby Society, Leeds) for providing me with a photograph of the inscription (from a lantern slide made in 1888). Jeremiah Dixon (1726–82) was High Sheriff of the county in 1758, and was made an FRS in 1773; he had bought the Gledhow estate in 1764. For the inscription on his tomb in the parish church of Leeds, see Whitaker, T. D., Loidis and Elmete; or, An Attempt to Illustrate the Districts Described in those Words by Bede (Leeds, 1816), p. 57, with pedigree of Dixon at pp. 130–1. See also Taylor, R. V., The Biographia Leodiensis; or, Biographical Sketches of the Worthies of Leeds and Neighbourhood, from the Norman Conquest to the Present Time (London, 1865), pp. 181–3.

271 Six Odes Presented to that Justly-Celebrated Historian, Mrs. Catharine Macaulay, on her Birth-Day, and Publicly Read to a Polite and Brilliant Audience, Assembled April the Second, at Alfred-House, Bath, to Congratulate that Lady on the Happy Occasion (Bath, [1777]), esp. pp. 1719, 35–8 and 3945. For ‘Alfred House’, built c. 1772, see Ison, W., Georgian Buildings of Bath from 1700 to 1830, rev. ed. (Bath, 1980), pp. 7, 27, 97–9, 156–7 and 198 (showing the bust of Alfred, displaying all the features of its Vertue/Rysbrack model, over the Adamesque doorcase). For an account of her writings, see Hill, B., The Republican Virago: the Life and Times of Catharine Macaulay, Historian (Oxford, 1992), esp. pp. 31–2 and 7980.

272 d'Arnaud, F. T. M. Baculard, Délassements de l'homme sensible, ou anecdotes diverses, 6 vols. (Paris, 1783) I.i, 116 (with no indication of source). See Dawson, R. L., Baculard d'Arnaud: Life and Prose Fiction, 2 vols., Stud. on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century 141–2 (Banbury, 1976) II, 474518 (Baculard's medievalism) and 677–9 (Délassements); see also Miles, , King Alfred in Literature, p. 111, and Stanley, , ‘The Glorification of Alfred’, pp. 427–8.

273 See further below, pp. 300–1.

274 The Story of Alfred and Ethelwitha: with an Interesting Scene, Designed by Stothard’, Universal Mag. of Knowledge and Pleasure (January, 1784), pp. 2932.

275 For example, in Alfred: an Historical Tragedy (London, 1789), on which see Miles, , King Alfredin Literature, pp. 71–2, and in Fuller's novel (next note); also cited in Observations on the Life and Character of Alfred the Great (1794), on which see further below.

276 Fuller, A., The Son of Ethelwolf: an Historical Tale (London, 1789), Preface: ‘Heaven has restored to you a father, to England a sovereign, worthy of the tears that were recendy shed for him, and of the happiness that his recovery now inspires.’ For an effective discussion of the novel, see Stanley, , ‘The Glorification of Alfred’, pp. 427–31.

277 Lessons to a Young Prince, on the Present Disposition in Europe to a General Revolution (London, 1790).

278 The author of the tract was the Welsh radical David Williams (1738–1816). For his use of Alfred, see Jones, W. R. D., David Williams: the Anvil and the Hammer (Cardiff, 1986), esp. pp. 73 (in A Plan of Association on Constitutional Principles (1780)), 109–12 (in Lesson to a Young Prince (1790)), and 151 (in Egeria, or Elementary Studies on the Progress of Nations in Political Oeconomy, Legislation, and Government (London, 1803)).

279 For further discussion, see Horsman, R., Race and Manifest Destiny: the Origins of American Racial Anglo-Saxonism (Cambridge, MA, 1981), pp. 924; Hauer, S. R., ‘Thomas Jefferson and the Anglo-Saxon Language’, PMLA 98 (1983), 879–98; and Frantzen, A. J., Desire for Origins: New Language, Old English, and Teaching the Tradition (New Brunswick, NJ, 1990), esp. pp. 204–7.

280 Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, 8 vols. (Washington, DC, 19591981) I, 28. I owe my knowledge of the Alfred's, existence to the kindness of Professor Richard Abels, of the US Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD.

281 von Haller, A., Alfred König der Angel-Sachsen (Göttingen and Bern, 1773). See also Miles, , King Alfred in Literature, pp. 109–11, and Stanley, , ‘The Glorification of Alfred’, pp. 417–18.

282 von Haller, A., Alfred, roi des Anglo-Saxons (Lausanne, 1775).

283 Penn, J., The Battle of Eddington; or, British Liberty. A Tragedy (London, 1792), 2nd ed. (London, 1796). See also Miles, , King Alfred in Literature, pp. 73–4, and Stanley, , ‘The Glorification of Alfred’, p. 424, n. 48.

284 [Anon.], Observations on the Life and Character of Alfred the Great (London, 1794). The tale of Alfred and Ethelwitha was derived from Baculard d'Arnaud (above, n. 275). For the publisher, see the DNB, and Davis, M. T., ‘“That Odious Class of Men Called Democrats”: Daniel Isaac Eaton and the Romantics 1794–1795’, History 84 (1999), 7492.

285 O'Keeffe, J., Dramatic Works, 4 vols. (London, 1798) IV, 195267. See also Miles, , King Alfredin Literature, pp. 74–6, and Stanley, , ‘The Glorification of Alfred’, pp. 424, n. 49, 426–7 and 437.

286 For an account of this performance, see Miles, , King Alfred in Literature, pp. 76–7.

287 Diary of Joseph Farington [below, n. 443] III, 1055–6.

288 Cartwright, J., An Appeal, Civil and Military, on the Subject of the English Constitution (London, 1799). For Cartwright, see the DNB, and Osborne, J. W., John Cartwright (Cambridge, 1972); see also Smith, , The Gothic Bequest, pp. 137–9, and Simmons, , Reversing the Conquest, pp. 36–9.

289 On the popularity of history in the eighteenth century, see Langford, , England 1727–1783, pp. 96–9, and Brewer, , Pleasures of the Imagination, pp. 181–2. The Universal History mentioned by Langford had first appeared (part by part) in 7 folio volumes (1736–44), ranging widely across the ancient world (though including an account of the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain in VII.1, 438–55). An edition ranging across the modern world first appeared in 44 octavo volumes (1759–66), but did not cover Great Britain. A revised edition of the modern part, in 42 octavo volumes (1780–84), gave belated coverage to England, Scotland and Ireland (XXXIX–XLII); and Anglo-Saxon England is given relatively short shrift (XXXIX, 1–47, at 14–19 (Alfred)). See Abbattista, G., ‘The Business of Paternoster Row: Towards a Publishing History of the Universal History (1736–65)’, Publishing Hist. 17 (1985), 550.

290 Above, n. 213. The portraits include King Egbert (opp. p. 213), King Alfred (opp. p. 301), and King Cnut (opp. p. 406). The portraits were probably derived from the plates in Walker's edition of Spelman's ‘Life’ (1678), whether of the coins (for Egbert and Cnut) or of the painting at University College (Alfred). The headpieces include Vortigern and Rowena (p. 91), St Augustine preaching before King Æthelberht (p. 147), the three Anglian kings of Northumbria, Mercia, and East Anglia paying their respects to King Egbert (p. 277), the beheading of Swein's sister in the presence of King Æthelred (p. 383), and a meeting of the Witenagemot during the age of the Heptarchy (p. 475).

291 Above, n. 214, vols. I, opp. pp. 293(Egbert) and 323 (Alfred), and Il.i, opp. title-page (Cnut).

292 Above, n. 215, vol. I, 3(a pastoral scene), 9(Romans building), 30(Rowena catching the eye of Vortigern), 45(St Augustine before King Æthelberht), 82(the three Anglian kings of Mercia, Northumbria and East Anglia acknowledging the sovereignty of King Egbert), 117(execution of Gunnhild on the orders of King Æthelred in 1002), and 147 (government by heptarchy).

293 Vertue, G., The Heads of the Kings of England Proper for Mr Rapin's History, Translated ty N. Tindal, M.A. (London, 1736). Publication of the portraits began in December 1733, and was not completed until the summer of 1736; see Wiles, , Serial Publication in England, pp. 285, 294 and 310, and Lippincott, , Selling Art in Georgian London, pp. 149–50 and 190, n. 57. See also Haskell, F., History and its Images: Art and the Interpretation of the Past (New Haven, CT, 1993), p. 289, with fig. 168 (showing Vertue's portrait of Richard II).

294 For the image, see above, pp. 261–2 and 265; for the coat of arms, see above, nn. 65 and 114.

295 The illustrations in the 3rd ed. of 1743, essentially the same as in the 2nd ed. of 1732–3, are said to be the best (DNB). They comprise the decorative headpieces, Vertue's symbolic portraits, drawings of particular monuments, and some additional portraits in vol. 2.

296 Erdman, D. V., Blake: Prophet Against Empire. A Poet's Interpretation of the History of his own Times, 3rd ed. (Princeton, NJ, 1977), p. 66.

297 For royal portraiture of the period, see Granger, James, Biographical History of England, from Egbert the Creat to the Revolution (1769); and for engraved portraits of Alfred, among others, see O'Donoghue, F. and Hake, H. M., Catalogue of Engraved British Portraits … in the British Museum, 6 vols. (London, 19081925) I, 34–5. For Baziliologia (1618), see above, n. 117.

298 For the wider contexts of history painting, see Waterhouse, E., Painting in Britain 1530–1790, 5th ed. (New Haven, CT, 1994), pp. 271–84; Burke, , English Art 1714–1800, esp. pp. 239–71; Brewer, J., The Pleasures of the Imagination: English Culture in the Eighteenth Century (London, 1997), esp. ch. 5 (pp. 206, 217, 245 and 246); and The Dictionary of Art, ed. Turner, J., 34 vols. (London, 1996) XIV, 581–9. Haskell, , History and its Images, is concerned mainly with the use of art as historical evidence; but for the depiction of historical events in art, see esp. pp. 287–9. For ‘English’ history painting in particular, see Sunderland, J., ‘Mortimer, Pine and Some Political Aspects of English History Painting’, Burlington Magazine 116 (1974), 317–26; Strong, R., And when did you last see your father? The Victorian Painter and British History (London, 1978), focusing attention on the nineteenth century; Sunderland, J., ‘John Hamilton Mortimer: His Life and Works’, Walpole Soc. 52 (1986), esp. 1222 and 70–5; The Painted Word: British History Painting, 1750–1830, ed. Cannon-Brookes, P. (Woodbridge, 1991); and Allen, B., ‘Rule Britannia? History Painting in 18th-Century Britain’, Hist. Today 45 (06 1995), 1218. See also Rochelle, M., Historical Art Index, A.D. 400–1650: Peoples, Places, and Events Depicted (Jefferson, NC, 1989). For other important aspects of the subject, see Lippincott, L., Selling Art in Georgian London: the Rise of Arthur Pond (New Haven, CT, 1983), and Lippincott, L., ‘Expanding on Portraiture: the Market, the Public, and the Hierarchy of Genres in Eighteenth-Century Britain’, The Consumption of Culture: Word, Image, and Object in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, ed. Bermingham, A. and Brewer, J. (London, 1995), pp. 7588.

299 See Alexander, D., ‘Print Makers and Print Sellers in England, 1770–1830’, The Painted Word, ed. Cannon-Brookes, , pp. 23–9, and Clayton, , The English Print, esp. pp. 235–60.

300 The British Museum's ‘Catalogue of Prints and Drawings Illustrating English History, Unrevised and Unpublished’ (1882), which reached page-proofs, but which was never published (BM, Dept of Prints and Drawings [hereafter P&D], O.3.5), lists material with ‘Anglo-Saxon’ subjects on pp. 19110, including separate prints as well as plates removed from printed books. It contains much useful information, which has to be used with caution. The portfolios of English history prints in BM, P&D, of their nature contain no more than a small and random selection.

301 Edwards, E., Anecdotes of Painters who have Resided or been Born in England (London, 1808), repr. with an Introduction by Lightbown, R. W. (London, 1970). For Edwards, see further below, p. 310.

302 Whitley, W. T., Artists and their Friends in England 1700–1799, 2 vols. (London, 1928), and Brewer, , Pleasures of the Imagination, pp. 218–51.

303 Edwards's treatment, in his Anecdotes of Painters, of Gainsborough (pp. 129–43) and Reynolds, (pp. 184212) should be compared with his treatment of, e.g., Blakey, (pp. 34), Casali, (pp. 22–4), Mortimer, (pp. 60–5), Wale, (pp. 116–18), Chamberlin, (pp. 121–2), Pine, (pp. 171–3), Wheatley, (pp. 268–70), and Hamilton, (pp. 272–5), all of whom are mentioned below among painters who depicted subjects drawn from Anglo-Saxon history.

304 For details of this venture, see Alexander, D. and Godfrey, R. T., Painters and Engravers: the Reproductive Print from Hogarth to Wilkie (New Haven, CT, 1980), pp. 23–4 (no. 35); Lippincott, , Selling Art in Georgian London, pp. 156–8; Allen, B., Francis Hayman (New Haven, CT, 1987), pp. 146–8 (no. 78); Allen, , ‘History Painting’, pp. 1415 and 18; and Clayton, , The English Print, pp. 92–3 and 258. For the Knaptons, see Pope's Literary Legacy: the Book-Trade Correspondence of William Warburton and John Knapton, ed. Nichol, D. W. (Oxford, 1992), pp. li–lx.

305 Edwards, , Anecdotes of Painters, p. 4.

306 Reproduced by Lippincott, , Selling Art in Georgian Landon, p. 157.

307 Reproduced by Allen, , ‘History Painting’, p. 18.

308 Reproduced by Allen, , Francis Hayman, p. 147, and Allen, , ‘History Painting’, p. 18.

309 Reproduced by Clayton, , The English Print, p. 97. See further below, n. 332.

310 BM, P&D, 1877–6–9–1707; reproduced here from an impression in a private collection. Another impression in the BM (P&D, 1953–11–7–4) gives the tide in English and French.

311 History of England [2nd ed.], I, 92: ‘The news of this Defeat [at Kinwith Castle in Devon], and the Death of the Danish General [Hubba], having reached Alfred in his retreat, he immediately considered how to turn this lucky Blow to his Advantage.’

312 A portrait of Alfred engraved by Cole, B. for the New Universal Magazine (1752) shows the king with a sceptre in his right hand, a partly unrolled scroll in his left hand, and the raven banner draped over the frame. The banner was used again by Samuel Wale in the 1760s (see further below).

313 Reproduced by Allen, , Francis Hayman, p. 148. It should be noted that (quite apart from the remarkable armour) the composition displays no influence from the Bayeux Tapestry (of which engravings were first published in 1729–30, though not published in England until 1750), and is to be compared in this respect with later representations of King Harold's death at the battle of Hastings, of which there are several.

314 Smollett, , A Complete History of England (above, n. 254), 2nd ed. I, opp. pp. 27 (Caesar), 54 (Caractacus), 111 (Druids), 125 (Vortigern), and 371 (Hastings). We also find engraved ‘portraits’ of Egbert (Miller), Alfred (Benoist) and Cnut (Benoist), evidently suggested by the images in Rapin's History.

315 The engravings were reworked and republished by R. Sayer and J. Bennett, dated 12 Oct. 1778. ‘Alfred in the Isle of Athelney’ (BM, P&D, 1855–6–9–1829) was furnished with a six-line explanation of the historical background.

316 Wood, H. Trueman, A History of the Royal Society of Arts (London, 1913), esp. pp. 151–61 and 226–34; Hudson, D. and Luckhurst, K. W., The Royal Society of Arts 1754–1954 (London, 1954), esp. pp. 3540.

317 A complete (extra-illustrated and annotated) set of the catalogues of exhibitions at the Society of Artists, from 1760 to 1791, is in BM, P&D, presented by J. H. Anderdon in 1869. See also Graves, A., The Society of Artists of Great Britain 1760–1791 / The Free Society of Artists 1761–1783. A Complete Dictionary of Contributors and their Work from the Foundation of the Societies to 1791 (London, 1907), with appendixes on the history of these organisations.

318 For a list of the premiums bestowed for historical pictures from 1760 to 1773, see Dossie, R., Memoirs of Agriculture, and Other Oeconomical Arts, 3 vols. (London, 17681782) III, 431–2. See also Sunderland, , ‘Political Aspects of English History Painting’, pp. 321–2 and 325–6 (citing Minutes of the Society of Arts).

319 For Casali, see Edwards, , Anecdotes of Painters, pp. 22–4, and Dictionary of Art, ed. Turner.

320 Society of Artists 1760 (2). The original painting was acquired by the Constable family, of Burton Constable Hall, nr Hull, East Yorkshire, where it remains; photograph in the file for the artist in the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art, 16 Bedford Square, London. The painting was engraved by Casali, c. 1760, entitled: ‘The Champion; or Innocence Triumphant. The Empress Gunhilda being accused of Adultery, and her Innocence being to be tried by single Combat, the Champion for the Accusation (a Man of Gigantic Stature) is slain by her Page.’ Casali's source was Guthrie, General History of England, pp. 292–3. An engraving by S. F. Ravenet was published by John Boydell in 1761, entitled: ‘Gunhilda, Empress of Germany, daughter of Canute King of England, having been accused of adultery and treated as guilty by the Emperor, is defended by her Page, who in a public combat slays her accusers, after which she refuses to be reconciled to her Husband, & determines to retire into a Monastery.’ There are impressions of both in BM, P&D.

321 Free Society 1761 (15); he exhibited a sketch on the same subject at the Society of Artists in 1778 (32). The painting was at Fonthill House, and was sold in 1801 to Jeffrey (Croft-Murray, E., Decorative Painting in England 1537–1837, 2 vols. (London, 19621970) II, 182), and is now untraced; it does not appear to have been engraved. The story of King Edgar and Ælfthryth (Elfrida) was derived ultimately from William of Malmesbury, Gesta regam ii.157 (ed. Mynors, et al. , pp. 256–8), and was given due attention by Rapin, (History of England [2nd ed.] I, 109), Hume, and others. Its popularity may, however, reflect that of the various dramatic works on the same theme, e.g. Thomas Rymer's Edgar (1678, 1693; above, n. 148), but esp. William Mason's Elfrida (1752 onwards). The subject was depicted again by Wale c. 1770 (below, p. 308), by Kauffman in 1771 (below, p. 299), by Hamilton in 1774 (below, p. 299), and by Rigaud in 1796 (below, n. 334), among others.

322 Free Society 1761 (20). A preliminary sketch for this composition was sold at Christie's, 15 Feb. 1974 (Lot 80); photograph in the Mellon Centre. The finished painting was acquired by the Constable family, of Burton Constable Hall, East Yorkshire, where it remains; photograph in the Mellon Centre. The painting was engraved by Casali c. 1761 (BM, P&D, 1867–12–14–387); cf. his drawing (BM, P&D, 1964–4–11–3). It was engraved again by S. F. Ravenet in 1767, and published by John Boydell in 1773 (BM, P&D, 1873–8–9–582); see below, p. 313. The subject had been depicted by Wale in 1747 (below, p. 305), and was depicted again by Wale in 1764 (below, p. 306), by Edwards in 1776 (below, p. 310), by Hamilton before 1786 (below, p. 313), and by Smirke in 1806 (below, p. 316), among others.

323 Free Society 1763 (159); also shown at the Society of Artists 1768 (89). The original painting is untraced; but the composition is known from an early copy (Sunderland, ‘Political Aspects of English History Painting’, fig. 48), and from an engraving made by F. G. Aliamet (BM, P&D, 1899–7–13–69), also published in 1772 by John Boydell. The subject had featured in the lower part of Vertue's portrait of Cnut, made in 1733 for the second (folio) edition of Rapin's History (above, p. 292), and had been depicted by Wale in 1747 (below, p. 305). The subject was depicted again by Edwards in 1777 (below, p. 310), by Hamilton (collection of His Grace the Duke of Devonshire; photograph in the Mellon Centre), and by Smirke in the 1790s (below, p. 316), among others. A mid-nineteenth-century view of Cnut and the waves, by John Martin (Laing Art Gallery, Newcastle-upon-Tyne), is illustrated in Humble, R., The Saxon Kings (London, 1980), pp. 164–5.

324 Free Society 1763 (142). An oil sketch for the picture is in the Huntington Library and Art Gallery, San Marino, CA; see Sunderland, , ‘Mortimer: His Life and Works’, pp. 1619 and 122–3 (no. 8) and fig. 24. The original painting appeared at auction in 1878 (ibid. p. 122), but is now untraced. The picture seems not to have been engraved. The story is told by Rapin, , History of England [2nd ed.] I, 131, among many others, and is ultimately from One. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for 1043.

325 Free Society 1764 (30). Chamberlin, said to be of Stewart Street, Spittalfields, won a half-share of the second premium of 50 guineas for a history painting at the Society of Arts in 1764, for ‘King Alfred at the Cottager's’ (Dossie, , Memoirs of Agriculture III, 432). The subject was depicted again by Edwards in 1776 (below, p. 310), by Wheadey in 1792 (below, pp. 315–16), and by Wilkie in 1806 (below, pp. 317–18), among others (below, pp. 339 and 340–1).

326 See further below, p. 314. The mezzotint may have been first published some years earlier, and republished in 1794.

327 The word ‘handboc’ is inscribed on the outer cover. The book was described as such in Savile's edition of William of Malmesbury's Gesta regum (Rerum Anglicarum Scripteres Post Bedam praecipui, p. 24); cf. Gesta regum Anglorum, ed. Mynors, et al. , p. 192, textual note g. For Alfred's ‘Handbook’, see Keynes, and Lapidge, , Alfred the Great, p. 268.

328 Hutchison, S. C., The History of the Royal Academy 1768–1986, 2nd ed. (London, 1986), pp. 1522 and 2332; Brewer, , Pleasures of the Imagination, pp. 228–36.

329 A complete (extra-illustrated and annotated) set of the catalogues of exhibitions at the Royal Academy, from 1769 to 1849, is in BM, P&D, presented by J. H. Anderdon in 1867. See also Graves, A., The Royal Academy of Arts: a Complete Diaionary of Contributors and their Work from its Foundation in 1769 to 1904, 8 vols. (London, 1905–6).

330 For the ‘Anglo-Saxon’ subjects represented in the Royal Academy exhibitions, in the wider context of all subjects drawn from British history, see Strong, , The Victorian Painter and British History, pp. 155–68, at 155–7.

331 Roworth, W., Angelica Kauffmann: a Continental Artist in Georgian England (London, 1993); Dictionary of Art, ed. Turner, .

332 Royal Academy 1770 (116). The original painting is at Saltram House, Devon (National Trust); photograph in the Mellon Centre. The subject had featured in one of the head-pieces in Rapin's History (above, nn. 290 and 292), and was depicted by Blakey in 1750 (above, p. 295) and by Fuseli in 1769; it was depicted again by Ryland (after Kauffmann) in 1772 (cf. photograph in the Mellon Centre), Mortimer in 1779 (Strong, , The Victorian Painter and British History, pp. 1920; Sunderland, , ‘Mortimer: His Life and Works’, pp. 74–5 and 193), Rigaud in 1788 (photograph in the Mellon Centre), and Hamilton in 1795 (below, p. 315), among others.

333 Royal Academy 1771 (113). The original painting is at Saltram (National Trust); photograph in the Mellon Centre. It was engraved by William Wynne Ryland and published in 1786 by Mary Ryland.

334 Royal Academy 1774 (114). It seems that this composition should be distinguished from Hamilton's rendition of ‘Edmund Ironside and Algitha’, engraved by Bartolozzi and published in 1786 (below, p. 313), with which it is easily (and has been) confused. For John Francis Rigaud's painting, entitled ‘The first interview of King Edgar and Elfrida’ and exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1796, see ‘Facts and Recollections of the XVIIIth Century in a Memoir of John Francis Rigaud Esq., R.A., by Stephen Francis Dutilh Rigaud’, ed. Pressly, W. L., Walpole Soc. 50 (1984), 1164, at 1718, with pl. 66. For Hamilton's ‘Edgar and Elfrida’, first published in 1793, and again in 1802, see below, n. 447.

335 For West and George III, see von Erffa, H. and Staley, A., The Paintings of Benjamin West (New Haven, CT, 1986), p. 51; he became President of the Royal Academy in 1792. See also Abrams, A. U., The Valiant Hero: Benjamin West and Grand-Style History Painting (Washington DC, 1985); and Solkin, D. H., Painting for Money: the Visual Arts and the Public Sphere in Eighteenth-Century England (New Haven, CT, 1993), pp. 180–90 and 206–13. West is generally treated with studied contempt by art historians, not without reason: ‘The monarch who could give lavish commissions to Benjamin West while neglecting Reynolds must have been sadly wanting in taste’ (Whitley, , Artists and theirFriends in England, I, 170).

336 Von Erffa, and Staley, , Paintings of Benjamin West, pp. 211–16 (nos. 93–100); McNairn, A., Behold the Hero: General Wolfe and the Arts in the Eighteenth Century (Liverpool, 1997), esp. pp. 109–64. General Wolfe was killed at Quebec in 1759.

337 Royal Academy 1778 (331).

338 The Itineraries of John Leland the Antiquary, ed. Hearne, T. (Oxford, 17101712) VIII, 58; 2nd ed. (Oxford, 17441745) VIII, 25; 3rd ed. (Oxford, 17681770) VIII, 26; The Itinerary of John Leland in or about the Years 1535–1543, ed. Smith, L. Toulmin, 5 vols. (London, 19071910) V, 148. It is possible that the book in question survives at Belvok Casde, though it is not immediately identifiable in the reports made by the Historical Manuscripts Commission.

339 For the family history, see Nichols, J., The History and Antiquities of the County of Leicestershire, 4 vols, in 8 (London, 17951811) II.i, 2268, at 24. The original painting was recorded at Belvoir Casde in 1792 (ibid. pp. 69–73, at 73), but was destroyed there in the fire of 1816. It is known from an engraving by J. B. Michel, published by Boydell in 1782 (below, p. 313). See Von Erffa, and Staley, , Paintings of Benjamin West, pp. 186–7 (no. 47). A small outline drawing of the picture is in Hamilton, G., The English School: a Series of the Most Approved Productions in Painting and Sculpture Executed by British Artists from the Days of Hogarth to the Present Time, 4 vols. (London, 18311832) IV, no. 56.

340 See above, p. 287.

341 Bicknell, , Alfred the Great, pp. 149–51. For the subject, see above, n. 15. For the possibility that West's ‘Alfredian’ pictures were made in connection with a grander scheme, first formulated in 1778, see below, p. 313.

342 Von Erffa, and Staley, , Paintings of Benjamin West, pp. 188 (no.49).

343 Royal Academy 1779 (341). Von Erffa, and Staley, , Paintings of Benjamin West, pp. 187–8 (no. 48).

344 For the engraving, see further below, p. 313; and for Hamilton's drawing of the same subject, see below, p. 310. Boydell became Alderman for Cheapside in 1785.

345 Royal Academy 1784 (81). Von Erffa, and Staley, , Paintings of Benjamin West, pp. 480–1 (no. 575), in the Royal Collection. For a reproduction in colour, see Hibbert, C., George III: a Personal History (London, 1998), pl. 16.

346 Pressly, W. L., The Life and Art of James Barry (New Haven, CT, 1981), pp. 86122 (murals), at 113–19, and 233–4 (no. 27) and 294–8.

347 Barry, J., An Account of a Series of Pictures, in the Great Room of the Society of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, at the Adelphi (London, 1783).

348 Ibid. pp. 130–1, citing the Alfredian inscription on the statue of Fame at the Earl of Radnor's estate at Longford Castle.

349 Pressly, , Life and Art of James Barry, pp. 263 and 274 (no. 22).

350 Ibid. pp. 275–6 (no. 24); Pressly, W. L., James Barry; the Artist as Hero (London, 1983), no. 36.

351 Butlin, M., The Paintings and Drawings of William Blake, 2 vols. (New Haven, CT, 1981) I, no. 60, and II.pl. 178.

352 Butlin, , Paintings and Drawings of Blake I, no. 57, and II, pl. 53, with pp. 1625.

353 Keynes, G., Blake: Complete Writings (Oxford, 1957), pp. 207–8.

354 Ibid. pp. 208–9.

355 Butlin, , The Paintings and Drawings of William Blake, I, no. 59, and II, pl. 177. For Wale's earlier drawing of the same subject, see below, p. 307. For discussion, see Erdman, , Blake: Prophet Against Empire, pp. 45–7, and Sunderland, , ‘Political Aspects of English History Painting’, pp. 321–2.

356 Butlin, , Paintings and Drawings of Blake I, no. 94 (‘King Alfred and the swineherd's wife (?)’), and II, pl. 101. The drawing is obviously a study for no. 93, described more appropriately as ‘A woodland encounter’.

357 For a more ‘political’ (anti-monarchical) interpretation of the pictures of Cnut and Edward the Confessor, see Sunderland, , ‘Political Aspects of English History Painting’, pp. 321–2, and ‘Mortimer: His Life and Works’, pp. 1819. Cf. Strong, , The Victorian Painter and British History, pp. 1718.

358 [Goldsmith, O.], An History of England, in a Series of Letters from a Nobleman to his Son, 2 vols. (London, 1764), Letter VII, pp. 3742 (on Alfred); Goldsmith, O., The History of England, from the Earliest Times to the Death of George II, 4 vols. (London, 1771) I, 7184 (on Alfred), drawing on Hume; Goldsmith, O., An Abridgement of the History of England, from the Invasion of Julius Casar, to the Year M.DCCXC, new ed. (Bath, 1795); etc.

359 Above, n. 289. For the success of serial publication of history in the first half of the eighteenth century, see Wiles, , Serial Publication in England, esp. pp. 46, 96 and 108; and see also the pertinent remarks on lists of subscribers, Ibid. pp. 229–31.

360 Mortimer, T., A New History of England, 3 vols. (London, 17641766), published in parts by Wilson, J. and Fell, J., of Paternoster Row, London. The list of over 400 subscribers shows that it reached deep into the professional middle classes throughout the country.

361 Mountague, W. H., A New and Universal History of England, 2 vols. (London, 17711772), published by J. Cooke, of Paternoster Row, London.

362 Sydney, T., A Nem and Complete History of England (London, 1773), published in 70 parts by J. Cooke, of Paternoster Row, London, with a list of over 400 subscribers. It would appear that one or two of the plates were issued with each part, in an order which bore no relation to the progress of the narrative. Instructions to the binder indicated where the plates were to be placed.

363 Russel, W. A., A New and Authentic History of England (London, 17771779), published in 80 parts by J. Cooke, of Paternoster Row, London.

364 Raymond, G. F., A New, Universal, and Impartial History of England (London, 17771790), published in 60 parts by J. Cooke [later C. Cooke], of Paternoster Row, London.

365 Barnard, E., A New, Comprehensive, and Complete History of England (London, 1783), published in 70 weekly parts by Alexander Hogg, with a list of over 800 subscribers.

366 Spencer, G. W., A Nem, Authentic, and Complete History of England … to the Year 1795 (London, 1794), published in parts by Alexander Hogg.

367 Ashburton, C. A., A New and Complete History of England (London, 17911793), published in 80 weekly parts by W. and J. Stratford, with a list of over 1000 subscribers; reissued in 1795. It would appear that one engraved plate was issued with each part, in an order which bore no relation to the progress of the narrative. Instructions to the binder indicated where the plates were to be placed.

368 Lyttleton, G. C., The History of England, from the Earliest Dawn of Authentic Records, to the Ultimate Ratification of the General Peace at Amiens in 1802; and the Subsequent War in 1803, 3 vols. (London, 18021803), published in multiple parts by J. Stratford, with a list of nearly 2,500 subscribers.

369 Camden, T., The Imperial History of England, 2 vols. (London, 18101813), published by J. Stratford.

370 E.g. Johnson, R. [alias Cooper], A New History of England (London, 1780), published by F. Newbery; Baxter, J., A New and Impartial History of England (London, ?1796), published in parts by H. D. Symonds. One hardly dares think how many more there may have been.

371 See entries on Wale in the DNB; Waterhouse, E., The Dictionary of British 18th Century Painters in Oils and Crayons (London, 1981); and Dictionary of Art, ed. Turner. See also Einberg, , Manners & Morals, p. 182, and Hammelmann, H., Book Illustrators in Eighteenth-Century England, ed. Boase, T. S. R. (New Haven, 1975), pp. 8996.

372 See above, p. 273.

373 My understanding of the successive editions of Lockman's History from 1729 to 1800 is based on entries in the Eighteenth-Century Short Tide Catalogue (ESTC), as available on the Internet (1998). The fifth edition (1740) was seemingly not illustrated. The sixth edition, published in weekly parts (1747), is the first said to be ‘adorn'd with thirty-two copper-plates’; see also Wiles, , Serial Publication in England, pp. 41, 46 and 352. There is a set of the engravings in the portfolio of prints after Wale, in BM, P&D, dated 1746 or 1747, removed from a copy of the sixth or later edition. The original engravings were subsequently replaced by some inferior (or even worse) engravings based on the same drawings, found already in the fifteenth edition (1768).

374 See below, n. 323.

375 A sketch of this subject was exhibited by Wale at the exhibition of the Royal Academy in 1769. Grignion's engraving recurs in Mountague (1771) and Sydney (1773), but was re-engraved by Debroche for Russel (1777).

376 A ‘stained drawing’ on the same theme (Alfred ‘making a code of laws, dividing the kingdom into counties, and encouraging the arts and sciences’) was exhibited by Wale at the Royal Academy in 1771 (208), now untraced. Grignion's engraving recurs in Mountague (1771), Sydney (1773), and Raymond (1777/90), but was re-engraved by White for Russel (1777).

377 Grignion's engraving recurs in Mountague (1771) and Sydney (1773).

378 Grignion's engraving recurs in Mountague (1771), Sydney (1773), and Raymond (1777/90), but was re-engraved by White for Russel (1777).

379 The engraved version of the Massacre of St Brice's Day is not inscribed (or attributed), perhaps for obvious reasons; nor was it reused thereafter. The same theme was depicted in one of the head-pieces in Rapin's History (above, nn. 290 and 292).

380 The drawing was re-engraved by Walker for Sydney (1773).

381 Grignion's engraving recurs in Sydney (1773).

382 Grignion's engraving recurs in Sydney (1773). The story was part of the mainline ‘St Albans’ tradition, and had appeared in Rapin, , History of England [2nd ed.] I, 89; see also Parts Added to The Mirror for Magistrates, ed. Campbell, , pp. 463–8.

383 Wale or Grignion erred in giving the credit to Alfred himself. Cf. ASC, s.a. 878, ‘And there was captured the banner which they called “Raven”’. The drawing was re-engraved by Taylor for Sydney (1773), and the act reattributed to Odun, Earl of Devon; used again in Russel (1777). Taylor exhibited ‘Alfred taking the Danish standard; engraved from Mr Wale’ at the Society of Artists in 1770 (247).

384 The drawing was re-engraved by Walker for Sydney (1773) and Raymond (1777/90). Cf. Rapin, , History of England [2nd ed.] I, 99.

385 Grignion's engraving recurs in Sydney (1773) and Raymond (1777/90); it was re-engraved by White for Russel (1777).

386 Grignion's engraving recurs in Sydney (1773); it is also found in copies of Russel (1777), and Raymond (1777/90).

387 The drawing was re-engraved by Walker for Sydney (1773). For Blake's drawing of the same subject, see above, p. 302. For the source, see Rapin, , History of England [2nd ed.] I, 131.

388 These events took place in 1759 and 1762 respectively. Wale's image of Wolfe was clearly based on an earlier painting by Penny (Von Erffa, and Staley, , Paintings of Benjamin West, p. 213). West's famous ‘Death of Wolfe’, painted in 1770 and first exhibited in 1771, was engraved by Woollett and published in 1776, re-engraved and reissued in 1791. See also Clayton, , The English Print, pp. 238–40; McNairn, , Behold the Hero, p. 230, apropos the reuse of Grignion's engraving of Wale's drawing in Sydney (1773), as reissued in 1775; and above, n. 336.

389 Engraved by Walker; used again in Raymond (1777/90).

390 Engraved by Walker; used again in Raymond (1777/90).

391 Engraved by Grignion; used again in Raymond (1777/90). The subject had been incorporated in Vertue's symbolic portrait of Alfred (above, pp. 291–2) and was depicted again by Stothard c. 1793 (below, p. 317), Edwards (below, p. 310), Smirke (below, p. 311), and Claxton (below, p. 336), among others.

392 Engraved by Rennoldson; used again in Raymond (1777/90).

393 Engraved by Grignion.

394 Engraved by Walker.

395 One of the copies in the BL (L.23.b.3) is signed ‘Wm Wright 1777’ on the recto of the frontispiece, and continues to 1786 (p. 610); it was used as a register of births, marriages, and deaths in his family from the 1780s to the 1890s. The constituent parts are numbered, but not dated. A second copy in the BL (RB.31.c.153) differs from the first in so far as the text has been reset from p. 605 (1783) and continues to 1790.

398 Raymond, , History of England, p. 76 n. *.

397 The leaders and kings are grouped as follows: (1) A Roman Commander, a Saxon Chief, a Danish General, and a Norman; (2) Egbert, Ethelwolf, Ethelbald, Ethelbert; (3) Ethelred, Alfred, Edward the Elder, Athelstan; (4) Edmund, Edred, Edwy, Edgar; (5) Ethelred II, Edward the Martyr, Edmund II, Canute the Great; (6) Harold I, Canute II, Edward the Confessor, Harold II. Cf. below, n. 408.

398 To judge from the entries in ESTC, Mortimer was the most widely circulated of these works; but it may be that the works issued originally in parts did not have the same chance of preservation. For remarks on Mountague, Russel, and Raymond (without reference to Mortimer and Sydney), see Boase, T. S. R., ‘Macklin and Bowyer’, Jnl of tie Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 26 (1963), 148–77, at 171–2. For the activities of the Paternoster Row publishers, and their ilk, in a different field, see Adams, B., London Illustrated 1604–1851: a Survey and Index of Topographical Books and their Plates (London, 1983).

399 McNairn, , Behold the Hero, pp. 125–43.

400 Strutt, J., Horda Angel-cynnan; or, A Compleat View of the Manners, Customs, Arms, Habits, &c. of the Inhabitants of England, from the Arrival of the Saxons, till the Reign of Henry the Eighth, 3 vols. (London, 17741776), with numerous plates, in a rude and uncorrected state. Followed by Strutt, J., The Chronicle of England; or, A Compleat History, Civil, Military and Ecclesiastical, of the Ancient Britons and Saxons, from the Landing of Julius Cœsar in Britain, to the Norman Conquest, with a Compleat View of the Manners, Customs, Arts, Habits, &c. of Those People, 2 vols. (London, 1779), with numerous plates, with improvements. On the significance of Strutt, see Strong, , The Victorian Painter and British History, pp. 50–2, and Haskell, , History and its Images, pp. 292–5.

401 For his Anecdotes of Painters, published posthumously in 1808, see above, n. 301. See also Hammelmann, , Book-Illustrators in Eighteenth-Century England, pp. 30–1.

402 The Copper-Plate Magazine; or a Monthly Treasure for the Admirers ofthe Imitative Arts was published by G. Kearsly, 46 Fleet Street, London. The title-page continues: ‘In each Number of which will be given, A Portrait of some celebrated Personage, some interesting Historical Subject, and some curious Perspective View. Executed By the most capital Artists of Great Britain, and calculated to enrich the Cabinets of the Curious, or to ornament the Apartments of Persons of Real Taste.’ The only set of the Copper-Plate Magazine in the British Library which dates from the 1770s contains portraits, with accompanying explanatory text.

403 The portfolio of prints after Edwards in BM, P&D, contains loose impressions of these three compositions, with four others (also dated 1776–7) depicting later historical events, engraved by Hall or by Grignion.

404 For further details, see Lightbown's Introduction to the reprint of Edwards, , Anecdotes of Painters [above, n. 301], pp. xiii and xxiv.

405 Barnard's History was presumably published in competition with the series of histories illustrated by Wale and published by the Cookes.

406 For Hamilton, , see above, p. 299, and Hammelmann, , Book-Illustrators in Eighteenth-Century England, p. 48.

407 The drawing of Alfred dividing his loaf was evidently inspired or influenced by Benjamin West's earlier (1779) painting of the same subject (above, p. 301), an engraving of which had been published in 1782.

408 The kings are grouped as follows: (1) Ethelbald, Ethelbert, Ethelred, Alfred; (2) Edward, Athelstan, Edmund, Edred; (3) Edwy, Edgar, Edward the Martyr, Ethelred; (4) Swein, Olaus, Edmund, Canute; (5) Harold, [Hartha]cnut, Edward, Harold. Cf. above, n. 397.

409 The illustrations are derived from the plates of coins in Walker's edition of Spelman's ‘Life of Alfred’ (above, n. 173), with several erroneous identifications.

410 The subjects chosen were St Augustine preaching to Æthelbert and Bertha, Alfred dividing England into counties, Athelstan ordering the Scriptures to be made public, Leolf stabbing King Edmund at Pucklechurch, and the landing of William the Conqueror at Pevensey.

411 The Wale drawings now attributed to Hamilton include those mentioned in the previous note, as well as Alfred in the Danish camp, and Edgar on the river Dee. Among the new images we find Woodruff's ‘Canute reproving the servile flattery of his courtiers’, engraved by Tomlinson.

412 Other subjects include ‘The treachery of Elfrida’ [murder of Edward the Martyr], ‘The exposure of Prince Edwin’ [with reference to the events of 933], and ‘Canute reproving the flattery of his courtiers’. Smirke's drawings of Edward the Martyr and of Cnut differ in composition from his paintings engraved and published in 1806 as part of Bowyer's ‘Historic Gallery’. Preliminary sketches for all of these compositions are to be found in the album of Smirke's drawings sold at Christie's, 11 July 1989, Lot 5. I am grateful to Dr Jane Cunningham for drawing this album to my attention.

413 Histoire d'Angleterre, représentée par figures, accompagnées de discours, 3 vols. (Paris, 17841800), is a pictorial history of England constructed around a series of illustrations by various hands, engraved by François-Anne David, with explanatory text by P. P. F. Le Tourneur. The series includes 22 engravings of drawings of Anglo-Saxon subjects. One, engraved by David after Gois, is entided ‘Alfred abandonné de ses sujets, s'engage au service de son vacher en 875’, showing Alfred in a farmyard at Athelney, without a burnt cake in sight.

414 Brewer, , Pleasures of the Imagination, pp. 456–8 and 461; Clayton, , The English Print, passim. I am grateful to David Alexander (York), Norman Blackburn (printseller), Timothy Clayton (Worcester College, Oxford), Dafydd Davies (Grosvenor Prints, London), Craig Hartley (Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge), and Anthony Griffiths (BM, Dept of Prints & Drawings), for their guidance in connection with this material.

415 DNB; Bruntjen, S. H. A., John Boydell, 1719–1804: a Study of Art Patronage and Publishing in Georgian London (New York, 1985); Griffiths, A. and Williams, R., The Department of Prints and Drawings in the British Museum: User's Guide (London, 1987), p. 88; Dictionary of Art, ed. Turner, .

416 Griffiths, A., ‘A Checklist of Catalogues of British Print Publishers c. 1650–1830’, Print Quarterly 1 (1984), 422.

417 An Alphabetical Catalogue of Plates, Engraved by the Most Esteemed Artists, After the Finest Pictures and Drawings of the Italian, Flemish, German, French, English, and Other Schools, which Comprise the Stock of John and Josiah Boydell, Engravers and Printsellers, No. 90, Cheapside, and at the Shakespeare Gallery, Pall Mall (London, 1803), pp. xv–xvii, followed by an alphabetical catalogue of Boydell's entire stock (pp. 1–60) from which the prints in his ‘Collection’ were selected. There are copies of this catalogue in the BL (787.k.13), and elsewhere. See also Bruntjen, , John Boydell, pp. 40–4; Brewer, , Pleasures of the Imagination, pp. 220 and 456; and Clayton, , The English Print, esp. pp. 177, 196, 198 and 209–10.

418 The painting (presented to the Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers) was copied by Josiah Boydell (now in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge). The copy was engraved by W. Sharp, and the engraving was published by John Boydell in 1782. The engraving is reproduced in The Painted Word, ed. Cannon-Brookes, , p. 65 (no. 32), and in Clayton, , The English Print, p. 237. I am grateful to Miss Jane Munro (Fitzwilliam Museum) for her help in this connection.

419 From ‘Proposals’ issued by West, Woollett and Hall in 1778 and 1783, cited by Clayton, , The English Print, pp. 240 and 306.

420 Above, pp. 300–1.

421 Above, p. 299.

422 The original painting is untraced.

423 The original painting is untraced. The subject (Rapin, , History of England [2nd ed.] I, 122) is derived ultimately from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, s.a. 1015. When Birchall died, in 1795, Two half-sheet (squares), by Bartolozzi, of Edward the Mattyr and Elfrida, and Prince Edmund and Algitha’, with 2 coloured and 438 plain impressions, were sold for £73 (Clayton, , The English Print, pp. 220, citing a catalogue of Birchall's effects, and 229).

424 BM, P&D, 1950–11–11–99, entided ‘Alfred the Great in the Neatherd's Cottage’ [with an explanation in English and French], painted by Mason Chamberlin R.A., engraved by Charles Townley (styled Engraver to the King of Prussia), dedicated by permission to the Earl of Derby by John P. Thompson, and published on 1 Jan. 1794 by Darling & Thompson (Printsellers, &c, to their Royal Highnesses the Duke and Duchess of York), Great Newport St., & Mason Chamberlin [the Younger], 51 Great Russel St. A drawing of ‘King Alfred and the burnt cakes’, signed and dated ‘H. S. 1794’, appeared in a sale at Christie's, 11 February 1987, Lot 132.

425 The BL copy of Bowyer's, Prospectus of the General Design and Conditions for a Complete History of England superbly embellished (London, 1791) was destroyed by enemy action during World War II. Bowyer, puts his case in Elucidation of Mr Bowyer's Plan for a Magnificent Edition of Hume's History of England (London, 1795), pp. 714, with a spirited statement of the desirability of delineating ‘the most striking events of history’, and a remark to the effect that ‘till the present reign historical painting has been almost unknown in the British dominions’. For further discussion, see Boase, , ‘Macklin and Bowyer’, pp. 169–76, and Strong, , The Victorian Painter and British History, p. 21.

426 Exhibition of Pictures painted for Bowyer's Magnificent Edition of the History of England (London, 1793), provides a list of paintings, with pertinent extracts from Hume. The Catalogue of Pictures painted for Mr Bowyer's Magnificent Edition of Hume's History of England (London, ? 1800), registered in the BL catalogue, was destroyed during the war.

427 Hume, D., The History of England, from the Invasion of Julius Cæsar to the Revolution of 1688, 5 vols. (London, 1806), printed by T. Bensley for Robert Bowyer, of which I have seen only the copy in the British Library (classmark 749.f.1), with its plates bound in a separate (sixth) volume.See Jessop, , Bibliography of Hume, p. 31; and David Hume and the Eighteenth Century British Thought: an Annotated Catalogue (Tokyo, 1986), pp. 135–6. The fact that Bowyer's edition was published only by subscription means that copies may have found their way more easily into the private libraries of the well-to-do than into the public domain. A set sold at Sotheby's in July 1993 came from the library of the 1st Marquess of Buckingham, , at Stowe, ‘with Bowyer's autograph receipt in ink pasted to front endpaper of volume I (dated 1799)’;. Another set, from Noseley Hall in Leicestershire, was sold at Sotheby's in September 1998.

428 Gentleman's Mag. 86.1 (1806), 430–1; Burke, , English Art 1714–1800, p. 256. The paintings were sold by Peter Coxe on 29–30 May 1807: see Lugt, F., Répertoire des catalogues de ventes Publiques, 3 vols. (The Hague, 19381964) I [1600–1825], no. 7260, of which there are copies in the Courtauld Institute and in the Victoria and Albert Museum.

429 For the scarcity of surviving paintings from Bowyer's ‘Historic Gallery’, see Boase, , ‘Macklin and Bowyer’, pp. 176–7, though the records kept by the Mellon Centre make it much easier now (than it can have been c. 1960) to identify survivors from the series as a whole.

430 The original painting was sold at Sotheby's, 12 July 1989 (Lot 98); photograph in the Mellon Centre. It was engraved for the Historic Gallery by Delatre, and published in 1795.

431 The painting (untraced) was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1795, engraved for the Historic Gallery by A. Smith, and published in 1794.

432 The original painting was in the possession of Thos. Agnew and Sons in 1973; photograph in the Mellon Centre. It was engraved for the Historic Gallery by J. Stow, and published in 1794.

433 The original painting was sold at Christie's, New York, 4 October 1996 (Lot 57); photograph in the Mellon Centre. It was engraved for the Historic Gallery by W. Bromley, and published in 1795. See also Webster, M., Francis Wheatley (London, 1970), pp. 90–1 and 92 (fig. 129); and Strong, , The Victorian Painter and British History, p. 21.

434 The painting (untraced) was engraved for the Historic Gallery by W. Bromley, and published in 1798.

435 Engraved by A. Skelton, and published in 1797. The portrait differs from the ‘standard’ image which originated in the engraving published in Spelman, , Life of Alfred, ed. Walker, and may in fact have been based on an engraving of the portrait in the Bodleian Library.

436 The painting was sold at Christie's, 3 May 1985 (Lot 83); it was acquired by Sarah Campbell Blaffer Foundation, Houston, Texas, and can be seen on the Foundation's website. It was engraved for the Historic Gallery by I. Taylor, and published in 1794; reproduced in Hammelmann, , Book Illustrators, fig. 32. Cf. Wale's earlier drawing of the same subject (above, p. 306).

437 The painting (untraced) was engraved for the Historic Gallery by W. Bromley, and published in 1806. Cf above, n. 412.

438 The painting (untraced) was engraved for the Historic Gallery by G. Noble, and published in 1806. Cf above, n. 412.

439 The painting (untraced) was engraved for the Historic Gallery by W. Bromley, and published in 1804.

440 The painting, now in the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, was engraved for the Historic Gallery by G. Noble, and published in 1797. See Erffa, von and Staley, , Paintings of Benjamin West, pp. 188–9 (nos. 50–1).

441 Graves, A., The British Institution 1806–1867: a Complete Dictionary of Contributors and their Work from the Foundation of the Institution (London, 1908).

442 BM, P&D, Oo.3–12. See also Binyon, L., Catalogue of Drawings by British Artists and Artists of Foreign Origin working in Great Britain, preserved in the Department of Prints and Drawings in the British Museum IV (London, 1907), p. 321 (no. 16); and Smith, G., ‘Watercolour: Purpose and Practice’, in S. Fenwick and G. Smith, The Business of Watercolour: a Guide to the Archives of the Royal Watercolour Society (Aldershot, 1997), pp. 134, at 12, with fig. 11.

443 Royal Academy 1800 (423). Cf. Pye, H. J., Alfred; an Epic Poem, in Six Books (London, 1801), p. 132: ‘Alfred is said to have first caught the spirit both of poetry and heroism, from hearing his step-mother recite poems on the heroic actions of his ancestors. There is an excellent picture on the subject by Westall.’ Joseph Farington reported in his diary that Westall's ‘Alfred’, and a companion drawing, were bought by West for Mr Udney for 100 guineas each, and that he would have given him double that sum: The Diary of Joseph Farington, ed. Garlick, K. et al. , 16 vols. (New Haven, CT, and London, 19781984), with Index, ed. Newby, E. (New Haven, CT, 1998) IV, 1395–6.

444 At the Royal Academy in 1801 (569), Westall exhibited ‘a print in imitation of a drawing’, with the same tide as the watercolour.

445 British Institution 1806 (29).

446 Diary of Joseph Farington, ed. Garlick, et al. , IV, 1409 and 1410 (said to be about 14 feet by 10), identified in the index as the Swedish painter Elias Martin (1739–1818), but (as David Alexander points out to me) more likely to be the English historical painter William Martin (1752–c. 1831). Martin is known to have presented a picture of Alfred to the Bodleian Library in 1796: A à Wood, , The History and Antiquities of the University of Oxford II, ed. Gutch, J. (Oxford, 1796), 893.

447 BM, P&D, 1849–7–21–1412, a stipple engraving published by Rudolph Ackermann in May 1802. For the publisher, see Ford, J., Ackermann 1783–1983: the Business of Art (London, 1983). The full set, first published by J. R. Smith, in 1793, and listed among ‘Miscellaneous Prints’ in Ackermann, R., A Catalogue of Various Prints, Adapted for Furniture, Ornaments, etc. (London, 1802)) comprised, Metz, ‘Boadicea haranguing the Britons'; Hamilton, ‘Vortigern and Rowena’; Stothard, ‘Alfred disguised as a harper in the Danish camp’; and Hamilton, ‘Edgar and Elfrida’. In iconographic terms, Stothard was following Wale (above, p. 308) and Edwards (above, p. 310). A drawing of ‘King Alfred the Great’, attributed to Stothard, appeared at Bonham's, London, in their sale on 12 December 1991, Lot 219.

448 For this painting, now in a private collection, see Miles, H. A. D. and Brown, D. B., Sir David Wilkie of Scotland (1785–1841) (Raleigh, NC, 1987), pp. 22–3, 26–7 and 123–7 (no. 6), with fig; the reference to the existence of a related drawing in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, seems to be erroneous. For a reproduction in colour, see Yorke, B., ‘The Most Perfect Man in History?’, Hist. Today 49.10 (1999), 814, at 12.

449 The painting was engraved by James Mitchell, and published in 1828 by Boys & Graves (BM, P&D, 1836–11–24–3). It was engraved again by G. A. Periam, for the Wilkie Gallery (1848–50); and a small outline engraving by Normand fils was published in Hamilton, , The English School I, no. 66. Versions of the same composition, based on one or other of the engravings, were made by the American artists J. Hall in 1840 and Thomas Sully in 1854. For the latter, see Biddle, E. and Fielding, M., The Life and Works of Thomas Sully (1783–1872) (Charleston, SC, 1969), p. 335 (no. 2085). Sully's ‘renowned’ painting of Alfred appeared in a sale at Philadelphia in December 1914. I am grateful to Lance Humphries, of Baltimore, MD, for valuable guidance in connection with Sully.

450 British Institution 1807 (77).

451 Royal Academy 1814 (352); British Institution 1815 (60).

452 For eighteenth-century historical panegyrics on Alfred, including Voltaire's, see Stanley, , ‘The Glorification of Alfred’, pp. 413–17.

453 See Woodbridge, K., Landscape and Antiquity: Aspects of English Culture at Stourhead 1718 to 1838 (Oxford, 1970), pp. 5170, at 52–6, with the text of Hoare's letter to his son-in-law, dated 18 November 1762; see also Woodbridge, K., The Stourhead Landscape, Wiltshire, National Trust Guide (London, 1982), pp. 25–7 and 60.

454 For Rysbrack's bust of Alfred, see Webb, , Rysbrack, p. 116, and fig. 46; Eustace, , Rysbrack, pp. 171–3 (no. 79), with illustrations; and Kenworthy-Browne, J., ‘Portrait Busts by Rysbrack’, National Trust Stud. (1980), pp. 6779, at 77–9. See also Stourhead, National Trust Guide (London, 1981, rev. 1997), p. 13.

455 A number of small oval reliefs of King Alfred, in ivory (12 cm by 9 cm), presumed to date from the third quarter of the eighteenth century, are attributed to Vanderhagen after Rysbrack on the strength of the reference to Lord Radnor's commission; e.g. Sotheby's, 6 July 1995, Lot 151.

456 See Webb, , Rysbrack, p. 137; Eustace, , Rysbrack., pp. 182–4; and Matilda, Helen, Countess of Radnor, and Squire, W. B., Catalogue of the Pictures in the Collection of the Earl of Radnor, 2 pts (London, 1909) I, 43–6. One of the roundels on the base carries the inscription (in Latin): ‘Whoever you may be, lover of liberty or letters, regard with reverent eyes the Portrait of this Man, who, when his Country was threatened by the Foe from abroad and struggling under Barbarian and shameful ignorance within, did raise it up by Arms, temper it by Laws, and embel lish it by Learning. If you be a Briton, you may be proud, also, that the military prowess of Romulus, the politick Wisdom of Numa, and the philosophick Nobility of Aurelius, are uniquely comprehended in the name of BRITTANIC ALFRED.’ The inscription subsequently found its way onto the engraved membership card of the University College Club, established by Jacob Bouverie, 2nd Earl of Radnor, in 1792, on which see further below, n. 468.

457 I am grateful to Dr Jane Cunningham (Librarian, Photographic Survey, Courtauld Institute of Art) for bringing this drawing to my attention, and for her assistance in other connections. For Jacob Bouverie, see Countess of Radnor and Squire, Catalogue of the Pictures I, 76–9.

458 Letter from Henry Hoare to his daughter Susanna, 28 April 1770 (Woodbridge, , Landscape and Antiquity, p. 61).

459 Ibid. pp. 61 and 65; McCarthy, , The Origins of the Gothic Revival, p. 31 and pl. 24. In its final (abbre viated) form, the inscription reads as follows: ‘Alfred the Great AD 879 on this summit erected his standard against the Danish invaders. To him we owe the origin of juries, the establishment of a militia, the creation of a naval force. Alfred, the light of a benighted age, was a philosopher and a Christian; the father of his people, the founder of the English monarchy and liberty.’ (Woodbridge, , The Stourhead Landscape, p. 60.) On ‘Alfred's Tower’ as one of the proposed locations of ‘Egbert's Stone’, see Peddie, J., Alfred the Good Soldier: His Life and Campaigns (Bath, 1989), pp. 128–34.

460 Carr, , University College, pp. 172–6, and Darwall-Smith, , University College, p. 18.

461 Smith, W., The Annals of University-College, Proving William of Durham the True Founder; and Anstvering all their Arguments who Ascribe it to King Alfred (Newcastle upon Tyne, 1728). For Smith himself, see the entry on him in the DNB and Carr, , University College, pp. 176–9; see also Stanley, , ‘The Glorification of Alfred’, p. 413, n. 19.

462 TH to JW, 17 July 1728 (BL, Lansdowne 778,95r). See also Remarks and Collections, ed. Doble, et al. , X, 27–9 and 33.

463 Petter, H. M., The Oxford Almanacks (Oxford, 1974), pp. 5960 (and fig.). A preliminary drawing for the composition is in the Ashmolean Museum: Brown, D. B., Ashmolean Museum Oxford. Catalogue of the Collection of Drawings, IV: The Earlier British Drawings / British Artists and Foreigners workingin Britain born before c. 1775 (Oxford, 1982), p. 641.

464 Petter, , The Oxford Almanacks, p. 67 (and fig.). For Wale's later work, see above, pp. 305–9.

465 The portrait was painted presumably in the first half of the eighteenth century, and was given to the college by Dr Samuel Wanley (DD 1752). The college commissioned Robert Edge Pine to make a copy, executed in 1774 and described by a contemporary as ‘a most shocking perfor mance’. It seems not to be clear whether the portrait which now hangs in the library is the orig inal, or Pine's copy. See Poole, , Catalogue of Portraits III, 258–9. I owe my knowledge of the portrait at Worcester College to the kindness of Dr Timothy Clayton; and I am grateful to Dr J. H. Parker (Librarian, Worcester College) and to Dr Jane Cunningham (Courtauld Institute) for their help in the same connection.

466 The Alfredian bas-relief was encased within an elaborate gothic chimneypiece; see VCH Oxon III, 80, and pl. opp. 76 (showing the Hall in 1814). Newdigate was an undergraduate at Univ in the late 1730s, and from 1750 to 1780 politically active as MP for the University. He was the founder of the Newdigate Prize for poetry, first awarded in 1806.

467 For the picture in the Bodleian, see above, p. 263. There is a very similar painting, without the inscription naming Skeffington, in the Master's Dining Room.

468 The bust is by Joseph Wilton (1722–1803), and was evidently modelled on the statue by Rysbrack at Stourhead (above, p. 321). It was removed to the Library in 1938, where it remains (looking down the library towards the enormous statue of Lord Eldon, on whom see below); for a reproduction of it, see Lees, , Alfred the Great, opp. p. 464. In 1791 Jacob Bouverie, who had succeeded his father as 2nd Earl of Radnor in 1776, proposed the foundation of a University College Dining Club, established in 1792, and gave it a strong sense of Alfredian identity; see Mitchell, L., ‘The First Univ. Dining Club?’, University College Record 1970, 351–8, with pl. I. I am most grateful to Christine Ritchie for her assistance in connection with the various items of Alfrediana at University College.

469 John Scott is better known as George III's Lord Chancellor, created Baron Eldon in 1799 and 1st Earl of Eldon in 1821. For the story of his Oxford examination, see Petterson, D., ‘Hebrew Studies’, History of the University of Oxford: the Eighteenth Century, ed. Sutherland, and Mitchell, , pp. 535–50, at 546.

470 The Historical Register of the University of Oxford (Oxford., 1888), p. 137. I owe this reference to the kindness of Dr John Pickles.

471 The ‘Liber Vitae’ (BL Stowe 944) is first recorded in the possession of Walter Clavell (1676–1740), in 1710. It is next recorded in the hands of the Revd George North (1710–72), who remarked on its importance in a letter to the Revd William Cole, 25 Sept. 1748 (BL, Add. 5993,78r), and later passed it on to Dr Michael Lort (1725–90), who gave it to Astle in 1769 or 1770. See Liber Vitae, ed. Keynes, . pp. 73–7.

472 The Will of King Alfred (Oxford, 1788), p. iii. It emerges from an earlier version of the preface that the publication had been superintended by Herbert Croft, of the Oxford Museum, ‘out of Reverence for the Founder of University College, where I [sc. Croft] had the honour to be edu cated’. Astle suppressed this part of the preface, and elsewhere altered ‘Royal Founder’ to ‘Royal Patron’ but the Press seems to have been determined to retain the reference to Alfred as ‘Founder’ of the University. For further details, see Liber Vitae, ed. Keynes, , pp. 76–7.

473 James, W. P., King Alfred Surveying Oxford University at the Present Time: a Prize Poem, Recited in the Theatre, Oxford, June 4th, 1856 (Oxford, 1856). For the Newdigate Prize, see The Historical Register of the University of Oxford (Oxford, 1888), p. 147.

474 (Sir) Edwin Arnold's poem is printed in University College Record 1961, 106–9.

475 For the speeches made on this occasion, by the Master of University College, the Dean of Westminster, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and others, see the report in the Guardian, 19 June 1872, pp. 808–9; see also Parker, , Early History of Oxford, p. 62, and Carr, , University College, pp. 78. The Regius Professor of Modern History is said to have presented the college with a parcel of burnt cakes; see Encyclopœdia of Oxford, ed. Hibbert, , p. 474.

476 Liber Vitae, ed. Keynes, , pp. 17, 43, 47 n. 308, and 81 (with references to the first reburial of Alfred's ‘ashes’ in the New Minster).

477 Liber Vitae, ed. Keynes, , pp. 47–8.

478 For the wider context of Milner's particular interest in Alfred, see Smith, , The Gothic Bequest, pp. 128–31.

479 Carter, J., Specimens of the Ancient Sculpture and Painting, now Remaining in this Kingdom … (London, 17801794) II, 1922, with plate.

480 Milner, J., The History, Civil and Ecclesiastical, and Survey of the Antiquities of Winchester, 2 vols. (Winchester, 17981801), 2nd ed. (1809), opp. I, 374, and II, 239.

481 Howard, H., ‘Enquiries Concerning the Tomb of King Alfred, at Hyde Abbey, Near Winchester’, Archaeologia 13 (1798), 2nd ed. (1807), 309–12, written in the form of a letter from Howard to George Nayler, dated 26 Feb. 1798, and communicated to the Society of Antiquaries on 29 March 1798.

482 Below, p. 351. For an illustration, see Bogan, P., ‘Where is King Alfred Buried?’, Winchester Cathedral Record 55 (1986), 2734, at 28 (pl. 1); see also Tweddle, D., Biddle, M. and Kjølbye-Biddle, B., South-East England, Corpus of AS Stone Sculpture 4 (Oxford, 1995), 341. A plaster cast of the stone was preserved in the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries in the early nine teenth century (Way, A., Catalogue of Antiquities … (London, [1847]), p. 29). For further investi gations into the burial-place of King Alfred, see below, pp. 345–6 and 352.

483 The Winchester stone might be compared in this respect with the stone seen by William of Malmesbury, which commemorated Alfred's presumed foundation of the burh at Shaftesbury in 880; see Keynes, , ‘King Alfred the Great and Shaftesbury Abbey’, p. 38.

484 Keynes, S., ‘George Harbin's Transcript of the Lost Cartulary of Athelney Abbey’, Somerset Archaeol. and Nat. Hist. 136 (1993 for 1992), 149–59, at 151.

485 The inscription on the monument is as follows: ‘King Ælfred the Great, in the year of our Lord 879, having been defeated by the Danes, fled for refuge to the forest of Athelney, where he lay concealed from his enemies for the space of a whole year. He soon after regained pos session of the throne; and in grateful remembrance of the protection he had received, under the favour of Heaven, he erected a monastery on this spot, and endowed it with all the lands contained in the Isle of Athelney. To perpetuate the memory of so remarkable an incident in the life of that illustrious prince, this edifice was founded by John Slade, Esq., of Maunsel, the proprietor of Athelney, and lord of the manor of North Petherton, A.D. 1801.’

486 N&Q 9th ser. 2 (1898), 373; Spinage, , King Alfred: Myths and Mysteries, pp. 27–8. Francis Wise had suggested in 1738 that the White Horse at Uffington marked the site of the English victory at Ashdown in 871; see above, n. 207. For other ‘Alfredian’ sites in Berkshire and else where, see Knott, P., ‘Alfred's Wayte’, Berkshire Old and New 7 (1990), 1423, and Peddie, , Alfred the Good Soldier.

487 Finan, Watkins & Limm (The Square, Mere, Wiltshire), 5 April 1997, Lot 369.

488 Turner, S., A History of the Anglo-Saxons (London, 17991805), 7th ed., 3 vols. (London, 1852), esp. I, 458517, and II, 1142. See also Burrow, J. W., A Liberal Descent: Victorian Historians and the English Past (Cambridge, 1981), pp. 116–19; MacDougall, , Racial Myth in English History, pp. 92–5; Smith, , The Gothic Bequest, p. 135; and Simmons, , Reversing the Conquest, pp. 5360.

489 For such public celebrations during the reign of George III, see Colley, L., ‘The Apotheosis of King George III: Loyalty, Royalty and the British Nation 1760–1820’, Past and Present 102 (1984), 94129. See also M. Chase, ‘From Millennium to Anniversary: the Concept of Jubilee in Late Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century England’, ibid. 129 (1990), 132–47; and Quinault, R., ‘The Cult of the Centenary c. 1784–1914’, Hist. Research 71 (1998), 303–23.

490 On the rise of ‘racial Anglo-Saxonism’, in England and in America, see Horsman, , ‘Origins of Racial Anglo-Saxonism in Great Britain before 1850’; Horsman, , Race and Manifest Destiny; MacDougall, , Racial Myth in English History, esp. pp. 89124; and Frantzen, , Desire for Origins.

491 On the Anglo-Saxons in the nineteenth century, see Anderson, O., ‘The Political Uses of History in Mid Nineteenth-Century England’, Past and Present 36 (1967), 87105, esp. 99105. It would be interesting to know more of the incidence of ‘Alfred’ as a given name, in relation to other ‘Anglo-Saxon’ names and in relation to all personal names, during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. See further Dunkling, L., The Guinness Book of Names, 7th ed. (Enfield, 1995), pp. 47–8.

492 Wu, D., ‘Cottle's Alfred: Another Coleridge-Inspired Epic’, Charles Lamb Bull, ns 73 (01 1991), 1922. For an impression of Coleridge's views on Alfred, see Coleridge, S. T., On the Constitution of the Church and State According to the Idea of Each [1830], ed. Barrell, J. (London, 1972), pp. 9, 41 and 82 n.; see also Smith, , The Gothic Bequest, pp. 153–6.

493 Cottle, J., Alfred: an Epic Poem in Twenty-Four Books (London, 1800), repr. in facsimile, with an intro duction by Reiman, D. H. (New York, 1979); see also Cotttle, J., Alfred: an Heroic Poem, in Twenty-Four Books, 4th ed. (London, 1850), accompanied by Cottle's essay on ‘The Heresiarch Church of Rome’, pp. xix–cxvi. For discussion of the poem, see Miles, , King Alfred in Literature, pp. 99103; Stanley, , ‘The Glorification of Alfred’, pp. 435–7; and Pratt, , ‘King Alfred in Mid-Late 18th Century Poetry’.

494 Gentleman's Mag. 70 (1800), 975–6; but one suspects that the reviewer's tongue was firmly in his cheek.

495 Henry Crabb Robinson on Books and their Writers, ed. Morley, E. J., 3 vols. (London, 1938) II, 663.

496 Pye, H. J., Alfred: an Epic Poem in Six Books (London, 1801), republished in a different format (London, 1808). See also Miles, , King Alfred in Literature, pp. 96–8.

497 Fitchett, J., King Alfred: a Poem, ed. Roscoe, R., 6 vols. (London, 18411842). It would appear from Roscoe's preface (I, viii) that a few copies of the first volume were privately printed, in 1808, only to be recalled afterwards by the author. See also Miles, , King Alfred in Literature, pp. 104–6, and Stanley, , ‘The Glorification of King Alfred’, p. 422.

498 Letter from Sir Walter Scott to Richard Sainthill Jones, 12 March 1813, in The Letters of Sir Walter Scott. III: 1811–1814, ed. Grierson, H. J. C. (London, 1932), pp. 234–5. I owe my knowl edge of this letter to the kindness of Stewart Lyon.

499 The Poetical Works of William Wordsworth IV, ed. de Selincourt, E. and Darbishire, H. (Oxford, 1947), 91–2.

500 Ibid. III, ed. E. de Selincourt and H. Darbishire (Oxford, 1946), 354.

501 Knight, R. P., Alfred; a Romance in Rhyme (London, 1823).

502 Collingwood, G. L. Newnham, Alfred the Great: a Poem (London, 1836).

503 zu Stolberg, F. L., Leben Alfred des Grossen, Königes in England (Münster, 1815), 2nd ed. (Münster, 1836); with a portrait frontispiece derived from Vertue. See also Miles, , King Alfred in Literature, pp. 118–19, and Stanley, , ‘The Glorification of Alfred’, pp. 438–9.

504 See also Stanley, , ‘The Glorification of King Alfred’, p. 423, n. 47; Frank, , Search for the Anglo-Saxon Oral Poet, p. 22, n. 63.

505 Smaczny, J., ‘Alfred: Dvořák's First Operatic Endeavour Surveyed’, Jnl of the R. Musical Assoc. 115 (1990), 80106.

506 Ashbrook, W., Donizetti and his Operas (Cambridge, 1982), esp. pp. 292 (‘There is little that mere music could do to introduce credibility into the unlikely meetings and furious confrontations that are liberally sprinkled through the tedious plot’) and 537.

507 The painting was sold at Sotheby's, 23 November 1988, Lot 481 (with illustration). I owe my knowledge of this item to Miss Jane Munro (Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge).

508 E.g. The Alfred and Westminster Evening Gazette, continued as The Alfred (London, 18101811); The Alfred: West of England Jnl and General Advertiser (Exeter, 18151831); The London Alfred, or The People's Recorder (London, 1819); The Alfred (London, 18311833). For further details, see Langenfelt, , Historic Origin of the Eight Hours Day, pp. 119–22.

509 On Alfred's contribution to labour legislation, see Langenfelt, , Historic Origin of the Eight Hours Day, pp. 122–39, and Hill, , ‘The Norman Yoke’, pp. 96–7 and 117.

510 See Robinson, J. M., Arundel Castle (Chichester, 1995), pp. 28 and 35, with fig. 31.1 am grateful to Dr Mark Goldie for drawing the sculpture to my attention.

511 For the sculpture at Buckingham Palace, see Crook, J. M. and Port, M. H., The History of the King's Works, VI: 1782–1851 (London, 1973), 263302, at 298 and 301; and Busco, M., Sir Richard Westmacott, Sculptor (Cambridge, 1994), p. 58. Some of Flaxman's original designs were sold at Christie's, 24 March 1981, Lots 92–7, including ‘King Alfred publishes his Laws’ (Lot 96, with illustration). The friezes are just visible in Harris, J. et al. , Buckingham Palace, 2nd ed. (London, 1968), pp. 36–7.

512 Knowles, J. S., Alfred the Great; or, The Patriot King. An Historical Play (London, 1831). For a synopsis of the plot, see Miles, , King Alfred in Literature, pp. 80–5.

513 For the mug, see Hallinan, L., British Commemorative: Royalty, Politics, War and Sport (Woodbridge, 1995), p. 57, with pl. 97. Briggs (below, n. 576) alludes to a William IV plate bearing the king's head and the inscription ‘The first radical monarch since Alfred’.

514 [Graham, M.], Little Arthur's History of England, 2 vols. (London, 1835) I, 4655, with a woodcut of the young Alfred at his mother's knee (p. 48); repr. many times, and reissued in a Century Edition in 1936. Mangnall's, RichmalHistorical and Miscellaneous Questions for the Use of Young People (1798) was also influential at the same level throughout the first half of the nineteenth century.

515 Craik, G. L. and Macfarlane, C., The Pictorial History of England, being a History of the People, as well as a History of the Kingdom, 6 vols. (London, 1841) I.i, 138356, covering the period 4491066.

516 Miss Tickletoby's Lectures on English History’, Punch 3 (1842), 2930, repr. in Thackeray, W. M., Miscellaneous Essays, Sketches and Reviews and Contributions to “Punch” (London, 1886), pp. 367416, at 379–81. The lectures continue with some pastiche in the form of poems on Æthelred and Cnut.

517 For ‘Anglo-Saxon’, and specifically Alfredian, subjects in Victorian history painting, see Strong, , The Victorian Painter and British History, pp. 114–18 and 155–7.

518 Allderidge, P., The Late Richard Dadd 1817–1886, Exhibition Catalogue (London, 1974), pp. 16 and 54 (nos. 36 and 40).

519 The Art-Union 2 (1840), 77; see also ibid. 5 (1843), 267–71.

520 Dadd showed first signs of mental illness while travelling abroad in 1842, and killed his father soon after his return to England in 1843; whereupon he was certified insane, and passed the remainder of his life at Bethlem Hospital in London and at Broadmoor Hospital in Berkshire.

521 For the new building, see Crook, and Port, , History of the King's Works VI, 573626, and Boase, T. S. R., ‘The Decoration of the New Palace of Westminster, 1841–1863Jnl of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 17 (1954), 319–58. See also The Houses of Parliament, ed. Port, M. H. (New Haven, CT, 1976), pp. 238, 240 (sculptures of Saxon kings) and 268–81 (painting); and Works of Art in the House of Lords, ed. Bond, M. (London, 1980).

522 ‘[First] Report of the Commissioners on the Fine Arts’, in Parliamentary Papers [hereafter PP] 1842 xxv, at 7.

523 For the cartoons exhibited in 1843, see Clarke, H. G., A Hand-Book Guide to the Cartoons now Exhibiting in Westminster Hall (London, 1843), and The Book of Art: Cartoons, Frescoes, Sculpture and Decorative Art, as Applied to the New Houses of Parliament, ed. Hunt, F. K. (London, 1846), pp. 79112. For a review of the exhibition, see The Art-Union 5 (1843), 207–12; and for a depiction of the scene, see Strong, R., The Spirit of Britain: a Narrative History of the Arts (London, 1999), p. 555.

524 Nos. 83 ([?], ‘Alfred in the camp of the Danes’), 102 (James, and Foggo, George, ‘Alfred the Great generously releases the wife and children of Hastings, the Danish invader’, 103(Claxton, Marshall, ‘Alfred in the camp of the Danes’), 104Bridges, John, ‘Alfred the Great submitting his code of laws for the approval of the witan’), and 105 (Cope, C. W., ‘The first trial by jury’).

525 Reduced drawings of the original cartoons were made by John, James and William Linnell, engraved on stone, and published by Longman in The Prize Cartoons; being the Eleven Designs to which the Premiums mere Awarded by the Royal Commissioners on the Fine Arts in the Year 1843 (London, 1847), dedicated to the commissioners as ‘the first fruits of their exertions to develop a high branch of art hitherto uncultivated in this country’.

526 BM, P&D, 1854–12–11–135. Reproduced from the lithograph in Temple, A. G., England's History as Pictured by Famous Painters (London, 18961897), p. 17; see also Boase, , ‘New Palace of Westminster’, p. 328 and pl. 46c. A lithograph of the cartoon, engraved by H. S. Sadd, was published by Fishel, Adler & Schwartz, 373 Fifth Avenue, New York (BM, P&D, 1912–10–14–276).

527 BM, P&D, 1854–12–11–142. Reproduced from the lithograph in Temple, , England's History as Pictured by Famous Painters, p. 31. For a description of the composition, identifying the figures (including Grimbald, Asser, and others), see The Book of Art, ed. Hunt, , p. 104.

528 Claxton's ‘Alfred in the Camp of the Danes, A.D. 880’ (BM, P&D, 1852–6–12–421) was one of a set of smaller lithographs of the ten additional prize-winning cartoons, made by Frank Howard and published by T. McClean. It is described in this form as ‘Prize Cartoon no. 103’, being its number in the exhibition in 1843 (above, n. 524).

529 ‘Second Report of the Commissioners on the Fine Arts’, in PP 1843 xxix, at 70.

530 For the various items exhibited in 1844, see Clarke, H. G., A Hand-Book Guide to the Cartoons, Frescoes, and Sculpture…now Exhibiting in Westminster Hall (London, 1844), and The Book of Art, ed. Hunt, , pp. 114–47. For a (scathing) review of the exhibition, see The Art-Union 6 (1844), 211–19; see also ibid. p. 293, for its popularity.

531 Nos. 27 (Christie, Alexander, ‘Alfred the Great’), 35–6 (Stanley, Harold John, ‘Alfred compiling his laws, assisted by his friend Asser’), 50 (Selous, Henry C., ‘Alfred submitting his code of laws to the wittena-gemot’), 59 (Claxton, Marshall, ‘The Building of Oxford University’).

532 Martin's, John ‘The Trial of Canute’ was suggested by a passage in Turner, , History of the Anglo-Saxons II, 293. For his painting of Cnut and the waves, see above, n. 323.

533 Nos. 117 (Archer, Frederick S., ‘Alfred the Great with the Book of Common Law’), 120 (Westmacott, James Sherwood, ‘Alfred the Great’) and 173 (Stephens, Edward B., ‘Alfred the Great propounding his Code of Laws’). Of these, Westmacott's was very highly praised (The Art-Union 6 (1844), 215), and Stephens's is illustrated in The Book of Art, ed. Hunt, , p. 140; see also below, nn. 535 and 560.

534 ‘Third Report of the Commissioners on the Fine Arts’, in PP 1844 xxxi, at 9 and 25.

535 For the various items exhibited in 1845, see The Book of Art, ed. Hunt, , pp. 169–89. For a review of the exhibition, see The Art-Union 7 (1845), 103–4 (sculpture) and 253–9 (cartoons). The statuettes of Alfred exhibited in 1845 were by Westmacott, James Sherwood, Stephens, Edward B. (‘Alfred the Great as Legislator’), and John Henning; those by Westmacott and Stephens had been exhibited in 1844. See Gunnis, , Dictionary of British Sculptors, pp. 198, 372 and 422.

536 ‘Fourth Report of the Commissioners on the Fine Arts’, in PP 1845 xxvii, at 9. To judge from further sections of the same report, the commissioners had it in mind to accord Alfred a special place in the central Hall at Westminster.

537 ‘Third Report’, p. 10;‘Fourth Report’, pp. 1617; also announced in the ‘Fifth Report of the Commissioners on the Fine Arts’, and in the ‘Sixth Report of the Commissioners on the Fine Arts’, in PP 1846 xxiv.

538 For a review of the exhibition of paintings in 1847, incorporating a complete list of the 123 exhibited entrants, see The Art-Union 9 (1847), 265–72; and ibid. pp. 334 and 361, for the great success of the exhibition.

539 For another Alfredian picture by Salter, see below, p. 338.

540 For Watts's painting, which still hangs at Westminster, see Archer, T., Pictures from Royal Portraits Illustrative of English and Scottish History (London, 1878); Temple, , England's History as Pictured by Famous Painters, p. 26; Boase, , ‘New Palace of Westminster’, pp. 342–3 and 354; and esp. Strong, , The Victorian Painter and British History, pp. 114–15 (fig. 131). For the prizes, see ‘Seventh Report of the Commissioners on the Fine Arts’, in PP 1847 xxxiii, at 19.

541 ‘Seventh Report of the Commissioners on the Fine Arts’, in PP 1847 xxxiii, at 9–15. See also Boase, , ‘New Palace of Westminster’, pp. 341–2. Cf. Gullick, T. J., A Descriptive Handbook for the National Pictures in the Westminster Palace (London, 1865).

542 Royal Academy 1852 (122), now in the Laing Art Gallery, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. See Ormond, R., Daniel Maclise (1806–1870) (London, 1972), pp. 97–8 (no. 102), and Strong, , The Victorian Painter and British History, p. 117 (fig. 135). The cartoon is at Stamford High School.

543 Sotheby's sale, 6 Nov. 1991, Lot 219.

544 British Institution 1848 (335), 5 ft 8 in by 7 ft 0 in.

545 Art-Union of London, Seven Designs in Outline, Reproduced from Cartoons Submitted in Competition for the Premium of Five Hundred Pounds Offered by the Society for an Historical Picture (London, 1847), and Gleanings from History, Illustrative of the Engravings Issued by the Art-Union of London, in 1847, ed. Steward, J. (London, 1847); cf. the strangely hostile remarks in The Art-Union 8 (1846), 92. The subject of Salter's cartoon was suggested by a passage in Turner, , History of the Anglo-Saxons II, 105–6 (from the so-called ‘Proverbs of Alfred’). For the wider context of this and other Art-Union competitions, see King, L. S., The Industrialisation of Taste: Victorian England and the Art Union of London (Ann Arbor, MI, 1985), pp. 72–7.

546 George, E., The Life and Death of Benjamin Robert Haydon, Historical Painter, 1786–1846, 2nd ed. (Oxford, 1967); Clarke, O., Benjamin Robert Haydon, Historical Painter (Athens, GA, 1952); Brown, D. B. et al. , Benjamin Robert Haydon, 1786–1846: Painter and Writer, Friend of Wordsworth and Keats, Exhibition Catalogue (Grasmere, 1996). The major primary sources are The Diary of Benjamin Robert Haydon, ed. Pope, W. B., 5 vols. (Cambridge, MA, 19601963), and Haydon, F. W., Benjamin Robert Haydon: Correspondence and Table-Talk, 2 vols. (London, 1876).

547 George, , Haydon, pp. 263–78; Diary, ed. Pope, , V, 293308; Haydon, , Correspondence I, 218–24, and II, 57–8 (letter to Wordsworth).

548 Diary, ed. Pope, III, 326–7 (the scheme in 1828, including ‘Blessings of Law (Alfred establishing Trial by Jury)’), and V, 399 and 405–6 (inception of the new series in 1844). See also George, , Haydon, pp. 274–5, 280 and 282–3.

549 Diary, ed. Pope, , V, 516–51 (working on Alfred) and 553 (suicide); Haydon, , Correspondence and Table-Talk I, 465 (advice on AS architecture), 467 (letter to his son, 4 May 1846, enclosing a sketch of ‘Alfred’), and 230–7 (last days). Haydon's study for the head of Alfred, dated 1846, was sold at Sotheby's, 19 Nov. 1981, Lot 44. See also Hayter, A., A Sultry Month: Scenes of London Literary Life in 1846 (London, 1965), pp. 80–1 and 108–10.

550 George, , Haydon, p. 392.

551 British Institution 1842 (153), 6 ft 4 in by 6 ft 10 in.

552 The picture was exhibited at the New Society of Watercolours and engraved in the Illustrated London News, 30 May 1846, p. 349.

553 British Institution 1841 (158), 4 ft 6 in by 5 ft 5 in.

554 Royal Academy 1842 (491); British Institution 1844 (60), 4 ft 6 in by 5 ft 4 in.

555 Royal Academy 1850 (451).

556 British Institution 1836 (37), 5 ft by 4 ft 2 in.

557 Towndrow, K. R., The Works of Alfred Stevens in the Tate Gallery (London, 1950), p. 67 (no. 72); Strong, , The Victorian Painter and British History, p. 117 (fig. 134).

558 Royal Academy 1850 (1299).

559 The picture was engraved in the Illustrated London News, 30 June 1855, Supplement, p. 657, accompanied by a poem, by E. L. Hervey, in which Alfred exhorts the children to good deeds.

560 ‘Alfred the Great in the neatherd's cottage’ was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1863 (1060), and took its place in the Mansion House, London; see James, T. Beaumont, English Heritage Book of Winchester (London, 1997), p. 43 (fig. 20). Other statuettes of Alfred were exhibited at the Academy in 1859 (by H. Armstead) and 1863 (by D. D. Ducker).

561 E.g. Punch 5 (1843), 22, etc.; ibid. 13 (1847), 8–9 (Thackeray, W. M., Travels in London…and other Contributions to Punch, Harry Furniss Centenary Edition (London, 1911), pp. 280–5), with allusion to the prize-winning paintings by Pickersgill (burial of King Harold) and Watts (Alfred and the Danes), and with reference to a projected painting of Alfred and the cakes. For comment on the predictability of subjects exhibited at the Royal Academy, see Punch 34 (1858), 209. For the treatment of the art exhibitions in Punch, see also Altick, R. D., Punch: The Lively Youth of a British Institution 1841–1851 (Columbus, OH, 1997), pp. 668–89, esp. 674–6.

562 E.g. Punch 14 (1848), 201 (parody of Cnut and the waves); ibid. 15 (1848), 121 (parody of Alfred in the Danish camp); ibid. 43 (1862), 230–1 (‘Ballad of King Alfred and the Grecian Cakes’) and 239 (‘Alfred the Little and Alfred the Great’).

563 Thackeray, W. M., The Newcomes: Memoirs of a Most Respectable Family, ed. Pendennis, A., Harry Furniss Centenary Edition (London, 1911), pp. 181–90; ed. Sanders, A., World's Classics (Oxford, 1995), p. 221.

564 ‘Our Street’ [1848], in The Works of William Makepeace Thackeray, XII: The Christmas Books of Mr. M. A. Titmarsh (London, 1872), at pp. 53–4; Thackeray, W. M., Christmas Books, Harry Furniss Centenary Edition (London, 1911), pp. 75139, at 92.

565 See Sperber, J., The European Revolutions, 1848–1851 (Cambridge, 1994).

566 Pauli, R., König Aelfred und seine Stelle in der Geschichte Englands (Berlin, 1851); Pauli, R., The Life of King Alfred, ed. Wright, T. (London, 1852). See also [D.], Alfred and his Place in the History of England’, Gentleman's Mag. ns 37 (1852), 115–20.

567 Wright, T., Biographia Britannica Literaria: or Biography of Literary Characters of Great Britain and Ireland, 2 vols. (London, 18421846) 1, 405–13. Cf. Pauli, , Life of Alfred, pp. 618, and Asser's ‘Life of King Alfred’, ed. Stevenson, , pp. xcvi–cx.

568 Steinitz, F., The Moderate Monarchy, or Principles of the British Constitution, Described in a Narrative of the Life and Maxims of Alfred the Great and his Counsellors (London, 1849). The double-page frontispiece juxtaposes a sub-Vertuesque portrait of Alfred, sporting sceptre, orb, and Alfred Jewel, with a portrait of Queen Victoria enthroned.

569 Kemble, J. M., The Saxons in England, 2 vols. (London, 1849) I, v.

570 See Hudson, D., Martin Tupper: his Rise and Fall (London, 1949), pp. 90–7; see also Philip, K., Victorian Wantage (Wantage, 1968), pp. 112–14.

571 Research and Reference Center, Library of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, x828/T8391, Album 14. I am grateful to Mrs Shirley Corke for drawing my attention in 1985 to the papers of Derek Hudson in the Guildford Muniment Room, Guildford, accumulated while writing his book on Martin Tupper, and for sending me a copy of the poster mentioned below; to Dr Nigel Ramsay for urging me to read Hudson's book; to the staff of the Guildford Muniment Room for steering me towards the Tupper archive in its present location; and to Derek Hudson himself (letter, 25 April 1998) for some further information.

572 I am grateful to Dr Boyd Hilton for alerting me to the wider historical contexts which would make the subject more interesting, and which at the same time put it beyond my own reach.

573 The wording of the poster will suffice to give a flavour of the event: ‘To all good men & true, of Wantage and its neighbourhood. A great and unprecedented honour is thrust upon you: on Thursday, the 25th [October], will be commemorated, in his native town, KING ALFRED'S 1000th BIRTHDAY. From all parts of England your countrymen, together with some foreigners and American kinsmen, are expected to Flock to this Patriotic Celebration: and you need not be reminded how kindly, nor how warmly you will welcome the Guests who seek out WANTAGE on so happy an occasion. KING ALFRED is known to all the world as, perhaps, the Greatest Man, – Certainly the Best King, – that ever lived; and in his Institutions, Character, and Fame [he] is still and ever immortal amongst us.…It is recommended to the Inhabitants of WANTAGE, that, in honour of their ILLUSTRIOUS TOWNSMAN, they decorate their streets and houses with flags, oak boughs, and such other tokens of patriotic feeling as they can muster; also, that they wear their holiday apparel, and the ALFRED MEDAL; – quantities of which, at a very cheap cost, will be in the town on Wednesday.…Men of Berkshire, of all grades! you will not be wanting to yourselves on so glorious an occa sion.’ The poster is reproduced in Hudson, Tupper, front endpaper. In addition to reports published in newspapers, there is a revealing account of the proceedings in the Wantage Parish Diaries (Reading, Berkshire Record Office, D/P148/28), ed. A. J. Verdin, Berkshire Record Soc. (forthcoming); I am grateful to Lisa Spurrier (Archivist, Berks. R.O.) for her assistance in this connection.

574 Brown, L., A Catalogue of British Historical Medals 1837–1901 (London, 1987), p. 141 (nos. 2344–5).

575 Giles, J. A., ed., The Whole Works of King Alfred the Great, 2 vols. (Oxford and Cambridge, 1852). Those privileged to dine on 25 October 1849 at the Alfred's Head, in Wantage, under the chairmanship of Charles Eyston, Esq. (‘a true English gentleman and both in heart and name a thorough Anglo-Saxon’), resolved on that occasion to bring forth the Jubilee Edition of Alfred's works, ‘to be edited by the most competent Anglo-Saxon scholars who might be willing to combine for such a purpose’ (Preface, pp. ix–x).

576 The electronic or printed catalogues of the British Library give a good impression of the amount and variety of material on Alfred generated in the second half of the nineteenth century. The material in Hawkshaw, A., Sonnets on Anglo-Saxon History (London, 1854), pp. 96105 and 117, gives expression to the usual sentiments. And for the lack of attention paid to the anniversary of the battle of Hastings, in 1866, which may have reflected a certain respect for the Anglo-Saxon past, see Briggs, A., ‘Saxons, Normans and Victorians’ [1966], repr. in The Collected Essays of Asa Briggs, 3 vols. (Brighton, 1985) II, 215–35.

577 Doyle, J. E., A Chronicle of England B.C. 55 - A.D. 1485 (London, 1864), pp. 46 (death of King Edmund), 50 (Alfred in the neatherd's cottage), 52 (baptism of Guthrum) and 57 (Alfred plans the capture of the Danish fleet). For the book's place in a wider context, see McLean, R., Victorian Book Design and Colour Printing (London, 1963), 2nd ed. (London, 1972), p. 184.

578 Freeman, E. A., The History of the Norman Conquest of England, 6 vols. (Oxford, 18671879) I (2nd ed., 1870), 4852. See also Skinner, , ‘History and Ideology’, p. 177, and Burrow, , A Liberal Descent, pp. 155228.

579 Hughes, T., Alfred the Great (London, 1871), p. 5.

580 Ibid. pp. 3–6. The book was published in parts in 1869–71, and first issued in one volume in 1871. I am most grateful to Dr Boyd Hilton for elucidating the political context in 1869, when the preface would appear to have been written. The book's popularity is suggested by the fact that it had been reprinted nine times by 1904. It contains illustrations depicting a heroic Alfred at the battle of Ashdown, and a disgrunded ealdorman 'sedulously bent on acquiring learning’.

581 Cf. Punch 18 (1850), 159 (‘King Alfred going, going - gone!’). For the building of the bridewell in the 1780s, see above, pp. 325–6.

582 Letter from ‘An Antiquarian’ to the Builder, 12 Nov. 1870, printed in Mellor, J., The Curious Particulars Relating to King Alfred's Death and Burial, Never Before Made Public (Canterbury, 1871), pp. 21–2; letter from J. Mellor to the Standard, 9 Feb. 1871, not published but printed ibid. pp. 12–16. See also Draper, W. H., Alfred the Great: a Sketch and Seven Studies, 2nd ed. (1901), pp. 101–12; Bowker, A., The King Alfred Millenary: a Record of the Proceedings of the National Commemoration (London, 1902), pp. 62–8; and Liber Vitae, ed. Keynes, , pp. 47–8.

583 See extracts in Bogan, ‘Where is King Alfred buried?’ (above, n. 482), pp. 28–31.

584 Letter to the Morning Advertiser, 23 Nov. 1870, in Mellor, , Curious Particulars, p. 20; see also his letter to the Standard, 9 Feb. 1871, ibid. p. 13 (where the excavations are said to have taken place not in 1867 but in the autumn of 1870). A few years later, in August 1877, members of the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society convened for their twenty-ninth Annual Meeting at Bridgwater, and were taken to Athelney by the President, Bishop Clifford; but to judge from the account in Proc. of the Somersetshire Archaeol. and Nat. Hist. Soc. 23 (1877), 1521 and 50–1, there was little left to show for the abbey, apart from some tiles.

585 ‘Alfred found learning dead, and he restored it. Education neglected, and he revived it. The laws powerless, and he gave them force. The Church debased, and he raised it. The land ravaged by a fearful enemy, from which he delivered it. Alfred's name will live as long as mankind shall respect the past.’ Cf. Matt. V. 3–11 and XXV. 35–6.

586 For an illustration of the scene, see Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News, 21 July 1877, p. 425; and for the statue itself, see White Horse Hill and its Surroundings, Issued in Commemoration of the Unveiling of the Statue of Alfred the Great, at Wantage, by H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, July 14th, 1877 (Wantage, [1877]), pp. 7783. See also Philip, , Victorian Wantage, pp. 114–16. A marble statuette of King Alfred, by Count Gleichen, based on the Wantage statue and dated 1878, is in the Royal Collection of Sculpture at Frogmore.

587 For Loyd-Lindsay's military and political career, see Wantage, Harriet Lady, Lord Wantage, V.C., K.C.B.: a Memoir(London, 1907), with frontispiece, and the DNB.

588 Bishop Clifford was the President of the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society (above, n. 584), and had been vigorous in the defence of Asser, and Alfred, against the attacks launched by Henry Howorth in the Athenaeum in 1876–7 (below, n. 590). I am grateful to Thomás Kalmar for alerting me to the wider significance of Clifford's role in this context, and for much stimulating discussion of this and related matters.

589 For the proceedings at Wedmore in 1878, see An Account of the Celebration of the Thousandth Anniversary of the ‘Peace of Wedmore’, Signed by Alfred and Guthrum (Wells, 1878), repr. from the Wells Jnl, 15 Aug. 1878. I am indebted to Tom Mayberry (Somerset Record Office) for providing me with a copy of this item.

590 The authenticity of Asser's ‘Life of Alfred’ was challenged by Thomas Wright in 1841, by Henry (later Sir Henry) Howorth in 1876–7, and by an anonymous author in The Times, in 1898. For further details, see Asser's Life of Alfred, ed. Stevenson, , pp. xcvi–cx (Wright), cx–cxxiv (Howorth, though without reference to Clifford's defence) and cxxiv–cxxv (The Times).

591 Stubbs, W., The Constitutional History of England in its Origin and Development, 3 vols. (Oxford, 18731878), 4th ed. (Oxford, 1883). See also Burrow, , A Liberal Descent, pp. 126–51, and Campbell, J., ‘William Stubbs (1825–1901)’, Medieval Scholarship: Biographical Studies on the Formation of a Discipline, I: History, ed. Damico, H. and Zavadil, J. B. (New York, 1995), 7787.

592 Palmer, R. [1st Earl of Selborne (1812–95)], Ancient Facts and Fictions Concerning Churches and Tithes (London, 1888).

593 Pollock, F. and Maidand, F. W., The History of English Law before the Time of Edward I, 2 vols. [1895], 2nd ed. (Cambridge, 1898), reissued with an introduction by S. F. C. Milsom (Cambridge, 1968).

594 Stubbs, , Constitutional Histoty I, 106–12 and 122–5 (shires, etc.), 269–70 (Norman genius), and 655–8 (trial by jury); Pollock, and Maitland, , History of English Law I, 140–3 (trial by jury) and 532–71 (shires, etc.). See also Wormald, P., ‘Jury’, Encyclopaedia of ASE, ed. Lapidge, et al. , p. 267.

595 Austin, A., England's Darling (London, 1896); Austin, A., Alfred the Great, England's Darling, 5th ed. (London, 1901). See also Miles, , King Alfred in Literature, pp. 92–5.

596 A circular bound at the end of Alfred the Great, ed. Bowker, A. (London, 1899), announced the ‘National Commemoration’ to be held in 1901, and invited contributions in respect of the statue by Hamo Thornycroft. Among the many other publications spawned by the millennium (registered in the electronic or printed catalogues of the British Library), Wall, J. C., Alfred the Great his Abbeys of Hyde, Athelney and Shaftesbury (London, 1900) appears to have been conceived as an antidote to the air of militaristic triumphalism symbolized by the (then projected) statue at Winchester. Sir (William) Hamo Thornycroft (1850–1925) had previously crafted the statues of General Gordon in Trafalgar Square (1888) and of Oliver Cromwell in Old Palace Yard, Westminster (1899).

597 Alfred the Great Millenary Exhibition, 1901 (London, 1901), being the catalogue of an exhibition held at the British Museum; unfortunately, the BM (i.e. BL) copy was destroyed by enemy action in 1942.

598 The publisher Elliot Stock, who published Wall's book, was also responsible for commissioning the production of fine commemorative replicas of the Alfred Jewel. See Keynes, , ‘The Discovery and First Publication of the Alfred Jewel’, p. 8, n. 21.

599 Brown, L., A Catalogue of British Historical Medals 1760–1960, III: The Accession of Edward VII to 1960 (London, 1995), p. 11 (no. 3726).

600 Bowker, A., The King Alfred Millenary: a Record of the Proceedings of the National Commemoration (London, 1902). The book's cover is decorated with a coat of arms for Alfred which differs from the norm (cf. above, n. 114). See also Simmons, , Reversing the Conquest, pp. 185–91, and Yorke, B., The King Alfred Millenerary in Winchester, 1901, Hampshire Papers 17 (Winchester, 1999).

601 Plummer, C., The Life and Times of Alfred the Great, Ford Lectures 1901 (Oxford, 1902), with the text of Plummer's sermon at pp. 207–13. Cf. the remarks of Stenton, F. M., in PBA 15 (1929), 469.

602 Plummer, , Life and Times of Alfred the Great, p. 193.

603 See, e.g., Holdsworth, W. S., A History of English Law I–II (London, 1903), on the differences between the pre- and post-Conquest polities; see also Oman, C., England before the Conquest (London, 1910), on Alfred's laws.

604 For Callcott, see above, pp. 333–4. For Dickens on Alfred, see Dickens, C., Master Humphrey's Clock and A Child's History of England, New Oxford Illustrated Dickens 12 (London, 1958), 144–9. I owe my knowledge of the next two items to Dr Shaun Tyas, and of the Ladybird King Alfred the Great to my mother, who gave me a copy on my birthday in 1983.

605 I am grateful to Mr Peter Hopton for drawing my attention to this inscription, and providing me with a photograph.

606 For a reproduction in colour, see Yorke, , ‘The Most Perfect Man in History?’, p. 14; see also Houses of Parliament, ed. Port, , pp. 154 (showing the mural in situ) and 280.

607 The cartoon was subsequently provided with a better caption (Punch, 19 July 1978, p. 114). Further study might reveal, however, that Cnut and the waves had greater political potential than Alfred and the cakes.

608 Cf. above, n. 482. The stone was purchased by the City of Winchester from the estate of Philip Howard, of Corby Castle; report in the Hampshire Observer, 4 Aug. 1934. I am most grateful to Dr G. T. Denford (Museums Curator, Winchester Museums Service), for his assistance in this connection.

609 The film was directed by Clive Donner, and has a musical score by Raymond Leppard. For further details, see Elley, D., The Epic Film: Myth and History (London, 1984), pp. 154–5.

610 Excavations co-ordinated by Winchester Museums, and directed by Kenneth Qualmann and Graham Scobie, have revealed the eastern end of the abbey, exposing the probable site of the High Altar, and thus the ground where lay the mortal remains of King Alfred the Great, and others, from c. 1110 to c. 1540. Further information is available from the Historic Resources Centre, 75 Hyde Street, Winchester SO23 7DW.

611 The primary material is assembled in Keynes and Lapidge, Alfred the Great. See also Smyth, A., Alfred the Great (Oxford, 1995); Keynes, S., ‘On the Authenticity of Asser's Life of King Alfred’, JEH 47 (1996), 529–51; and Abels, R., Alfred the Great War, Kingship and Culture in Anglo-Saxon England (London, 1998).

612 Keynes, , ‘England, 700–900’, pp. 3942; Keynes, S., ‘England, 900–1016’, The New Cambridge Medieval History, III: c. 900–1024, ed. Reuter, T. (Cambridge, 1999), 456–84.

613 The vision can be understood in different ways: see, e.g., Wormald, P., ‘Engla Lond: the Making of an Allegiance’, Jnl of Hist. Sociology 7 (1994), 124; Campbell, J., ‘The United Kingdom of England: the Anglo-Saxon Achievement’, Uniting the Kingdom? The Making of British History, ed. Grant, A. and Stringer, K. J. (London, 1995), pp. 3147; Foot, S., ‘The Making of Angelcynn: English Identity before the Norman Conquest’, TRHS 6th ser. 6 (1996), 2549; and Keynes, , ‘King Alfred and the Mercians’, esp. pp. 34–9, and entry on the ‘kingdom of the Anglo-Saxons’ in Encyclopaedia of ASE, ed. Lapidge, et al. , pp. 37–8.