Skip to main content Accessibility help

Effects of resveratrol and genistein on growth, nutrient utilization and fatty acid composition of rainbow trout

  • C. Torno (a1) (a2), S. Staats (a3), S. de Pascual-Teresa (a4), G. Rimbach (a3) and C. Schulz (a1) (a2)...


The replacement of the finite and costly resource fish oil is an important task for aquaculture nutrition. A promising approach could be the use of plant bioactives that may have the potential to influence the metabolism and the synthesis of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially EPA (20:5n-3) and DHA (22:6n-3). In this study, the two phytochemicals resveratrol (RV) and genistein (G) were investigated for their effects on fish growth, nutrient utilization and body nutrient composition alongside their effects on whole body fatty acid (FA) composition. In a feeding trial lasting 8 weeks, rainbow trout (initial BW: 81.4±0.5 g) were held in a recirculating aquaculture system and fed six experimental diets with varying fish oil levels as plain variants or supplemented with 0.3% of dry matter (DM) of either RV or G. The six diets were as follows: diet F4 had 4% DM fish oil, diet F0 had 0% DM fish oil, diets F4+RV, F4+G, F0+RV and F0+G were equal to the diets F4 and F0, respectively, and supplemented with the phytochemicals RV and G. The feeding of the F0+RV diet resulted in reduced feed intake, growth rate and slightly reduced whole body lipid levels. At the same time, the amount of polyunsaturated FA and the n-3/n-6 ratio were significantly increased in whole body homogenates of rainbow trout fed diet F0+RV in comparison to the F0 control. The feeding of the F0+G diet led to reduced feed intake, slightly increased protein utilization but did not significantly affect the whole body FA composition. Overall, feeding the fish oil-free diet supplemented with the phytochemicals resulted in more pronounced effects on fish performance and FA composition than the single factors per se (dietary fish oil level or phytochemical). Present data indicate that G might not be of profitable use for trout nutrition. In terms of FA composition, RV could be a potentially useful complement for fish oil. However, the impairment of growth and performance parameters as observed in the present study discourages its use in trout diets.


Corresponding author


Hide All
Ajmo, JM, Liang, X, Rogers, CQ, Pennock, B and You, M 2008. Resveratrol alleviates alcoholic fatty liver in mice. American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 295, G833G842.10.1152/ajpgi.90358.2008
Austreng, E, Storebakken, T and Åsgård, T 1987. Growth rate estimates for cultured Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout. Aquaculture 60, 157160.10.1016/0044-8486(87)90307-3
Caro, M, Sansone, A, Amézaga, J, Navarro, V, Ferreri, C and Tueros, I 2017. Wine lees modulate lipid metabolism and induce fatty acid remodelling in Zebrafish. Food & Function 8, 16521659.10.1039/C6FO01754A
Cleveland, BM and Manor, ML 2015. Effects of phytoestrogens on growth-related and lipogenic genes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part C: Toxicology and Pharmacology 170, 2837.
Drew, MD, Ogunkoya, AE, Janz, DM and Van Kessel, AG 2007. Dietary influence of replacing fish meal and oil with canola protein concentrate and vegetable oils on growth performance, fatty acid composition and organochlorine residues in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 267, 260268.10.1016/j.aquaculture.2007.01.002
European Union 2009. Commission regulation (EC) No 152/2009 laying down the methods of sampling and analysis for the official control of feed. 1–130.
Folch, J, Lees, M and Sloane Stanley, GH 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. Journal of Biological Chemistry 226, 497509.
Francis, G, Makkar, HPS and Becker, K 2001. Antinutritional factors present in plant-derived alternate fish feed ingredients and their effects in fish. Aquaculture 199, 197227.10.1016/S0044-8486(01)00526-9
Gontier-Latonnelle, K, Cravedi, JP, Laurentie, M, Perdu, E, Lamothe, V, Le Menn, F and Bennetau-Pelissero, C 2007. Disposition of genistein in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri). General and Comparative Endocrinology 150, 298308.10.1016/j.ygcen.2006.10.001
Gregory, MK, Collins, RO, Tocher, DR, James, MJ and Turchini, GM 2016. Nutritional regulation of long-chain PUFA biosynthetic genes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). British Journal of Nutrition 115, 17211729.10.1017/S0007114516000830
Hasler, M and Hothorn, LA 2008. Multiple contrast tests in the presence of heteroscedasticity. Biometrical Journal 50, 793800.10.1002/bimj.200710466
Kim, H-K, Nelson-Dooley, C, Della-Fera, MA, Yang, J-Y, Zhang, W, Duan, J, Hartzell, DL, Hamrick, MW and Baile, Ca 2006. Genistein decreases food intake, body weight, and fat pad weight and causes adipose tissue apoptosis in ovariectomized female mice. The Journal of Nutrition 136, 409414.10.1093/jn/136.2.409
Lazzarotto, V, Corraze, G, Leprevost, A, Quillet, E, Dupont-Nivet, M and Médale, F 2015. Three-year breeding cycle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a plant-based diet, totally free of marine resources: consequences for reproduction, fatty acid composition and progeny survival. PLoS One 10, e0117609.10.1371/journal.pone.0117609
McDougall, GJ, Kulkarni, NN and Stewart, D 2008. Current developments on the inhibitory effects of berry polyphenols on digestive enzymes. BioFactors 34, 7380.10.1002/biof.5520340108
Molendi-Coste, O, Legry, V and Leclercq, IA 2011. Why and how meet n-3 PUFA dietary recommendations? Gastroenterology Research and Practice 2011, 111.10.1155/2011/364040
Momchilova, A, Petkova, D, Staneva, G, Markovska, T, Pankov, R, Skrobanska, R, Nikolova-Karakashian, M and Koumanov, K 2014. Resveratrol alters the lipid composition, metabolism and peroxide level in senescent rat hepatocytes. Chemico-Biological Interactions 207, 7480.10.1016/j.cbi.2013.10.016
Mukherjee, S, Dudley, JI and Das, DK 2010. Dose-dependency of resveratrol in providing health benefits. Dose-Response 8, 478500.10.2203/dose-response.09-015.Mukherjee
Nakata, R, Takahashi, S and Inoue, H 2012. Recent advances in the study on resveratrol. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 35, 273279.10.1248/bpb.35.273
National Research Council (NRC) 2011. Nutrient requirements of fish and shrimp, 2nd edition. The National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Ozdal, T, Capanoglu, E and Altay, F 2013. A review on protein-phenolic interactions and associated changes. Food Research International 51, 954970.10.1016/j.foodres.2013.02.009
Pastore, MR, Negrato, E, Poltronieri, C, Barion, G, Messina, M, Tulli, F, Ballarin, C, Maccatrozzo, L, Radaelli, G and Bertotto, D 2018. Effects of dietary soy isoflavones on estrogenic activity, cortisol level, health and growth in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss . Aquaculture Research 49, 111.10.1111/are.13602
Ran, G, Ying, L, Li, L, Yan, Q, Yi, W, Ying, C, Wu, H and Ye, X 2017. Resveratrol ameliorates diet-induced dysregulation of lipid metabolism in zebrafish (Danio rerio). PLoS One 12, 115.10.1371/journal.pone.0180865
Rodehutscord, M, Becker, a, Pack, M and Pfeffer, E 1997. Response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to supplements of individual essential amino acids in a semipurified diet, including an estimate of the maintenance requirement for essential amino acids. The Journal of Nutrition 127, 11661175.10.1093/jn/127.6.1166
de Roos, B, Sneddon, AA, Sprague, M, Horgan, GW and Brouwer, IA 2017. The potential impact of compositional changes in farmed fish on its health-giving properties: is it time to reconsider current dietary recommendations? Public Health Nutrition 20, 20422049.10.1017/S1368980017000696
Rupasinghe, HP, Sekhon-Loodu, S, Mantso, T and Panayiotidis, MI 2016. Phytochemicals in regulating fatty acid β-oxidation: Potential underlying mechanisms and their involvement in obesity and weight loss. Pharmacology and Therapeutics 165, 153163.10.1016/j.pharmthera.2016.06.005
Schaarschmidt, F and Vaas, L 2009. Analysis of trials with complex treatment structure using multiple contrast tests. HortScience 44, 188195.10.21273/HORTSCI.44.1.188
Schiller Vestergren, AL, Trattner, S, Mráz, J, Ruyter, B and Pickova, J 2011. Fatty acids and gene expression responses to bioactive compounds in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) hepatocytes. Neuroendocrinology Letters 32 (suppl. 2), 4150.
Shepherd, CJ and Jackson, AJ 2013. Global fishmeal and fish-oil supply: inputs, outputs and markets. Journal of fish Biology 83, 10461066.
Steffens, W 1981. Protein utilization by rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and carp (Cyprinus carpio): a brief review. Aquaculture 23, 337345.10.1016/0044-8486(81)90026-0
Stojadinovic, M, Radosavljevic, J, Ognjenovic, J, Vesic, J, Prodic, I, Stanic-Vucinic, D and Cirkovic Velickovic, T 2013. Binding affinity between dietary polyphenols and β-lactoglobulin negatively correlates with the protein susceptibility to digestion and total antioxidant activity of complexes formed. Food Chemistry 136, 12631271.10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.09.040
Tocher, DR 2015. Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and aquaculture in perspective. Aquaculture 449, 94107.10.1016/j.aquaculture.2015.01.010
Torno, C, Staats, S, de Pascual-Teresa, S, Rimbach, G and Schulz, C 2017. Fatty acid profile is modulated by dietary resveratrol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Marine Drugs 15, 252.10.3390/md15080252
Torno, C, Staats, S, Rimbach, G and Schulz, C 2018. Effects of resveratrol and genistein on nutrient digestibility and intestinal histopathology of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 491, 114120.10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.03.020
Walle, T, Hsieh, F, Delegge, MH, Oatis, JE and Walle, UK 2004. High absortion but very low bioavaibility of oral resveratrol in humans. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 32, 13771382.10.1124/dmd.104.000885
Zang, M, Xu, S, Maitland-Toolan, KA, Zuccollo, A, Hou, X, Jiang, B, Wierzbicki, M, Verbeuren, TJ and Cohen, RA 2006. Polyphenols stimulate AMP-activated protein kinase, lower lipids, and inhibit accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetic LDL receptor-deficient mice. Diabetes 55, 21802191.10.2337/db05-1188
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 1751-7311
  • EISSN: 1751-732X
  • URL: /core/journals/animal
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed