Skip to main content
×
Home

Managing livestock using animal behavior: mixed-species stocking and flerds*

  • D. M. Anderson (a1), E. L. Fredrickson (a2) and R. E. Estell (a1)
Abstract

Mixed-species stocking can foster sound landscape management while offering economic and ecological advantages compared with mono-species stocking. Producers contemplating a mixed-species enterprise should reflect on several considerations before implementing this animal management strategy. Factors applicable to a particular producer's landscape must be considered together with goals and economic constraints before implementing mixed-species stocking. A major consideration when using mixed-species stocking is how to deal with predation losses, especially among small ruminants. An approach being adopted in some commercial operations capitalizes on using innate animal behaviors to form cohesive groups of two or more livestock species that consistently remain together under free-ranging conditions. These groups are referred to as flerds. The mixing of a flock of sheep and/or goats with a herd of cattle into a flerd has been shown to protect sheep and goats from coyote predation, as well as offering other husbandry advantages. Some of the added advantages include more efficient conversion of forage into animal protein. Creation of flerds, their maintenance and advantages are discussed.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Managing livestock using animal behavior: mixed-species stocking and flerds*
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Managing livestock using animal behavior: mixed-species stocking and flerds*
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Managing livestock using animal behavior: mixed-species stocking and flerds*
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
E-mail: deanders@nmsu.edu
Footnotes
Hide All
*

Mention of a trade name does not constitute a guarantee, endorsement, or warranty of the product by the USDA-ARS or New Mexico State University over other products not mentioned.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Abaye AO, Allen VG, Fontenot JP 1994. Influence of grazing cattle and sheep together and separately on animal performance and forage quality. Journal of Animal Science 72, 10131022.
Abaye AO, Allen VG, Fontenot JP 1997. Grazing sheep and cattle together or separately: effect on soils and plants. Agronomy Journal 89, 380386.
Adams N 1975. Sheep and cattle grazing in forests: a review. Journal of Applied Ecology 12, 143152.
Aich A Waterhouse A 1999. Small ruminants in environmental conservation. Small Ruminant Research 34, 271287.
Alcaide EM, García MA, Aguilera JF 1997. The voluntary intake and rumen digestion by grazing goats and sheep of a low-quality pasture from a semi-arid land. Livestock Production Science 52, 3947.
Allen VG (Chair) 1991. Terminology for grazing lands and grazing animals. The forage and grazing terminology committee. Pocahontas Press, Blacksburg, VA, USA.
Allen VG, Batello C, Berretta EJ, Hodgson J, Kothmann M, Li X, Mclvor J, Milne J, Morros C Peeters A, Sanderson M 2011. An international terminology for grazing lands and grazing animals. Grass and Forage Science 66, 228.
Anderson DM 1998. Pro-active livestock management – capitalizing on animal behavior. Journal of Arid Land Studies 7S, 113116.
Anderson DM 2007. Virtual fencing – past, present and future. The Rangeland Journal 29, 6578.
Anderson DM 2010. Geospatial methods and data analysis for assessing distribution of grazing livestock. In Proceedings of the 4th Grazing Livestock Nutrition Conference (ed. BW Hess, T DelCurto, JGP Bowman and RC Waterman), pp. 5792. Western Section American Society of Animal Science, Champaign, IL, USA.
Anderson A, McCuistion KC 2008. Evaluating strategies for ranching in the 21st century: successfully managing rangeland for wildlife and livestock. Rangelands 30, 813.
Anderson DM, Weeks DL 1989. Cattle liveweight sampled on a continuous versus intermittent basis. Livestock Production Science 23, 117135.
Anderson DM, Smith JN, Hulet CV 1985. Livestock behavior – the neglected link in understanding the plant–animal interface. In Proceedings of a Conference on Multispecies Grazing (ed. FH Baker and RK Jones), pp. 116148. Winrock International Institute, Morrilton, AK, USA.
Anderson DM, Hulet CV, Smith JN, Shupe WL, Murray LW 1987a. Bonding of young sheep to heifers. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 19, 3140.
Anderson DM, Hulet CV, Smith JN, Shupe WL, Murray LW 1987b. Heifer disposition and bonding of lambs to heifers. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 19, 2730.
Anderson DM, Hulet CV, Shupe WL, Smith JN, Murray LW 1988. Response of bonded and non-bonded sheep to the approach of a trained border collie. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 21, 251257.
Anderson DM, Hulet CV, Hamadeh SK, Smith JN, Murray LW 1990. Diet selection of bonded and non-bonded free-ranging sheep and cattle. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 26, 231242.
Anderson DM, Hulet CV, Smith JN, Shupe WL, Murray LW 1992. An attempt to bond weaned 3-month-old beef heifers to yearling ewes. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 34, 181188.
Anderson DM, Havstad KM, Shupe WL, Libeau R, Smith JN, Murray LW 1994. Benefits and costs in controlling sheep bonded to cattle without wire fencing. Small Ruminant Research 14, 18.
Anderson DM, Estell RE, Havstad KM, Shupe WL, Libeau R, Murray LW 1996. Differences in ewe and wether behavior when bonded to cattle. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 47, 201209.
Anderson DM, Murray LW, Sun P, Fredrickson EL, Estell RE, Nakamatsu VB 2011. Characterizing foraging patterns among cattle and bonded and non-bonded small ruminants using spatial point process techniques. In Proceedings 22nd Annual Kansas State University Conference on Applied Statistics in Agriculture (ed. W Song), pp. 1235. Kansas State Department of Statistics, Manhattan, KS, USA.
Animut G, Goetsch AL 2008. Co-grazing of sheep and goats: benefits and constraints. Small Ruminant Research 77, 127145.
Animut G, Goetsch AL, Aiken GE, Puchala R, Detweiler G, Krehbiel CR, Merkel RC, Sahlu T, Dawson LJ, Johnson ZB, Gipson TA 2005a. Grazing behavior and energy expenditure by sheep and goats co-grazing grass/forb pastures at three stocking rates. Small Ruminant Research 59, 191201.
Animut G, Goetsch AL, Aiken GE, Puchala R, Detweiler G, Krehbiel CR, Merkel RC, Sahlu T, Dawson LJ, Johnson ZB, Gipson TA 2005b. Performance and forage selectivity of sheep and goats co-grazing grass/forb pastures at three stocking rates. Small Ruminant Research 59, 203215.
Arnold GW, Dudzinski ML 1978. Ethology of free-ranging domestic animals. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., New York, NY. USA.
Bangsund DA, Nudell DJ, Sell RS, Leistritz FL 2001. Economic analysis of using sheep to control leafy spurge. Journal of Range Management 54, 322329.
Bastian CT, Jacobs JJ, Held LJ, Smith MA 1991. Multiple use of public rangeland: antelope and stocker cattle in Wyoming. Journal of Range Management 44, 390394.
Bedell TE 1968. Seasonal forage preferences of grazing cattle and sheep in western Oregon. Journal of Range Management 21, 291297.
Bell HM 1972. Rangeland management for livestock production. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, USA.
Bell FR, Kitchell RL 1966. Taste reception in the goat, sheep and calf. The Journal of Physiology 183, 145151.
Bendersky D, Díaz FE, Cendoya MG, Brizuela MA, Cid MS, Cibils A, Pizzio R 2011. Seasonal grazing distribution patterns of cattle and sheep in a heterogeneous subtropical grassland. In Diverse Rangelands for a Sustainable Society 9th International Rangeland Congress (ed. SR Feldman, GE Oliva and MB Sacido), pp. 593. 9th International Rangeland Congress, Rosario, Argentina.
Betteridge K, Mackay AD, Shepherd TG, Barker DJ, Budding PJ, Devantier BP, Costall DA 1999. Effect of cattle and sheep treading on surface configuration of a sedimentary hill soil. Australian Journal of Soil Research 37, 743760.
Blackford RH Jr 1985. Multispecies systems for California. In Proceedings of a Conference on Multispecies Grazing (ed. FH Baker and RK Jones), pp. 204206. Winrock International Institute, Morrilton, AK, USA.
Blanc F, Thériez M, Brelurut A 1999. Effects of mixed-species stocking and space allowance on the behaviour and growth of red deer hinds and ewes at pasture. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 63, 4153.
Blejwas KM, Sacks BN, Jaeger MM, McCullough DR 2002. The effectiveness of selective removal of breeding coyotes in reducing sheep predation. Journal of Wildlife Management 66, 451462.
Bond J, Carlson GE, Jackson C Jr, Curry WA 1967. Social cohesion of steers and sheep as a possible variable in grazing studies. Agronomy Journal 59, 481482.
Brelin B 1979. Mixed grazing with sheep and cattle compared with single grazing. Swedish Journal of Agriculture Research 9, 113120.
Brown JH 1995. Macroecology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA.
Bryant FC, Kothmann MM, Merrill LB 1979. Diets of sheep, Angora goats, Spanish goats and white-tailed deer under excellent range conditions. Journal of Range Management 32, 412417.
Burt J 2011. NASS, Special Tabulation ID 15240. Retrieved October 25, 2011, from http://www.nass.usda.gov/Data_and_Statistics/Special_Tabulations/Request_a_Tabulation/data-lab-records.html
Cairns RB 1966. Development, maintenance, and extinction of social attachment behavior in sheep. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 62, 298306.
Campbell EG, Johnson RL 1983. Food habits of mountain goats, mule deer, and cattle on Chopaka Mountain, Washington, 1977–1980. Journal of Range Management 36, 488491.
Carter CS, Williams JR, Witt DM, Insel TR 1992. Oxytocin and social bonding. In Oxytocin in maternal, sexual, and social behaviors (ed. CA Pedersen, JD Caldwell, GF Jirikowski and TR Insel), vol. 652, pp. 204211. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, NY.
Celaya R, Oliván M, Ferreira LMM, Martínez A, García U, Osoro K 2007. Comparison of grazing behaviour, dietary overlap and performance in non-lactating domestic ruminants grazing on marginal heatherland areas. Livestock Science 106, 271281.
Chapple RS, Wodzicka-Tomaszewska M, Lynch JJ 1987. The learning behaviour of sheep when introduced to wheat. II. Social transmission of wheat feeding and the role of the senses. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 18, 163172.
Clarke JL, Welch D, Gordon IJ 1995. The influence of vegetation pattern on the grazing of heather moorland by red deer and sheep. 1. The location of animals on grass heather mosaics. Journal of Applied Ecology 32, 166176.
Coffey L 2001. Multispecies grazing. Retrieved June 7, 2011, from http://www.icecubetopper.com/pdfs/docs/attra/attra_multispecies_grazing.pdf
Crawley MJ 1983. Herbivory: dynamics of plant–animal interactions. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, USA.
Davis DS 1985. Special management and health considerations in multispecies grazing. In Proceedings of a Conference on Multispecies Grazing (ed. FH Baker and RK Jones), pp. 109115. Winrock International Institute, Morrilton, AK.
Demarais S, Osborn DA, Jackley JJ 1990. Exotic big game: a controversial resource. Rangelands 12, 121125.
Denney RN 1972. Relationship of wildlife to livestock on some developed ranches on the Laikipia Plateau, Kenya. Journal of Range Management 25, 415425.
del Pozo M, Osoro K, Celaya R 1998. Effects of complementary grazing by goats on sward composition and on sheep performance managed during lactation in perennial ryegrass and white clover pastures. Small Ruminant Research 29, 173184.
DeMiguel D, Fortelius M, Azanza B, Morales J 2008. Ancestral feeding state of ruminants reconsidered: earliest grazing adaptation claims a mixed condition for Cervidae. BMC Evolutionary Biology 8, 113.
Dickson IA, Frame J, Arnot DP 1981. Mixed grazing of cattle and sheep versus cattle only in an intensive grassland system. Animal Production 33, 265272.
Didier G, Villca Z, Abasto P 1994. Diet selection and utilization by llama and sheep in a high altitude-arid rangeland of Bolivia. Journal of Range Management 47, 245248.
Duffy MP 2009. Should you try multi-species grazing? Farming The Journal of Northeast Agriculture. Retrieved June 7, 2011, from http://www.farmingmagazine.com/article.php?id=2817
Dumont B, D'hour P, Petit M 1995. The usefulness of grazing tests for studying the ability of sheep and cattle to exploit reproductive patches of pastures. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 45, 7988.
Dumont B, Carrere P, D'Hour P 2002. Foraging in patchy grasslands: diet selection by sheep and cattle is affected by the abundance and spatial distribution of preferred species. Animal Research 51, 367381.
Esmail SHM 1991. Multispecies grazing by cattle and sheep. Rangelands 13, 3537.
Evans DM, Redpath SM, Evans SA, Elston DA, Gardner CJ, Dennis P, Pakeman RJ 2006. Low intensity, mixed livestock grazing improves the breeding abundance of a common insectivorous passerine. Biology Letters 2, 636638.
FAOSTAT 2011. Live animals. Retrieved November 3, 2011, from http://faostat.fao.org/site/573/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=573#ancor
Fitzgibbon CD 1990. Mixed-species grouping in Thomson's and Grant's gazelles: the antipredator benefits. Animal Behaviour 39, 11161126.
Forbes TDA, Hodgson J 1985. The reaction of grazing sheep and cattle to the presence of dung from the same or the other species. Grass and Forage Science 40, 177182.
Fredrickson EL, Anderson DM, Estell RE, Havstad KM, Shupe WL, Remmenga M 2001. Pen confinement of yearling ewes with cows or heifers for 14 days to produce bonded sheep. Small Ruminant Research 2051, 17.
Galaty JG, Johnson DL 1990. Introduction: pastoral systems in global perspective. In The world of pastoralism herding systems in comparative perspective (ed. JG Galaty and DL Johnson), pp. 131. The Guilford Press, New York, NY, USA.
Gallina S 1993. White-tailed deer and cattle diets at LaMichilia, Durango, Mexico. Journal of Range Management 46, 487492.
Geenty KG, Lee GJ, Atkins KD, Smith AJ, Sladek MA 2009. Precision management of merino sheep. In Proceedings of the 13th Annual Symposium on Precision Agriculture in Australasia (ed. MG Trotter, EB Garraway and DW Lamb), pp. 87. University of New England Armidale NSW, Armidale, NSW, Australia.
Gegner LE 2002. Predator control for sustainable and organic livestock production. Retrieved June 7, 2011, from http://www.livestockforlandscapes.com/pdfs/flerds see pg 11.pdf
Georgiadis NJ, Ihwagi F, Olwero JGN, Romañach SS 2007. Savanna herbivore dynamics in a livestock-dominated landscape II: ecological, conservation, and management implications of predator restoration. Biological Conservation 137, 473483.
Grelen HE, Thomas GW 1957. Livestock and deer activities on the Edwards Plateau of Texas. Journal of Range Management 10, 3437.
Glimp HA 1988. Multi-species grazing and marketing. Rangelands 10, 275278.
Goatcher WD, Church DC 1970a. Review of some nutritional aspects of the sense of taste. Journal of Animal Science 31, 973981.
Goatcher WD, Church DC 1970b. Taste response in ruminants. IV. Reactions of Pygmy goats, normal goats, sheep and cattle to acetic acid and quinine hydrochloride. Journal of Animal Science 31, 373382.
Gordon IJ 2003. Browsing and grazing ruminants: are they different beasts? Forest Ecology and Management 181, 1321.
Gosnell H, Travis WR 2005. Ranchland ownership dynamics in the Rocky Mountain West. Rangeland Ecology and Management 58, 191198.
Govaerts R 2001. How many species of seed plants are there? Taxon 50, 10851090.
Gudmundsson O, Dyrmundsson OR 1994. Horse grazing under cold and wet conditions: a review. Livestock Production Science 40, 5763.
Havstad KM, Fredrickson EL Estell RE 2004. Animal unit equivalents: an examination of the sheep to cattle ratio for stocking rangelands. Retrieved June 8, 2011 from http://usda-ars.nmsu.edu/biblio/pdf/426.pdf
Heady HF 1964. Palatability of herbage and animal preference. Journal of Range Management 17, 7682.
Heady H, Child RD 1994. Rangeland ecology and management. Westview Press, Boulder, CO, USA.
Heitschmidt RK, Taylor CS Jr 1991. Livestock production. In Grazing management an ecological perspective (ed. RK Heitschmidt and JW Stuth), pp. 161177. Timber press, Portland, OR, USA.
Hester AJ, Gordon IJ, Baillie GJ, Tappin E 1999. Foraging behavior of sheep and red deer within natural heather/grass mosaics. Journal of Applied Ecology 36, 133146.
Hinch GN, Lecrivain E, Lynch JJ, Elwin RL 1987. Changes in maternal-young associations with increasing age of lambs. Applied Animal Behavior Science Science 17, 305318.
Hobbs NT, Carpenter LH 1986. Viewpoint: animal-unit equivalents should be weighted by dietary differences. Journal of Range Management 39, 470.
Hodgson J 1979. Nomenclature and definitions in grazing studies. Grass and Forage Science 34, 1118.
Hofmann RR 1989. Evolutionary steps of ecophysiological adaptation and diversification in ruminants: a comparative view of their digestive system. Oecologia 78, 443457.
Holechek JL, Pieper RD 1992. Estimation of stocking rate on New Mexico rangelands. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 47, 116119.
Holechek JL, Pieper RD, Herbel CH 1989. Range management principles and practices. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA.
Hubbard RE, Hansen RM 1976. Diets of wild horses, cattle, and mule deer in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Journal of Range Management 29, 389392.
Hulet CV, Anderson DM, Smith JN, Shupe WL 1987a. Bonding of sheep to cattle as an effective technique for predation control. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 19, 1925.
Hulet CV, Shupe WL, Howard VW Jr 1987b. Coyotes, guard dogs, and electric fences. Rangelands 9, 102105.
Hulet CV, Anderson DM, Smith JN, Shupe WL, Taylor CA Jr, Murray LW 1989. Bonding of goats to sheep and cattle for protection from predators. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 22, 261267.
Hulet CV, Anderson DM, Smith JN, Shupe WL, Murray LW 1991. Bonding of Spanish kid goats to cattle and sheep. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 30, 97103.
Hulet CV, Anderson DM, Nakamatsu VB, Murray LW, Pieper RD 1992a. Diet selection of cattle and bonded small ruminants grazing arid rangeland. Sheep Research Journal 8, 1118.
Hulet CV, Anderson DM, Shupe WL, Murray LW 1992b. Field versus pen bonding lambs to cattle. Sheep Research Journal 8, 6972.
Hunter RF 1960. Aims and methods in grazing-behavior studies on hill pastures. In Proceedings of the 8th International Grassland Congress (ed. CL Skidmore), pp. 454457. Alden Press, Oxford, UK.
Janis CM, Damuth J, Theodor JM 2000. Miocene ungulates and terrestrial primary productivity: where have all the browsers gone? Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 97, 78997904.
Jardine JT, Anderson M 1919. Range management on the national forests. US Department of Agriculture Bulletin 790. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, USA.
Jordan HE, Phillips WA, Morrison RD, Doyle JJ, McKenzie K 1988. A 3-year study of continuous mixed grazing of cattle and sheep: parasitism of offspring. International Journal of Parasitology 18, 779784.
Kare MR, Halpern BP 1961. Physiological and behavioral aspects of taste. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA.
Kingery JL, Mosley JC, Bordwell KC 1996. Dietary overlap among cattle and cervids in northern Idaho forests. Journal of Range Management 49, 815.
Koen C 1987. Optimal stocking ranges for several species farming. Agricultural Systems 23, 159166.
Kothmann MM 1966. Nutrient content of forage ingested in the morning compared to evening. Journal of Range Management 19, 9596.
Kothmann MM 1980. Nutrition of livestock grazing on range and pasture lands. In Digestive physiology and nutrition of ruminants, vol. 3 – Practical nutrition (ed. DC Church), pp. 5690, 2nd edition. O & B Books Inc. Corvallis, Corvallis, OR, USA.
Kreuter UP, Workman JP 1996. Cattle and wildlife ranching in Zimbabwe. Rangelands 18, 4447.
Kreuter UP, Workman JP 1997. Comparative profitability of cattle and wildlife ranches in semi-arid Zimbabwe. Journal of Arid Environments 35, 171187.
Krueger WC, Laycock WA, Price DA 1974. Relationship of taste, smell, sight, and touch to forage selection. Journal of Range Management 27, 258262.
Krueger WC, Sharp LA 1978. Management approaches to reduce livestock losses from poisonous plants on rangeland. Journal of Range Management 31, 347350.
Laca EA 2009. New Approaches and tools for grazing management. Rangeland Ecology and Management 62, 407417.
Larbi A, Smith JW, Raji AM, Kurdi IO, Adekunle IO, Ladipo DO 1997. Seasonal dynamics in dry matter degradation of browse in cattle, sheep and goats. Small Ruminant Research 25, 129140.
Lebbie SHB 2004. Goats under household conditions. Small Ruminant Research 51, 131136.
Linnell JD, Smith ME, Odden J, Kaczensky P, Swenson JE 1996. Strategies for the reduction of carnivore – livestock conflicts: a review. Norwegian Institute of Nature Research Oppdragsmelding 443, 1118.
Loehle C, Rittenhouse LR 1982. An analysis of forage preference indices. Journal of Range Management 35, 316319.
Loucougaray GA, Bonis A, Bouzillé J-B 2004. Effects of grazing by horses and/or cattle on the diversity of coastal grasslands in western France. Biological Conservation 116, 5971.
Lu CD 1988. Grazing behavior and diet selection of goats. Small Ruminant Research 1, 205216.
Lund GH 2007. Accounting for the world's rangelands. Rangelands 29, 310.
Marble JR, Harper KT 1989. Effect of timing of grazing on soil-surface cryptogrammic communities in a Great Basin low shrub desert: a preliminary report. Great Basin Naturalist 49, 104107.
Marten GC 1973. Alkaloids in reed canarygrass. In Anti-quality components of forages, Special Publication No. 4 (ed. AG Matches), pp. 1531. Crop Science Society of America, Madison, WI, USA.
Mazzolli M, Graipel ME, Dunstone N 2002. Mountain lion depredation in southern Brazil. Biological Conservation 105, 4351.
McGuire JR 1978. Rangelands – fulfilling the promise through planning. In Proceedings of the 1st International Rangeland Congress (ed. DN Hyder), pp. 23. Peerless Printing, Denver, CO, USA.
McNaughton SJ 1985. Ecology of a grazing ecosystem: the Serengeti. Ecological Monographs 55, 259294.
Menard C, Duncan PG, Fleurance G, Georges JY, Lila M 2002. Comparative foraging and nutrition of horses and cattle in European wetlands. Journal of Applied Ecology 39, 120133.
Mellado M, Valdez R, Lara LM, Lopez R 2003. Stocking rate effects on goats: a research observation. Journal of Range Management 56, 167173.
Mellado M, Olivares L, Pittroff W, Díaz H, López R, Villarreal JA 2007. Oral morphology and dietary choices of goats on rangeland. Small Ruminant Research 71, 194199.
Menke J, Bradford GE 1992. Rangelands. Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment 42, 141163.
Merrill JL 1985. Multispecies grazing: current use and activities in Texas and the Southwest. In Proceedings of a Conference on Multispecies Grazing (ed. FH Baker and RK Jones), pp. 3944. Winrock International Institute, Morrilton, AK, USA.
Merrill LB, Young VA 1954. Results of grazing single classes of livestock in combination with several classes when stocking rates are constant. Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Progress Report 1726. Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.
Merrill LB, Thomas GW, Hardy WT 1957. Livestock and deer ratios for Texas range lands. Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Miscellaneous Publication 221. Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.
Milne JA, Macrae JC, Spence AM, Wilson S 1978. A comparison of the voluntary intake and digestion of a range of forages at different times of the year by sheep and the red deer (Cervus elaphus). British Journal of Nutrition 40, 347357.
Moen AN 1973. Wildlife ecology: an analytical approach. Greeman, San Francisco, CA, USA.
Morand-Fehr P, Ben Ayed M, Hervien J, Lescoat P 1997. Relationship between palatability and rate of intake in goats. In Recent advances in small ruminant nutrition (ed. JE Linberg, HL Gonda and I Ledin), vol. 34, pp. 121123. Options Méditerranéennes, CIHEAM, Paris.
Morley FHW, Donald AD 1980. Farm management and systems of helminth control. Veterinary Parasitology 6, 105134.
Nolan T, Connolly J 1976. Comparison of five rations of cattle and sheep. Irish Journal of Agricultural Research 15, 137140.
Nombekela SW, Murphy MR, Gonyou HW, Marden JI 1994. Dietary preferences in early lactation cows as affected by primary tastes and some common feed flavors. Journal of Dairy Science 77, 23932399.
Odadi WO, Jain M, Van Wieren SE, Prins HHT, Rubenstein DI 2011. Facilitation between bovids and equids on an African savanna. Evolutionary Ecology Research 13, 237252.
Pollock ML, Legg CJ, Holland JP, Theobald CM 2007. Assessment of expert opinion: seasonal sheep preference and plant response to grazing. Rangeland Ecology and Management 60, 125135.
Popay I, Field R 1996. Grazing animals as weed control agents. Weed Technology 10, 217231.
Pratt M Rasmussen GA 2001. Determining your stocking rate. Utah State University Cooperative Extension NR/RM/04. Retrieved June 8, 2011, from http://extension.usu.edu/files/publications/publication/NR_RM_04.pdf
Pritz RK, Launchbaugh KL, Taylor CA Jr 1997. Effects of breed and dietary experience on juniper consumption by goats. Journal of Range Management 50, 600606.
Ralphs MH, Kothmann MM, Merrill LB 1986. Cattle and sheep diets under short-duration grazing. Journal of Range Management 39, 217223.
Raney T, Skoet J, Steinfeld H (co-editors) 2009. Livestock in the balance Part 1. The state of food and agriculture, pp. 1–32. FAO, Rome, Italy.
Rocha RA, Bresciani KDS, Barros TFM, Fernandes LH, Silva MB, Amarante AFT 2008. Sheep and cattle grazing alternately: nematode parasitism and pasture decontamination. Small Ruminant Research 75, 135143.
Rook AJ, Dumont B, Isselstein J, Osoro K, WallisDeVries MF, Parente G, Mills J 2004. Matching type of livestock to desired biodiversity outcomes in pastures – a review. Biological Conservation 119, 137150.
Rowan RC 1994. Are small-acreage livestock producers real ranchers? Rangelands 16, 161166.
Ruyle GB, Bowns JE 1985. Forage use by cattle and sheep grazing separately and together on summer range in southwestern Utah. Journal of Range Management 38, 299302.
Sanon HO, Kaboré-Zoungrana C, Ledin I 2007. Behaviour of goats, sheep and cattle and their selection of browse species on natural pasture in a Sahelian area. Small Ruminant Research 67, 6474.
Scotland RW, Wortley AH 2003. How many species of seed plants are there? Taxon 52, 101104.
Scotter GW 1980. Management of wild ungulate habitat in the western United States and Canada: a review. Journal of Range Management 33, 1627.
Sehested J, Søegaard K, Danielsen V, Roepstorff A, Monrad J 2004. Grazing with heifers and sows alone or mixed: herbage quality, sward structure and animal weight gain. Livestock Production Science 88, 223238.
Seré CA, Ayantude A, Duncan A, Freeman A, Herrero M, Tarawali S, Wright I 2008. Livestock production and poverty alleviation – challenges and opportunities in arid and semi-arid tropical rangeland based systems. In Multifunctional grasslands in a Changing World, vol I. XXI International Grassland Cong/VII International Rangeland Congress. Guangdong People's Publishing House, Beijing, China, pp. 19–26.
Scarnecchia DL 1985. The animal-unit and animal-unit equivalent concepts in range science. Journal of Range Management 38, 346349.
Schuster JL 1985. Environmental and ecological implications of multispecies grazing. In Proceedings of a Conference on Multispecies Grazing (ed. FH Baker and RK Jones), pp. 232233. Winrock International Institute, Morrilton, AK, USA.
Shipley LA 1999. Grazers and browsers: How digestive morphology affects diet selection. In Grazing Behavior of Livestock and Wildlife Idaho Forest Wildlife and Range Experiment Station Bulletin No. 70 (ed. KL Launchbaugh, KD Sanders and JC Mosley), pp. 2027. University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA.
Sinclair ARE, Arcese P 1995. Serengeti II: dynamics, management and conservation of an ecosystem. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA.
Sinclair ARE, Norton-Griffiths M 1979. Serengeti: dynamics of an ecosystem. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA.
Sinclair ARE, Packer D, Mduma SAR, Fryxel JM 2008. Serengeti III: human impacts on ecosystem dynamics. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA.
Skiles JW 1984. A review of animal preference. In Developing strategies for rangeland management a report prepared by the committee on developing strategies for rangeland management Natural Research Council/National Academy of Science. Westview Press, Boulder, CO, USA, pp. 153–213.
Smith AD 1965. Determining common use grazing capacities by application of the key species concept. Journal of Range Management 18, 196201.
Smith B 1998. Moving ‘Em a guide to low stress animal handling. The Graziers Hui, Kamuela, HI, USA.
Smith HJ, Archibald RMcG 1965. Cross transmission of bovine parasites to sheep. Canadian Veterinary Journal 6, 9197.
Solanki GS 1994. Feeding habits and grazing behavior of goats in a semi-arid region of India. Small Ruminant Research 14, 3943.
Squires V 1981. Livestock management in the arid zone. Inkata Press, Melbourne, Australia.
Squires VR 1982. Dietary overlap between sheep, cattle, and goats when grazing in common. Journal of Range Management 35, 116119.
Stebbins GL 1981. Coevolution of grasses and herbivores. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 68, 7586.
Stoddart LA, Smith AD, Box TW 1975. Range management, 3rd edition. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, NY, USA.
Tate KW, Atwill ER, McDougald NK, George MR 2003. Spatial and temporal patterns of cattle feces deposition on rangeland. Journal of Range Management 56, 432438.
Taylor CA 1985. Multispecies grazing research overview (Texas). In Proceedings of a Conference on Multispecies Grazing (ed. FH Baker and RK Jones), pp. 6583. Winrock International Institute, Morrilton, AK, USA.
Taylor DB, Hinch GN, Trotter MG, Brown WY, Price IR, Doyle EK, Lamb DW 2009. What can sheep teach us about shelter use?. In Proceedings of the 13th Annual Symposium on Precision Agriculture in Australasia (ed. MG Trotter, EB Garraway and DW Lamb), pp. 99. University of New England, Armidale, NSW, Australia.
Umberger SH, McKinno BR Eller AL Jr 1983. Adding sheep to cattle for increased profits sheep science and technology. Virginia Cooperative Extension Service Publication 410–851, Blacksburg, VA.
Umstatter C 2011. The evolution of virtual fences. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 75, 1022.
Vallentine JF 1990. Grazing management. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA.
Vandenberghe C, Prior G, Littlewood NA, Brooker R, Pakeman R 2009. Influence of livestock grazing on meadow pipit foraging behaviour in upland grasslands. Basic and Applied Ecology 10, 662670.
van Dyne GM, Brockington NR, Szocs Z, Duek J, Ribic CA 1980. Large herbivore subsystem. In Grasslands, systems analysis and man (ed. AI Breymeyer and GM van Dyne), pp. 269537. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
van Niekerk WA, Hassen A, Snyman LD, Rethman NFG, Coertze RJ 2009. Influence of mineral composition and rumen degradability of Atriplex nummularia (Hatfield Select F1) plants on selection preference of sheep. African Journal of Range and Forage Science 26, 9196.
van Soest PJ 1994. Ecology of the ruminant, 2nd edition. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.
Vavra M 2005. Livestock grazing and wildlife: developing compatibilities. Rangeland Ecology and Management 58, 128134.
Villalba JJ, Provenza FD 2009. Learning and dietary choice in herbivores. Rangeland Ecology and Management 62, 399406.
Walker JW 1994. Multispecies grazing: the ecological advantage. Sheep Research Journal Special Issue, 5264.
Warming E 1895. Plantesamfund – Grundtroek af den økologiske Plantegeografi. P.G. Philipsens Forlag, Kjøbenhavn.
Warren LE, Ueckert DN, Shelton M, Chamrad AD 1984. Spanish goat diets on mixed-brush rangeland in the south Texas plains. Journal of Range Management 37, 340342.
Williams PH, Haynes RJ 2006. Effect of sheep, deer and cattle dung on herbage production and soil nutrient content. Grass and Forage Science 50, 263271.
Yearsley JM, Villalba JJ, Gordon IJ, Kyriazakis I, Speakman JR, Tolkamp B, JIllius AW, Duncan AJ 2006. A theory of associating food types with their postingestive consequences. American Naturalist 167, 705716.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

animal
  • ISSN: 1751-7311
  • EISSN: 1751-732X
  • URL: /core/journals/animal
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 24
Total number of PDF views: 116 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 234 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.