Al-Mabruk, RM, Beck, NFG, Dewhurst, RJ 2004. Effects of silage species and supplemental vitamin E on the oxidative stability of milk. Journal of Dairy Science 87, 406–412.
Constabel, CP, Ryan, CA 1998. A survey of wound- and methyl jasmonate-induced leaf polyphenol oxidase in crop plants. Phytochemistry 47, 507–511.
Dewhurst, RJ, Fisher, WJ, Tweed, JKS, Wilkins, RJ 2003a. Comparison of grass and legume silages for milk production. 1. Production responses with different levels of concentrate. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 2598–2611.
Dewhurst, RJ, Evans, RT, Scollan, ND, Moorby, JM, Merry, RJ, Wilkins, RJ 2003b. Comparison of grass and legume silages for milk production. 2. In vivo and in sacco evaluations of rumen function. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 2612–2621.
Dogan, M, Arslan, O, Dogan, S 2002. Substrate specificity, heat inactivation and inhibition of polyphenol oxidase from different aubergine cultivars. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 37, 415–423.
Fothergill, M, Rees, ME 2006. Seasonal differences in polyphenol oxidase activity in red clover. In Sward dynamics, N-flows and forage utilisation in legume based systems. Proceedings of the 2nd COST 852 Workshop (ed. M Wachendorf, A Helgadóttir and G Parente), pp. 141–144, Grado, Italy.
Gerdemann, C, Eicken, C, Galla, HJ, Krebs, B 2002. Comparative modeling of the latent form of a plant catechol oxidase using a molluskan hemocyanin structure. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 89, 155–158.
Gowda, LR, Paul, B 2002. Diphenol activation of the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of field bean (Dolichos lablab) polyphenol oxidase. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50, 1608–1614.
Grabber, JH 2008. Mechanical maceration divergently shifts protein degradability in condensed-tannin vs. o-quinone containing conserved forages. Crop Science 48, 804–813.
Huws, SA, Lee, MRF, Muetzel, SM, Scott, MB, Wallace, RJ, Scollan, ND 2010. Forage type and fish oil cause shifts in rumen bacterial diversity. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 73, 396–407.
Jimenez, M, Garcia-Carmona, F 1996. The effect of sodium dodecyl sulphate on polyphenol oxidase. Phytochemistry 42, 1503–1509.
Jones, BA, Muck, RE, Hatfield, RD 1995. Red-clover extracts inhibit legume proteolysis. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 67, 329–333.
Kim, EJ, Huws, SA, Lee, MRF, Wood, JD, Muetzel, SM, Wallace, RJ, Scollan, ND 2008. Fish oil increases the duodenal flow of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans-11 18 : 1 and decreases 18 : 0 in steers via changes in the rumen bacterial community. Journal of Nutrition 138, 889–896.
Lee, MRF, Parfitt, LJ, Minchin, FR 2006a. Lipolysis of red clover with differing polyphenol oxidase activities in batch culture. Journal of Animal Science 84 (suppl. 1), 101.
Lee, MRF, Colmenero, JDO, Winters, AL, Scollan, ND, Minchin, FR 2006b. Polyphenol oxidase activity in grass and its effect on plant-mediated lipolysis and proteolysis of Dactylis glomerata (cocksfoot) in a simulated rumen environment. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 86, 1503–1511.
Lee, MRF, Parfitt, LJ, Scollan, ND, Minchin, FR 2007. Lipolysis in red clover with different polyphenol oxidase activities in the presence and absence of rumen fluid. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 87, 1308–1314.
Lee, MRF, Tweed, JKS, Scollan, ND, Sullivan, ML 2008a. Ruminal micro-organisms do not adapt to increase utilization of poly-phenol oxidase protected red clover protein and glycerol-based lipid. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 88, 2479–2485.
Lee, MRF, Scott, MB, Tweed, JKS, Minchin, FR, Davies, DR 2008b. Effects of polyphenol oxidase on lipolysis and proteolysis of red clover silage with and without a silage inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum L54). Animal Feed Science and Technology 144, 125–136.
Lee, MRF, Tweed, JKS, Minchin, FR, Winters, AL 2009a. Red clover polyphenol oxidase: activation, activity and efficacy under grazing. Animal Feed Science and Technology 149, 250–264.
Lee, MRF, Theobald, VJ, Tweed, JKS, Winters, AL, Scollan, ND 2009b. Effect of feeding fresh or conditioned red clover on milk fatty acids and nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 92, 1136–1147.
Lee, MRF, Tweed, JKS, Cookson, A, Sullivan, ML 2010. Immunogold labelling to localize polyphenol oxidase (PPO) during wilting of red clover leaf tissue and the effect of removing cellular matrices on PPO protection of glycerol-based lipid in the rumen. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 90, 503–510.
Lee, MRF, Harris, LJ, Dewhurst, RJ, Merry, RJ, Scollan, ND 2003. The effect of clover silages on long chain fatty acid rumen transformations and digestion in beef steers. Animal Science 76, 491–501.
Lee, MRF, Winters, AL, Scollan, ND, Dewhurst, RJ, Theodorou, MK, Minchin, FR 2004. Plant-mediated lipolysis and proteolysis in red clover with different polyphenol oxidase activities. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 84, 1639–1645.
Li, L, Steffens, JC 2002. Overexpression of polyphenol oxidase in transgenic tomato plants results in enhanced bacterial disease resistance. Planta 215, 239–247.
Loor, JJ, Hoover, WH, Miller-Webster, TK, Herbein, JH, Polan, E 2003. Biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids in continuous culture fermenters during digestion of orchardgrass or red clover with three levels of ground corn supplementation. Journal of Animal Science 81, 1611–1627.
Lourenço, M, Van Ranst, G, Vlaeminck, B, De Smet, S, Fievez, V 2008. Influence of different dietary forages on the fatty acid composition of rumen digesta as well as ruminant meat and milk. Animal Feed Science and Technology 145, 418–437.
Mayer, AM 2006. Polyphenol oxidases in plants and fungi: going places? A review. Phytochemistry 67, 2318–2331.
Mayer, AM, Harel, E 1979. Polyphenol oxidases in plants. Phytochemistry 18, 193–215.
Mazzafera, P, Robinson, SP 2000. Characterization of polyphenol oxidase in coffee. Phytochemistry 55, 285–296.
Moore, BM, Flurkey, WH 1990. Sodium dodecyl-sulfate activation of a plant polyphenoloxidase – effect of sodium dodecyl-sulfate on enzymatic and physical characteristics of purified broad bean polyphenoloxidase. Journal of Biological Chemistry 265, 4982–4988.
Nakayama, T, Sato, T, Fukui, Y, Yonekura-Sakakibara, K, Hayashi, H, Tanaka, Y, Kusumi, T, Nishino, T 2001. Specificity analysis and mechanism of aurone synthesis catalyzed by aureusidin synthase, a polyphenol oxidase homolog responsible for flower coloration. FEBS Letters 499, 107–111.
Polovnikova, MG, Voskresenskaya, OL 2008. Activities of antioxidant system components and polyphenol oxidase in ontogeny of lawn grasses under megapolis conditions. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology 55, 699–705.
Richter, H, Lieberei, R, von Schwartzenberg, K 2005. Identification and characterisation of a bryophyte polyphenol oxidase encoding gene from Physcomitrella patens. Plant Biology 7, 283–291.
Robinson, SP, Dry, IB 1992. Broad bean leaf polyphenol oxidase is a 60-kilodalton protein susceptible to proteolytic cleavage. Plant Physiology 99, 317–323.
Schmitz, GE, Sullivan, ML, Hatfield, RD 2008. Three polyphenol oxidases from red clover (Trifolium pratense) differ in enzymatic activities and activation properties. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56, 272–280.
Sherman, TD, Le Gardeur, T, Lax, AR 1995. Implications of the phylogenetic distribution of polyphenol oxidase in plants. Enzymatic Browning and Its Prevention 600, 103–119.
Steinite, I, Gailite, A, Ievinsh, G 2004. Reactive oxygen and ethylene are involved in the regulation of regurgitant-induced responses in bean plants. Journal of Plant Physiology 161, 191–196.
Stewart, RJ, Sawyer, BJB, Bucheli, CS, Robinson, SP 2001. Polyphenol oxidase is induced by chilling and wounding in pineapple. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 28, 181–191.
Sullivan, ML, Hatfield, RD 2006. Polyphenol oxidase and o-diphenols inhibit postharvest proteolysis in red clover and alfalfa. Crop Science 46, 662–670.
Sullivan, ML, Hatfield, RD, Thoma, SL, Samac, DA 2004. Cloning and characterization of red clover polyphenol oxidase cDNAs and expression of active protein in Escherichia coli and transgenic alfalfa(1[w]). Plant Physiology 136, 3234–3244.
Thipyapong, P, Steffens, JC 1997. Tomato polyphenol oxidase – differential response of the polyphenol oxidase F promoter to injuries and wound signals. Plant Physiology 115, 409–418.
Van Dorland, HA, Kreuzer, M, Leuenberger, H, Wettstein, HR 2008. Comparative potential of white and red clover to modify the milk fatty acid profile of cows fed ryegrass-based diets from zero-grazing and silage systems. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 88, 77–85.
Van Ranst, G 2009. Effect of ensiling on fatty acid composition and lipid metabolism in forages and the possible role of polyphenol oxidase. PhD, Ghent University.
Van Ranst, G, De Riek, J, Fievez, V, Van Bockstaele, E 2006a. Effects of components in red clover on plant lipase activity with possible consequences on PUFA-content of dairy products. Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences 71, 307–310.
Van Ranst, G, Lourenço, M, De Riek, J, Fievez, V, Van Bockstaele, E 2006b. Detections of potential selection factors in red clover forages to enhance silage quality with possible consequences on PUFA-content of dairy products. In XXVI EUCARPIA Fodder Crops and Amenity Grasses Section, Perugia, Italy, pp. 87–90.
Van Ranst, G, Fievez, V, De Riek, J, Van Bockstaele, E 2009a. Influence of ensiling forages at different dry matters and silage additives on lipid metabolism and fatty acid composition. Animal Feed Science and Technology 150, 62–74.
Van Ranst, G, Fievez, V, Vandewalle, M, De Riek, J, Van Bockstaele, E 2009b. Influence of herbage species, cultivar and cutting date on fatty acid composition of herbage and lipid metabolism during ensiling. Grass and Forage Science 64, 196–207.
Van Ranst, G, Fievez, V, Vandewalle, M, De Riek, J, Van Bockstaele, E 2009c. In vitro study of red clover polyphenol oxidase activity, activation, and effect on measured lipase activity and lipolysis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57, 6611–6617.
Van Ranst, G, Fievez, V, Vandewalle, M, Van Waes, C, De Riek, J, Van Bockstaele, E 2010. Influence of damaging and wilting red clover on lipid metabolism during ensiling and in vitro rumen incubation. Animal 4, 1528–1540.
Vanhatalo, A, Kuoppala, K, Toivonen, V, Shingfield, KJ 2007. Effects of forage species and stage of maturity on bovine milk fatty acid composition. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 109, 856–867.
Veltman, RH, Larrigaudiere, C, Wichers, HJ, Van Schaik, ACR, Van der Plas, LHW, Oosterhaven, J 1999. PPO activity and polyphenol content are not limiting factors during brown cove development in pears (Pyrus communis L-cv. conference). Journal of Plant Physiology 154, 697–702.
Winters, AL, Minchin, FR, Morris, P 2005. Substrate-dependent activation of polyphenol oxidase in red clover. XX International Grassland Congress, Dublin, Ireland.
Winters, AL, Minchin, FR, Michaelson-Yeates, TPT, Lee, MRF, Morris, P 2008. Latent and active polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in red clover (Trifolium pratense) and use of a low PPO mutant to study the role of PPO in proteolysis reduction. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56, 2817–2824.
Winters, A, Heywood, S, Farrar, K, Donnison, I, Thomas, A, Webb, KJ 2009. Identification of an extensive gene cluster among a family of PPOs in Trifolium pratense L. (red clover) using a large insert BAC library. BMC Plant Biology 9, 94.
Yoruk, R, Marshall, MR 2003. Physicochemical properties and function of plant polyphenol oxidase: a review. Journal of Food Biochemistry 27, 361–422.