Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Review: Dairy foods, red meat and processed meat in the diet: implications for health at key life stages

  • D. I. Givens (a1)
Abstract

Social and health care provision have led to substantial increases in life expectancy. In the UK this has become higher than 80 years with an even greater proportional increase in those aged 85 years and over. The different life stages give rise to important nutritional challenges and recent reductions in milk consumption have led to sub-optimal intakes of calcium by teenage females in particular when bone growth is at its maximum and of iodine during pregnancy needed to ensure that supply/production of thyroid hormones to the foetus is adequate. Many young and pre-menopausal women have considerably sub-optimal intakes of iron which are likely to be associated with reduced consumption of red meat. A clear concern is the low intakes of calcium especially as a high proportion of the population is of sub-optimal vitamin D status. This may already have had serious consequences in terms of bone development which may not be apparent until later life, particularly in post-menopausal women. This review aims to examine the role of dairy foods and red meat at key life stages in terms of their ability to reduce or increase chronic disease risk. It is clear that milk and dairy foods are key sources of important nutrients such as calcium and iodine and the concentration of some key nutrients, notably iodine can be influenced by the method of primary milk production, in particular, the iodine intake of the dairy cow. Recent meta-analyses show no evidence of increased risk of cardiovascular diseases from high consumption of milk and dairy foods but increasing evidence of a reduction in the risk of type 2 diabetes associated with fermented dairy foods, yoghurt in particular. The recently updated reports from the World Cancer Research Fund International/American Institute for Cancer Research on the associations between dairy foods, red meat and processed meat and various cancers provide further confidence that total dairy products and milk, are associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer and high intakes of milk/dairy are not associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Earlier evidence of a significant increase in the risk of colorectal cancer from consumption of red and particularly processed meat has been reinforced by the inclusion of more recent studies. It is essential that nutrition and health-related functionality of foods are included in evaluations of sustainable food production.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Review: Dairy foods, red meat and processed meat in the diet: implications for health at key life stages
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Review: Dairy foods, red meat and processed meat in the diet: implications for health at key life stages
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Review: Dairy foods, red meat and processed meat in the diet: implications for health at key life stages
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
References
Hide All
Abrams, SA, Chen, Z and Hawthorne, KM 2013. Magnesium, but not calcium intake is significantly associated with bone mineral status in 4 to 8 year old children. In Proceedings of the Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting, 4–7 May 2013, Washington, DC, USA.
Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board 2015. AHDB IARC Statement. Retrieved on 2 June 2017 from http://www.ahdb.org.uk/news/documents/261015AHDBIARCStatement-Red and Processed Meat261015.pdf
Alexander, D, Weed, D, Miller, P and Mohamed, MA 2015. Red meat and colorectal cancer: a quantitative update on the state of the epidemiologic science. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 34, 521543.
Audsley, E, Brander, M, Chatterton, J, Murphy-Bokern, D, Webster, C and Williams, A 2009. How low can we go? An assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from the UK food system and the scope to reduce them by 2050 . WWF-UK, Woking, UK.
Aune, D, Lau, R, Chan, DS, Vieira, R, Greenwood, DC, Kampman, E and Norat, T 2012. Dairy products and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Annals of Oncology 23, 3745.
Bates, B, Lennox, A, Prentice, A, Bates, C, Page, P, Nicholson, S and Swan, G 2014. National Diet and nutrition survey, results from Years 1-4 (combined) of the rolling programme (2008/2009-2011/12). Public Health England and the Food Standards Agency, London, UK.
Bath, SC, Button, S and Rayman, MP 2012. Iodine concentration of organic and conventional milk: implications for iodine intake. British Journal of Nutrition 107, 935940.
Bath, SC, Rayman, MP, Steer, CD, Golding, J and Emmett, P 2013. Effect of inadequate iodine status in UK pregnant women on cognitive outcomes in their children: results from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The Lancet 382, 331337.
Bath, SC, Walter, A, Taylor, A, Wright, J and Rayman, MP 2014a. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women living in the South East of the UK: the influence of diet and nutritional supplements on iodine status. British Journal of Nutrition 111, 16221631.
Bath, SC, Walter, A, Taylor, A, Wright, J and Rayman, MP 2014b. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women living in the South East of the UK: The influence of diet and nutritional supplements on iodine status. British Journal of Nutrition 111, 16221631.
Bellavia, A, Stilling, F and Wolk, A 2016. High red meat intake and all-cause cardiovascular and cancer mortality: is the risk modified by fruit and vegetable intake? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition104 11371143.
Black, RE, Williams, SM, Jones, IE and Goulding, A 2002. Children who avoid drinking cow milk have low dietary calcium intakes and poor bone health. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 76, 675680.
Bouvard, V, Loomis, D, Guyton, KZ, Grosse, Y, El Ghissassi, F, Benbrahim-Tallaa, L, Guha, N, Mattock, H and Straif, K, on behalf of the International Agency for Research on Cancer 2015. Carcinogenicity of consumption of red and processed meat. The Lancet Oncology 16 (No 16), 15991600.
Brantsæter, AL, Abe, MH, Haugen, M and Meltzer, HM 2013. Risk of suboptimal iodine intake in pregnant Norwegian women. Nutrients 5, 424440.
Carr, PR, Jansen, L, Bienert, S, Roth, W, Herpel, E, Kloor, M, Bläker, H, Chang-Claude, J, Brenner, H and Hoffmeister, M 2017. Associations of red and processed meat intake with major molecular pathological features of colorectal cancer. European Journal of Epidemiology 32, 409418.
Cashman, KD, Dowling, KG, Skrabáková, Z, Gonzalez-Gross, M, Valtueña, J, De Henauw, S, Moreno, L, Damsgaard, CT, Michaelsen, KF, Mølgaard, C, Jorde, R, Grimnes, G, Moschonis, G, Mavrogianni, C, Manios, Y, Thamm, M, Mensink, GBM, Rabenberg, M, Busch, MA, Cox, L, Meadows, S, Goldberg, G, Prentice, A, Dekker, JM, Nijpels, G, Pilz, S, Swart, KM, van Schoor, NM, Lips, P, Eiriksdottir, G, Gudnason, V, Cotch, MF, Koskinen, S, Lamberg-Allardt, C, Durazo-Arvizu, RA, Sempos, CT and Kiely, M 2016. Vitamin D deficiency in Europe: pandemic? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 103, 10331044.
Chu, A, Foster, M and Samman, S 2016. Zinc status and risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus – a systematic review of prospective cohort studies. Nutrients 8, 707.
Cockcroft, JR and Wilkinson, IB 2000. Large arterial stiffness: an important therapeutic target. Journal of Human Hypertension 14, 533535.
Crichton, GE, Elias, MF, Dore, GA, Abhayaratna, WP and Robbins, MA 2012. Relations between dairy food intake and arterial stiffness. Hypertension 59, 10441051.
de Goede, J, Soedamah-Muthu, SS, Pan, A, Gijsbers, L and Geleijnse, JM 2016. Dairy consumption and risk of stroke: a systematic review and updated dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Journal of the American Heart Association 5, e002787.
Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 2015. Quantity of food and drink purchased for UK households. Family Food 2014, Report Tables Dataset. Retrieved on 2 June 2017 from https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/family-food-2014
Diabetes UK 2016. Facts and stats. Retrieved on 3 June 2017 from https://www.diabetes.org.uk/Documents/Position%20statements/DiabetesUK_Facts_Stats_Oct16.pdf
de Oliveira Otto, MC, Mozaffarian, D, Kromhout, D, Bertoni, AG, Sibley, CT, Jacobs, DR Jr and Nettleton, JA 2012. Dietary intake of saturated fat by food source and incident cardiovascular disease: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 96, 397404.
de Onis, M and Branca, F 2016. Childhood stunting: a global perspective. Maternal & Child Nutrition 12 (Suppl. 1), 1226.
Dong, J-Y, Zhang, L, He, K and Qin, L-Q 2011. Dairy consumption and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 127, 2331.
Du, X, Zhu, K, Trube, A, Zhang, Q, Ma, G, Hu, X, Fraser, DR and Greenfield, H 2004. School-milk intervention trial enhances growth and bone mineral accretion in Chinese girls aged 10–12 years in Beijing. British Journal of Nutrition 92, 159168.
Elwood, PC, Pickering, JE, Givens, DI and Gallacher, J 2010. The consumption of milk and dairy foods and the incidence of vascular disease and diabetes: An overview of the evidence. Lipids 45, 925939.
Engberink, MF, Geleijnse, JM, de Jong, N, Smit, HA, Kok, FJ and Verschuren, WMM 2009. Dairy intake, blood pressure, and incident hypertension in a general Dutch population. Journal of Nutrition 139, 582587.
Fekete, ÁA, Giromini, C, Chatzidiakou, Y, Givens, DI and Lovegrove, JA 2016. Whey protein lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function and lipid biomarkers in adults with prehypertension and mild hypertension: results from the chronic Whey2Go randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 104, 15341544.
Fekete, ÁA, Givens, DI and Lovegrove, JA 2013. The impact of milk proteins and peptides on blood pressure and vascular function: a review of evidence from human intervention studies. Nutrition Research Reviews 26, 177190.
FitzGerald, RJ and Meisel, H 2000. Milk protein-derived peptide inhibitors of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme. British Journal of Nutrition 84, S33S37.
Flachowsky, G, Franke, K, Meyer, U, Leiterer, M and Schöne, F 2014. Influencing factors on iodine content of cow milk. European Journal of Nutrition 53, 351365.
Food Standards Agency 2008. Retail survey of iodine in UK produced dairy foods, FSIS 02/08. Food Standards Agency, London.
Garnett, T 2008. Cooking up a storm: food, greenhouse gas emissions and our changing climate. The Food and Climate Research Network, Centre for Environmental Strategy, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.
Geissler, C and Singh, M 2011. Iron, meat and health. Nutrients 3, 283316.
Gijsbers, L, Ding, EL, Malik, VS, de Goede, J, Geleijnse, JM and Soedamah-Muthu, SS 2016. Consumption of dairy foods and diabetes incidence: a dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 103, 11111124.
Guo, J, Astrup, A, Lovegrove, JA, Gijsbers, L, Givens, DI and Soedamah-Muthu, SS 2017. Milk and dairy consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. European Journal of Epidemiology 32, 269287.
Heath, A-LM and Fairweather-Tate, S J 2002. Clinical implications of changes in the modern diet: iron intake, absorption and status. Best Practice and Research Clinical Haematology 15, 225241.
Hernlund, E, Svedbom, A, Ivergård, M, Compston, J, Cooper, C, Stenmark, J, McCloskey, EV, Jönsson, B and Kanis, JA 2013. Osteoporosis in the European Union: medical management, epidemiology and economic burden. Archives of Osteoporosis 8, 136.
Hu, FB, Manson, JE, Stampfer, MJ, Colditz, G, Liu, S, Solomon, CG and Willett, WC 2001. Diet, lifestyle and the rise of type 2 diabetes in women. New England Journal of Medicine 345, 790797.
Hynes, KL, Otahal, P, Hay, I and Burgess, JR 2013. Mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy is associated with reduced educational outcomes in the offspring: 9-year follow-up of the gestational iodine cohort. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 98, 19541962.
Kalkwarf, HJ, Khoury, JC and Lanphear, BP 2003. Milk intake during childhood and adolescence, adult bone density, and osteoporotic fractures in US women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 77, 257265.
Kesse-Guyot, E, Vergnaud, A-C, Fezeu, KL, Zureik, M, Blacher, J, Peneau, S, Hercberg, S, Galan, P and Czernichow, S 2010. Associations between dietary patterns and arterial stiffness, carotid artery intima-media thickness and atherosclerosis. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation 17, 718724.
Kopelman, PG 2000. Obesity as a medical problem. Nature 404, 635643.
Krebs, NF, Mazariegos, M, Tshefu, A, Bose, C, Sami, N, Chomba, E, Carlo, W, Goco, N, Kindem, M, Wright, LL and Hambidge, KM, the Complementary Feeding Study Group 2011. Meat consumption is associated with less stunting among toddlers in four diverse low-income settings. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 32, 185191.
Kris-Etherton, PM, Grieger, JA, Hilpert, HF and West, SG 2009. Milk products, dietary patterns and blood pressure management. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 28 (suppl. 1), 103S119S.
Kunutsor, SK, Whitehouse, MR, Blom, AW and Laukkanen, JA 2017. Low serum magnesium levels are associated with increased risk of fractures: a long-term prospective cohort study. European Journal of Epidemiology 32, 593603.
Lee, KW, Shin, D, Cho, MS and Song, WO 2016. Food group intakes as determinants of iodine status among us adult population. Nutrients 8, 325.
Livingstone, KM, Lovegrove, JA, Cockcroft, JR, Elwood, PC, Pickering, JE and Givens, DI 2013. Does dairy food intake predict arterial stiffness and blood pressure in men? Evidence from the Caerphilly Prospective Study. Hypertension 61, 4247.
Livingstone, KM, Lovegrove, JA and Givens, DI 2012. The impact of substituting SFA in dairy products with MUFA or PUFA on CVD risk: evidence from human intervention studies. Nutrition Research Reviews 25, 193206.
Lovegrove, JA and Hobbs, DA 2016. New perspectives on dairy and cardiovascular health. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 75, 247258.
Lovegrove, JA and Givens, DI 2016. Dairy food products: good or bad for cardiometabolic disease? Nutrition Research Reviews 29, 249267.
Lu, L, Xun, P, Wan, Y, He, K and Cai, W 2016. Long-term association between dairy consumption and risk of childhood obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70, 414423.
Ma, X, Huang, Z, Yang, X and Su, Y 2014. Calcium supplementation and bone mineral accretion in Chinese adolescents aged 12–14 years: a 12-month, dose–response, randomised intervention trial. British Journal of Nutrition 112, 15101520.
Maes, W, Van Camp, J, Vermeirssen, V, Hemeryck, M, Ketelslegers, J-M, Schrezenmeir, J, Van Oostveldt, P and Huyghebaer, A 2004. Influence of the lactokinin Ala-Leu-Pro-Met-His-Ile-Arg (ALPMHIR) on the release of endothelin-1 by endothelial cells. Regulatory Peptides 118, 105109.
Mente, A, de Koning, L, Shannon, HS and Anand, SS 2009. A systematic review of the evidence supporting a causal link between dietary factors and coronary heart disease. Archives of Internal Medicine 169, 659669.
Micha, R and Mozaffarian, D 2010. Saturated fat and cardiometabolic risk factors, coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes: a fresh look at the evidence. Lipids 45, 893905.
Micha, R, Wallace, SK and Mozaffarian, D 2010. Red and processed meat consumption and risk of incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation 121, 22712283.
Michaelsen, KF 2013. Cow’s milk in the prevention and treatment of stunting and wasting. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 34, 249251.
Mithril, C, Dragsted, LO, Meyer, C, Tetens, I, Biltoft-Jensen, A and Astrup, A 2012. Dietary composition and nutrient content of the New Nordic Diet. Public Health Nutrition 16, 777785.
Morgan, J, Taylor, A and Fewtrell, M 2004. Meat consumption is positively associated with psychomotor outcome in children up to 24 months of age. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 39, 493498.
Moore, T, Impey, SG, Martin, PEN and Symonds, KR 1963. Meat diets. II. Effect of the age of rats on their ability to withstand the low calcium intake induced by a diet of minced beef. Journal of Nutrition 80, 162170.
Mozaffarian, D, de Oliveira Otto, MC, Lemaitre, RN, Fretts, AM, Hotamisligil, G, Tsai, MY, Siscovick, DS and Nettleton, JA 2013. trans-Palmitoleic acid, other dairy fat biomarkers, and incident diabetes: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 97, 854861.
NHS Choices 2017a. Rickets and osteomalacia. Retrieved on 20 June 2017 from http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/Rickets/Pages/Introduction.aspx
NHS Choices 2017b. Meat in your diet. Retrieved on 5 June 2017 from http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/Goodfood/Pages/meat.aspx
Nieves, JW, Melsop, K, Curtis, M, Kelsey, JL, Bachrach, LK, Greendale, G, Sowers, MF and Sainan, KL 2010. Nutritional factors that influence change in bone density and stress fracture risk among young female cross-country runners. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2, 740750.
Oostindjer, M, Alexander, J, Amdam, JV, Andersen, G, Bryan, NS, Chen, D, Corpet, DE, De Smet, S, Dragsted, LO, Haug, A, Karlsson, AH, Kleter, G, de Kok, TM, Kulseng, B, Milkowski, AL, Martin, RJ, Pajari, A-M, Paulsen, JE, Pickova, J, Rudi, K, Sødring, M, Weed, DL and Egelandsdal, B 2014. The role of red and processed meat in colorectal cancer development: a perspective. Meat Science 97, 583596.
Pan, A, Sun, Q, Bernstein, AM, Manson, JE, Willett, WC and Hu, FB 2013. Changes in red meat consumption and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: three cohorts of US men and women. JAMA Internal Medicine 173, 13281335.
Payling, LM, Juniper, DT, Drake, C, Rymer, C and Givens, DI 2015. Effect of milk type and processing on iodine concentration of organic and conventional winter milk at retail: implications for nutrition. Food Chemistry 178, 327330.
Pimpin, L, Wu, JHY, Haskelberg, H, Del Gobbo, L and Mozaffarian, D 2016. Is butter back? A systematic review and meta-analysis of butter consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and total mortality. PLoS ONE 11, e0158118.
Poulsen, SK, Crone, C, Astrup, A and Larsen, TM 2015. Long-term adherence to the New Nordic Diet and the effects on body weight, anthropometry and blood pressure: a 12-month follow-up study. European Journal of Nutrition 54, 6776.
Poulsen, SK, Due, A, Jordy, AB, Kiens, B, Stark, KD, Stender, S, Holst, C, Astrup, A and Larsen, TM 2014. The health effect of the New Nordic Diet in adults with increased waist circumference – a 6 month randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 99, 111.
Purdue-Smithe, AC, Whitcomb, BW, Szegda, KL, Boutot, ME, Manson, JE, Hankinson, SE, Rosner, BA, Troy, LM, Michels, KB and Bertone-Johnson, ER 2017. Vitamin D and calcium intake and risk of early menopause. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (, https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.116.145607, Published online by the American Society for Nutrition 10 May 2017.
Ralston, RA, Lee, JH, Truby, H, Palermo, CE and Walker, KZ 2012. A systematic review and meta-analysis of elevated blood pressure and consumption of dairy foods. Journal of Human Hypertension 26, 313.
Root, AW 1990. Effects of undernutrition on skeletal development, maturation and growth. In Nutrition and bone development (ed. DJ Simmons), pp. 114130. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
Roser, M 2017. Life expectancy. Retrieved on 5 June 2017 from https://ourworldindata.org/life-expectancy/
Rubio-López, N, Llopis-González, A and Morales-Suárez-Varela, M 2017. Calcium intake and nutritional adequacy in Spanish children: the ANIVA Study. Nutrients 9, 170.
Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) 2010. Iron and health. TSO, London, UK.
Sahni, S, Mangano, KM, Kiel, DP, Tucker, KI and Hannan, MT 2017. Dairy intake is protective against bone loss in older vitamin D supplement users: the Framingham Study. The Journal of Nutrition 147, 645652.
Saxe, H 2014. The New Nordic Diet is an effective tool in environmental protection: it reduces the associated socioeconomic cost of diets. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 99, 11171125.
Semali, IA, Tengia-Kessy, A, Mmbaga, EJ and Leyna, G 2015. Prevalence and determinants of stunting in under-five children in central Tanzania: remaining threats to achieving Millennium Development Goal 4. Public Health 15, 1153.
Siri-Tarino, PW, Chiu, S, Bergeron, N and Krauss, RM 2015. Saturated fats versus polyunsaturated fats versus carbohydrates for cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment. Annual Review of Nutrition 35, 517543.
Sluijs, J, Forouhi, NG, Beulens, JWJ, van der Schouw, YT, Agnoli, C, Arriolo, L, Balkau, B, Barricarte, A, Boeing, H, Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB, Clavel-Chapelon, F, Crowe, FL, de Lauzon-Guillain, B, Drogan, D, Franks, PW, Gavrila, D, Gonzalez, C, Halkjaer, J, Kaaks, R, Moskal, A, Nilsson, PM, Overvad, K, Palli, D, Panico, S, Quirós, JR, Ricceri, F, Rinaldi, S, Rolandsson, O, Sacerdote, C, Sánchez, M-J, Slimani, N, Spijkerman, AM, Teucher, B, Tjonneland, A, Tormo, M-J, Tumino, R, van der, ADL, Sharpe, SJ, Langenberg, C, Feskens, EJM, Riboli, E, and Wareham NJ for the InterAct Consortium 2012. The amount and type of dairy product intake and incident type 2 diabetes: results from the EPIC-InterAct Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 96, 382390.
Steinberger, J, Daniels, SR, Hagberg, N, Isasi, CR, Kelly, AS, Lloyd-Jones, D, Pate, RR, Pratt, C, Shay, CM, Towbin, JA, Urbina, E, Van Horn, LV and Zachariah, JP 2016. Cardiovascular health promotion in children: challenges and opportunities for 2020 and beyond. Circulation 134, e236e255.
Stevenson, MC, Drake, C and Givens, DI 2018. Further studies on the iodine concentration of conventional, organic and UHT semi-skimmed milk at retail in the UK. Food Chemistry 239, 551555.
The InterAct Consortium 2013. Association between dietary meat consumption and incident type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-InterAct study. Diabetologia 56, 4759.
Thorning, TK, Bertram, HC, Bonjour, J-P, de Groot, L, Dupont, D, Feeney, E, Ipsen, R, Lecerf, J-M, Mackie, A, McKinley, MC, Michalski, M-C, Rémond, D, Risérus, U, Soedamah-Muthu, S, Tholstrup, T, Weaver, C, Astrup, A and Givens, DI 2017. Whole dairy matrix or single nutrients in assessment of health effects: current evidence and knowledge gaps. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 105, 10331045.
Townsend, N, Bhatnagar, P, Wilkins, E, Wickramasinghe, K and Rayner, M 2015. Cardiovascular disease statistics, 2015. British Heart Foundation, London, UK.
Vafeiadou, K, Weech, M, Altowaijri, H, Todd, S, Yaqoob, P, Jackson, KG and Lovegrove, JA 2015. Replacement of saturated with unsaturated fats had no impact on vascular function but beneficial effects on lipid biomarkers, E-selectin, and blood pressure: results from the randomized, controlled Dietary Intervention and VAScular function (DIVAS) study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 102, 4048.
Van Bortel, LM, Laurent, S, Boutouyrie, P, Chowienczyk, P, Cruickshank, JK, De Backer, T, Filipovsky, J, Huybrechts, S, Mattace-Raso, FUS, Protogerou, AD, Schillaci, G, Segers, P, Vermeersch, S and Weber, T 2012. Expert consensus document on the measurement of aortic stiffness in daily practice using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. Journal of Hypertension 30, 445448.
Vanderpump, MPJ, Lazarus, JH, Smyth, PP, Laurberg, P, Holder, RL, Boelaert, K and Franklyn, JA 2011. Iodine status of UK schoolgirls: a cross-sectional survey. The Lancet 377, 20072012.
Vasilopoulou, D, Markey, O, Fagan, CC, Kliem, KE, Humphries, DJ, Jackson, KG, Todd, S, Givens, DI and Lovegrove, JA 2016. Chronic consumption of conventional and saturated-fat reduced dairy products have differential effects on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in adults at moderate cardiovascular disease risk. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 75, E169.
World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) 2007. Food, nutrition, physical activity and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. American Institute for Cancer Research, Washington, DC, USA.
World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) 2010. Continuous update project report. the associations between food, nutrition and physical activity, and the risk of colorectal cancer. Imperial College, London, UK.
World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research 2014. Continuous update project report: diet, nutrition, physical activity, and prostate cancer 2014. Retrieved on 10 July 2017 from www.wcrf.org/sites/default/files/Prostate-Cancer-2014-Report.pdf
World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research 2016. Continuous update project report: diet, nutrition, physical activity and stomach cancer 2016. Retrieved on 12 July 2017 from www.wcrf.org/stomach-cancer-2016.
World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) 2017. Continuous update project report: diet, nutrition, physical activity and breast cancer 2017. Retrieved on 14 November 2017 from www.wcrf.org/breast-cancer-2017
Weaver, CM, Gordon, CM, Janz, KF, Kalkwarf, HJ, Lappe, JM, Lewis, R, O’Karma, M, Wallace, TC and Zemel, BS 2016. The National Osteoporosis Foundation’s position statement on peak bone mass development and lifestyle factors: a systematic review and implementation recommendations. Osteoporosis International 27, 12811386.
World Health Organization 2011. Serum ferritin concentrations for the assessment of iron status and iron deficiency in populations (WHO/NMH/NHD/MNM/11.2). Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System. World Health Organization, Geneva. Retrieved on 4 May 2017 from http://www.who.int/vmnis/indicators/serum_ferritin.pdf
World Health Organization (WHO) 2017. Q&A on the carcinogenicity of the consumption of red meat and processed meat. Retrieved on 14 December 2017 from http://www.who.int/features/qa/cancer-red-meat/en/
Wilkins, E, Wilson, L, Wickramasinghe, K, Bhatnagar, P, Leal, J, Luengo-Fernandez, R, Burns, R, Rayner, M and Townsend, N 2017. European cardiovascular disease statistics 2017. European Heart Network, Brussels, Belgium.
Würtz, AM, Hansen, MD, Tjønneland, A, Rimm, EB, Schmidt, EB, Overvad, K and Jakobsen, MU 2016. Substitution of meat and fish with vegetables or potatoes and risk of myocardial infarction. British Journal of Nutrition 116, 16021610.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

animal
  • ISSN: 1751-7311
  • EISSN: 1751-732X
  • URL: /core/journals/animal
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 95
Total number of PDF views: 569 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 2096 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 2nd April 2018 - 23rd September 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.