Agricultural and Food Research Council 1993. Energy and protein requirements of ruminants. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Aharoni, Y, Gilboa, N and Silanikove, N 1998. Models of suppressive effect of tannins. Analysis of the suppressive effect of tannins on ruminal degradation by compartmental models. Animal Feed Science and Technology 71, 251-267.
Alexander, RH and McGowan, M 1966. A filtration procedure for the in vitro determination of digestibility of herbage. Journal of the British Grassland Society 16, 140-147.
Barry, TN, Manley, TR and Duncan, SJ 1986. The role of condensed tannins in the nutritional value of Lotus pedunculatus for sheep. 4. Site of carbohydrate and protein digestion as influenced by dietary reactive tannin concentrations. British Journal of Nutrition 55, 123-137.
Barry, TN and Mcnabb, WC 1999. The implications of condensed tannins on the nutritive value of temperate forages fed to ruminants. A review. The British Journal of Nutrition 81, 263-272.
Broadhurst, RB and Jones, WT 1978. Analysis of condensed tannins using acidified vanillin. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 29, 788-794.
Butter, NL, Dawson, JM and Buttery, PJ 1999. Effects of dietary tannins on ruminants. In Secondary plant products: antinutritional and beneficial actions in animal feeding (ed. Caygill, JC and Mueller-Harvey, I), pp. 51-70, Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK.
Calsamiglia, S and Stern, MD 1995. A three-step in vitro procedure for estimating intestinal digestion of protein in ruminants. Journal of Animal Science 73, 1459-1465.
Carre, B and Brillouet, JM 1986. Yield and composition of cell-wall residues isolated from various feedstuffs used for non ruminant farm animals. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 37, 341-351.
Clegg, KM 1956. The application of the anthrone reagent to the estimation of starch in cereals. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 7, 40-44.
Dentinho, MTP, Melo, MM, Bessa, RJB and Ribeiro, JMR 2000. .
Dulphy, JP and Demarquilly, C 1981. Problèmes particuliers aux ensilages. In Prévision de la valeur nutritive des aliments des ruminants (ed. INRA Publ., ), pp. 81-104, Versailles, France.
Frutos, P, Hervás, G, Giráldez, FJ, Fernández, M and Mantecón, AR 2000. Digestive utilization of quebracho-treated soya bean meal in sheep. Journal of Agriculture Science, Cambridge 134, 101-108.
Getachew, G, Makkar, HPS and Becker, K 2000. Effect of polyethylene glycol on in vitro degradability of nitrogen and microbial protein synthesis from tannin-rich browse and herbaceous legumes. British Journal of Nutrition 84, 73-83.
Hagerman, A 1987. Radial diffusion method for determining tannin in plant extract. Journal of Chemical Ecology 13, 437-449.
Hagerman, AE 1988. Extraction of tannin from fresh and preserved leaves. Journal of Chemical Ecology 14, 453-462.
International Organization for Standardization 1997. .
International Organization for Standardization 1999. .
Julkunen-Tiitto, R 1985. Phenolic constituents in the leaves of northern willows: methods for the analysis of certain phenolics. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 33, 213-217.
Khazaal, K, Markantonatos, X, Nastis, A and Ørskov, ER 1993. Changes with maturity in fiber composition and levels of extractable polyphenols in greek browse: effects on in vitro gas-production and in sacco dry matter degradation. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 63, 237-244.
McAllister, TA, Bae, HD, Jones, GA and Cheng, KJ 1994. Microbial attachment and feed digestion in the rumen. Journal of Animal Science 72, 3004-3018.
McSweeney, CS, Palmer, B, McNeil, D and Mand Krause, DO 2001. Microbial interactions with tannins: nutritional consequences for ruminants. Animal Feed Science and Technology 91, 83-93.
Makkar, HPS 2003. Effects and fate of tannins in ruminant animals, adaptation to tannins, and strategies to overcome detrimental effects of feeding tannin-rich feeds. Small Ruminant Research 49, 241-256.
Makkar, HPS, Singh, B and Dawra, RK 1988. Effect of tannin-rich leaves of oak (Quercus Incana) on various microbial enzyme-activities of the bovine rumen. British Journal of Nutrition 60, 287-296.
Min, BR, Barry, TN, Attwood, GT and McNabb, WC 2003. The effect of condensed tannins on the nutrition and health of ruminants fed fresh temperate forages: a review. Animal Feed Science and Technology 106, 3-19.
Mueller-Harvey, I 1999. Tannins their nature and biological significance. In Secondary plant products: antinutritional and beneficial actions in animal feeding (ed. Caygill, JC and Mueller-Harvey, I), pp. 17-39, Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK.
Ørskov, ER and McDonald, I 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 92, 499-503.
Perez-Maldonado, RA and Norton, BW 1996. The effects of condensed tannins from Desmodium intortum and Calliandra calothyrsus on protein and carbohydrate digestion in sheep and goats. British Journal of Nutrition 76, 515-533.
Rodriguez, MS, Castro, AGG, Lucena, EP, Moreno, CM and Leal, JLA 1989. .
Salawu, MB, Acamovic, T, Stewart, CS, Hvelplund, T and Weisbjerg, MR 1999. The use of tannins as silage additives: effects on silage composition and mobile bag disappearance of dry matter and protein. Animal Feed Science and Technology 82, 243-259.
Statistical Analysis Systems Institute 2004. SAS/STAT 9.1 user's guide. SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
Silanikove, N, Nitsan, Z and Perevolotsky, A 1994. Effect of a daily supplementation of polyethylene glycol on intake and digestion of tannin-containing leaves (Ceratonia siliqua) by sheep. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 42, 2844-2847.
Terrill, TH, Windham, WR, Evans, JJ and Hoveland, CS 1990. Condensed tannin concentration in Sericea lespedeza as influenced by preservation method. Crop Science 30, 219-224.
Van Soest, PJ, Conklin, NL and Horvath, PJ 1987. Tannins in foods and feeds. In Proceedings of the Cornell nutrition conference for feed manufacturers. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.
Van Soest, PJ, Robertson, JB and Lewis, BA 1991. Methods for dietary fibre, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74, 3583-3597.