and 6 others. 2001. Polar regions (Arctic and Antarctic). In
McCarthy, J.J., Canziani, O.F., Leary, N.A., Dokken, D.J. and White, K.S., eds.
Climate change 2001: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, etc., Cambridge University Press, 801–841.
1985. Deterioration of floating ice covers. J. Energy Resour. Technol. ASME, 107(2), 177–182.
1983. River ice jams: theory, case studies, and applications. ASCE J. Hydraul. Eng., 109(10), 1338–1359.
1995. River ice jams.
Highlands Ranch, CO, Water Resources Publications.
1997. Onset of river ice breakup. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 25(3), 183–196.
2002. Effects of climate on mid-winter ice jams. Hydrol. Process., 16(4), 789–804.
Beltaos, S. and Prowse, T.D.. 2001. Climate impacts on extreme ice-jam events in Canadian rivers. Hydrol. Sci. J., 46(1), 157–181.
and 6 others. 2006a. Climatic effects on ice-jam flooding of the Peace–Athabasca Delta. Hydrol. Process., 20(19), 4031–4050.
Beltaos, S., Prowse, T.D. and Carter, T.. 2006b. Ice regime of the lower Peace River and ice-jam flooding of the Peace–Athabasca Delta. Hydrol. Process., 20(19), 4009–4029.
Bennett, K. and Prowse, T.D.. In press. Defining the geography of ice-covered rivers. Burlington, Ont., Environment Canada. National Water Research Institute.
Bonsal, B.R. and Prowse, T.D.. 2003. Trends and variability in spring and autumn 0˚C-isotherm dates over Canada. Climatic Change, 57(3), 341–358.
Bonsal, B.R., Shabbar, A. and Higuchi, K.. 2001. Impacts of low frequency variability modes on Canadian winter temperature. Int. J. Climatol., 21(1), 95–108.
Bonsal, B.R., Prowse, T.D., Duguay, C.R. and Lacroix, M.P.. 2006. Impacts of large-scale teleconnections on freshwater-ice break-up/freeze-up dates over Canada. J. Hydrol., 330(1–2), 340–353.
Catchpole, A.J.W. and Moodie, D.W.. 1974. Changes in the Canadian definitions of break-up and freeze-up. Atmosphere, 12(1), 133–138.
de Rham, L.
2006. Spatial and temporal variation of river-ice breakup, Mackenzie River basin, Canada. (MSc thesis, University of Victoria, Canada.)
Ginzburg, B.M., Polyakova, K.N. and Soldatova, I.I.. 1992. Secular changes in dates of ice formation on rivers and their relationship with climate change. Sov. Meteorol. Hydrol., 12, 57–64.
Gray, D.M. and Prowse, T.D.. 1993. Snow and floating ice. In
Maidment, D.R., ed.
Handbook of hydrology. Toronto, Ont., McGraw-Hill Inc., 7.1–7.58.
and 7 others, eds. 2001. Climate change 2001: the scientific basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Cambridge, etc., Cambridge University Press.
1996. Influence of variations in extratropical wintertime teleconnections on Northern Hemisphere temperature. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23(6), 665–668.
1999. 1998 break-up and flood on the Yukon River at Dawson – did El Niño and climate change play a role?
Shen, H.T., ed.
Ice in Surface Waters: Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Ice, 27–31 July 1998, Potsdam, New York, USA. Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, 761–768.
Kuusisto, E. and Elo, A.-R.. 2000. Lake and river ice variables as climate indicators in Northern Europe. Verh. Int. Ver. Theor. Angew. Limnol. [Stuttgart], 27, 2761–2764.
Lacroix, M., Prowse, T.D., Bonsal, B., Duguay, C. and Ménard, P.. 2005. River ice trends in Canada. In Proceedings of the 13th Workshop on the Hydraulics of Ice Covered Rivers, 15–16 September 2005, Hanover, NH, USA. Ottawa, Ont., Canadian Geophysical Union. Committee on River Ice Processes and the Environment, 41–54. CD-ROM.
and 13 others. 2000. Historical trends in lake and river ice cover in the Northern Hemisphere. Science, 289(5485), 1743–1746.
Mann, M.E., Bradley, R.S. and Hughes, M.K.. 1999. Northern Hemisphere temperatures during the past millennium: inferences, uncertainties and limitations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(6), 759–762.
Mantua, N.J., Hare, S.R., Zhang, Y., Wallace, J.M. and Francis, R.C.. 1997. A Pacific interdecadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon production. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 78(6), 1069–1079.
and 9 others. 2005. Arctic climate: past and present. In Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, Arctic climate impact assessment: scientific report. Cambridge, etc., Cambridge University Press, 22–60.
Meehl, G.A., Teng, H. and Branstator, G.. 2006. Future changes of El Niño in two global coupled climate models. Climate Dyn., 26(6), 549–566.
Pariset, E. and Hausser, R.. 1961. Formation and evolution of ice covers on rivers. Trans. Eng. Inst. Can., 5(1), 41–49.
1990. Guidelines for river ice data collection programs. In
Beltaos, S., Gerard, R., Petryk, S. and Prowse, T.D., eds.
Working Group on River Ice Jams: Field Studies and Research Needs. Saskatoon, Sask., Environment Canada. National Hydrology Research Institute, 1–36. (NHRI Science Report 2.)
1995. River ice processes. In
Beltaos, S., ed.
River ice jams. Highlands Ranch, CO, Water Resources Publications.
2005. River-ice hydrology. In
Anderson, M.G., ed.
Encyclopedia of hydrological sciences, Vol. 4. Chichester, John Wiley & Sons, 2657–2677.
Prowse, T.D. and Beltaos, S.. 2002. Climatic control of river-ice hydrology: a review. Hydrol. Process., 16(4), 805–822.
Prowse, T.D. and Bonsal, B.R.. 2004. Historical trends in river-ice break-up: a review. Nord. Hydrol., 35(4), 281–293.
Prowse, T.D. and Demuth, M.N.. 1993. Strength variability of major river-ice types. Nord. Hydrol., 24(2–3), 169–182.
Prowse, T.D., Demuth, M.N. and Chew, H.A.M.. 1990a. Changes in the flexural strength of ice under radiation decay. Nord. Hydrol., 21(4–5), 341–354.
Prowse, T.D., Demuth, M.N. and Chew, H.A.M.. 1990b. The deterioration of freshwater ice due to radiation decay. J. Hydraul. Res., 28(6), 685–697.
Prowse, T.D., Bonsal, B.R., Lacroix, M.P. and Beltaos, S.. 2002. Trends in river-ice breakup and related temperature controls. In
Squire, V.A. and Langhorne, P.J., eds. Ice in the Environment: Proceedings of the 16th IAHR Conference on Sea Ice Processes, 2–6 December 2002, Dunedin, New Zealand, Vol. 3.
Dunedin, International Association of Hydraulic Engineering and Research, 64–71.
and 6 others. 2006. Climate change effects on hydroecology of arctic freshwater ecosystems. Ambio, 35(7), 347–358.
1983. Break-up and freeze-up of the Red River at Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, in the 19th century and some climatic implications. Climatic Change, 5(3), 283–296.
Rasmusson, E.M. and Carpenter, T.H.. 1982. Variations in tropical sea surface temperature and surface wind fields associated with the Southern Oscillation/El Niño. Mon. Weather Rev., 110(5), 354–384.
Rind, D., Perlwitz, J. and Lonergan, P.. 2005. AO/NAO response to climate change: 1. Respective influences of stratospheric and tropospheric climate changes. J. Geophys. Res., 110(D12), D12107. (10.1029/2004JD005103.)
Robertson, D.M., Ragotzkie, R.A. and Magnuson, J.J.. 2000. Lake ice records used to detect historical and future climatic changes. Climatic Change, 21(4), 407–427.
Sagarin, R. and Micheli, F.. 2001. Climate change in nontraditional data sets. Science, 294(5543), 811.
and 9 others. 2000. Observational evidence of recent change in the northern high-latitude environment. Climatic Change, 46(2), 159–207.
Shabbar, A. and Bonsal, B.R.. 2004. Association between low-frequency variability modes and winter temperature extremes in Canada. Atmos.–Ocean, 42(2), 127–140.
Shulyakovskii, L.G., ed.
1966. Manual of forecasting ice formation for rivers and inland lakes. Leningrad, Gidrometeorologicheskoe Izdatel’stvo . Jerusalem, Israel Program for Scientific Translations.
2000. Trends in Russian Arctic river-ice formation and breakup, 1917 to 1994. Phys. Geogr., 21(1), 46–56.
1992. Causes of variability of ice appearance dates in the lower reaches of the Volga. Sov. Meteorol. Hydrol.
1993. Secular variations in river breakup dates and their relation to climate changes. Russ. Meteorol. Hydrol., 9, 70–76.
Thompson, D.W.J. and Wallace, J.W.. 1998. The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25(9), 1297–1300.
Timmermann, A., Oberhuber, J., Bacher, A., Esch, M., Latif, M. and Roeckner, E.. 1999. Increased El Niño frequency in a climate model forced by future greenhouse warming. Nature, 398(6729), 694–697.
1990. Recent observed interdecadal climate changes in the Northern Hemisphere. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 71(7), 988–993.
Trenberth, K.E. and Hurrell, J.W.. 1994. Decadal atmosphere–ocean variations in the Pacific. Climate Dyn., 9(6), 303–319.
2002. Peculiarities of ice events in Russian Arctic rivers. Hydrol. Process., 16(4), 905–913.
Wallace, J.M. and Gutzler, D.S.. 1981. Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Mon. Weather Rev., 109(4), 784–812.
Wallace, J.M., Zhang, Y. and Renwick, J.A.. 1995. Dynamic contribution to hemispheric mean temperature trends. Science, 270(5237), 780–783.
and 11 others. 2005. Cryosphere and hydrology. In Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, Arctic climate impact assessment: scientific report. Cambridge, etc., Cambridge University Press, 183–242.
1970. A note on the break-up of lakes and rivers as indicators of climate change. Atmosphere, 8(1), 23–24.
Wrona, F.J., Prowse, T.D. and Reist, J.D.. 2005. Freshwater ecosystems and fisheries. In Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, Arctic climate impact assessment: scientific report. Cambridge, etc., Cambridge University Press, 353–452.
1989. Climate variation and ice conditions in the River Torneälven. In Proceedings of the Conference on Climate and Water, 11–15 September 1989, Helsinki, Finland, Vol. 1. Helsinki, Academy of Finland, 353–364.
Zelle, H., van Oldenborgh, G.J., Burgers, G. and Dijkstra, H.. 2005. El Ni˜ño and greenhouse warming: results from ensemble simulations with the NCAR CCSM. J. Climate, 18(22), 4669–4683.
Zhang, X., Vincent, L.A., Hogg, W.D. and Niitsoo, A.. 2000. Temperature and precipitation trends in Canada during the 20th century. Atmos.–Ocean, 38(3), 395–429.
Zhang, X., Harvey, K.D., Hogg, W.D. and Yuzyk, T.R.. 2001. Trends in Canadian streamflow. Water Resour. Res., 37(4), 987–999.