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Grotesques and the Evil Eye

  • Alan J. B. Wace
Extract

In discussing the so-called Alexandrian Grotesques in a paper in this Annual last year I expressed the opinion that they should be assigned to Campanian art. I have, however, since then been enabled to study these grotesques more closely; and have in consequence been led to modify my former opinion very considerably. Though these grotesques were very popular in Italy during the late republican and the imperial periods, they were by no means peculiar to the west. They fall naturally into several classes, which, for convenience, are here given in tabular form.

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page 103 note 1 B.S.A. ix. p. 241. I take this opportunity of expressing my hearty thanks to Dr. Hartwig for allowing me to publish the bronze in his possession, to Prof. Ridgeway, Mr. W. L. H. Duckworth, and Mr. E. II. Minns for much valuable information and assistance, to Mr. Cecil Smith for notes on the British Museum bronzés, and to Mr. Stuart Jones, Director of the British School at Rome, who has read my MS. and made many valuable suggestions.

page 106 note 1 The phallus does not appear in the illustration.

page 107 note 1 This and similar figures are mentioned by Stieda, (Anatomische Hefte, xix. 1902) in discussing infibulation.

page 108 note 1 This, I hope, will form part of Prof. Bienkowski's projected Corpus Barbarorum.

page 108 note 2 v. Arch. Anz. 1890, p. 157, 7. The glazed vases (a technique derived from Egypt) found in S. Russia, which represent giotesques and scenes of daily life (comic Judgment of Paris, fishermen, pigmies, and cranes, etc.), also date from the imperial period; one of them was found with coins of Domitian: v. Proceedings Moscow Arch. Soc. xv. 2 (1894), PI. II.–IV.; Proceedings Odessa Arch. Soc. xxii. Pl. 1, 2.

page 108 note 3 Marmorkopf eines Negcrs.

page 108 note 4 Bernoulli, , Röm. Ikon. ii. 3, p. 47, Pl. 20–21.

page 109 note 1 Berichte d. sächsischen Gesellchaft, 1855, p. 28, seqq. Cf. Michaelis, , J.H.S., 1885, p. 312.

page 109 note 2 It is also considered lucky to meet a hunchback on first going out on New Year's Day, and it is especially lucky to touch his hump. Cf. Elworthy, Evil Eye, p. 331.

page 109 note 3 vii. 108.

page 109 note 4 Bekker, Anecd. p. 30, 5.

page 109 note 5 Vit. Aes. 3, p. 12, 12.

page 109 note 6 Op. cit. pp. 66, 67.

page 109 note 7 Untersuch. ii. d. camp. Wandmalerei, p. 138.

page 110 note 1 Op. cit. p. 68, seqq. It may be urged by those who say that these grotesques illustrate the Alexandrian artist's close observation of nature, that priapism is a common symptom in cases of injury to the spine. This is true, but it is not a symptom in the case of a natural humped back which is due to tuberculosis of the spine cured naturally.

page 110 note 2 Also in Spain and Germany (Jahn, op. cit. p. 8o), in France, Portugal, and Greece (Sittl. Gebärden d. Griechen u. Römer, p. 102), and in England (Elworthy, Evil Eye, p. 255).

page 110 note 3 Signaque dat digitis medio cum pollice iunctis. Fasti v. i. 33.

page 110 note 4 C.R. 1866, Pl. II. 34, 1872, Pl. III. 11. Jahn, op. cit. Pl. IV. 9, 19, V. 2.

page 110 note 5 Elworthy, Evil Eye, pp. 306, 344, Figs. 81, 161, 162.

page 110 note 6 Op. cit. Pl. V. 1, 3.

page 110 note 7 Others still in use to-day are the various hand-gestures, coral, horns, tusks, or teeth of wild animals, the moon, and the hand covered with symbols: v. Jahn, op. cit. pp. 53, 43, 58, 39, 101.

page 111 note 1 Geschichte d. Griech. Kunstler, i. 144.

page 111 note 2 Mrs. Strong thinks the identification certain, but believes the sculptor to be the great Myron. See her note on Pliny xxxvi, 32 (Jex-Blake and Sellers, Pliny's chapters on the History of Art).

page 111 note 3 Paus. vi. 2, 2; 8, 5. See Frazer's notes thereon.

page 111 note 4 Löwy, I.G.B. 154. Collignon (Hist. Sculpt. Grecque ii. p. 592, 1) presumes the existence of three Myrons.

page 111 note 5 Weisshäupl, , Ἐφ. Ἀρχ. 1891, p. 144.

page 111 note 6 B.S.A. ix. p. 236, seqq.

page 111 note 7 E.g. Theocritus i. 38.

page 111 note 8 Pfuhl, , Röm. Milth., 1904, 1, 1.

page 111 note 9 Helbig,2 476. Bernoulli, , Griech. Ikon. ii. p. 171. Cf. the old woman in the Capitol, Helbig,2 520.

page 112 note 1 I do not know if this is the torso referred to by Arndt (E. V. 1171) as a replica of the Hermitage Shepherd (9). The Magazzino Archeologico fragment is certainly female, and the arrangement of the drapery is totally different from that of the Petersburg and Palazzo Lazzaroni figures.

page 112 note 2 v. Bull. Comm. 1875, p. 242, 5, 1880, p. 287, 4.

page 112 note 3 Pfuhl, however, attributes it to Asia Minor: but compare the Harueris published by him, Röm. Mitth. 1904, p. 1, seqq. Pl. 1.

page 112 note 4 There are other examples of Roman work in this style in the Museo Chiaramonti, Amelung, Cat. Sculp. Vat. Mus. Chi. 59, 280, 583.

page 112 note 5 Peasants carrying lambs similar to the peasant woman in the Palazzo dei Conservatori (3) can be seen at markets in modern Greece and Asia Minor.

page 112 note 6 Winter, v., Typenkatalog II. pp. 432447, 455–469. Cf. Pottier-Reinach, Nécropole de Myrina, p. 485, 4.

page 113 note 1 Potlier-Reinach, Nécropole de Myrina, Nos. 323–339. Wiegand-Schrader, Priene, p. 357, seqq. Figs. 434–443. Furtwängler, Coll. Sabouroff, Pl. 138. Cf. Gaudin collection in the Louvre, as yet unpublished (from Smyrna).

page 113 note 2 Lenormant, Coll. Raifé, 1189, 1191. Walters, B.M. Cat. Terracottas, C. 591, 605, 646. Cf. C. 709, 819 (from Cyrene).

page 113 note 3 C.R., 1869, Pl. II., Pl. III. 14, 1870, Pl. V. 9, 10, 1873, Pl. III. 6, 7, 8, 1874, Pl. I. 8, 1877, Pl. V. 11.

page 113 note 4 Martha, Cat. d. Figurines d'Athénes, 64, 66, 423, 424, 677. Walters, op. cit. C. 44, 62, 63, 205, 206, 208, 216, 243, 333.

page 113 note 5 Walters, op. cit. D 350, 358, 364–366, 385, E. 30–32.

page 113 note 6 E.g. those from the grave of a priestess (?) at Blisnitza, v. C.R. 1869, loc. cit. p. 146, seqq., and some hunchbacks, e.g. -Winter, op. cit. II. p. 447. 5.

page 113 note 7 Cf. Pottier-Reinach, op. cit. p 476, seqq.

page 113 note 8 Inv. 8761. Height ·175 m.

page 114 note 1 v. Winter, Typenkatalog, loc. cit.

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Annual of the British School at Athens
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  • EISSN: 2045-2403
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