Aaberg, S. & Bonsignore, J.. 1975. A consideration of time and labor expenditure in the construction process at the Teotihuacan pyramid and the Poverty Point mound, in Graham, J.A. & Heizer, R.F. (ed.) Three papers on Mesoamerican archaeology (Contributions of the University of California Archaeological Research Facility 24): 40–78. Berkeley (CA): University of California, Department of Anthropology.
Abrams, E.M. 1994. How the Maya built their world: energetics and ancient architecture. Austin (TX): University of Texas Press.
Abrams, E. & Bolland, T.W.. 1999. Architectural energetics, ancient monuments, and operations management. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 6: 263–291.
Abrams, E. & Le Rouge, M.F.. 2008. Political complexity and mound construction among the early and late Adena of the Hocking Valley, Ohio, in Otto, M.P. & Redmond, B.G. (ed.) Transitions: Archaic and Early Woodland research in the Ohio country: 214–231. Athens (OH): Ohio University Press.
Andersen, N.H. 1997. The Sarup enclosures. Moesgaard: Jysk Arkæologisk Selskab.
Ashbee, P. 1966. The FusselL's Lodge long barrow excavations 1957. Archaeologia 100: 1–80.
Atkinson, R.J.C. 1961. Neolithic engineering. Antiquity 35: 292–299.
Bernardini, W. 2004. Hopewell geometric earthworks: a case study in the referential and experiential meaning of monuments. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 23: 331–356.
Blitz, J.H. & Livingood, P.. 2004. Sociopolitical implications of Mississippian mound volume. American Antiquity 69: 291–301.
Brown, J.A., Kerber, R.A. & Winters, H.D.. 1990. Trade and the evolution of exchange relations at the beginning of the Mississippian period, in Smith, B.D. (ed.) The Mississippian emergence: 251–280. Washington (DC): Smithsonian Institution Press.
Campbell, T.N. 1959. Choctaw subsistence: ethnographic notes from the Lincecum manuscript. Florida Anthropologist 12: 9–24.
Charles, D.K., Van Nest, J. & Buikstra, J.E.. 2004. From the earth: minerals and meaning in the Hopewellian world, in Boivin, N. & Owoc, M.A. (ed.) Soils, stones and symbols: cultural perceptions of the mineral world: 43–70. London: UCL Press.
Cobb, C.R. 2000. From quarry to cornfield: the political economy of Mississippian hoe production. Tuscaloosa (AL): University of Alabama Press.
Collins, J.M. & Chalfant, M.L.. 1993. A second-terrace perspective on Monks Mound. American Antiquity 58: 319–332.
Curwen, E.C. 1926. On the use of scapulae as shovels. Sussex Archaeological Collections 67: 139–145.
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE). 1957. Manual labour and its more effective use in competition with machines for earthwork in the ECAFE region. E/CN.11/WRD/Conf.3/L.1. United Nations Economic and Social Council.
Emerson, T.E. & Jackson, D.K.. 1984. The BBB Motor site (FAI-270 Site Reports 6). Urbana (IL): University of Illinois Press.
Emerson, T.E. & Woods, W.I.. 1990. The slumping of the great knob: an archaeological and geotechnic case study of the stability of a great earthen mound, in 6th International Conference on the Conservation of Earthen Architecture, 1990, Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA (Adobe 90 Preprints): 219–224. Los Angeles (CA): The Getty Conservation Institute.
Erasmus, C.J. 1965. Monument building: some field experiments. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 21: 277–301.
Evans, J.G. & Limbrey, S.. 1974. The experimental earthwork on Morden Bog, Wareham, Dorset, England: 1963 to 1972. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 40: 170–202.
Fecht, W.G. 1951. A cache of eight flint spades. Journal of the Illinois State Archaeological Society 2: 85–86.
Fowler, M.L. 1997. The Cahokia atlas. Revised edition (Studies in Archaeology 2). Urbana (IL): Illinois Transportation Archaeological Research Program, University of Illinois.
Fox, A.L. 1876. Excavations in Cissbury Camp, Sussex. The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 5: 357–390.
Gillette, H.P. 1920. Earthwork and its cost. Third edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Gonlin, N. 1993. Rural household archaeology at Copan, Honduras. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Pennsylvania State University.
Greber, N.B. 2006. Enclosures and communities in Ohio Hopewell, in Charles, D.K. & Buikstra, J.E. (ed.) Recreating Hopewell: 74–105. Gainesville (FL): University Press of Florida.
Hammerstedt, S.W. 2005. Mississippian construction, labor, and social organization in western Kentucky. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Pennsylvania State University.
Hard, R.J., Zapata, J.E., Moses, B.K. & Roney, J.R.. 1999. Terrace construction in northern Chihuahua, Mexico: 1150 BC and modern experiments. Journal of Field Archaeology 26: 129–146.
Harn, A.D. 1994. Variation in Mississippian settlement patterns: the Larson settlement system in the central Illinois River Valley (Reports of Investigations 50). Springfield (IL): Illinois State Museum.
Heaney, S. 2000. Beowulf. New York: W.W.Norton.
Holmes, W.H. 1919. Handbook of aboriginal American antiquities (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 60). Washington (DC): Government Printing Office.
Hudson, C. 1976. The Southeastern Indians. Knoxville (TN): University of Tennessee Press.
Hurst, J.T. 1899. A handbook of formulae, tables, and memoranda for architectural surveyors. Fifteenth edition. London: E. & F.N. Spon.
Jewell, P.A. 1963. The experimental earthwork on Overton Down, Wiltshire 1960. London: British Association for the Advancement of Science.
Kelly, J.E. 1994. The archaeology of the East St. Louis mound center: past and present. Illinois Archaeology 6: 1–57.
Krause, R.A. 1988. The Snodgrass small mound and middle Tennessee Valley prehistory (Publications in Anthropology 52). Chattanooga (TN): Tennessee Valley Authority.
Lepper, B.P. 1996 The Newark earthworks and the geometric enclosures of the Scioto Valley: connections and conjectures, in Pacheco, P.J. (ed.) A view from the core: a synthesis of Ohio Hopewell archaeology: 226–241. Columbus (OH): Ohio Archaeological Council.
Milner, G.R. 1983. The Turner and DeMange sites (FAI-270 Site Reports 4). Urbana (IL): University of Illinois Press.
Milner, G.R. 1984. The Julien site (FAI-270 Site Reports 7). Urbana (IL): University of Illinois Press.
Milner, G.R. 1998. The Cahokia chiefdom: the archaeology of a Mississippian society. Washington (DC): Smithsonian Institution Press.
Milner, G.R., Emerson, T.E., Mehrer, M.W., Williams, J.A. & Esarey, D.. 1984. Mississippian and Oneota period, in Bareis, C.J. & Porter, J.W. (ed.) American Bottom archaeology: 158–186. Urbana (IL): University of Illinois Press.
Morgan, W.N. 1999. Precolumbian architecture in Eastern North America. Gainesville (FL): University Press of Florida.
Milner, G.R. 2008. Earth architecture from ancient to modern. Gainesville (FL): University Press of Florida.
Muller, J. 1997. Mississippian political economy. New York: Plenum Press.
Owoc, M.A. 2002. Munselling the mound: the use of soil colour as metaphor in British Bronze Age funerary ritual, in Jones, A. & MacGregor, G. (ed.) Colouring the past: the significance of colour in archaeological research: 127–140. Oxford: Berg.
Phillips, W.A. 1899. The aboriginal quarries and shops at Mill Creek, Union County, Ill. Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science 48: 361–363.
Phillips, W.A. 1900. Aboriginal quarries and shops at Mill Creek, Illinois. American Anthropologist 2: 37–52.
Rankine, W.J.M. 1866. Useful rules and tables. London: Charles Griffin.
Rau, C. 1869. A deposit of agricultural flint implements in southern Illinois, in Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for 1868: 401–447. Washington (DC): Smithsonian Institution.
Phillips, W.A. 1876. The archaeological collection of the United States National Museum (Contributions to Knowledge 22). Washington (DC): Smithsonian Institution.
Shaw, T. 1970. Methods of earthwork building. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 34: 380–381.
Startin, D.W.A. 1982. Prehistoric earthmoving, in Case, H.J. & Whittle, A.W.R..(ed.) Settlement patterns in the Oxford region: excavation at the Abingdon causewayed enclosure and other sites: 153–156. London: Council for British Archaeology.
Sturtevant, W.C. 1968. Lafitau's hoes. American Antiquity 33: 93–95.
Swanton, J.C. 1911. Indian tribes of the lower Mississippi valley and adjacent coast of the Gulf of Mexico (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 43). Washington (DC): Government Printing Office.
Thomas, C. 1894. Report on the mound explorations of the Bureau of Ethnology (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 12). Washington (DC): Government Printing Office.
Throop, A.J. 1928. Mound builders of Illinois. East St. Louis (IL): Call Printing.
Wainwright, G.J. & Longworth, I.H.. 1971. Durrington Walls: excavations 1966-1968 (Reports of the Research Committee 39). London: Society of Antiquaries.
Welch, P.D. 2006. Archaeology at Shiloh Indian mounds 1899-1999. Tuscaloosa (AL): University of Alabama Press.
Wilson, G.L. 1987. Buffalo Bird Woman's garden: agriculture of the Hidatsa Indians. St. Paul (MN): Minnesota Historical Society.
Winters, H.D. 1981. Excavating in museums: notes on Mississippian hoes and Middle Woodland copper gouges and celts, in Cantwell, A.E., Griffin, J.B. & Rothschild, N.A. (ed.) The research potential of anthropological museum collections (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 376): 17–34. New York: New York Academy of Sciences.