Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Diet and ethnicity during the Viking colonization of northern Scotland: evidence from fish bones and stable carbon isotopes

  • James H. Barrett (a1), Roelf P. Beukens (a2) and Rebecca A. Nicholson (a3)
Extract

Diet and ethnicity are strongly related. Recent work on fish-bone ratios and stable carbon isotopes suggest that the Vikings increased the fish contribution to the diet of Orkney and Shetland by a greater investment in deep-sea fishing.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Ambrose, S.H. 1990. Preparation and characterization of bone and tooth collagen for isotopic analysis, Journal of Archaeological Science 17: 43151.
Ambrose, S.H. & Norr, L.. 1993. Isotopic composition of dietary protein and energy versus bone collagen and apatite: Purified diet growth experiments, in Lambert, J.B. & Grupe, G. (ed.), Prehistoric human bone: Archaeology at the molecular level: 137. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Anthony, D.W. 1990. Migrations in archaeology. The baby and the bathwater, American Anthropologist 92: 895914.
Baldwin, J.R. 1982. Fishing the sellag: Hand netting traditions from Caithness, the Northern and Western Isles, in Baldwin, J.R. (ed.), Caithness: A cultural crossroads: 161212. Edinburgh: Edina Press.
Barrett, J.H. 1995. ‘Few know an earl in fishing-clothes.’ Fish middens and the economy of the Viking Age and Late Norse earldoms of Orkney and Caithness, northern Scotland. Ph.D thesis, University of Glasgow.
Barrett, J.H. 1996. A summary report on animal bone from excavations at Smoo Cave, Sutherland, Scotland, 1992. Department of Archaeology, University of Glasgow.
Barrett, J.H. 1997. Fish trade in Norse Orkney and Caithness: a zoo-archaeological approach, Antiquity 71: 61638.
Barrett, J.H., Nicholson, R.A. & Cerón-Carrasco, R.. 1999. Archaeo-ichthyological evidence for long-term socioeconomic trends in northern Scotland: 3500 BC to AD 1500, Journal of Archaeological Science 26: 35388.
Barrett, J.H., Beukens, R.P. & Brothwell, D.R.. 2000a. Radiocarbon dating and marine reservoir correction of Viking Age Christian burials from Orkney, Antiquity 74: 53743.
Barrett, J., Beukens, R. Simpson, I. Ashmore, I. Poaps, P. & Huntley, J.. 2000b. What was the Viking Age and when did it happen? A view from Orkney, Norwegian Archaeological Review 33: 139.
Bond, J.M. 1998. Beyond the fringe? Recognising change and adaptation in Pictish and Norse Orkney, in Mills, C.M. & Coles, G. (ed.), Human settlement in marginal areas: 8190. Oxford: Oxbow. Monograph 100.
Bond, J.M. & Hunter, J.R.. 1987. Flax-growing in Orkney from the Norse period to the 18th century, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 117: 17581.
Booth, C., Cuthbert, M. & Reynolds, P.. 1984. The Birds of Orkney. Kirkwall: The Orkney Press.
Burmeister, S. 2000. Archaeology and migration: Approaches to an archaeological proof of migration, Current Anthro-pologyil: 53969.
Buteux, S. (ed.). 1997. Settlements at Skaill, Deemess, Orkney. Oxford: Tempvs Reparatvm. BAR British series 260.
Cerón-Carrasco, R. 1994. The investigation of fish remains from an Orkney farm mound, in Van Neer, W. (ed.), Fish exploitation in the past: Proceedings of the 7th meeting ofthelCAZfish remains working group: 20710. Tervuren: Musée Royal de L’Afrique Centrale.
Cerón-Carrasco, R. 1998a. Fish, in Sharpies, N. (ed.), Scalloway: A hroch, Late Iron Age settlement and medieval cemetery. Oxford: Oxbow. Monograph 82.
Cerón-Carrasco, R. 1998b. Fish bone, in Lowe, C. (ed.), St Boniface Church, Orkney: Coastal erosion and archaeological assessment: 14955. Edinburgh: Sutton Publishing/Historic. Scotland.
Chapman, J. & Hamerow, H. (ed.). 1997. Migrations and invasion in archaeological explanation. Oxford: Tempvs Reparatvm. BAR International series S664.
Colley, S.M. 1983. Marine resource exploitation, in Hedges, J.W., Trial excavations on Pictish and Viking settlements at Saevar Howe, Birsay, , Orkney, , 10: 11113, MF 8792, MF 94102.
Colley, S.M. 1989. The fish bones, in Morris, (ed.): 24859.
Crabtree, P. 1990. Zooarchaeology and complex societies: some uses of faunal analysis for the study of trade, social status, and ethnicity, in Schiffer, M.B. (ed.), Archaeological method and theory 2: 155205. Tucson (AZ): University of Arizona Press.
Enghoff, I.B. 1999. Fishing in the Baltic region from the 5th century BC to the 16th century AD: Evidence from fish bones, Archaeofauna 8: 4185.
Fellows-Jensen, G. 1984. Viking settlement in the Northern and Western Isles — the place name evidence as seen from Denmark and the Danelaw, in Fenton, A. & Pálsson, H. (ed.), The Northern and Western Isles in the Viking World: 14668. Edinburgh: John Donald.
Fenton, A. 1978. The Northern Isles: Orkney and Shetland. Edinburgh: John Donald.
Foster, S.M. 1990. Pins, combs and the chronology of later Atlantic Iron Age settlement, in Armit, I. (ed.), Beyond the brochs: 14374. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Goodlad, C.A. 1971. Shetland fishing saga. Lerwick: Shetland Times.
Grayson, D.K. 1984. Quantitative zooarchaeology. London: Academic Press.
Gumerman IV, G. 1997. Food and complex societies, Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 4: 10539.
Härke, H. 1998. Archaeologists and migrations: A problem of attitude, Current Anthropology 39: 1945.
Hedges, J.W. 1983. Trial excavations on Pictish and Viking settlements at Saevar Howe, Birsay, Orkney, Glasgow Archaeological Journal 10: 73124.
Hunter, J.R. 1997. The early Norse period, in Edwards, K.J. & Ralston, I.B. (ed.), Scotland: environment and archaeology. 8000 BC-AD 1000: 24154. New York (NY): John Wiley & Sons.
Hunter, J.R., Bond, J.M. & Smith, A.M.. 1993. Some aspects of Viking settlement in Orkney, in Batey, C.E. Jasch, J. & Morris, C.D. (ed.), The Viking Age in Caithness, Orkney and the North Atlantic: 27284. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Jones, A.K.G. 1982. Bulk-sieving and the recovery of fish remains from urban archaeological sites, in Hall, A.R. & Kenward, H. (ed.), Environmental archaeology in the urban context. 7985. London: Council for British Archaeology. Research report 43.
Jones, A.K.G., Morris, C.D. & Rackham, D.J.. 1995a. Environmental sampling: methods and materials, in Morris, et al. (ed.): 14953.
Jones, A.K.G., Morris, C.D. & Rackham, D.J.. 1995b. The fish material, in Morris, et al. (ed.): 15491.
Jones, S. 1997. The archaeology of ethnicity. London: Routledge.
Kaland, S.H.H. 1996. En vikingtidsgård og -gravplass pa Orknoyene, in Kroger, & Naley, (ed.): 638.
Krøger, J.F. & Naley, H. (ed.). 1996. Nardsjøen: Handel, religion og politikk. Karmoy Kommune: Vikingfestivalen.
Locker, A. 1994. The fish remains, in Smith, (ed.): 1579.
Lowe, C. (ed.). 1998. St Boniface Church, Orkney: Coastal erosion and archaeological assessment. Edinburgh: Sutton Publishing/Historic Scotland.
McCormick, F. 1998. Mammal bone, in Lowe, (ed.): 1469.
Mead, P. 1999. Exploitation of the wild bird resource in the Northern Isles over three prehistoric time periods. Unpublished undergraduate dissertation, University of Bradford.
Minitab Inc. 2000. Minitab Statistical Software Release 13.1. State College (PA): Minitab Inc.
Morris, C.D. (ed.). 1989. The Birsay Bay Project 1: Brough Road Excavations 1976–1982. Durham: University of Durham, Department of Archaeology. Monograph series 1.
Morris, C.D. (ed.). 1996. The Norse impact in the Northern Isles of Scotland, in Krøger, & Naley, (ed.): 6983.
Morris, C.D., Batey, C.E. & Rackham, D.J.. 1995. Freswick Links, Caithness: Excavation and survey of a Norse Settlement. Inverness: Highland Libraries/North Atlantic Biocultural Organisation.
Morrison, 1.1992. Traditionalism and innovation in the maritime technology of Shetland and other North Atlantic communities, in Smout, T.C. (ed.), Scotland and the sea: 11436. Edinburgh: John Donald.
Neighbour, T. & Montgomery, J.. Forthcoming. ‘You are what you eat: Skeletal clues to the impact of the Norse on the Western Isles’, in MacLeod, M., Gall-Ghaidheil: The Western Isles in the Viking World, Stornaway, Lewis, 2000.
Nicholson, R.A. 1996. Fish bone diagenesis in different soils, Archaeofauna 5: 7991.
Nicholson, R.A. 1998a. Fishing in the Northern Isles: A case study based on fish bone assemblages from two multi-period sites on Sanday, Orkney, Environmental Archaeology: The Journal of Human Palaeoecology 2: 1528.
Nicholson, R.A. 1998b. Fishing for facts: A preliminary view of the fish remains from Old Scatness Broch, in Nicholson, R.A. & Dockrill, S.J. (ed.), Old Scatness Broch, Shetland: Retrospect and prospect. 97110. Bradford: University of Bradford/Shetland Amenity Trust/North Atlantic Biocultural Organisation.
Perdikaris, S. 1999. From chiefly provisioning to commercial fishery: Long-term economic change in Arctic Norway, World Archaeology 30: 388402.
Pollard, T. 1992. Smoo Cave. Glasgow: Glasgow University Archaeological Research Division.
Rackham, D.J. 1989. Excavations beside the Brough Road, Birsay: The biological assemblage, in Morris, (ed.): 23172.
Richards, M.P. & Mellars, S.J.. 1998. Stable isotopes and the seasonality of the Oronsay middens, Antiquity 72: 17884.
Ritchie, A. 1974. Pict and Norseman in northern Scotland, Scottish Archaeological Forum 6: 2336.
Ritchie, A. 1993. Viking Scotland. London: B.T. Batsford/Historic Scotland.
Rowley-Conwy, P. 1983. The animal and bird bones, in Hodges, (1983): fiche 7091.
Sellevold, B. J. 1999. Picts and Vikings at Westness: Anthropological investigations of the skeletal material from the cemetery at Westness, Rousay, Orkney Islands. Oslo: NIKU Scientific Report 010: 162.
Serieantson, D. In press. The great auk and the gannet: A pre-historic perspective on the extinction of the great auk, International Journal of Osteoarchaeology.
Sharples, N. 1998. Scalloway: A broch, Late Iron Age settlement and medieval cemetery in Shetland. Oxford: Oxbow. Monograph 82.
Sharples, N. & Parker Pearson, M.. 1999. Norse settlement in the Outer Hebrides, Norwegian Archaeological Review 32: 4162.
Smith, B.B. (ed.). 1994. Howe: Four millenia of Orkney prehistory. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Monograph series 9.
Smith, C. 1994. Animal bone report, in Smith, (ed.): 13953.
Stuiver, M. & Reimer, P.J.. 1993. Extended 14C database and revised CALIB radiocarbon calibration program, Radiocarbon 35: 21530.
Stuiver, M., Reimer, P.J. & Braziunas, T.F.. 1998. High-precision radiocarbon age calibration for terrestrial and marine samples, Radiocarbon 40: 112751.
Tauber, H. 1981. 13C evidence for dietary habits of prehistoric man in Denmark, Nature 292: 3323.
Taylor, R.E. 1997. Radiocarbon dating, in Taylor, R.E. & Aitken, M.J. (ed.), Chronometric dating in archaeology: 6596. New York (NY): Plenum Press.
Van Klinken, G.J. 1999. Bone collagen quality indicators for palaeodietary and radiocarbon measurements, Journal of Archaeological Science 26: 68796.
Wainwright, ET. (ed.). 1964. The Northern Isles. Edinburgh: Thomas Nelson.
Wheeler, A. 1977. The fish bones from Buckquoy, Orkney, in Ritchie, A., Excavation of Pictish and Viking-age farmsteads at Buckquoy, Orkney, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 108: 21114.
Whitehead, P.J.P., Bauchot, M.L. Hureau, J.C. Nielsen, J. & Tortonese, E. (ed.). 1986a. Fishes of the northeastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean 2. Paris: UNESCO.
Whitehead, P.J.P., Bauchot, M.L. Hureau, J.C. Nielsen, J. & Tortonese, E. (ed.). 1986b. Fishes of the northeastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean 3. Paris: UNESCO.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Antiquity
  • ISSN: 0003-598X
  • EISSN: 1745-1744
  • URL: /core/journals/antiquity
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 168 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 737 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 26th September 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.