Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Rice, beans and trade crops on the early maritime Silk Route in Southeast Asia

  • Cristina Cobo Castillo (a1), Bérénice Bellina (a2) and Dorian Q Fuller (a1)
Abstract

Plant macrofossils from the sites of Khao Sam Kaeo and Phu Khao Thong on the Thai-Malay Peninsula show evidence of cross-cultural interactions, particularly between India to the west and Southeast Asia to the east. Archaeobotanical analysis of various cereals, beans and other crops from these assemblages sheds light on the spread and adoption of these species for local agriculture. There is also early evidence for the trade of key commodities such as cotton. The plant remains illustrate a variety of influences and networks of contact across South and Southeast Asia during the late first millennium BC.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Rice, beans and trade crops on the early maritime Silk Route in Southeast Asia
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Rice, beans and trade crops on the early maritime Silk Route in Southeast Asia
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Rice, beans and trade crops on the early maritime Silk Route in Southeast Asia
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence (Email: cristina.castillo@ucl.ac.uk)
References
Hide All
Allen, J. 2009. Étude geomorphologique: paleo-drainage, erosion, gestion des sols et agriculture, in Bellina, B. (ed.) La campagne 2009 de la mission Franco-Thai en peninsule Thai-Malaise: 2045. Paris: CNRS.
Anderson, E.F. 1993. Plants and people of the Golden Triangle: ethnobotany of the hill tribes of northern Thailand. Portland (OR): Dioscorides.
Arora, R.K., Chandel, K.P.S., Joshi, B.S. & Pant, K.C.. 1980. Rice bean: tribal pulse of eastern India. Economic Botany 34: 260–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02858644
Bedigian, D. 2004. History and lore of sesame in Southwest Asia. Economic Botany 58: 329–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1663/0013-0001(2004)058[0330:HALOSI]2.0.CO;2
Bellina, B. 2014. Maritime Silk Roads’ ornament industries: socio-political practices and cultural transfers in the South China Sea. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 24: 345–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0959774314000547
Bellina, B. 2014. (ed.). In press. Khao Sam Kaeo: an early port-city between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea. Paris: École française d'Extrême-Orient.
Bellina, B., Silapanth, P., Chaisuwan, B., Allen, J., Bernard, V., Borell, B., Bouvet, P., Castillo, C., Dussubieux, L., Malakie, J., Perronnet, S. & Pryce, T.O.. 2014. The development of coastal polities in the Upper Thai-Malay Peninsula of the late first millennium BCE and the inception of the long-lasting economic and cultural exchange between the East of the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea, in Revire, N. & Murphy, S. (ed.) Before Siam was born: 6889. Bangkok: River.
Bellina-Pryce, B. & Silapanth, P.. 2008. Weaving cultural identities on trans-Asiatic networks: upper Thai-Malay Peninsula—an early socio-political landscape. Bulletin de L’École française d'Extrême-Orient 93: 257–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.3406/befeo.2006.6039
Bogaard, A., Palmera, C., Jones, G., Charles, M. & Hodgson, J.G.. 1999. A FIBS approach to the use of weed ecology for the archaeobotanical recognition of crop rotation regimes. Journal of Archaeological Science 26: 1211–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jasc.1998.0364
Burkill, I.H. 1935. A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula. Kuala Lumpur: Published on behalf of the Governments of Malaysia and Singapore by the Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives.
Calò, A. 2009. The distribution of bronze drums in early Southeast Asia: trade routes and cultural spheres. Oxford: Archaeopress.
Cameron, J. 2010. The archaeological textiles from Ban Don Ta Phet in broader perspective, in Bellina-Pryce, B., Pryce, T.O., Bacus, E. & Wisseman-Christie, J. (ed.) 50 years of archaeology in Southeast Asia: essays in honour of Ian Glover: 141–52. Bangkok: River.
Castillo, C. 2011. Rice in Thailand: the archaeobotanical contribution. Rice 4: 114–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12284-011-9070-2
Castillo, C. 2013. The archaeobotany of Khao Sam Kaeo and Phu Khao Thong: the agriculture of late prehistoric Southern Thailand. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University College London.
Castillo, C. & Fuller, D.Q.. 2010. Still too fragmentary and dependent upon chance? Advances in the study of early Southeast Asian archaeobotany, in Bellina-Pryce, B., Pryce, T.O., Bacus, E. & Wisseman-Christie, J. (ed.) 50 years of archaeology in Southeast Asia: essays in honour of Ian Glover: 90111. Bangkok: River.
Castillo, C., Tanaka, K., Sato, Y., Kajale, M., Bellina, B., Higham, C., Chang, N. & Fuller, D.Q.. 2015. Archaeogenetic study of prehistoric rice remains from Thailand and India: evidence of early japonica in South and Southeast Asia. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences: 121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12520-015-0236-5
Chaisuwan, B. 2011. Early contacts between India and the Andaman Coast in Thailand from the second century BCE to eleventh century CE, in Manguin, P.Y., Mani, A. & Wade, G. (ed.) Early interactions between South and Southeast Asia: reflections on cross-cultural movements: 83111. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
d'Ennequin, M.L.T., Panaud, O., Toupance, B. & Sarr, A.. 2000. Assessment of genetic relationships between Setaria italica and its wild relative S. viridis using AFLP markers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 100: 1061–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s001220051387
Fuller, D.Q. 2007. Non-human genetics, agricultural origins and historical linguistics in South Asia, in Petraglia, M.D. & Allchin, B. (ed.) The evolution and history of human populations in South Asia: 393443. Dordrecht: Springer.
Fuller, D.Q. 2008. The spread of textile production and textile crops in India beyond the Harappan zone: an aspect of the emergence of craft specialization and systematic trade, in Osada, T. & Uesugi, A. (ed.) Linguistics, archaeology and the human past (Occasional Papers 3): 1--26. Kyoto: Indus Project, Research Institute for Humanity and Nature.
Fuller, D.Q. & Boivin, N.. 2009. Crops, cattle and commensals across the Indian Ocean: current and potential archaeobiological evidence, in Lefevre, G. (ed.) Plantes et societés (Études Ocean Indien 42–43): 1346. Paris: Intitut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales.
Fuller, D.Q. & Castillo, C.. 2016. Diversification and cultural construction of a crop: the case of glutinous rice and waxy cereals in the food cultures of eastern Asia, in Lee-Thorp, J. & Katzenberg, M.A. (ed.) The Oxford handbook of the archaeology of food and diet. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199694013.013.8
Fuller, D.Q. & Harvey, E.L.. 2006. The archaeobotany of Indian pulses: identification, processing and evidence for cultivation. Environmental Archaeology 11: 219–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/174963106x123232
Fuller, D.Q. & Qin, L.. 2009. Water management and labour in the origins and dispersal of Asian rice. World Archaeology 41: 88111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00438240802668321
Fuller, D.Q., Sato, Y.-I., Castillo, C., Qin, L., Weisskopf, A.R., Kingwell-Banham, E.J., Song, J., Ahn, S.-M. & van Etten, J.. 2010. Consilience of genetics and archaeobotany in the entangled history of rice. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 2: 115–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12520-010-0035-y
Galinato, M.I., Moody, K. & Piggin, C.M.. 1999. Upland rice weeds of South and Southeast Asia. Makati: International Rice Research Institute.
Giblin, J. & Fuller, D.Q.. 2011. First- and second-millennium AD agriculture in Rwanda: archaeobotanical finds and radiocarbon dates from seven sites. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 20: 253–65.
Glover, I.C. & Bellina, B.. 2011. Ban Don Ta Phet and Khao Sam Kaeo: the earliest Indian contact reassessed, in Manguin, P.-Y., Mani, A. & Wade, G. (ed.) Early interactions between South and Southeast Asia: reflections on cross-cultural movements: 1745. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
Isemura, T., Tomooka, N., Kaga, A. & Vaughan, D.A.. 2011. Comparison of the pattern of crop domestication between two Asian beans, azuki bean (Vigna angularis) and rice bean (V. umbellata). Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly 45: 2330. http://dx.doi.org/10.6090/jarq.45.23
Jacq-Hergoualc'h, M. 2002. The Malay Peninsula: crossroads of the maritime Silk Road (100 BC–1300 AD). Leiden: Brill.
Kislev, M.E. 1989. Origins of the cultivation of Lathyrus sativus and L. cicero (Fabaceae). Economic Botany 43: 262–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02859868
Lankton, J.W., Dussubieux, L. & Gratuze, B.. 2006. Glass from Khao Sam Kaeo: transferred technology for an early Southeast Asian exchange network. Bulletin de l’École française d'Extrême-Orient 93: 317–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.3406/befeo.2006.6041
Maass, B.L., Jamnadass, R.H., Hanson, J. & Pengelly, B.C.. 2005. Determining sources of diversity in cultivated and wild Lablab purpureus related to provenance of germplasm by using amplified fragment length polymorphism. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 52: 683–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10722-003-6019-3
Mahler-Slasky, Y. & Kislev, M.E.. 2010. Lathyrus consumption in late Bronze and Iron Age sites in Israel: an Aegean affinity. Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 2477–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2010.05.008
Miller, J.I. 1969. The spice trade of the Roman Empire 29 BC to AD 641. Oxford: Clarendon.
Moulherat, C., Tengberg, M., Haquet, J.-F. & Mille, B.. 2002. First evidence of cotton at Neolithic Mehrgarh, Pakistan: analysis of mineralized fibres from a copper bead. Journal of Archaeological Science 29: 1393–401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jasc.2001.0779
Muehlbauer, F.J. & Tullu, A.. 1997. Lathyrus sativus L. EcoPort. Available at: http://ecoport.org/ep?Plant=7164&entityType=PL***&entityDisplayCategory=full (accessed 15 July 2016).
Niyomdham, C. 1991. Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr., in Coronel, R.E. & Verheij, E.W.M. (ed.) Plant resources of South-east Asia no. 2: edible fruits and nuts: 128–31. Wageningen: Pudoc.
Nuttonson, M.Y. 1963. The physical environment and agriculture of Thailand. Washington, D.C.: American Institute of Crop Ecology.
Pokharia, A.K., Kharakwal, J.S., Rawat, R.S., Osada, T., Nautiyal, C.M. & Srivastava, A.. 2011. Archaeobotany and archaeology at Kanmer, a Harappan site in Kachchh, Gujarat: evidence for adaptation in response to climatic variability. Current Science 100: 1833–46.
Pryce, T.O., Bellina, B. & Bennett, A.. 2006. The development of metallurgies in the Upper Thai-Malay peninsula: initial interpretation of the archaeometallurgical evidence from Khao Sam Kaeo. Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient 93: 295315. http://dx.doi.org/10.3406/befeo.2006.6040
Qiu, Z., Zhang, Y., Bedigian, D., Li, X., Wang, C. & Jiang, H.. 2012. Sesame utilization in China: new archaeobotanical evidence from Xinjiang. Economic Botany 66: 255–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12231-012-9204-5
Roder, W., Keoboulapha, B., Vannalath, K. & Phouaravanh, B.. 1996. Glutinous rice and its importance for hill farmers in Laos. Economic Botany 50: 401408. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02866522
Seehalak, W., Tomooka, N., Waranyuwat, A., Thipyapong, P., Laosuwan, P., Kaga, A. & Vaughan, D.A.. 2006. Genetic diversity of the Vigna germplasm from Thailand and neighboring regions revealed by AFLP analysis. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 53: 1043–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10722-004-7939-2
Shivashankar, G. & Kulkarni, R.S.. 1989. Lablab purpureus L. (Sweet), in Van der Maesen, L.J.G. & Somaatmadja, S. (ed.) Plant resources of South-east Asia no. 1: pulses: 4850. Wageningen: Pudoc.
Soerjani, M., Kostermans, A.J.G.H. & Tjitrosoepomo, G.. 1987. Weeds of rice in Indonesia. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.
Tomber, R. 2008. Indo-Roman trade: from pots to pepper. London: Duckworth.
Tomooka, N., Vaughan, D.A., Moss, H. & Maxted, N.. 2002. The Asian Vigna: genus Vigna subgenus Ceratotropis genetic resources. New York: Kluwer Academic. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-0314-8
Van der Maesen, L.J.G. 1989. Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp., in van der Maesen, L.J.G. & Somaatmadja, S. (ed.) Plant resources of South-east Asia no. 1: pulses: 3942. Wageningen: Pudoc.
van der Veen, M. 2011. Consumption, trade and innovation: exploring the botanical remains from the Roman and Islamic ports at Quseir al-Qadim, Egypt. Frankfurt: Magna.
van Wyk, B.-E. 2005. Food plants of the world. Singapore: Timber.
Weisskopf, A. & Fuller, D.Q.. 2013. Citrus fruits: origins and development, in Smith, C. (ed.) Encyclopedia of global archaeology: 1479–83. New York: Springer.
Weisskopf, A., Harvey, E., Kingwell-Banham, E., Fuller, D.Q., Kajale, M. & Mohanty, R.. 2014. Archaeobotanical implications of phytolith assemblages from cultivated rice systems, wild rice stands and macro-regional patterns. Journal of Archaeological Science 51: 4353. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2013.04.026
Weisskopf, A., Qin, L., Ding, J., Ding, P., Sun, G. & Fuller, D.Q.. 2015. Applying phytoliths to the reconstruction of rice agriculture: from wet to dry and back again in the Neolithic Lower Yangtze. Antiquity 89: 1051–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.15184/aqy.2015.94
Zhao, Z. 2011. New archaeobotanic data for the study of the origins of agriculture in China. Current Anthropology 52 (S4): S295–306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/659308
Zohary, D., Hopf, M. & Weiss, E.. 2012. Domestication of plants in the Old World: the origin and spread of domesticated plants in south-west Asia, Europe, and the Mediterranean Basin. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199549061.001.0001
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Antiquity
  • ISSN: 0003-598X
  • EISSN: 1745-1744
  • URL: /core/journals/antiquity
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Type Description Title
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Castillo supplementary material
Table S1

 Unknown (19 KB)
19 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed