Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-568f69f84b-cgcw8 Total loading time: 0.225 Render date: 2021-09-21T14:09:16.021Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Article contents

The role of cult and feasting in the emergence of Neolithic communities. New evidence from Göbekli Tepe, south-eastern Turkey

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 August 2012

Oliver Dietrich
Affiliation:
1Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Orient-Abteilung, Podbielskiallee 69–71, D-14195 Berlin, Germany (Email: odi@orient.dainst.de; jn@orient.dainst.de; kls@orient.dainst.de)
Manfred Heun
Affiliation:
2Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Aas, Norway (Email: manfred.heun@umb.no)
Jens Notroff*
Affiliation:
1Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Orient-Abteilung, Podbielskiallee 69–71, D-14195 Berlin, Germany (Email: odi@orient.dainst.de; jn@orient.dainst.de; kls@orient.dainst.de)
Klaus Schmidt
Affiliation:
1Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Orient-Abteilung, Podbielskiallee 69–71, D-14195 Berlin, Germany (Email: odi@orient.dainst.de; jn@orient.dainst.de; kls@orient.dainst.de)
Martin Zarnkow
Affiliation:
3Technische Universität München, Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan, Weihenstephaner Steig 20, D-85354 Freising, Germany (Email: Martin.Zarnkow@wzw.tum.de)
*Corresponding
*Author for correspondence
Rights & Permissions[Opens in a new window]

Extract

HTML view is not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

Göbekli Tepe is one of the most important archaeological discoveries of modern times, pushing back the origins of monumentality beyond the emergence of agriculture. We are pleased to present a summary of work in progress by the excavators of this remarkable site and their latest thoughts about its role and meaning. At the dawn of the Neolithic, hunter-gatherers congregating at Göbekli Tepe created social and ideological cohesion through the carving of decorated pillars, dancing, feasting—and, almost certainly, the drinking of beer made from fermented wild crops.

Type
Research article
Copyright
Copyright © Antiquity Publications Ltd. 2012

References

Aurenche, O. & KozłOwski, S.K.. 2001. Le Croissant fertile et le ‘Triangle d’or’, in Breniquet, C. & Kepinski, C. (ed.) Etudes Mésopotamiennes: receuil de textes offert á Jean-Louis Huot: 3343. Paris: Editions Recherche sur les Civilisations.Google Scholar
Back, W. 1994. Farbatlas und Handbuch der Getränkebiologie, Band 1: Kultivierung, Methoden, Brauerei, Winzerei. Nürnberg: Carl.Google Scholar
Benz, M. 2000. Die Neolithisierung im Vorderen Orient. Theorien, archäologische Daten und ein ethnologisches Modell. Berlin: ex Oriente.Google Scholar
Benz, M. 2006. Zur Bedeutung von Festen während der Neolithisierung im Vorderen Orient. Ethnographisch-Archäologische Zeitschrift 47(4): 439–62.Google Scholar
Benz, M. 2011. Comments on radiocarbon dates of Epipalaeolithic and early Neolithic sites of the Near East. Available at: http://www.exoriente.org/associated projects/ppnd site.php?s=26 (accessed 29 November 2011).Google Scholar
Braidwood, R.J. 1974. The Iraq Jarmo Project, in Willey, G.R. (ed.) Archaeological researches in retrospect: 6183. Cambridge: Winthrop.Google Scholar
Braidwood, R.J. 1981. Archaeological retrospect 2. Antiquity 55: 1926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Braidwood, R.J. & Braidwood, L.S.. 1953. The earliest village communities of southwestern Asia. Journal of World History 1: 278310.Google Scholar
Braidwood, R.J., Sauer, J.D., Helbaek, H., Mangelsdorf, P.C., Curtler, H.C., Coon, C.S., Linton, R., Steward, J. & Oppenheim, A.L.. 1953. Symposium: did man once live by beer alone? American Anthropologist 55(4): 515–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cauvin, J. 1994. Naissance des divinités, naissance de l’agriculture: la révolution des symboles au Néolithique. Paris: CNRS.Google Scholar
Dietler, M. & Herbich, I.. 1995. Feasts and labor mobilization. Dissecting a fundamental economic practice, in Dietler, M. & Hayden, B. (ed.) Feasts. Archaeological and ethnographic perspectives on food, politics, and power: 240–64. Washington, D.C. & London: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
Dietrich, O. 2011. Radiocarbon dating the first temples of mankind. Comments on 14C-dates from Göbekli Tepe. Zeitschrift für Orient-Archäologie 4: 1225.Google Scholar
Dietrich, O. & Schmidt, K.. 2010. A radiocarbon date from the wall plaster of Enclosure D of Göbekli Tepe. Neo-Lithics 2: 8283.Google Scholar
Dineley, M. 2004. Barley, malt and ale in the Neolithic (British Archaeological Reports International series 1213). Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
Douglass, M. (ed.). 1987. Constructive drinking: perspectives on drink from anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Everett, M.W., Waddell, J.O. & Heath, D.B. (ed.). 1976. Cross-cultural approaches to the study of alcohol. The Hague: Mouton.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feigl, F. 1960. Tüpfelanalyse, Band II, Organischer Teil. Frankfurt am Main: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Google Scholar
Garfinkel, Y. 2003. Dancing at the dawn of agriculture. Austin (TX): University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
Greco, L. 1997. From the Neolithic revolution to the gluten intolerance: benefits and problems associated to the cultivation of wheat. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition 24: 1417.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harlan, J.R. & Zohary, D.. 1966. Distribution of wild wheats and barley. Science 153: 1074–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hauptmann, H. 1993. Ein Kultgebäude in Nevalı çori, in Frangipane, M., Hauptmann, H., Liverani, M., Matthiae, P. & Mellink, M. (ed.) Between the rivers and over the mountains: archaeologica Anatolica et Mesopotamica Alba Palmieri dedicata: 3769. Roma: Dipartimento di Scienze storiche archeologiche e antropologiche dell’Antichitá, Universitá di Roma ‘La Sapienza’.Google Scholar
Hauptmann, H. 1999. The Urfa region, in ÖZdoĞAn, M. & BasĢElen, N. (ed.) Neolithic in Turkey: the cradle of civilization (Ancient Anatolian Civilizations series 3): 6586. Istanbul: Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayınları;.Google Scholar
Hayden, B. 1990. Nimrods, piscators, pluckers and planters: the emergence of food production. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 9: 3169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hayden, B. 1995. Fabulous feasts. A prolegomenon to the importance of feasting, in Dietler, M. & Hayden, B. (ed.) Feasts. Archaeological and ethnographic perspectives on food, politics, and power: 2364. Washington, D.C. & London: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
Hayden, B. 2003. Were luxury foods the first domesticates? Ethnoarchaeological perspectives from southeast Asia. World Archaeology 34(3): 458–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Helk, W. 1971. Das Bier im Alten Ägypten. Berlin: Gesellschaft für die Geschichte und Bibliographie des Brauwesens.Google Scholar
Heun, M., SchÄFer-Pregl, R., Klawan, D., Castagna, R., Accerbi, M., Borghi, B. & Salamini, F.. 1997. Site of einkorn wheat domestication identified by DNA fingerprinting. Science 278: 1312–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heun, M., Haldorsen, S. & Vollan, K.. 2008. Reassessing domestication events in the Near East: einkorn and Triticum urartu . Genome 51: 444–51.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jennings, J., Antrobus, K.L., Atencio, S.J., Glavich, E., Source, R., Loffler, G. & Luu, C.. 2005. ‘Drinking beer in a blissful mood’. Alcohol production, operational chains and feasting in the ancient world. Current Anthropology 46(2): 275303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Katz, S.H. & Maytag, F.. 1991. Brewing an ancient beer. Archaeology 44: 2433.Google Scholar
Katz, S.H. & Voigt, M.M.. 1986. Bread and beer: the early use of cereals in the human diet. Expeditions 28(2): 2334.Google Scholar
Kenyon, K. 1981. Excavations at Jericho 3. The architecture and stratigraphy of the tell. London: British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem.Google Scholar
Kozłowski, S.K. 2002. Nemrik: an aceramic village in northern Iraq. Warsaw: Institute of Archaeology, Warsaw University.Google Scholar
Lev-Yadun, S., Gopher, A. & Abbo, S.. 2000. The cradle of agriculture. Science 288: 16021603.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Luo, M.-C., Yang, Z.-L., You, F.M., Kawahara, T., Waines, J.G. & Dvorak, J.. 2007. The structure of wild and domesticated emmer wheat populations, gene flow between them, and the site of emmer domestication. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 114: 947–59.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maksoud, S.A., El Hadidi, M.N. & Amer, W.M.. 1994. Beer from the early dynasties (3500-3400 cal BC) of Upper Egypt, detected by archaeochemical methods. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 3: 219224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mazurowski, R.F. 2003. Tell Qaramel. Excavations 2003. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean 15: 355–70.Google Scholar
Mazurowski, R.F. 2004. Tell Qaramel. Excavations 2004. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean 16: 497510.Google Scholar
Mazurowski, R.F. & Jamous, B.. 2000. Tell Qaramel. Excavations 2000. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean 12: 327–41.Google Scholar
Mazurowski, R.F. & Yartah, T.. 2001. Tell Qaramel. Excavations 2001. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean 13: 295307.Google Scholar
Mcgovern, P.E. 2009. Uncorking the past: the quest for wine, beer, and other alcoholic beverages. Berkeley (CA) & London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Mcgovern, P.E., Glusker, D.L., Exner, L.J. & Voigt, M.M.. 1996. Neolithic resinated wine. Nature 381: 480–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Michel, R.H., Mcgovern, P.E. & Badler, V.R.. 1993. The first wine & beer. Chemical detection of ancient fermented beverages. Analytical Chemistry 65(8): A408A413.Google Scholar
Miller, N.F. 2008. Sweeter than wine? The use of the grape in early western Asia. Antiquity 82: 937–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morenz, L.D. & Schmidt, K.. 2009. Große Reliefpfeiler und kleine Zeichentäfelchen. Ein frühneolithisches Zeichensystem in Obermesopotamien, in AndrÁSsy, P., Budka, J. & Kammerzell, F. (ed.) Non-textual marking systems. Writing and pseudo script from prehistory to modern times: 1331. Göttingen: Seminar für Ägyptologie und Koptologie.Google Scholar
Munro, N.D. & Grosman, L.. 2010. Early evidence (ca. 12,000 BP) for feasting at a burial cave in Israel. PNAS 107: 15362–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Neef, R. 2003. Overlooking the steppe-forest: a preliminary report on the botanical remains from early Neolithic Göbekli Tepe. Neo-Lithics 2: 1316.Google Scholar
Nesbitt, M. & Samuel, D.. 1996. From staple crop to extinction? The archaeology and history of the hulled wheats, in Padulosi, S., Hammer, K. & Heller, J. (ed.) Hulled wheat. Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Hulled Wheats: 41100. Rome: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute.Google Scholar
Özdoğan, A. 1999. çayönü, in ÖZdoĞAn, M. & BasĢElen, N. (ed.) Neolithic in Turkey: the cradle of civilization (Ancient Anatolian Civilizations series 3): 3563. Istanbul: Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayınları.Google Scholar
Özdoğan, M. & ÖZdoĞAn, A.. 1998. Buildings of cult and the cult of buildings, in ArsebÜK, G., Mellink, M.J. & Schirmer, W. (ed.) Light on top of the black hill. Studies presented to Halet çambel: 581601. Istanbul: Ege Yayınları.Google Scholar
Özkan, H., Brandolini, A., SchÄFer-Pregl, R. & Salamini, F.. 2002. AFLP analysis of a collection of tetraploid wheats indicates the origin of emmer and hard wheat domestication in southeast Turkey. Molecular Biology & Evolution 19: 17971801.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Özkan, H., Willcox, G., Graner, A., Salamini, F. & Kilian, B.. 2011. Geographic distribution and domestication of wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 58: 1153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Özkaya, V. & San, O.. 2007. Körtik Tepe. Bulgular ışığında kültürel doku üzerine ilk gözlemler, in ÖZdoĞAn, M. & BaŞGelen, N. (ed.) Türkiyedé neolitik dönem: 2136. Istanbul: Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayınları.Google Scholar
Pizzuti, D., Buda, A., D'Odorico, A., D'IncÁ, R., Chiarelli, S., Curioni, A. & Martines, D.. 2006. Lack of intestinal mucosal toxicity of Triticum monococcum in celiac disease patients. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 41(11): 1305–11.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reichholf, J. 2008. Warum die Menschen sesshaft wurden: das größte Rätsel unserer Geschichte. Frankfurt: Fischer.Google Scholar
Röllig, W. 1970. Das Bier im alten Mesopotamien. Berlin: Gesellschaft für die Geschichte und Bibliographie des Brauwesens.Google Scholar
Rosenberg, M. & Redding, R.W.. 2000. Hallan çemi and early village organization in eastern Anatolia, in Kuijt, I. (ed.) Life in Neolithic farming communities. Social organization, identity and differenziation: 3961. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.Google Scholar
Samuel, D. 1996. Archaeology of ancient Egyptian beer. Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists 54: 312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schirmer, W. 1990. Some aspects of buildings at the ‘aceramic-Neolithic’ settlement of çayönü Tepesi. World Archaeology 21(3): 363–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmidt, K. 2001. Göbekli Tepe, southeastern Turkey. A preliminary report on the 1995-1999 excavations. Paléorient 26(1): 4554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmidt, K. 2006. Sie bauten die ersten Tempel. Das rätselhafte Heiligtum der Steinzeitjäger. Die archäologische Entdeckung am Göbekli Tepe. München: C.H. Beck.Google Scholar
Schmidt, K. 2010. Göbekli Tepe—the Stone Age sanctuaries. New results of ongoning excavations with a special focus on sculptures and high reliefs. Documenta Praehistorica 37: 239–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schröder, E.E.W. 1917. Nias, ethnographische, geographische en historische aanteekeningen en studien. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Sherratt, A. 1995. Alcohol and its alternatives. Symbol and substance in pre-industrial cultures, in Goodman, J., Lovejoy, P.E. & Sherratt, A. (ed.) Consuming habits. Drugs in history and anthropology: 1146. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Stordeur, D. 2000. Jerf el Ahmar et l’émergence du Néolithique au Proche Orient, in Guilaine, J. (ed.) Premiers paysans du monde: naissance des agricultures: 3360. Paris: Errance.Google Scholar
Stordeur, D. & AbbÉS, F.. 2002. Du PPNA au PPNB: mise en lumiére d’une phase de transition á Jerf el Ahmar (Syrie). Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 99(3): 563–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stordeur, D., Brenet, M., Der Aprahamian, G. & Roux, J.-C.. 2001. Les bâtiments communautaires de Jerf el Ahmar et Mureybet horizon PPNA (Syrie). Paléorient 26(1): 2944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Valamoti, S.M., Mangafa, M., Koukoulichrysanthaki, C. & Malamidou, D.. 2007. Grape-pressings from northern Greece: the earliest wine in the Aegean? Antiquity 81: 5461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Watkins, T. 2004. Building houses, framing concepts, constructing worlds. Paléorient 30(1): 523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Watkins, T. 2008. Supra-regional networks in the Neolithic of southwest Asia. Journal of World Prehistory 21: 139–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Watkins, T. 2010. New light on Neolithic revolution in south-west Asia. Antiquity 84: 621–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Watkins, T., Betts, A., Dobney, K. & Nesbitt, M.. 1995. Qermez Dere, Tel Afar, north Iraq: third interim report, in Watkins, T. (ed.) Qermez Dere, Tel Afar, north Iraq: interim report no 3: 19. Edinburgh: Department of Archaeology, University of Edinburgh.Google Scholar
Willcox, G. 2002. Charred plant remains from a 10th millennium BP kitchen at Jerf el Ahmar (Syria). Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 11: 5560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yartah, T. 2004. Tell Ábr 3, un village du Néolithique précéramique (PPNA) sur le moyen Euphrate. Premiére approche. Paléorient 30(2): 141–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yartah, T. 2005. Les bâtiments communautaires de Tell Ábr 3 (PPNA, Syrie). Neo-Lithics 1/05: 39.Google Scholar
Zarnkow, M., Spieleder, E., Back, W., Sacher, B., Otto, A. & Einwag, B.. 2006. Interdisziplinäre Untersuchungen zum altorientalischen Bierbrauen in der Siedlung von Tall Bazi/Nordsyrien vor rund 3200 Jahren. Technikgeschichte 73: 325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
You have Access
101
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The role of cult and feasting in the emergence of Neolithic communities. New evidence from Göbekli Tepe, south-eastern Turkey
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

The role of cult and feasting in the emergence of Neolithic communities. New evidence from Göbekli Tepe, south-eastern Turkey
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

The role of cult and feasting in the emergence of Neolithic communities. New evidence from Göbekli Tepe, south-eastern Turkey
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *