Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Environmental Migration in the Asia-Pacific Region: Could We Hang Out Sometime?

  • Benoît MAYER (a1)
Abstract

Several proposals for global legal governance of environmental migration have recently been published, almost exclusively by Western scholars. The present article denounces the geographical and intellectual disconnect between descriptive works on environmental migration as a phenomenon and the normative studies on the developments in law and governance. It suggests that this disconnect has resulted in a post-colonial approach towards tackling environmental migration, which could impede the protection of environmental migrants. While recalling that governance of environmental migration is most likely to succeed within a regional framework, this article pleads for a home-grown legal approach of environmental migration in the Asia-Pacific. Participating in a multilateral discussion is a unique opportunity for the rising countries of Asia and the Pacific to strengthen their growing diplomatic roles and to demonstrate their capacity in the development of liberal forms of transnational governance.

Copyright
Footnotes
Hide All
*

PhD candidate, Faculty of Law, National University of Singapore. This article builds on a class paper presented as part of Associate Professor Simon TAY Seong Chee's seminar on International Law in Asia. It results from the encounter of a Western student with Asian critical research on international law, in particular the Third World Approaches of International Law. An earlier draft was circulated as a working paper for the Earth System Governance project. I wish to thank Ingrid Boas, François Crépeau, Aysem Mert, Alan Tan Khee Jin, and two anonymous reviewers for comments on an earlier draft. All mistakes remain my own.

Footnotes
References
Hide All

1. LEE, Harry F., FOK, Lincoln, and ZHANG, David D., “Climatic Change and Chinese Population Growth Dynamics over the Last Millennium” (2008) 88 Climatic Change 131

2. Graeme HUGO, “Climate Change-Induced Mobility and the Existing Migration Regime in Asia and the Pacific” in Jane MCADAM, ed., Climate Change and Displacement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2010)

3. Aid, Christian, “Human Tide: The Red Migration Crisis” (May 2007)

MYERS, Norman, “Environmentally-Induced Displacements: The State of the Art”, International Symposium on Environmentally-Induced Population Displacements and Environmental Impacts Resulting from Mass Migrations, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the International Organization for Migration (IOM), and the Refugee Policy Group (RPG), Background Paper, 21−24 April 1996

4. HUGO, Graeme, “Environmental Concerns and International Migration” (1996) 30 International Migration Review 105 at 108

SUHRKE, Astri, “Environmental Degradation and Population Flows” (1994) 47 Journal of International Affairs 473 at 475

BATES, Diane, “Environmental Refugees? Classifying Human Migrations Caused by Environmental Change” (2002) 23 Population and Environment 465 at 468

GEMENNE, François, “Environmental Changes and Migration Flows: Normative Frameworks and Policy Responses”, Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris and the University of Liege, PhD Dissertation, 2009, at 173

5. SUHRKE, Astri, Pressure Points: Environmental Degradation, Migration and Conflict (Cambridge: American Academy of Art and Science, 1993) at 5

CASTLES, Stephen, “Environmental Change and Forced Migration: Making Sense of the Debate”, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Working Paper, 31 October 2002

BLACK, Richard, “Environmental Refugees: Myth or Reality?”, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Working Paper, 20 March 2001

Michelle LEIGHTON, “Desertification and Migration” in Pierre-Marc JOHNSON, Karel MAYRAND, and Marc PAQUIN, eds., Governing Global Desertification: Linking Environmental Degradation, Poverty and Participation (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 2006)

MAYER, Benoît, “Pour en finir avec la notion de ‘réfugiés environnementaux’: Critique d'une approche individualiste et universaliste des déplacements causés par des changements environnementaux” (2011) 7 McGill International Journal for Sustainable Development Law and Policy 33

6. KÄLIN, Walter, “Conceptualizing Climate-Induced Displacement” in Jane MCADAM, ed., Climate Change and Displacement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2010), 81 at 8586

7. Gemenne, supra note 4 at 173

8. BIERMANN, Frank and BOAS, Ingrid, “Preparing for a Warmer World: Towards a Global Governance System to Protect Climate Refugees” (2010) 10 Global Environmental Politics 60

DIDCE, Draft Convention on the International Status of Environmentally-Displaced Persons, 31 May 2010

HODGKINSON, David et al., “‘The Hour when the Ship Comes in’: A Convention for Persons Displaced by Climate Change” (2010) 36 Monash University Law Review 69

MAYER, Benoît, “The International Legal Challenges of Climate-Induced Migration: Proposal for an International Legal Framework” (2011) 22 Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law and Policy 357

MCADAM, Jane, “Introduction” in Jane MCADAM, ed., Climate Change and Displacement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2010), 1 at 1

MCADAM, Jane, “Swimming Against the Tide: Why a Climate Change Displacement Treaty is Not the Answer” (2011) 23 International Journal of Refugee Law 2 at 3

9. MAYER, Benoît, “The International Legal Protection of Climate (or Environmental) Migrants: Fraternity, Responsibility and Sustainability” (2012) 56 Supreme Court Law Review 723

10. Jane MCADAM, “Environmental Migration” in Alexander BETTS, ed., Global Migration Governance (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011)

MAYER, Benoît, “Sustainable Development Law on Environmental Migration: The Story of an Obelisk, a Bag of Marbles and a Tapestry” (2012) 14 Environmental Law Review 111

11. See e.g. Principles IV−VII, IX, and X in United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, “The Nansen Conference: Climate Change and Displacement in the 21st Century” (June 2011), online: UNHCR 〈http://www.unhcr.org/4ea969729.pdf〉 at 5.

12. Asian Development Bank, “Addressing Climate Change and Migration in Asia and the Pacific” (March 2012)

13. HUGO, Graeme, “The Future of Migration Policies in the Asia-Pacific Region”, International Organization for Migration, 2010 Background Paper at 5

KAUR, Amarjit and METCALFE, Ian, “Thematic Introduction: Migration Challenges in the Asia-Pacific Region in the Twenty-First Century” (2007) 9 International Journal on Multicultural Societies 131

KAUR, Amarjit, “Migration Matters in the Asia-Pacific Region: Immigration Frameworks, Knowledge Workers and National Policies” (2007) 9 International Journal on Multicultural Societies 135

14. The World Bank, “Migration and Remittances Factbook 2011” (November 2010)

Graeme HUGO, “Demographic Change and International Labour Mobility in Asia-Pacific, Implications for Business and Regional Economic Integration: Synthesis” in Graeme HUGO and Soogil YOUNG, eds., Labour Mobility in the Asia-Pacific Region: Dynamics, Issues and a New APEC Agenda: A Survey and Analyses of Governance Challenges on Labour Migration for APEC Economies (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2008), 1 at 2

MORRIS-SUZUKI, Tessa, “Cross-Border Migration and East Asian Regional Integration” (2007) 9 International Journal on Multicultural Societies 158

HUGUET, Jerrold, “Towards a Migration Information System in Asia: Statistics and the Public Discourse on International Migration” (2008) 17 Asia Pacific Migration Journal 231

15. Guest, Philip, “Bridging the Gap: Internal Migration in Asia”, Conference Paper on African Migration in Comparative Perspective, 4−7 June 2003

DESHINGKAR, Priya, Internal Migration, Poverty and Development in Asia: Including the Excluded (London: Overseas Development Institute, 2006)

FAN, Cindy, China on the Move: Migration, the State, and the Household (New York: Routledge, 2008)

FAN, Cindy, “Economic Opportunities and Internal Migration: A Case Study of Guangdong Province, China” (2005) 48 The Professional Geographer 28

MUHIDIN, Salut and BELL, Martin, Cross National Comparisons of Internal Migration in Asia-Pacific Region (Princeton: Office of Population Research at Princeton University, 2011)

16. Epeli HAU'OFA, “Our Sea of Islands” in Eric WADDELL, Vijay NAIDU, and Epeli HAU'OFA, eds., A New Oceania: Rediscovering Our Sea of Islands (Suva: School of Social and Economic Development, The University of the South Pacific, in association with Beake House, 1993)

Grant MCGALL, “Migration in Oceania: A Quick Overview of the Settlement and Continuing Occupation of an Acquatic Continent” in Margot WALLNER and Richard BEDFORD, eds., Migration Happens: Reasons, Effects and Opportunities of Migration in the South Pacific (Wien: Lit Verlag, 2006)

Richard BEDFORD, “Pasifika Mobility: Pathways, Circuits, and Challenges in the 21st Century” in Alastair BISLEY, ed., Pacific Interactions: Pasifika in New Zealand, New Zealand in Pasifika (Wellington: Institute of Policy Studies, 2008)

Hugo and Young, supra note 14

CONNELL, John and CONWAY, Dennis, “Migration and Remittances in Island Microstates: A Comparative Perspective on the South Pacific and the Caribbean” (2000) 24 International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 52

BARCHAM, Manuhuia, SCHEYVENS, Regina, and OVERTON, John, “Rethinking Polynesian Mobility: A New Polynesian Triangle?”, Centre for Indigenous Governance and Development, Massey University, Working Paper, 2007

17. Hugo, supra note 14 at 1

Stephen CASTLES, “Migrant Settlement Transnational Communities and State Strategies in the Asia Pacific Region” in Robyn R. IREDALE, Charles HAWKSLEY, and Stephen CASTLES, eds., Migration in the Asia Pacific: Population, Settlement and Citizenship Issues (Cheltenham/Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 2003), 3 at 6

CURLEY, Melissa and Siu-lun, WONG, Security and Migration in Asia: The Dynamics of Securitisation (London: Routledge, 2008)

18. HUGO, Graeme, “The New International Migration in Asia: Challenges for Population Research” (2005) 1 Asian Population Studies 93 at 94

19. RICKLEFS, M.C. et al., A New History of Southeast Asia (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010) at 118

Castles, supra note 17 at 3

20. M.L. PARRY et al., “Asia” in M.L. PARRY et al., eds., Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 469 at 471

Christine LOH et al., “Climate Change, Water Insecurities and Food Systems in Monsoon Asia” in Christine LOH, Andrew STEVENSON, and Simon TAY, eds., Climate Change Negotiations: Can Asia Change the Game? (Singapore: Singapore Institute of International Affairs, 2008)

21. Parry et al., ibid., at 473

22. M.L. PARRY et al., eds., “Assessing Key Vulnerabilities and the Risk from Climate Change” in M.L. PARRY et al., Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 779 at 791

23. M.L. PARRY et al., eds., “Small Islands” in M.L. PARRY et al., Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 687 at 689

Australian Bureau of Meteorology and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, “Climate Change in the Pacific: Scientific Assessment and New Research. Volume 1: Regional Overview. Volume 2: Country Reports”. (2011)

24. Parry et al., supra note 23 at 791

25. W.N. ADGER et al., “Assessment of Adaptation Practices, Options, Constraints and Capacity” in M.L. PARRY et al., Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 717 at 720

26. Simon TAY, “The Environment and Southeast Asia: Regionalism, States and Community” in Victor R. SAVAGE and May TAN-MULLINS, eds., The Naga Challenged: Southeast Asia in the Winds of Change (Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Academic, 2005)

TAY, Simon, “Southeast Asian Fires: The Challenge for International Environmental Law and Sustainable Development” (1999) 11 Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 241 at 256

27. Parry et al., supra note 20 at 488

28. NICHOLLS, Robert J. et al., “Climate Change and Coastal Vulnerability Assessment: Scenarios for Integrated Assessment” (2008) 3 Sustainability Science 89

29. Diana RECKIEN, Martin WILDENBERG, and Kaushik DEB, “Understanding Potential Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Options in Indian Megacities” in Konrad OTTO-ZIMMERMANN, ed., Resilient Cities (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2011)

KOVATS, Sari and AKHTAR, Rais, “Climate, Climate Change and Human Health in Asian Cities” (2008) 20 Environment and Urbanization 165

FUCHS, Roland, CONRAN, Mary, and LOUIS, Elizabeth, “Climate Change and Asia's Coastal Urban Cities” (2011) 2 Environment and Urbanization Asia 13

FUCHS, Roland J., “Cities at Risk: Asia's Coastal Cities in an Age of Climate Change”, East-West Center, Research Paper, July 2010

30. Parry et al., supra note 20 at 493

BROWN, Oli, Migration and Climate Change (Geneva: International Organization for Migration, 2008) at 17

31. Parry et al., supra note 23 at 700−701

Brown, supra note 30 at 31

32. PONCELET, Alice, “Bangladesh Case Study Report: ‘The Land of Mad Rivers’ ”, EACH-FOR, Environmental Change and Forced Migration Scenarios, European Commission, Case Study Report, 30 January 2009

ZHANG, Qian, “China (Inner Mongolia): Case Study Report”, EACH-FOR, Environmental Change and Forced Migration Scenarios, Case Study Report, European Commission, 31 March 2009

BULESHEVA, Dina and JOLDASOV, Arustan, “Kazakhstan: Case Study Report”, EACH-FOR, Environmental Change and Forced Migration Scenarios, European Commission, Case Study Report, 30 March 2009

NASRITDINOV, Emil et al., “Case Study Report: Kyrgyzstan”, EACH-FOR, Environmental Change and Forced Migration Scenarios, European Commission, Case Study Report, 30 January 2009

KHAKIMOV, P.Sh. and MAHMADBEKOV, M.Sh., “The Case for Tajikistan”, EACH-FOR, Environmental Change and Forced Migration Scenarios, European Commission, Policy Brief, 31 March 2009

GEMENNE, François and SHEN, Shawn, “Tuvalu and New Zealand: Case Study Report”, EACH-FOR, Environmental Change and Forced Migration Scenarios, European Commission, Case Study Report, 15 February 2009

DUN, Olivia, “Viet Nam Case Study Report: Linkages Between Flooding, Migration and Resettlement”, EACH-FOR, Environmental Change and Forced Migration Scenarios, European Commission, Case Study Report, 30 January 2009

33. Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre, “Displacement Due to Natural Hazard-Induced Disasters: Global Estimates for 2009 and 2010”, June 2011

Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre, “Monitoring Disaster Displacement in the Context of Climate Change: Findings of a Study by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs and the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre”, September 2009

34. International Organization for Migration (IOM), “Compendium of IOM's Activities in Migration, Climate Change and the Environment” (2009)

35. MYERS, Norman, “Environmental Refugees in a Globally Warmed World” (1993) 43 BioScience 752 at 754

36. MYERS, Norman, “Environmental Refugees: A Growing Phenomenon of the 21st Century” (2002) 357 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Biological Sciences 609 at 611

37. WALSHAM, Matthew, “Assessing the Evidence: Environment, Climate Change and Migration in Bangladesh”, International Organization for Migration, Report, June 2010

Poncelet, supra note 32 at 18;

38. John CAMPBELL, “Climate Change and Population Movement in Pacific Island Countries” in Bruce BURSON, ed., Climate Change and Migration: South Pacific Perspectives (Wellington: Institute of Policy Studies, 2010)

39. BEDFORD, Richard and BEDFORD, Charlotte, “International Migration and Climate Change: A Post-Copenhagen Perspective on Options for Kiribati and Tuvalu” in Bruce BURSON, ed., Climate Change and Migration: South Pacific Perspectives (Wellington: Institute of Policy Studies, 2010), 89 at 93

40. FEARNSIDE, Philip M., “Transmigration in Indonesia: Lessons from its Environmental and Social Impacts” (1997) 21 Environmental Management 553 at 555

The World Bank, Indonesia: The Transmigration Program in Perspective (Washington, DC: World Bank, 1988)

MACANDREWS, Colin, “Transmigration in Indonesia: Prospects and Problems” (1978) 18 Asian Survey 458

WHITTEN, Anthony J., “Indonesia's Transmigration Program and its Role in the Loss of Tropical Rain Forests” (1987) 1 Conservation Biology 239

41. Regarding the Pacific region, see references in supra note 16.

42. FARBOTKO, Carol, “Tuvalu and Climate Change: Constructions of Environmental Displacement in the ‘Sydney Morning Herald’ ” (2005) 87 Geografiska Annaler, Series B: Human Geography 279

CHAMBERS, Anne Fauvre and CHAMBERS, Keith Stanley, “Five Takes on Climate and Cultural Change in Tuvalu” (2007) 19 Contemporary Pacific 294

HARVEY, Fiona, “More Than 30 Million Climate Migrants in Asia in 2010, Report Finds” The Guardian (19 September 2011)

43. These are Australia, Japan, and New Zealand; Russia might also be considered part of the Asia-Pacific region. See Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 11 December 1997 (entered into force 16 February 2005), online: UNFCC 〈http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/kpeng.pdf〉.

44. See online: Climate Change, Environment and Migration Alliance 〈http://www.ccema-portal.org/article/read/about〉.

45. International Organization for Migration, “Disaster Risk Reduction, Climate Change Adaptation and Environmental Migration: A Policy Perspective” (November 2010)

46. IOM Compendium, supra note 34.

47. International Organization for Migration, “Migration Initiatives Appeal 2010” (June 2010)

48. Ibid., at 85 (Bangladesh), 90 (Nepal), 97 (Cambodia), and 99 (Indonesia).

49. Ibid., at 85 (Bangladesh).

50. Ibid., at 113 (Tajikistan).

51. IOM Compendium, supra note 46 at 25.

52. International Organization for Migration, “Migration Initiatives Appeal 2010” (June 2010)

53. For examples of programmes by IOM to provide assistance to affected populations, see ibid., at 107 (Kyrgyzstan) and 114 (Turkmenistan).

54. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, “Briefing Note: The Management of Humanitarian Emergencies Caused by Extreme Climate Events” (April 2009), online: UNHCR 〈http://www.unhcr.org/4a1e4eb42.html〉 at 1. See also Antonio GUTERRES, “Climate Change, Natural Disasters and Human Displacement: A UNHCR Perspective”, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Policy Paper (14 August 2009).

55. GEMENNE, François, “Le rôle des cadres normatifs et des organisations internationales: une conversation avec Jean-François Durieux (HCR) et Philippe Boncour (OIM)” (2010) 1284 Hommes et migrations 130

56. “Cancun Agreements: Outcome of the Work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention” in United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, “Report of the Conference of the Parties on its Sixteenth Session, Held in Cancun from 29 November to 10 December 2010” (March 2011), online: UNFCCC 〈http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2010/cop16/eng/07a01.pdf#page=2〉, para. 14(f) [Cancun Agreements].

57. KOZOLL, Christopher M., “Poisoning the Well: Persecution, the Environment, and Refugee Status” (2004) 15 Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law and Policy 271

Bruce BURSON, “Environmentally Induced Displacement and the 1951 Refugee Convention: Pathways to Recognition” in Tamer AFIFI and Jill JÄGER, eds., Environment, Forced Migration and Social Vulnerability (New York: Springer, 2010), 3 at 5

MCADAM, Jane, “From Economic Refugees to Climate Refugees?” (2009) 10 Melbourne Journal of International Law 579 at 584

McAdam, supra note 10 at 162−164

58. Jane MCADAM, “‘Disappearing States’, Statelessness and the Boundaries of International Law” in Jane MCADAM, ed., Climate Change and Displacement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2010)

PARK, Susin, “Climate Change and the Risk of Statelessness: The Situation of Low-lying Island States”, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Background Paper, May 2011

BLITZ, Brad K., “Statelessness and Environmental-Induced Displacement: Future Scenarios of Deterritorialisation, Rescue and Recovery Examined” (2011) 6 Mobilities 433

59. McAdam, supra note 10 at 164

WOUTERS, Kees, International Legal Standards for the Protection from Refoulement (Cambridge: Intersentia, 2009)

60. United Nations, “Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement” (April 1998)

persons or groups of persons who have been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situation of generalized violence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognized State border.

61. See note 8.

62. NAIR, Ravi, “Refugee Protection in South Asia” (1997) 51 Journal of International Affairs 201

CHANG-MUY, Fernando, “International Refugee Law in Asia” (1991) 24 New York University Journal of International Law and Policy 1171

63. Amnesty International, “ASEAN Members Must Ratify UN Refugee and Migrant Conventions” (July 2005)

64. Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons, supra note 58.

65. See online: United Nations Treaty Collection 〈http://treaties.un.org〉 (last accessed 10 October 2011).

66. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 19 December 1966 (entered into force 23 March 1976), online: OHCHR 〈http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/ccpr.htm〉.

67. See online: United Nations Treaty Collection 〈http://treaties.un.org〉 (last accessed 10 October 2011).

68. CHAN, Phil C.W., “The Protection of Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: Non-Refoulement Under Customary International Law?” (2006) 10 International Journal of Human Rights 231

HAILBRONNER, Kay, “Non-Refoulement and Humanitarian Refugees: Customary International Law or Wishful Legal Thinking” (1985) 26 Virginia Journal of International Law 857

HATHAWAY, James, The Law of Refugee Status (Toronto: Butterworths, 1993) at 27

SIMMA, Bruno and ALSTON, Philip, “The Sources of Human Rights Law: Custom, Jus Cogens, and General Principles” (1988) 12 Australian Yearbook of International Law 82

MERON, Theodor, Human Rights and Humanitarian Norms as Customary Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989)

DOMB, Fania, “Jus Cogens and Human Rights” (1976) 6 Israeli Yearbook of Human Rights 104

69. DONNELLY, Jack, Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2003) at 108

70. Donnelly, supra note 69 at 110

TAY, Simon, “Human Rights, Culture, and the Singapore Example” (1995) 41 McGill Law Journal 743 at 750

ANWAR, Ibrahim, “Luncheon Address” Kuala Lumpur, 1994

Chimni, B.S., “Third World Approaches to International Law: A Manifesto” (2006) 8 International Common Law Review 3 at 5

71. Donnelly, supra note 69 at 112

Anwar, supra note 70

BARY, William Theodore DE, Asian Values and Human Rights: A Confucian Communitarian Perspective (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998)

72. Tay, supra note 70 at 768

CHIMNI, B.S., “Asian Civilizations and International Law: Some Reflections” (2011) 1 Asian Journal of International Law 39 at 4041

73. Joanne R. BAUER and Daniel A. BELL, “Introduction” in Joanne R. BAUER and Daniel A. BELL, eds., The East Asian Challenge for Human Rights (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 3 at 4

74. PANIKKAR, R., “Is the Notion of Human Rights a Western Concept?” (1982) 30 Diogenes 75 at 7677

75. LEVI, Edward H., An Introduction to Legal Reasoning (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948) at 12

76. Mayer, supra note 9

77. Chimni, supra note 70 at 3−4

78. For ethical reasons, the identity of this researcher is kept confidential.

79. HARTMANN, Betsy, “Rethinking Climate Refugees and Climate Conflict: Rhetoric, Reality and the Politics of Policy Discourse” (2010) 22 Journal of International Development 233 at 238

80. Refugee Convention, supra note 57.

81. TIRTOSUDARMO, Riwanto, “Migration-Development-Security Nexus: In Search of New Perspectives in the Changing East Asian Contexts” in Dewi Fortuna ANWAR, ed., Development, Migration and Security in East Asia: People's Movements and Non-Traditional Security Challenges in a Changing East Asia (Jakarta: The Habibie Center, 2005), 13 at 38

82. BILSBORROW, Richard E., “Rural Poverty, Migration and the Environment in Developing Countries: Three Case Studies, Volume 1”, The World Bank, Policy Research Working Paper, 30 November 1992

BLACK, Richard, “Environmental Refugees: Myth or Reality?”, UNHCR, Working Paper Series on New Issues in Refugee Research, Working Paper No. 34, 2001

Castles, supra note 5

83. BEVERUNGEN, Carolin, “A Framework for the Protection of Internally Environmentally-Displaced Persons: Application of the United Nations Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement”, Center for International Sustainable Development Law (CISDL), Working Paper, December 2011

84. African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa, 22 October 2009, online: UNHCR 〈http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4ae572d82.html〉 [Kampala Convention].

85. Park, supra note 58

McAdam, supra note 58

Blitz, supra note 58

BURKETT, Maxine, “In Search of Refuge: Pacific Islands, Climate-Induced Migration, and the Legal Frontier”, East-West Center, Paper, January 2011

KELMAN, Ilan, “Island Evacuation” (2008) 31 Forced Migration 20

86. BIERMANN, Frank and BOAS, Ingrid, “Protecting Climate Refugees: The Case for a Global Protocol” Environment Science and Policy for Sustainable Development (November-December 2008), 8

87. HULME, Mike, “Climate Refugees: Cause for a New Agreement?” Environment Science and Policy for Sustainable Development (November-December 2008), 50 at 51

88. Ibid.

89. KOLMANNSKOG, Vikram Odedra, “Future Floods of Refugees: A Comment on Climate Change, Conflict and Forced Migration”, Norwegian Refugee Council, Report, April 2008, at 10

90. Farbotko, supra note 42

FARBOTKO, Carol, “Wishful Sinking: Disappearing Islands, Climate Refugees and Cosmopolitan Experimentation” (2010) 51 Asia Pacific Viewpoint 47

FARBOTKO, Carol, “ ‘The Global Warming Clock is Ticking So See These Places While You Can’: Voyeuristic Tourism and Model Environmental Citizens on Tuvalu's Disappearing Islands” (2010) 31 Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 224

Carol FARBOTKO, “Skilful Seafarers, Oceanic Drifters or Climate Refugees? Pacific People, News Value and the Climate Refugee” in T. THREADGOLD, B. GROSS, and K. MOORE, eds., Migrations and the Media (New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 2012)

91. Gemenne and Shen, supra note 32 at 28

92. GAYOOM, M.A., “International Assistance Can Save Our Peoples” in M.A. GAYOOM, ed., The Maldives: A Nation in Peril (Malé: Ministry of Planning Human Resources and Environment, 1998), 29 at 29

MCNAMARA, Karen Elizabeth and GIBSON, Chris, “We Do Not Want To Leave Our Land: Pacific Ambassadors at the United Nations Resist the Category of Climate Refugees” (2009) 40 Geoforum 475 at 479

93. MCADAM, Jane and LOUGHRY, Maryanne, “We Aren't Refugees” Inside Story (30 June 2009)

McNamara and Gibson, supra note 92

MCNAMARA, Karen Elizabeth, “Conceptualizing Discourses on Environmental Refugees at the United Nations” (2007) 29 Population and Environment 12

94. GEMENNE, François, “Tuvalu, un laboratoire du changement climatique?” (2010) 204 Revue Tiers Monde 89

95. CHIMNI, B.S., “The Birth of a ‘Discipline’: From Refugee to Forced Migration Studies” (2009) 22 Journal of Refugee Studies 11 at 20

96. BARNETT, Jon, “Destabilizing the Environment-Conflict Thesis” (2000) 26 Review of International Studies 271 at 285

Simon DALBY, “Threats from the South? Geopolitics, Equity, and Environmental Security” in Daniel H. DEUDNEY and Richard A. MATTHEW, eds., Contested Grounds: Security and Conflict in the New Environmental Politics (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999)

BANKOFF, Gregory, “Rendering the World Unsafe: ‘Vulnerability’ as Western Discourse” (2001) 25 Disasters 19

97. François GEMENNE, “What's in a Name: Social Vulnerabilities and the Refugee Controversy in the Wake of Hurricane Katrina” in Tamer AFIFI and Jill JÄGER, eds., Environment, Forced Migration and Social Vulnerability (New York: Springer, 2010), 29 at 36

MASQUELIER, Adeline, “Why Katrina's Victims Aren't Refugees: Musings on a ‘Dirty’ Word” (2006) 108 American Anthropologist 735

98. The White House, “President Meets with Representatives from National Voluntary Organizations” (September 2005)

99. LACZKO, Frank and AGHAZARM, Christine, “Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Assessing the Evidence”, International Organization for Migration, Report, (2009) at 73

BLACK, R. et al., “Demographics and Climate Change: Future Trends and Their Policy Implications for Migration”, Development Research Centre on Migration, Globalisation and Poverty (University of Sussex), Brighton, June 2008, at 7

100. GEMENNE, François, “Climate-Induced Population Displacements in a 4 C+ World” (2011) 369 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 182 at 188

101. See note 4.

102. BARNETT, Jon, “Security and Climate Change” (2003) 13 Global Environmental Change 7

BARNETT, Jon and ADGER, Neil, “Climate Change, Human Security and Violent Conflict” (2007) 26 Political Geography 639

BARNETT, Jon and ADGER, Neil, “Climate Dangers and Atoll Countries” (2003) 61 Climatic Change 321

HOMER-DIXON, Thomas F., Environment, Scarcity, and Violence (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999)

Nils Petter GLEDITSCH, “Environmental Conflict: Neomalthusians vs. Cornucopians” in Hans Günter BRAUCH et al., eds., Security and Environment in the Mediterranean: Conceptualising Security and Environmental Conflicts (Heidelberg: Springer, 2003)

EDWARDS, Scott, “Social Breakdown in Darfur” (2008) 31 Forced Migration 23

SWAIN, Ashok and LONERGAN, Steve, “Environmental Degradation and Population Displacement” Aviso (May 1999)

103. MORRISSEY, James, “Environmental Change and Forced Migration: A State of the Art Review”, Refugee Studies Center, Background Paper, January 2009

104. LIVERANI, Andrea, “Environmental Migration in the Middle East and North Africa”, Centre for International Studies and Research, Sciences Po, Presentation, 13−14 June 2012

105. Constitution of the International Organization for Migration, 19 May 1953, online: IOM 〈http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/shared/mainsite/about_iom/iom_constitution_eng_booklet.pdf〉, art.1 [Constitution of the IOM].

106. TAYLOR, Savitri, “From Border Control to Migration Management: The Case for a Paradigm Change in the Western Response to Transborder Population Movement” (2005) 39 Social Policy & Administration 563

Ole WAEVER et al. with David Carlton et al., Identity, Migration, and the New Security Agenda in Europe (London: Printer Publishers, 1993)

CRÉPEAU, François, NAKACHE, Delphine, and ATAK, Idil, “International Migration: Security Concerns and Human Rights Standards” (2007) 44 Transcultural Psychiatry 311

CRÉPEAU, François and NAKACHE, Delphine, “Controlling Irregular Migration in Canada: Reconciling Security Concerns with Human Rights Protection”, Institute for Research on Public Policy, Paper, February 2006

WEINER, Myron, “Security, Stability, and International Migration” (1992) 17 International Security 91

107. Jon BARNETT and Michael WEBBER, “Migration as Adaptation: Opportunities and Limits” in Jane MCADAM, ed., Climate Change and Displacement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2010)

Jon BARNETT and Natasha CHAMBERLAIN, “Migration as Climate Change Adaptation: Implications for the Pacific” in Bruce BURSON, ed., Climate Change and Migration: South Pacific Perspectives (Wellington: Institute of Policy Studies, 2010)

MCLEMAN, R. and SMIT, B., “Migration as an Adaptation to Climate Change” (2006) 76 Climatic Change 31

108. Supra note 11, Principle IV.

109. FELLI, Romain, “Managing Climate Insecurity by Ensuring Continuous Capital Accumulation: ‘Climate Refugees’ and ‘Climate Migrants’ ” (2012) New Political Economy (forthcoming)

110. Chimni, supra note 70 at 19

111. Ibid., at 22.

112. International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families, 18 December 1990, (entered into force 1 July 2003), online: OHCHR 〈http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/cmw.htm〉 [International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families].

113. MACDONALD, Euan and CHOLEWINSKI, Ryszard, “The Migrant Workers Convention in Europe: Obstacles to the Ratification of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families: EU/EEA Perspectives”, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Report, 2007

114. MCADAM, Jane, “Swimming Against the Tide: Why a Climate Change Displacement Treaty is Not the Answer” (2011) 23 International Journal of Refugee Law 2 at 17

WILLIAMS, Angela, “Turning the Tide: Recognizing Climate Change Refugees in International Law” (2008) 30 Law and Policy 502 at 517

115. See supra notes 99 and 100.

116. Williams, supra note 114 at 518

Mayer, supra note 8

117. Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, “Cartagena Declaration on Refugees” (November 1984), online: University of Minnesota 〈http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/cartagena1984.html〉; Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, 10 September 1969, online: African Union, 〈http://www.africa-union.org/Official_documents/Treaties_%20Conventions_%20Protocols/Refugee_Convention.pdf〉 [Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa].

118. Kampala Convention, supra note 84. See also Guiding Principles, supra note 60. The Guiding Principles are not open to ratification, and, therefore are generally considered as “soft law” or non-binding law.

119. ASEAN Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers, 13 January 2007, online: ASEAN 〈http://www.aseansec.org/19264.htm〉 [Cebu Declaration]; Statement of the Establishment of the ASEAN Committee on the Implementation of the ASEAN Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers, 30 July 2007, online: ASEAN 〈http://www.aseansec.org/20768.htm〉 [Statement of the Establishment of the ASEAN Committee].

120. Cambodia and Indonesia have signed the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families, but they have not ratified it. See International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families, supra note 112.

121. Colleen THOUEZ and Frédérique CHANNAC, “Shaping International Migration Policy: The Role of Regional Consultative Processes” (2006) 29 West European Politics 370 at 386

122. For instance, IOM organized a workshop on climate change adaptation and migration in the Mekong Delta, with United Nations Development Programme and Can Tho University, in June 2012.

123. Tay (2005), supra note 26.

124. Center for Strategic and International Studies, “Asia's Response to Climate Change and Natural Disasters: Implications for an Evolving Regional Architecture. A Report of the CSIS Asian Regionalism Initiative” (July 2010), online: CSIS 〈http://csis.org/files/publication/100708_Freeman_AsiasResponse_WEB.pdf〉 at 57−8.

125. Ibid.

126. United Nations Environment Programme, “Rio Declaration on Environment and Development” (June 1992)

127. The definition given by the IOM in a discussion note in 2007 is often cited, although less often agreed with. Accordingly,

environmental migrants are persons or groups of persons who, for compelling reasons of sudden or progressive changes in the environment that adversely affect their lives or living conditions, are obliged to leave their habitual homes, or chose to do so, either temporarily or permanently, and who move either within their country or abroad.

However, the IOM itself called this a “working definition”. See International Organization for Migration, “Discussion Note: Migration and the Environment” (November 2007), online: IOM 〈http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/shared/mainsite/microsites/IDM/workshops/evolving_global_economy_2728112007/MC_INF_288_EN.pdf〉 at 1−2.

128. Mayer, supra note 5

129. See in particular the advocacy of the Equity and Justice Working Group, online: EJWG 〈http://www.equitybd.org/〉.

130. FLOREMONT, Fanny, “Migratory Issues in Climate Adaptation Policies: A New Conceptualisation of Population Displacements?” (2012) 39 Forum for Development Studies 31 at 43

131. KOMORI, Yasumasa, “Evaluating Regional Environmental Governance in Northeast Asia” (2010) 37 Asian Affairs: An American Review 1

132. See online: Asian Disaster Preparedness Center 〈http://www.adpc.net/2011/〉.

133. Marianne ELLIOTT and David FAGAN, “From Community to Copenhagen: Civil Society Action on Climate Change in the Pacific” in Bruce BURSON, ed., Climate Change and Migration: South Pacific Perspectives (Wellington: Institute of Policy Studies, 2010)

134. ELLIOTT, Lorraine, “Climate Migration: Why it is a Human Security Issue”, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Commentary, 25 February 2011 at 57

135. It includes eighteen national bodies. See “Bangladesh Becomes Newest APF Member” Asia Pacific Forum (20 September 2011), online: Asia Pacific Forum 〈http://www.asiapacificforum.net/news/bangladesh-becomes-newest-apf-member〉. See also Asia Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions, “Larrakia Declaration: Conclusions, Recommendations and Decisions” (July 1996), online: Asia Pacific Forum 〈http://www.asiapacificforum.net/about/history/annual-meetings/1st-australia-1996/downloads/larakia.pdf〉 [Larrakia Declaration: Conclusions, Recommendations and Decisions]. A workshop was held in Bangkok on 17−21 October 2011, and the forthcoming publication of an “Operational Guide for National Human Rights Institutions on the Rights of Migrant Workers” was announced for 2012. See “Human Rights Advocacy and Migrant Workers in the Asia-Pacific Region” Asia Pacific Forum, online: Asia Pacific Forum 〈http://www.asiapacificforum.net/news/human-rights-advocacy-and-migrant-workers-in-the-asia-pacific-region〉.

136. South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, “Regional Study on the Causes and Consequences of Natural Disasters and the Protection and Preservation of the Environment” (1991)

Ashok SWAIN, “South Asia, Its Environment and Regional Institutions” in Lorraine ELLIOTT and Shaun BRESLIN, eds., Comparative Environmental Regionalism (London: Routledge, 2011)

137. South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, “Thimphu Statement on Climate Change” (April 2010)

138. Ibid., at 13th Recital.

139. Simon TAY, Robert G. PATMAN, and Betty MASON-PARKER, “Interdependence, States and Community: Ethical Concerns and Foreign Policy in ASEAN” in David B. MACDONALD, ed., The Ethics of Foreign Policy (London: Ashgate, 2007)

ANDERSON, Benedict, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (New York: Verso, 1991)

140. Lorraine ELLIOTT, “East Asia and Sub-Regional Diversity: Initiatives, Institutions and Identity” in Lorraine ELLIOTT and Shaun BRESLIN, eds., Comparative Environmental Regionalism (London: Routledge, 2011)

141. After the Cebu Declaration, several states are pushing for a binding agreement. See e.g. Association of Southeast Asian Nations, “2011 Chair's Statement of the 18th ASEAN Summit” (May 2011), online: Centre for International Law 〈http://cil.nus.edu.sg/rp/pdf/2011%20Chairs%20Statement%20of%20the%2018th%20ASEAN%20Summit-pdf.pdf〉 at 8.

142. TACCONI, L., JOTZO, F., and GRAFTON, R.Q., “Local Causes, Regional Co-operation and Global Financing for Environmental Problems: The Case of Southeast Asian Haze Pollution” (2008) 8 International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics 1 at 34

143. See in particular, Charter of the Association of Southeast Asian States, 20 November 2007, online: ASEAN 〈http://www.aseansec.org/21069.pdf〉, at art. 2(2)(a) [ASEAN Charter].

144. Kheng-Lian, KOH and ROBINSON, Nicholas A., “Strengthening Sustainable Development in Regional Inter-Governmental Governance: Lessons from the ASEAN Way” (2002) 6 Singapore Journal of International and Comparative Law 640 at 643

145. Ibid. at 643 and 659.

146. HUGO, Graeme, “Internal and International Migration in Asia-Exploring the Linkages”, Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore, Keynote Address, 13 October 2011

147. Ibid.

148. Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat, “Niue Declaration on Climate Change” (August 2008), online: Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat 〈http://www.forumsec.org/resources/uploads/attachments/documents/THE%20NIUE%20DECLARATION%20ON%20CLIMATE%20CHANGE.pdf〉 at para. 4 [Niue Declaration on Climate Change]. See also Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme, “Pacific Islands Framework for Action on Climate Change 2006−2015” (June 2005), online: Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme 〈http://www.sprep.org/att/publication/000438_PI_Framework_for_Action_on_Climate_Change_2006_2015_FINAL.pdf〉 [Pacific Islands Framework for Action on Climate Change 2006−2015].

149. DARA, “Declaration of the Climate Vulnerable Forum” (November 2009)

150. Asian Development Bank, “Policy Options to Support Climate-Induced Migration” (December 2009)

151. Ibid., at 4−5.

152. The initial project document actually provides that the financial feasibility study “will undertake a comprehensive feasibility study for the expansion of existing funding facilities (including the Adaptation Fund of the Kyoto Protocol and the United Nations Central Emergency Response Fund) or the establishment and maintenance of a new funding facility”, thus suggesting that funding should be operated at a global level. Ibid., at 4.

153. DOBIAS, Robert J., “ADB's Role in Addressing Climate Change and Migration”, Centre for Non-Traditional Studies, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Presentation, 27 May 2011

154. Ibid.

155. Supra note 12 at 73.

156. Asian Development Bank, “ADB Financial Profile 2011” (April 2011)

157. On the rule, see ADB Charter, supra note 156, art. 33. On the repartition of shares, see ADB Financial Profile 2011, supra note 156 at 36 regarding subscriptions to the authorized capital stock of the ADB.

158. ANGHIE, A. and CHIMNI, B.S., “Third World Approaches to International Law and Individual Responsibility in Internal Conflicts” (2003) 2 Chinese Journal of International Law 77 at 81

Keyuan, ZOU, “Asian Approaches and Contributions to International Law” in ZOU Keyuan, ed., China-ASEAN Relations and International Law (Oxford: Chandos Publishing, 2009), 21 at 26

159. CHESTERMAN, Simon and MAHBUBANI, Kishore, “The Asian Way of Handling the World” The Guardian (4 March 2010)

Kheng-Lian and Robinson, supra note 144 at 642−643

160. SEN, Amartya, “Human Rights and Asian Values” The New Republic (14−21 July 1997), 33 at 34

161. ASEAN Charter, supra note 143, art. 2(2)(a).

162. Charter of the United Nations, 26 June 1945 (entered into force 24 October 1945), online: UN 〈http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/〉, art. 2(1).

163. Consolidated Version of the Treaty on European Union, 7 February 1992, online: EUR-Lex 〈http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2010:083:0013:0046:en:PDF〉, arts. 4(1) and 5.

164. GINSBURG, Tom, “Eastphalia as the Perfection of Westphalia” (2010) 17 Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies 27 at 3135

KAHLER, M., “Legalization As Strategy: The Asia-Pacific Case” (2000) 54 International Organization 549

165. Donald E. WEATHERBEE, International Relations in Southeast Asia: The Struggle for Autonomy (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2009) at 298.

166. Tay, supra note 26

167. Ibid.

168. Anghie and Chimni, supra note 158 at 83

169. Antony ANGHIE, “Universality and the Concept of Governance in International Law” in Edward Kofi QUASHIGAH and Obiora Chinedu OKAFOR, eds., Legitimate Governance in Africa: International and Domestic Legal Perspectives (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1999), 21 at 39

170. Panikkar, supra note 74 at 94

171. ALVAREZ, Jose E., “Institutionalised Legislation and the Asia-Pacific Region” (2007) 5 New Zealand Journal of Public and International Law 9 at 10

SINGH, Prabhakar, “The Scandal of Enlightenment and the Birth of Disciplines: Is International Law a Science?” (2010) 12 International Community Law Review 5 at 17

172. Lorraine ELLIOTT and Shaun BRESLIN, “Researching Comparative Regional Environmental Governance: Causes, Cases and Consequences” in Lorraine ELLIOTT and Shaun BRESLIN, eds., Comparative Environmental Regionalism (London: Routledge, 2011)

173. Ibid.

174. Chimni, supra note 72 at 39

175. See for e.g. Alvarez, supra note 171 at 20: “There is no such thing as an ‘Asia-Pacific region’.” See also ibid., at 41, addressing “Indian civilization” and “Asian civilizations”.

176. Refugee Convention, supra note 57.

177. Chimni, supra note 72 at 40.

178. Ibid.

179. CHIMNI, B.S., “A Just World Under Law: A View from the South” (2006) 22 American University International Law Review 199 at 215

Nancy FRASER, “Social Justice in the Age of Identity Politics: Redistribution, Recognition, and Participation” in Larry RAY and Andrew SAYER, eds., Culture and Economy after the Cultural Turn (London: Sage, 1999)

180. Chimni, supra note 72 at 41

SAID, Edward W., “The Clash of Ignorance” The Nation (22 October 2001) at 146

181. Chimni, supra note 72 at 42

182. Ibid., at 40.

183. Ibid., at 40−1.

184. Ibid., at 41.

185. Tay, supra note 26

186. BERMAN, P.S., “Global Legal Pluralism” (2006) 80 South California Law Review 1155

BERMAN, P.S., “A Pluralist Approach to International Law” (2007) 32 Yale Journal of International Law 301

JOHNSTONE, Naomi, “Indonesia in the ‘REDD’: Climate Change, Indigenous Peoples and Global Legal Pluralism” (2010) 12 Asian-Pacific Law and Policy Journal 93

Sally Engle MERRY, “International Law and Socio-Legal Scholarship: Toward a Spatial Global Legal Pluralism” in Austin SARAT, ed., Law and Society Reconsidered (Oxford: Elsevier, 2008)

HOLBROOK, Justin G., “Legal Hybridity in the Philippines: Lessons in Legal Pluralism from Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago” (2009) 18 Tulane Journal of International and Comparative Law 403

CHIBA, M., Legal Pluralism: Toward a General Theory Through Japanese Legal Culture (Tokyo: Tokai University Press, 1989)

187. Gemenne, supra note 94

188. Tay, supra note 70 at 768

189. Mayer, supra note 5

190. EL-HINNAWI, E., “Environmental Refugees”, United Nations Environment Programme, Report, 1985

* PhD candidate, Faculty of Law, National University of Singapore. This article builds on a class paper presented as part of Associate Professor Simon TAY Seong Chee's seminar on International Law in Asia. It results from the encounter of a Western student with Asian critical research on international law, in particular the Third World Approaches of International Law. An earlier draft was circulated as a working paper for the Earth System Governance project. I wish to thank Ingrid Boas, François Crépeau, Aysem Mert, Alan Tan Khee Jin, and two anonymous reviewers for comments on an earlier draft. All mistakes remain my own.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Asian Journal of International Law
  • ISSN: 2044-2513
  • EISSN: 2044-2521
  • URL: /core/journals/asian-journal-of-international-law
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Mayer Supplementary Material
Appendix

 Word (330 KB)
330 KB
WORD
Supplementary materials

Mayer Supplementary Material
Appendix

 Word (71 KB)
71 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed