Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-9dmbd Total loading time: 0.866 Render date: 2021-03-07T01:16:15.960Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Somatosensory processes subserving perception and action

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 August 2007

H. Chris Dijkerman
Affiliation:
Department of Experimental Psychology, Helmholtz Research Institute, Utrecht University, 3584 CS Utrecht, The Netherlandsc.dijkerman@uu.nle.dehaan@uu.nl
Edward H. F. de Haan
Affiliation:
Department of Experimental Psychology, Helmholtz Research Institute, Utrecht University, 3584 CS Utrecht, The Netherlandsc.dijkerman@uu.nle.dehaan@uu.nl
Corresponding

Abstract

The functions of the somatosensory system are multiple. We use tactile input to localize and experience the various qualities of touch, and proprioceptive information to determine the position of different parts of the body with respect to each other, which provides fundamental information for action. Further, tactile exploration of the characteristics of external objects can result in conscious perceptual experience and stimulus or object recognition. Neuroanatomical studies suggest parallel processing as well as serial processing within the cerebral somatosensory system that reflect these separate functions, with one processing stream terminating in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), and the other terminating in the insula. We suggest that, analogously to the organisation of the visual system, somatosensory processing for the guidance of action can be dissociated from the processing that leads to perception and memory. In addition, we find a second division between tactile information processing about external targets in service of object recognition and tactile information processing related to the body itself. We suggest the posterior parietal cortex subserves both perception and action, whereas the insula principally subserves perceptual recognition and learning.

Type
Main Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2007

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Aglioti, S., Betramello, A., Bonazzi, A. & Corbetta, M. (1996) Thumb-pointing in humans after damage to somatic sensory cortex. Experimental Brain Research 109:92100.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Amedi, A., Malach, R., Hendler, T., Peled, S. & Zohary, E. (2001) Visuo-haptic object-related activation in the ventral visual pathway. Nature Neuroscience 4:324–30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Andersen, R. A. (1997) Multimodal integration for representation of space in the posterior parietal cortex. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B 352:1421–28.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arzy, S., Thut, G., Mohr, C., Michel, C. M. & Blanke, O. (2006b) Neural basis of embodiment: Distinct contributions of temporoparietal junction and extrastriate body area. Journal of Neuroscience 26:8074–81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Astafiev, S. V., Stanley, C. M., Shulman, G. L. & Corbetta, M. (2004) Extrastriate body area in human occipital cortex responds to the performance of motor actions. Nature Neuroscience 7:542–48.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barbaresi, P., Minelli, A. & Manzoni, T. (1994) Topographical relations between ipsilateral cortical afferents and callosal neurons in the second somatic sensory area of cats. Journal of Comparative Neurology 343:582–96.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Belin, P. & Zatorre, R. J. (2000) ‘What’, ‘where’ and ‘how’ in auditory cortex. Nature Neuroscience 3:965–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berkley, K. J. (1980) Spatial relationships between the terminations of somatic sensory and motor pathways in the rostral brainstem of cats and monkeys. I. Ascending somatic sensory inputs to lateral diencephalon. Journal of Comparative Neurology 193:283317.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berlucchi, G. & Aglioti, S. (1997) The body in the brain: Neural bases of corporeal awareness. Trends in Neuroscience 20:560–64.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Binkofski, F., Buccino, G., Stephan, K. M., Rizzolatti, G., Seitz, R. J. & Freund, H. J. (1999b) A parieto-premotor network for object manipulation: Evidence from neuroimaging. Experimental Brain Research 128:210–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Binkofski, F., Kunesch, E., Classen, J., Seitz, R. J. & Freund, H. J. (2001) Tactile apraxia: Unimodal apractic disorder of tactile object exploration associated with parietal lobe lesions. Brain 124:132–44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bisiach, E., McIntosh, R. D., Dijkerman, H. C., McClements, K. I., Colombo, M. R. & Milner, A. D. (2004) Visual and haptic size matching in spatial neglect. Cortex 40:651–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bohlhalter, S., Fretz, C. & Weder, B. (2002) Hierarchical versus parallel processing in tactile object recognition: A behavioural-neuroanatomical study of aperceptive tactile agnosia. Brain 125:2537–48.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bonda, E., Petrides, M. & Evans, A. (1996) Neural systems for tactual memories. Journal of Neurophysiology 75:1730–37.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bonda, E., Petrides, M., Frey, S. & Evans, A. (1995) Neural correlates of mental transformations of the body-in-space. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 92:11180–84.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Botvinick, M. & Cohen, J. (1998) Rubber hands ‘feel’ touch that eyes see. Nature 391:756.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brochier, T., Habib, M. & Brouchon, M. (1994) Covert processing of information in hemianesthesia: A case report. Cortex 30:135–44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burton, H. & Jones, E. G. (1976) The posterior thalamic region and its cortical projection in New World and Old World monkeys. Journal of Comparative Neurology 168:249302.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burton, H. & Sinclair, R. J. (2000) Attending to and remembering tactile stimuli: A review of brain imaging data and single-neuron responses. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology 17:575–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buxbaum, L. J. & Coslett, H. B. (2001) Specialised structural descriptions for human body parts: Evidence from autotopagnosia. Cognitive Neuropsychology 18(4):289306.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carey, D. P., Harvey, M. & Milner, A. D. (1996) Visuomotor sensitivity for shape and orientation in a patient with visual form agnosia. Neuropsychologia 34:329–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Caselli, R. J. (1991) Rediscovering tactile agnosia. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 66:129–42.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caselli, R. J. (1993) Ventrolateral and dorsomedial somatosensory association cortex damage produces distinct somethetic syndromes in humans. Neurology 43:762–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cereda, C., Ghika, J., Maeder, P. & Bogousslavsky, J. (2002) Strokes restricted to the insular cortex. Neurology 59:1950–55.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chen, L. M., Friedman, R. M. & Roe, A. W. (2003) Optical imaging of a tactile illusion in area 3b of the primary somatosensory cortex. Science 302:881–85.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chen, L. M., Friedman, R. M. & Roe, A. W. (2005) Optical imaging of SI topography in anesthetized and awake squirrel monkeys. Journal of Neuroscience 25:7648–59.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clarke, S., Bellmann, A., Meuli, R. A., Assal, G. & Steck, A. J. (2000) Auditory agnosia and auditory spatial deficits following left hemispheric lesions: Evidence for distinct processing pathways. Neuropsychologia 38:797807.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clower, D. M., Hoffman, J. M., Votaw, J. R., Faber, T. L., Woods, R. P. & Alexander, G. E. (1996) Role of posterior parietal cortex in the recalibration of visually guided reaching. Nature 383:618–21.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Colby, C. L. (1998) Action-oriented spatial reference frames in cortex. Neuron 20:1524.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Corkin, S., Milner, B. & Rasmussen, T. (1970) Somatosensory thresholds: Contrasting effects of postcentral-gyrus and posterior parietal-lobe excisions. Archives of Neurology 23:4158.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Craig, A. D. (2002) How do you feel? Interoception: The sense of the physiological condition of the body. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience 3:655–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Craig, A. D. (2004) Human feelings: Why are some more aware than others? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8:239–41.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Craig, A. D. (2005) Forebrain emotional asymmetry: A neuroanatomical basis? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9:566–71.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Culham, J. C., Danckert, S. L., DeSouza, J. F., Gati, J. S., Menon, R. S. & Goodale, M. A. (2003) Visually guided grasping produces fMRI activation in dorsal but not ventral stream brain areas. Experimental Brain Research 153(2):180–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cusick, C. G., Steindler, D. A. & Kaas, J. H. (1985) Corticocortical and collateral thalamocortical connections of postcentral somatosensory cortical areas in squirrel monkeys: A double-labeling study with radiolabeled wheatgerm agglutinin and wheatgerm agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. Somatosensory Research 3:131.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davis, K. D., Kwan, C. L., Crawley, A. P. & Mikulis, D. J. (1998) Functional MRI study of thalamic and cortical activations evoked by cutaneous, heat, cold and tactile stimuli. Journal of Neurophysiology 80:1533–46.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Vito, J. L. & Simmons, D. M. (1976) Some connections of the posterior thalamus in monkey. Experimental Neurology 51:347–62.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Debowy, D. J., Ghosh, S., Ro, J. Y. & Gardner, E. P. (2001) Comparison of neuronal firing rates in somatosensory and posterior parietal cortex during prehension. Experimental Brain Research 137(3-4):269–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Deibert, E., Kraut, M., Kremen, S. & Hart, J. Jr. (1999) Neural pathways in tactile object recognition. Neurology 52:1413–17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Denes, G. (1999) Disorders of body awareness and body knowledge. In: Handbook of clinical and experimental neuropsychology, ed. Denes, G. & Pizzamiglio, L.. Psychology Press.Google Scholar
Dijkerman, H. C. (1996) Residual somatosensory and motor functioning after hemispherectomy. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oxford.Google Scholar
Disbrow, E., Litinas, E., Recanzone, G. H., Padberg, J. & Krubitzer, L. (2003) Cortical connections of the second somatosensory area and the parietal ventral area in macaque monkeys. Journal of Comparative Neurology 462:382–99.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Disbrow, E., Litinas, E., Recanzone, G. H., Slutsky, D. & Krubitzer, L. (2002) Thalamocortical connections of somatosensory areas PV and S2 in macaque monkeys. Thamalus and Related Systems 1:289302.Google Scholar
Disbrow, E., Roberts, T., Poeppel, D. & Krubitzer, L. (2001) Evidence for interhemispheric processing of inputs from the hands in human S2 and PV. Journal of Neurophysiology 85:2236–44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Downing, P. E., Jiang, Y., Shuman, M. & Kanwisher, N. (2001) A cortical area selective for visual processing of the human body. Science 293:2470–73.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Duhamel, J. R., Colby, C. L. & Goldberg, M. E. (1998) Ventral intraparietal area of the macaque: Congruent visual and somatic response properties. Journal of Neurophysiology 79:126–36.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ehrsson, H. H., Holmes, N. P. & Passingham, R. E. (2005a) Touching a rubber hand: Feeling of body ownership is associated with activity in multisensory brain areas. Journal of Neuroscience 25(45):10564–73.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ehrsson, H. H., Kito, T., Sadato, N., Passingham, R. E. & Naito, E. (2005b) Neural substrate of body size: Illusory feeling of shrinking of the waist. PLoS Biology 3:2200–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ehrsson, H. H., Spence, C. & Passingham, R. E. (2004) That's my hand! Activity in premotor cortex reflects feeling of ownership of a limb. Science 305(5685):875–77.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eimer, M., van Velzen, J. & Driver, J. (2002) Cross-modal interactions between audition, touch, and vision in endogenous spatial attention: ERP evidence on preparatory states and sensory modulations. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 14:254–71.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Farrer, C., Franck, N., Georgieff, N., Frith, C. D., Decety, J. & Jeannerod, M. (2003) Modulating the experience of agency: A positron emission tomography study. NeuroImage 18:324–33.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Friedman, D. P., Jones, E. G. & Burton, H. (1980) Representation pattern in the second somatic sensory area of the monkey cerebral cortex. Journal of Comparative Neurology 192:2141.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Friedman, D. P. & Murray, E. A. (1986) Thalamic connectivity of the second somatosensory area and neighboring somatosensory fields of the lateral sulcus of the macaque. Journal of Comparative Neurology 252:348–73.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Friedman, D. P., Murray, E. A., O'Neill, J. B. & Mishkin, M. (1986) Cortical connections of the somatosensory fields of the lateral sulcus of macaques: Evidence for a corticolimbic pathway for touch. Journal of Comparative Neurology 252:323–47.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Friedman, R. M., Chen, L. M. & Roe, A. W. (2004) Modality maps within primate somatosensory cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 101:12724–29.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Garcha, H. S. & Ettlinger, G. (1980) Tactile discrimination learning in the monkey: The effects of unilateral or bilateral removals of the second somatosensory cortex (area SII). Cortex 16:397412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gardner, E. P. (1988) Somatosensory cortical mechanisms of feature detection in tactile and kinesthetic discrimination. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 66:439–54.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gardner, E. P., Ro, J. Y., Debowy, D. & Ghosh, S. (1999) Facilitation of neuronal activity in somatosensory and posterior parietal cortex during prehension. Experimental Brain Research 127(4):329–54.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gibson, J. J. (1962) Observations on active touch. Psychological Review 69:477–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goodale, M. A. (2001) Different spaces and different times for perception and action. Progress in Brain Research 134:313–31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goodale, M. A., Jakobson, L. S. & Keillor, J. M. (1994) Differences in the visual control of pantomimed and natural grasping movements. Neuropsychologia 32:1159–78.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goodale, M. A. & Milner, A. D. (1992) Separate visual pathways for perception and action. Trends in Neurosciences 15:2025.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goodale, M. A., Milner, A. D., Jakobson, L. S. & Carey, D. P. (1991) A neurological dissociation between perceiving objects and grasping them. Nature 349:154–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graziano, M. S., Cooke, D. F. & Taylor, C. S. (2000) Coding the location of the arm by sight. Science 290:1782–86.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grefkes, C., Weiss, P. H., Zilles, K. & Fink, G. R. (2002) Crossmodal processing of object features in human anterior intraparietal cortex: An fMRI study implies equivalencies between humans and monkeys. Neuron 35:173–84.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gregoriou, G. G. & Savaki, H. E. (2001) The intraparietal cortex: Subregions involved in fixation, saccades, and in the visual and somatosensory guidance of reaching. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 21:671–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Guariglia, C., Piccardi, L., Puglisi Allegra, M. C. & Traballesi, M. (2002) Is autotopagnosia real? EC says yes. A case study. Neuropsychologia 40:1744–49.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hagen, M. C. & Pardo, J. V. (2002) PET studies of somatosensory processing of light touch. Behavioural Brain Research 135:133–40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Halligan, P. W., Hunt, M., Marshall, J. C. & Wade, D. T. (1995) Sensory detection without localization. Neurocase 1:259–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Halligan, P. W. & Marshall, J. C. (1995) Supernumerary phantom limb after right hemispheric stroke. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 59:341–42.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hari, R., Hanninen, R., Makinen, T., Jousmaki, V., Forss, N., Seppa, M. & Salonen, O. (1998) Three hands: Fragmentation of human bodily awareness. Neuroscience Letters 240:131–34.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harris, J. A., Harris, I. M. & Diamond, M. E. (2001a) The topography of tactile learning in humans. Journal of Neuroscience 21:1056–61.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harris, J. A., Harris, I. M. & Diamond, M. E. (2001b) The topography of tactile working memory. Journal of Neuroscience 21:8262–69.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harris, J. A., Miniussi, C., Harris, I. M. & Diamond, M. E. (2002) Transient storage of a tactile memory trace in primary somatosensory cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 22:8720–25.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Head, H. & Holmes, G. (19111912) Sensory disturbances from cerebral lesions. Brain 34:102254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hodge, C. J. Jr., Huckins, S. C., Szeverenyi, N. M., Fonte, M. M., Dubroff, J. G. & Davuluri, K. (1998) Patterns of lateral sensory cortical activation determined using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Journal of Neurosurgery 89:769–79.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Holloway, V., Gadian, D. G., Vargha-Khadem, F., Porter, D. A., Boyd, S. G. & Connelly, A. (2000) The reorganization of sensorimotor function in children after hemispherectomy: A functional MRI and somatosensory evoked potential study. Brain 123(Pt 12):2432–44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huttunen, J., Wikstrom, H., Korvenoja, A., Seppalainen, A. M., Aronen, H. & Ilmoniemi, R. J. (1996) Significance of the second somatosensory cortex in sensorimotor integration: Enhancement of sensory responses during finger movements. NeuroReport 7:1009–12.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hyvärinen, J. & Poranen, A. (1974) Function of parietal associative area 7 as revealed from cellular discharges in alert monkeys. Brain 97:673–92.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hyvärinen, J. & Poranen, A. (1978) Movement-sensitive and direction and orientation-selective cutaneous receptive fields in the hand area of the post-central gyrus in monkeys. Journal of Physiology 283:523–37.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Iwamura, Y. (1998) Hierarchical somatosensory processing. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 8:522–28.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Iwamura, Y. & Tanaka, M. (1996) Representation of reaching and grasping in the monkey postcentral gyrus. Neuroscience Letters 214:147–50.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
James, T. W., Culham, J., Humphrey, G. K., Milner, A. D. & Goodale, M. A. (2003) Ventral occipital lesions impair object recognition but not object-directed grasping: An fMRI study. Brain 126(Pt 11):2463–75.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
James, T. W., Humphrey, G. K., Gati, J. S., Servos, P., Menon, R. S. & Goodale, M. A. (2002) Haptic study of three-dimensional objects activates extrastriate visual areas. Neuropsychologia 40:1706–14.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jäncke, L., Kleinschmidt, A., Mirzazade, S., Shah, N. J. & Freund, H. J. (2001) The role of the inferior parietal cortex in linking the tactile perception and manual construction of object shapes. Cerebral Cortex 11:114–21.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jeannerod, M., Arbib, M. A., Rizzolatti, G. & Sakata, H. (1995) Grasping objects: The cortical mechanisms of visuomotor transformation. Trends in Neurosciences 18:314–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jeannerod, M., Decety, J. & Michel, F. (1994) Impairment of grasping movements following posterior parietal lesion. Neuropsychologia 32:369–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jeannerod, M., Michel, F. & Prablanc, C. (1984) The control of hand movements in a case of hemianaesthesia following a parietal lesion. Brain 107:899920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jeannerod, M. & Rossetti, Y. (1993) Visuomotor coordination as a dissociable visual function: Experimental and clinical evidence. In: Visual perceptual defects, ed. Kennard, C.. Baillière's Clinical Neurology Series, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 439–60. Ballière Tindall.Google Scholar
Johnson, P. B., Ferraina, S., Bianchi, L. & Caminiti, R. (1996) Cortical networks for visual reaching: Physiological and anatomical organization of frontal and parietal lobe arm regions. Cerebral Cortex 6:102–19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jones, E. G. & Powell, T. P. S. (1970) Connexions of the somatic sensory cortex of the rhesus monkey. Brain 93:3756.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jones, E. G., Wise, S. O. & Coulter, J. D. (1979) Differential thalamic relationships of sensory-motor and parietal cortical fields in monkeys. Journal of Comparative Neurology 183:833–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kaas, J. H. (1983) What, if anything, is SI? Organization of first somatosensory area of cortex. Physiological Reviews 63:206–31. Available at http://physrev.physiology.org/cgi/reprint/63/1/206.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kaas, J. H. (2004) Somatosensory system. In: The human nervous system, ed. Paxinos, G. & Mai, J. K.. Elsevier.Google Scholar
Kaas, J. H., Hackett, T. A. & Tramo, M. J. (1999) Auditory processing in primate cerebral cortex. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 9:164–70.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kaas, J. H., Nelson, R. J., Sur, M., Lin, C. S. & Merzenich, M. M. (1979) Multiple representations of the body within the primary somatosensory cortex of primates. Science 204:521–23.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kalaska, J. F., Scott, S. H., Cisek, P. & Sergio, L. E. (1997) Cortical control of reaching movements. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 7:849–59.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kammers, M. P. M., van der Ham, I. J. M. & Dijkerman, H. C. (2006) Dissociating body representations in healthy individuals: Differential effects of a kinaesthetic illusion depending on body representations. Neuropsychologia 44(12):2430–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Karnath, H.-O., Baier, B. & Nägele, T. (2005) Awareness of the functioning of one's own limbs mediated by the insular cortex? Journal of Neuroscience 25:7134–38.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kennett, S., Taylor-Clarke, M. & Haggard, P. (2001) Noninformative vision improves the spatial resolution of touch in humans. Current Biology 11:1188–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kertzman, C., Schwarz, U., Zeffiro, T. A. & Hallett, M. (1997) The role of posterior parietal cortex in visually guided reaching movements in humans. Experimental Brain Research 114:170–83.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kitazawa, S. (2002) Where conscious sensation takes place. Consciousness and Cognition 11:475–77.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Knecht, S., Kunesch, E. & Schnitzler, A. (1996) Parallel and serial processing of haptic information in man: Effects of parietal lesions on sensorimotor hand function. Neuropsychologia 37:669–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lederman, S. J. & Klatzky, R. L. (1987) Hand movements: A window into haptic object recognition. Cognitive Psychology 19:342–68.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lederman, S. J. & Klatzky, R. L. (1993) Extracting object properties through haptic exploration. Acta Psychologica 84:2940.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levine, D. N., Calvanio, R. & Rinn, W. E. (1991) The pathogenesis of anosognosia for hemiplegia. Neurology 41:1770–81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lin, Y. Y. & Forss, N. (2002) Functional characterization of human second somatosensory cortex by magnetoencephalography. Behavioural Brain Research 135:141–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lin, Y. Y., Simoes, C., Forss, N. & Hari, R. (2000) Differential effects of muscle contraction from various body parts on neuromagnetic somatosensory responses. NeuroImage 11:334–40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maravita, A., Spence, C. & Driver, J. (2003) Multisensory integration and the body schema: Close to hand and within reach. Current Biology 13:R531–39.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marcel, A. (2003) The sense of agency: Awareness and ownership of action. In: Agency and self-awareness, ed. Roessler, J. & Eilan, N.. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Marconi, B., Genovesio, A., Battaglia-Mayer, A., Ferraina, S., Squatrito, S., Molinari, M., Lacquaniti, F. & Caminiti, R. (2001) Eye-hand coordination during reaching. I. Anatomical relationships between parietal and frontal cortex. Cerebral Cortex 11:513–27.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Martin, J. H. & Jessell, T. M. (1991) Anatomy of the somatic sensory system. In: Principles of neural science, ed. Kandel, E. R., Schwartz, J. H. & Jessell, T. M.. Appleton & Lange.Google Scholar
May, P. J. (2005) The mammalian superior colliculus: Laminar structure and connections. Progress in Brain Research 151:321–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGlone, F., Kelly, E. F., Trulsson, M., Francis, S. T., Westling, G. & Bowtell, R. (2002) Functional neuroimaging studies of human somatosensory cortex. Behavioural Brain Research 135:147–58.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Melzack, R. (1990) Phantom limbs and the concept of a neuromatrix. Trends in Neurosciences 13:8892.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Merzenich, M. M., Kaas, J. H., Sur, M. & Lin, C. S. (1978) Double representation of the body surface within cytoarchitectonic areas 3b and 1 in “SI” in the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). Journal of Comparative Neurology 181:4174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Milner, A. D. & Dijkerman, H. C. (1998) Visual processing in the primate parietal lobe. In: Comparative neuropsychology, ed. Milner, A. D.. Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Milner, A. D., Dijkerman, H. C., McIntosh, R. D., Rossetti, Y. & Pisella, L. (2003) Delayed reaching and grasping in patients with optic ataxia. Progress in Brain Research 142:225–42.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Milner, A. D., Dijkerman, H. C., Pisella, L., McIntosh, R. D., Tilikete, C., Vighetto, A. & Rossetti, Y. (2001) Grasping the past: Delay can improve visuomotor performance. Current Biology 11:1896–901.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Milner, A. D. & Goodale, M. A. (1995) The visual brain in action. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Mishkin, M. (1979) Analogous neural models for tactual and visual learning. Neuropsychologia 17:139–51.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moffett, A., Ettlinger, G., Morton, H. B. & Piercy, M. F. (1967) Tactile discrimination performance in the monkey: The effect of ablation of various subdivisions of posterior parietal cortex. Cortex 3:5996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moss, A. D. & Turnbull, O. H. (1996) Hatred of the hemiparetic limbs (misoplegia) in a 10 year old child. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 61:210–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mountcastle, V. B. (1984) Central mechanisms in mechanoreceptive sensibility. In: Handbook of Physiology, Section 1: The nervous system, ed. Brookhart, J. M.. American Physiological Society.Google Scholar
Mountcastle, V. B., Lynch, J. C., Georgopoulos, A., Sakata, H. & Acuna, C. (1975) Posterior parietal association cortex of the monkey: Command functions for operations within extra personal space. Journal of Neurophysiology 38:871908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muller, F., Kunesch, E., Binkofski, F. & Freund, H. J. (1991) Residual sensorimotor functions in a patient after right-sided hemispherectomy. Neuropsychologia 29:125–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murray, E. A. & Mishkin, M. (1984) Relative contributions of SII and area 5 to tactile discrimination in monkeys. Behavioural Brain Research 11:6783.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Newport, R., Hindle, J. V. & Jackson, S. R. (2001) Links between vision and somatosensation: Vision can improve the felt position of the unseen hand. Current Biology 11:975–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Newport, R., Rabb, B. & Jackson, S. R. (2002) Noninformative vision improves haptic spatial perception. Current Biology 12:1661–64.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Olausson, H., Lamarre, Y., Backlund, H., Morin, C., Wallin, B. G., Starck, G., Ekholm, S., Strigo, I., Worsley, K., Vallbo, A. B. & Bushnell, M. C. (2002) Unmyelinated tactile afferents signal touch and project to insular cortex. Nature Neuroscience 5(9):900904.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Overduin, S. A. & Servos, P. (2004) Distributed digit somatotopy in primary somatosensory cortex. NeuroImage 23:462–72.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paillard, J. (1999) Body schema and body image: A double dissociation in deafferented patients. In: Motor control, today and tomorrow, ed. Gantchev, G. N., Mori, S. & Massion, J., pp. 197214. Academic Publishing House.Google Scholar
Paillard, J., Michel, F. & Stelmach, G. (1983) Localization without content: A tactile analogue of ‘blind sight’. Archives of Neurology 40:548–51.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pandya, D. N. & Yeterian, E. H. (1990) Architecture and connections of the cerebral cortex: Implications for brain evolution and function. In: Neurobiology of higher cognitive function, ed. Scheibel, A. B. & Wechsler, A. F.. Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Passingham, R. E. & Toni, I. (2001) Contrasting the dorsal and ventral visual systems: Guidance of movement versus decision making. NeuroImage 14(Suppl. 1, Pt 2):S125–31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pause, M., Kunesh, E., Binkofski, F. & Freund, H. J. (1989) Sensorimotor disturbances in patients with lesions of the parietal cortex. Brain 112:1599–625.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pearson, R. C., Brodal, P. & Powell, T. P. (1978) The projection of the thalamus upon the parietal lobe in the monkey. Brain Research 144:143–48.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pearson, R. C. & Powell, T. P. (1985) The projection of the primary somatic sensory cortex upon area 5 in the monkey. Brain Research 356:89107.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Perenin, M. T. & Rossetti, Y. (1996) Grasping without form discrimination in a hemianopic field. NeuroReport 7:793–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Phillips, C. G., Powell, T. P. S. & Wiesendanger, M. (1971) Projections from low-threshold muscle afferents of hand and forearm to area 3a of baboon's cortex. Journal of Physiology 217:419–46.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Phillips, J. R., Johnson, K. O. & Hsiao, S. S. (1988) Spatial pattern representation and transformation in monkey somatosensory cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 85:1317–21.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pietrini, P., Furey, M. L., Ricciardi, E., Gobbini, M. I., Wu, W. H., Cohen, L., Guazzelli, M. & Haxby, J. V. (2004) Beyond sensory images: Object-based representation in the human ventral pathway. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 101:5658–63.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pisella, L., Binkofski, F., Lasek, K., Toni, I. & Rossetti, Y. (2006) No double-dissociation between optic ataxia and visual agnosia: Multiple sub-streams for multiple visuo-manual integrations. Neuropsychologia 44:27342748.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Platz, T. (1996) Tactile agnosia: Casuistic evidence and theoretical remarks on modality-specific meaning representations and sensorimotor integration. Brain 119:1565–74.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pons, T. P., Garraghty, P. E., Cusick, C. G. & Kaas, J. H. (1985) The somatotopic organization of area 2 in macaque monkeys. Journal of Comparative Neurology 241:445–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pons, T. P., Garraghty, P. E., Friedman, D. P. & Mishkin, M. (1987) Physiological evidence for serial processing in somatosensory cortex. Science 237:417–19. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/view/00368075/ap003544/00a00250/0?frame=noframe&userID=814fc297@indiana.edu/01cce4406800501b5a881&dpi=3&config=jstor.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pons, T. P. & Kaas, J. H. (1986) Corticocortical connections of area 2 of somatosensory cortex in macaque monkeys: A correlative anatomical and electrophysiological study. Journal of Comparative Neurology 248:313–35.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Prather, S. C., Votaw, J. R. & Sathian, K. (2004) Task-specific recruitment of dorsal and ventral visual areas during tactile perception. Neuropsychologia 42:1079–87.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Prud'Homme, M. J. L. & Kalaska, J. F. (1994) Proprioceptive activity in primate primary somatosensory cortex during active arm reaching movements. Journal of Neurophysiology 72:2280–301.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Randolph, M. & Semmes, J. (1974) Behavioral consequences of selective subtotal ablations in the postcentral gyrus of Macaca mulatta. Brain Research 70:5570.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rauschecker, J. P. (1998) Cortical processing of complex sounds. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 8:516–21.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rauschecker, J. P. & Tian, B. (2000) Mechanisms and streams for processing of “what” and “where” in auditory cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 97:11800–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reed, C. L. & Caselli, R. J. (1994) The nature of tactile agnosia: A case study. Neuropsychologia 32:527–39.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reed, C. L., Caselli, R. J. & Farah, M. J. (1996) Tactile agnosia: Underlying impairment and implications for normal tactile object recognition. Brain 119:875–88.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reed, C. L., Klatzky, R. L. & Halgren, E. (2005) What vs. where in touch: An fMRI study. NeuroImage 25:718–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reed, C. L., Shoham, S. & Halgren, E. (2004) Neural substrates of tactile object recognition: An fMRI study. Human Brain Mapping 21:236–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rizzolatti, G., Luppino, G. & Matelli, M. (1998) The organization of the cortical motor system: New concepts. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 106:283–96.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rizzolatti, G. & Matelli, M. (2003) Two different streams form the dorsal visual system: Anatomy and functions. Experimental Brain Research 153:146–57.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ro, J. Y., Debowy, D., Ghosh, S. & Gardner, E. P. (2000) Depression of neuronal firing rates in somatosensory and posterior parietal cortex during object acquisition in a prehension task. Experimental Brain Research 135(1):111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roland, P. E. (1987) Somatosensory detection of microgeometry, macrogeometry and kinesthesia after localized lesions of cerebral hemispheres in man. Brain Research Reviews 12:4394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Romanski, L. M., Tian, B., Fritz, J., Mishkin, M., Goldman-Rakic, P. S. & Rauschecker, J. P. (1999) Dual streams of auditory afferents target multiple domains in the primate prefrontal cortex. Nature Neuroscience 2:1131–36.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roper, S. N., Levesque, M. F., Sutherling, W. W. & Engel, J. Jr. (1993) Surgical treatment of partial epilepsy arising from the insular cortex: Report of two cases. Journal of Neurosurgery 79:266–69.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rossetti, Y. (1998) Implicit short-lived motor representations of space in brain damaged and healthy subjects. Consciousness and Cognition 7:520–58.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rossetti, Y., Rode, G. & Boisson, D. (1995b) Implicit processing of somaesthetic information: A dissociation between where and how? NeuroReport 6:506–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rossetti, Y., Rode, G. & Boisson, D. (2001) Numbsense: A case study and implications. In: Out of mind: Varieties of unconscious processing, ed. de Gelder, B., De Haan, E. H. F. & Heywood, C. A.. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Ruben, J., Schwiemann, J., Deuchert, M., Meyer, R., Krause, T., Curio, G., Villringer, K., Kurth, R. & Villringer, A. (2001) Somatotopic organization of human secondary somatosensory cortex. Cerebral Cortex 11:463–73.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Saetti, M. C., de Renzi, E. & Comper, M. (1999) Tactile morphagnosia secondary to spatial deficits. Neuropsychologia 37:1087–100.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sakata, H., Taira, M., Murata, A. & Mine, S. (1995) Neural mechanisms of visual guidance of hand action in the parietal cortex of the monkey. Cerebral Cortex 5:429–38.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sakata, H., Takaoka, Y., Kawarasaki, A. & Shibutani, H. (1973) Somatosensory properties of neurons in the superior parietal cortex (area 5) of the rhesus monkey. Brain Research 64:85102.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Savaki, H. E., Raos, V. C. & Dalezios, Y. (1997) Spatial cortical patterns of metabolic activity in monkeys performing a visually guided reaching task with one forelimb. Neuroscience 76:1007–34.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schaefer, M., Flor, H., Heinze, H.-J. & Rotte, M. (2006a) Dynamic modulation of the primary somatosensory cortex during seeing and feeling a touched hand. NeuroImage 29:587–92.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schmitt, M. J. M., Postma, A. & de Haan, E. H. F. (2001) Cross-modal exogenous attention and distance effects in vision and hearing. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology 13:343–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schneider, R. J., Friedman, D. P. & Mishkin, M. (1993) A modality-specific somatosensory area within the insula of the rhesus monkey. Brain Research 621:116–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schwoebel, J. & Coslett, H. B. (2005) Evidence for multiple, distinct representations of the human body. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 17(4):543–53.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schwoebel, J., Coslett, H. B. & Buxbaum, L. J. (2001) Compensatory coding of body part location in autotopagnosia: Evidence for extrinsic egocentric coding. Cognitive Neuropsychology 18:363–81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Seitz, R. J., Roland, P. E., Bohm, C., Greitz, T. & Stone-Elander, S. (1991) Somatosensory discrimination of shape: Tactile exploration and cerebral activation. European Journal of Neuroscience 3:481–92.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Semmes, J. (1965) A non-tactual factor in astereognosis. Neuropsychologia 3:295315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sinclair, D. (1981) Mechanisms of cutaneous sensation. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Sinclair, R. J. & Burton, H. (1993) Neuronal activity in the second somatosensory cortex of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) during active touch of gratings. Journal of Neurophysiology 70:331–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sirigu, A., Grafman, J., Bressler, K. & Sunderland, T. (1991) Multiple representations contribute to body knowledge processing: Evidence from a case of autotopagnosia. Brain 114:629–42.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sittig, A. C., Denier van der Gon, J. J., Gielen, C. C. & van Wijk, A. J. (1985) The attainment of target position during step-tracking movements despite a shift of initial position. Experimental Brain Research 60:407–10.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stoeckel, M. C., Weder, B., Binkofski, F., Choi, H. J., Amunts, K., Pieperhoff, P., Shah, N. J. & Seitz, R. J. (2004) Left and right superior parietal lobule in tactile object discrimination. European Journal of Neuroscience 19:1067–72.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tanji, J. & Wise, S. P. (1981) Submodality distribution in sensorimotor cortex of the unanesthetized monkey. Journal of Neurophysiology 45:467–81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taylor-Clarke, M., Jacobsen, P. & Haggard, P. (2004) Keeping the world a constant size: Object constancy in human touch. Nature Neuroscience 7:219–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tsakiris, M. & Haggard, P. (2005) The rubber hand illusion revisited: Visuotactile integration and self-attribution. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 31:8091.Google ScholarPubMed
Ungerleider, L. G. & Mishkin, M. (1982) Two cortical visual systems. In: Analysis of visual behavior, ed. Ingle, D. J., Goodale, M. A. & Mansfield, R. J. W., pp. 549–86. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Valenza, N., Ptak, R., Zimine, I., Badan, M., Lazeyras, F. & Schnider, A. (2001) Dissociated active and passive tactile shape recognition: A case study of pure tactile apraxia. Brain 124:2287–98.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vallar, G. (1997) Spatial frames of reference and somatosensory processing: A neuropsychological perspective. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 352:1401–409.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Volpe, B. T., LeDoux, J. E. & Gazzaniga, M. S. (1979) Spatially oriented movements in the absence of proprioception. Neurology 29:1309–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Watkins, S., Shams, L., Tanaka, S., Haynes, J. D. & Rees, G. (2006) Sound alters activity in human V1 in association with illusory visual perception. NeuroImage 31:1247–56.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weiskrantz, L. (1996) Blindsight revisited. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 6:215–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wenderoth, N., Toni, I., Bedeleem, S., Debaere, F. & Swinnen, S. P. (2006) Information processing in human parieto-frontal circuits during goal-directed bimanual movements. NeuroImage 31:264–78.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Westwood, D. A. & Goodale, M. A. (2003) A haptic size-contrast illusion affects size perception but not grasping. Experimental Brain Research 153:253–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whitsel, B. L., Dreyer, D. A. & Roppolo, J. R. (1971) Determinants of body representation in postcentral gyrus of macaques. Journal of Neurophysiology 34:1018–34.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Whitsel, B. L. & Petrucelli, L. M. (1969) Symmetry and connectivity in the map of the body surface in somatosensory area II of primates. Journal of Neurophysiology 32:170–83.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Whitsel, B. L., Rustioni, A., Dreyer, A., Loe, P. R., Allen, E. E. & Metz, C. B. (1978) Thalamic projections to S-I in macaque monkey. Journal of Comparative Neurology 178:385410.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zainos, A., Merchant, H., Hernandez, A., Salinas, E. & Romo, R. (1997) Role of primary somatic sensory cortex in the categorization of tactile stimuli: Effects of lesions. Experimental Brain Research 115:357–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zatorre, R. J., Belin, P. & Penhune, V. B. (2002) Structure and function of auditory cortex: Music and speech. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6:3746.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zuidhoek, S., Kappers, A. M., van der Lubbe, R. H. & Postma, A. (2003) Delay improves performance on a haptic spatial matching task. Experimental Brain Research 149:320–30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zuidhoek, S., Visser, A., Bredero, M. E. & Postma, A. (2004) Multisensory integration mechanisms in haptic space perception. Experimental Brain Research 157:265–68.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 79
Total number of PDF views: 573 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 7th March 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.